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TEACHING METHODOLOGIES TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION TO TEACHING HISTORY OF TEACHING PRACTICE OF TEACHING AS PROFESSION THE LECTURE METHOD DISCUSSION METHOD THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD CASE METHOD TEACHING INQUIRY METHOD ROLE PLAY Page No. 3 6 11 143 201 29 32 37 43 45 47 54 70 78 88 94
10. ROLE MODEL 11. SELF DIRECTED LEARNING 12. AUDIO VISUAL AIDS 13. TEACHING LEARNING DOMAINS 14. LESSON PLANS 15. CLASS ROOM MANAGEMENT 16. PATIENT/ BED SIDE /CLINICAL TEACHING
Prepared By: Mahmood Ahmed Nursing Instructor College of Nursing Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad Email: firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com Phone:0092-333-2069402 , 0092-313-2860537 Resources: Teaching Learning Books , Google, Bloom’s Taxonomy
INTRODUCTION TO TEACHING Introduction: Teaching is a systematic presentation of facts, ideas, skills, and technique to students. Although human beings have survived and evolved as a species‘ partly because of a capacity to share knowledge, teaching, as a profession did not emerge until relatively recently. Throughout much of history teaching has been thought as an art. Teaching is basically a sensory messaging process. It involves two way interactive flows of messages, between the transmitter and the receiver through direct or indirect sensory strategies that convey conditions that influence learning. Not every form of activity is work, even if it brings remuneration to the person engaged in it. It is work only when it produces something of value to others. The business of teachers is to help students to achieve higher standards of knowledge, ability, skills, and moral character. If teachers do their work well, then their work is of great value to others, not simply in a particular time, but also in the future TEACHING: Teaching is a system of activities intends to produce learning. Interaction between teacher and learner under the teacher‘s responsibility in order to bring about expected changes in the learner‘s behaviour. The business of teachers is to help students to achieve higher standards of knowledge, ability, skills, and moral character. If teachers do their work well, then their work is of great value to others, not simply in a particular time, but also in the future. Effective teaching is one that produces demonstrable results in terms of the cognitive and affective development of the students LEARNING: Learning is acquiring new knowledge, values, preferences, understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning cures. Human learning may occur as part of education or personal development. It may be goaloriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of Neuropsychology, educational psychology, learning theory and pedagogy. • It is a process resulting in some modifications, relatively permanent thoughts, feelings and doing of the learners. • Learning involves the entire person and it can affect the person‘s life style, methods of handling problems, attitude and knowledge. • Learning requires attention in the topic or matter and the ability to concentrate. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING: • It produces a behavioural change in the learner. • It leads to relatively permanent hat is also gradual adaptable and selective. • It results from practice, repetition and experience. • Not directly observable. PURPOSES OF TEACHING: It helps learners to: • Acquire, retain and be able to use the knowledge. • Understand, analyze, synthesize and evaluate, achieve skills and establish habits. • Develope attitude. Teaching approaches: • Talk to learners. • Talk with learners. • Have then to talk together. Show learners how supervise them. • Provide opportunities for practice.
FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LEARNING Factors, which affect patient learning, need to be assessed in order for appropriate teaching strategies to be used. a) Include the following factors in your assessment. 1. Developmental considerations. Knowledge of intellectual, psychosocial, and physiologic age is necessary before you select age-appropriate teaching methods. 2. Delayed development in any of these areas should be considered. a. Children have limited past experiences. Adults learn more quickly than children because they are able to build upon previous knowledge. b. Use chronological age to assess whether the developmental stage is as would be expected. 3. Educational level. You will effectively promote learning if you are aware of the learner's intellectual ability and avoid "talking down" to him or her or using an inappropriate teaching strategy. 4. Past learning experiences. Attitudes toward future learning are influenced by learning experiences in the past. Encourage the learner to express how he views education so that you can deal with his feelings before teaching is attempted. 5. Physical condition. The patient will not be ready to learn until he is comfortable enough to pay attention to the information you present. 6. Sensory abilities. Note any deficit in the learner's sight, hearing, and touch so that teaching is planned appropriately. 7. Emotional health. The emotional state of the learner should be conducive to learning before teaching is done. a. A patient, who is moderately anxious about his/her condition, will probably be attentive to presentation of information that will help him manage the condition. b. If the patient is in a state of crisis with a high level of anxiety, delay teaching until the crisis is over. 8. Social and economic stability. Being hospitalized and absent from work cause some patients excessive stress. Help the patient deal with any social and economic problems before imposing the additional stress of learning information or a new skill. 9. Responsibility. To learn self-care or take preventive measures against illness, a patient must have a sense of responsibility. Encourage the patient to participate in planning the learning activities to promote his feelings of control. 10. Self perception. Self-perception has an effect on the ability to learn. If effective learning about a health problem is to occur, any unrealistic self-image or body image should be addressed. If necessary, help the patient improve self-image before focusing on learning needs. 11. Attitude toward learning. Attitude toward learning is difficult to measure. 12. Talk to the patient to get an idea of how he feels about learning to improve his health. If the patient has a negative attitude about learning, establish a relationship that will help in altering that attitude. 13. Motivation to learn. The patient must want to learn for teaching to be effective. If the patient is not motivated to learn the material needed to improve his health, discussing his interest and concerns may lead to success. 14. Culture. Some cultures value education that will improve their condition, while others view change or new practices as threatening. Do not stereotype any person because of his culture; but recognize that each person has a unique family background with certain cultural values that may have an effect on how teaching learning is perceived. 15. Communication skills. The basic requirement for the teaching-learning process is communication. Assess your communication skills as well as those of the learner. a. Assess the learner's reading skills before using printed material as a teaching aid. b. Assess to what degree English is spoken and understood by the learner. Most hospitals have printed and audiovisual materials available for non-English speaking patients.
PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING These basic principles are effective guidelines when applied in situations in which the teachinglearning process is used by nurses to meet the needs of clients. Clients may be patients, family members, or support persons. (1) The teaching-learning process is facilitated by the existence of a helping relationship. a) A helping relationship exist among people who provide and receive assistance in meeting a common goal. The relationship is established as a result of communication. b) The communication is continuous and reciprocal. (2) The teachers must be able to communicate effectively with individuals, with small groups, and in some instances with large groups. (3) Knowledge of the communication process is necessary for the assessment of verbal and nonverbal feedback. (4) A thorough assessment of clients and the factors affecting learning helps to diagnose their learning needs accurately. (5) The teaching-learning process is more effective when the client is included in the planning of learner objectives. (6) Unless the client values these objectives, little learning is likely to occur. (7) The implementation of a teaching plan should include varied strategies for sensory stimulation, which apparently promote learning. (8) Relating new learning material to clients' past life experiences is effective in helping to assimilate new knowledge. (9) Proposed behavioral changes must always be realistic and explored in the context of the client's resources and everyday life-style. (10) Careful attention should be paid to time constraints, scheduling, and the physical environment. (11) Learner objectives provide the basis for evaluating whether learning has occurred. (12) When learning objectives have not been met, careful reassessment provides ideas for changing the teaching plan for subsequent implementation.
HISTORY OF TEACHING Human beings are known as social animals. Since the birth of human, the process of learning and teaching was started. Initially the human beings started to cultivate the land and animals keeping for their needs. This practice is going on still the time. At home the older people taught their children from their past experiences of the life and their experiences went on in next generations as a life tool. The older people also created some stories related to their life experiences and obsessions and some theoretical stories became the part of daily living practice. Religion is a way to spend life with a described code and the religious leaders were the champions of the society as well as the head of the society. The learned men of ancient times became the teachers. Priests taught children of the wealthy and noble, the skills to take up their roles as leaders and businessmen. The priests‘ position was elevated above many strata of society, and they were treated accordingly for their knowledge and wisdom. The prophets taught the people of their society and taught them the moral, manners and ways of spending life in a civilized society. Since the beginning of human existence, somehow passed on its stock of values, traditions, methods and skills to the next generation. Education reflects history itself, the history of knowledge through learning beliefs, skills and cultures of humanity. As the customs and knowledge of ancient civilizations became more complex, many skills were passed down from a person skilled at the job - for example in animal husbandry, farming, fishing, food preparation, construction and military skills. Oral traditions were central in societies without written texts. Literacy in pre-industrial societies was associated with civil administration, law, long distance trade or commerce, and religion. Most of human history lies in pre-history, the period before the use of writing, and before written history. In pre-literate societies, education was achieved through demonstration and copying as the young learned from their elders. Rural communities had few resources to expend on education, and there was a lack of commercially available products for schools. At later stages they received instruction of a more structured and formal nature, imparted by people not necessarily related, in the context of initiation, religion or ritual. Some forms of traditional knowledge were expressed through stories, legends, folklore, rituals, and songs, without the need for a writing system. The stories thus preserved are also referred to as part of an Oral traditions. In ancient India, the Vedas were learnt by repetition of various forms of recitation. By means of memorization, they were passed down through many generations. Education in ancient civilization The development of writing Starting in about 3500 BC, various writing systems developed in ancient civilizations around the world. In Egypt fully developed hieroglyphs were in use at Abydos as early as 3400 BC. Later, the world's oldest known alphabet was developed in central Egypt around 2000 BC from a hieroglyphic prototype. One hieroglyphic script was used on stone monuments, other cursive scripts were used for writing in ink on papyrus, a flexible, paper-like material, made from the stems of reeds that grow in marshes and beside rivers such as the River Nile The Phoenician writing system was adapted from the Proto-Canaanite script in around the 11th century BC, which in turn borrowed ideas from Egyptian hieroglyphics. This script was adapted by the Greeks. A variant of the early Greek alphabet gave rise to the Etruscan alphabet, and its own descendants, such as the Latin alphabet. Other descendants from the Greek alphabet include the Cyrillic script, used to write Russian, among others. The Phoenician system was also adapted into the Aramaic script, from which the Hebrew script and also that of Arabic are descended.
Out of more than 2500 written characters in use in China in about 1200 BC. Education. including fever. and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC. which taught the three Vedas and the eighteen accomplishments. Education was free. snake bite and others. The oldest of the Upanishads . typically the teacher's house or a monastery.another part of Hindu scriptures . with the Brahman (priests) being the most privileged of the castes. and military authorities. The rate of literacy in Pharaonic Egypt during most periods from the third to first millennium BC has been estimated at not more than one percent. only a limited number of individuals were hired as scribes to be trained in its reading and writing. Only royal offspring and sons of the rich and professionals such as scribes. Some medical knowledge existed and was taught. or that the literacy rate was about 3 percent. 7 . were schooled. understanding of secrets of nature. grammar and derivation. and temple administrators. at first freely available in Vedic society. These texts encouraged an exploratory learning process where teachers and students were co-travellers in a search for truth. literature. as many as 1400 are identifiable as the source of later standard Chinese characters. An early center of learning in India dating back to the 5th century BC was Taxila (also known as Takshashila). Later still in Babylonian times there were libraries in most towns and temples. reasoning including logic. they were required to know a large part of the subject areas to prepare them to maintain the home after marriage. pharaonic. The teaching methods used reasoning and questioning. Later. more of the Mesopotamian population became literate. formulas. but students from well-to-do families paid "Gurudakshina. the sciences. in the service of temple. the rules of sacrifice. recited or chanted by priests of a pre-Hindu tradition) and later Hindu texts and scriptures. versification and meter. The teacher imparted knowledge of Religion. It was an important Vedic /Hindu and Budhist centre of learning from the 6th century BC to the 5th century AD. Medicine.Emphasis was placed on developing good memory skills in addition to comprehension oral repetition Although girls were not provided with formal education in the yeshivah. and the skills necessary for an occupation. In ancient India. teach and write the Torah. Vedic education included: proper pronunciation and recitation of the Veda. composition.date from around 500 BC. physicians. Scriptures. or between one half of one percent and one percent. most education was based on the Veda (hymns. thus requiring literacy and study. In 64 AD the high priest caused schools to be opened . In ancient Egypt. and incantations. and to look after the younger children. philosophy. In ancient Israel the Torah (the fundamental religious text) includes commands to read." a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies. Girls stayed at home with their mothers to learn housekeeping and cooking. and to educate the children before the age of seven. when a syllabic script became more widespread. Astrology and History. evolved. Jewish population of Roman Palestine [in the first centuries AD could merely write their own name or not write and read at all". during the Vedic period from about 1500 BC to 600 BC. There is mention in the Veda of herbal medicines for various conditions or diseases. originally based on occupation. literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes. learn. The Gurukul system of education supported traditional Hindu residential schools of learning. baldness. Statecraft.Warfare. In Mesopotamia. Most boys were taught their father's trade or were apprenticed to learn a trade. Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train to become scribes. cough. became over time more discriminatory as the caste system. Nothing was labeled as the final answer.
8 . Galen. and it is difficult to define the date on which they became true universities. was a Chinese philosopher who made a great impact on later generations of Chinese. During the Zhou Dynasty (1045 BC to 256 BC). archery. Most of the population was illiterate. aside from two years military training.e. sport and wrestling). Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC) founder of Confucianism. For example. translation and educational centre from the 9th to 13th centuries. and on the curriculum of the Chinese educational system for much of the following 2000 years. music and dance) and when older. although the lists of studia generalia for higher education in Europe held by the Vatican are a useful guide. The House of Wisdom in Bagdad was a library. and theology These universities evolved from much older Christian cathedral schools and monastic schools. There they were taught sports. the Academy of Gundishapur originally the intellectual center of the Sassanid Empire and subsequently a Muslim centre of learning. During the 6th and 7th centuries. in Athens. Works on astrology. except in Sparta. and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts. The first medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy. Plato. music. including Shang Xiang. at age twelve. archery and chariot driving. there were five national schools in the capital city. Euclid. calligraphy. and built on it through their own discoveries. Most parents. mathematics. with harsh discipline. France. The literacy rate in the 3rd century BC has been estimated as around one percent to two percent. charioteering. writing and calculation In the city-states of ancient Greece. drama and history) and literacy. during the 5th and 4th century BC. Monasteries were built all over Ireland and these became centres of great learning Cambridge and many other universities were founded at this time. Ireland became known as the island of saints and scholars. silk production and weaving. the monasteries of the Roman Catholic Church were the centres of education and literacy. The first schools in Ancient Rome arose by the middle of the 4th century BC. offered training in medicine. The schools mainly taught the Six Arts: rites. correct deportment. and philosophy were translated. and little else. Aryabhata and Brahmagupta-the scholars accumulated a great collection of knowledge in the world. and mathematics. Prior to their formal establishment. At the age of seven. and if they could afford it from around the age of seven until fourteen. many medieval universities were run for hundreds of years as Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae monasticae).221 AD). most education was private. Sushruta. medicine. Pi Yong (an imperial school. theology and science. learning gymnastics (including athletics. According to the Book of Rituals. even the poor. law. the state played little part in schooling. evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the early 6th century. located in a central location) and four other schools for the aristocrats and nobility. boys were taken away from their homes to live in school dormitories or military barracks. Plotinus. Girls learned ritual. Charaka. boys were thought ready at age seven to start learning basic skills in reading. boys learned arts related to ritual (i. endurance and fighting. Aristotle. sent their sons to schools for at least a few years. The faculty was versed not only in the Zoroastrian and Persian traditions. During the Han Dynasty (206 BC. in which monks taught classes. philosophy. Drawing on Persian. but in Greek and Indian learning as well. preserving the Church's selection from Latin learning and maintaining the art of writing. During the Early Middle Ages. Girls rarely received formal education. music (including poetry. medicine. agriculture. Hippocrates. Indian and Greek texts—including those of Pythagoras.
had a Madrasah and theological seminary. Arthashastra (Economics & Politics). and botany. In Scotland. Free education for the poor was officially mandated by the Church in 1179 when it decreed that every cathedral must assign a master to teach boys too poor to pay the regular fee. The primary focus of these schools was the teaching of the Quran. and taught Islamic law . The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda. The House was an unrivalled centre for the study of humanities and for sciences. With few exceptions. the lingua franca of educated Western Europe throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Architecture. Philosophy. In the 9th century. Grammar. some of them dated from pre-Islamic times and 12th century. Literature. such as the University of Bologna.000 or more manuscripts. astronomy . Islamic jurisprudence. too. mathematics. when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. Ujjain & Vikramshila Universities. The Islamic mosque school (madrasas) taught the Quran in Arabic and did not at all resemble the medieval European universities. Many of the earliest universities. Bimaristan medical schools were formed in the medieval Islamic world. including mathematics. early Islamic philosophy and logic in Islamic philosophy Under the Ottoman Empire. which introduced a tax to pay for this programme. Over time. but they. Law. Budhaism. . had a Christian basis. there was a great accumulation of manuscripts in the area and an estimated 100. Private. although broader instruction in fields such as logic. founded in Cairo Egypt in 975. such as the University of Paris founded in 1160. especially in the subjects of astronomy. Painting. and their salaries were frequently subsidized by towns. The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the 6th century. Logic. zoology and geography Baghdad was known as the world's richest city and centre for intellectual development of the time.000 manuscripts have been collected by the Ahmed Baba centre. passed in 1633. Foreign civilizations have often provided new ideas for the development of Japan's own culture. 9 . are kept by the great families from the town Their contents are didactic. Astronomy. the towns of Busra and Edirne became major centers of learning In the 15th and 16th centuries. More than 18. Al-Azhar University. The curriculum was usually based around the trivium and to a lesser extent quadrivium (the seven Artes Liberales or Liberal arts) and was conducted in Latin. This was provided for by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland. priests and brothers taught locally. Islamic astronomy. Arabic Grammer. were religious in nature and mission. Each university specialized in a particular field of study. and history also took place. for instance. chemistry. the largest in its time. astronomy. independent schools reappeared in medieval Europe during this time. music. medicine. where medical diplomas were issued to students of Islamic medicine who were qualified to be a practicing Doctor of Medicine. and had a population of over a million. Modern systems of education in Europe derive their origins from the schools of the High Middle Ages. The town was home to the prestigious Sankore University and other madrasas. Takshashila University. the town of Timbuktu in the West African nation of Mali became an Islamic centre of learning with students coming from as far away as the Middle East. Parishes and monasteries also established free schools teaching at least basic literary skills. a number of secular universities existed. the national Church of Scotland set out a programme for spiritual reform in January 1561 setting the principle of a school teacher for every parish church and free education for the poor. Most schools during this era were founded upon religious principles with the primary purpose of training the clergy. Hinduism. In northern Europe this clerical education was largely superseded by forms of elementary schooling following the Reformation. Amongst the subjects taught were Art. and Medicine. founded in 1088. was a Jami'ah ("university" in Arabic) which offered a variety of post-graduate degrees.
the 17th century scientist and educator John Amos Comenius promulgated a reformed system of universal education that was widely used in Europe. According to UNESCO‘s Regional overview on subSaharan Africa. dancing. UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far. the education was dependent on religious missionaries . games. and drawing. Nowadays. Ivan Betskoy was appointed by the Russian Tsarina. This practice is still continuous in all over south Asian region. Africa has more than 40 million children. aimed at creating "a new race of men Until at least 1900 AD. the western educational systems A Level and O Level are also included in school education system. the Hinduism culture education was in Sansikrit and was allowed to only superior class the lower classes were allowed to limited education. ceremonies. higher education colleges and universities established. The USAID Center reports as of 2005. After 1980. in most African countries south of the Sahara. the period between the 16th and 18th centuries saw education become significantly more widespread. as educational advisor. In India . Although few countries of the period had such extensive systems of education. festivals. Boys and girls were taught separately to help prepare each sex for their adult roles. Many philanthropists also opened the schools for the general public and religious missions opened the schools only to support their followers. The arrival of Muslim rulers turned the people to educate their children in many fields of daily activities and Islamic Praying places (Masjid) were equipped with an attached madrasas where the children were educated in Islamic education. The entrance of western especially British rule changed the Indian educational systems into an organized western educational system from which the concept of western educational system developed and primary schools. children received traditional informal education on matters such as artistic performances. The high point of the African educational experience was the ritual passage ceremony from childhood to adulthood. Every member of the community had a hand in contributing to the educational upbringing of the child. s introduced education policy and curriculums were introduced and still are practiced in indo-Pak region. The entrance of BUDHISM turned the education towards the lower classes and people turned into Buddhism due to its soft and acceptable policies.s a new education system has been adopted by emerging class of Pakistan known as IQRA schools. In Central Europe. morals and Islamic laws (shariat). He proposed to educate young Russians of both sexes in state boarding schools. rituals. In Public private sector. This growth resulted in increased government interest in education. forty percent of school-aged children in Africa do not attend primary school. In the 1760s. Quran teachings and some basic daily living activities. 10 . many sub-Saharan African countries have low rates of participation in formal education. singing. combination of Islamic Madrasah and traditional education. Lord McCauley. in 2000 only 58% of children were enrolled in primary schools. for instance. Schools often lack basic facilities. Catherine II. the lowest enrollment rate of any region. and African universities may suffer from overcrowding and the difficulties of retaining staff attracted overseas by higher pay and better conditions.
experiments. with those whose minds and characters are forming. There must be some specification of the nature of the training through state regulations. Teaching has become a popular profession. include body of knowledge and systematic delineation of body knowledge. The code of ethics indicates how members of the profession should behave. teaching has had a long and difficult history. It brings those who pursue it into intimate contact with books. It stimulates the desire for increased knowledge and for wider intellectual contacts. First. but the teacher‗s period of training is not as long as that required for doctors and lawyers. educational theory and pedagogy.PRACTICE OF TEACHING AS PROFESSION Teaching as a Profession Not every form of activity is work. not simply in a particular time. Effective teaching is one that produces demonstrable results in terms of the cognitive and affective development of the students. 11 . Second. Occupational status depends on the public valuing of the competence. role and overall contribution of a particular occupation to individual and societal welfare. but also in the future. As a profession. There is no doubt that teaching fully meets this criterion. Indeed. This means that a profession is not merely concerned with the exercise of some skill. Its social and cultural functions have never been critically challenged. even if it brings remuneration to the person engaged in it. teaching is pre-eminent among the callings in its opportunities for cultural and moral services. Goodson (2003) noted that Occupations that have attained professional status. Teaching has transformed from a simple educational function into a complex profession. teaching provides opportunities for intellectual development. it deals with the young. ability. A profession requires a lengthy period of academic and practical training. Professionalization occurs when enforcement is possible and vigorous (Ankomah 2005). Period long training is needed to develop specialists and technicians in any profession. The business of teachers is to help students to achieve higher standards of knowledge. and moral character. Training and certification are essential parts of a profession. intellectual development is not a sideline. for education is a social service. The teacher shares the parents' responsibilities and joy of direct involvement in promoting the healthy and balanced mental and moral life of children. share the following characteristics: a high level of education and training based on a unique and specialized body of knowledge a strong ideal of public service with an enforced professional code of conduct and high levels of respect from the public at large registration and regulation by the profession itself trusted to act in the clients‗ best interests within a framework of accountability a supportive working environment Similar levels of compensation as other professions. science. It is a privilege to be entrusted with the task of facilitating the growth and development of the younger generation. in teaching. If teachers do their work well. Since literature. Teaching possesses two very appealing traits. no teacher can be really successful in performing his duties unless he is intellectually curious. however. It is work only when it produces something of value to others. Actually. and the arts are taught in schools. the teacher's continued advancement in some or all of these fields is desirable. A profession is founded upon a systematic body of knowledge. A profession performs essential social service. and ideas. Teaching certainly fulfils this criterion. Their occupation renders definite and essential services to society. The intellectual foundation of teaching. but nevertheless the public has not adequately supported teaching. then their work is of great value to others. They are also members of a profession. but a skill which has intellectual foundation. It is something which fits directly into the demands of the work. skills. Teachers are more than workers. The service which education performs is essential to the individual child who could not be fully socialized in an industrial society if he did not spend lengthy period in fulltime formal education. Thus.
Standardized testing of students made teachers more accountable for results. a Latin grammar school. and much of the teaching was done by requiring students to memorize subject matter. an elementary school was to be built.S. learning institutions such as Cambridge University were founded in West and teacher training became requirement for teaching. writing and religion in these schools. Teachers taught reading. For all teachers to have access to high quality professional development 4.Teaching develops the minds of children and young adults. o Latin grammar schools that offered a secondary education for boys were formed. Because of this perception. For teachers and principals to be hired and retained based on their ability to meet the professional standards of practice 5. This perception changed in the 1970s. 12 . and ordered the integration of public schools throughout the United States. Supreme Court. In the Middle Ages. For the children to be taught by teachers who have the knowledge. For all teachers education programs to meet national standards 3. o Housewives and ministers taught the children and young adults and general population. Giving students assignments on TV or the Internet has opened new and different educational possibilities. o In the 1900: because conditions began to improve and teaching became a more desirable profession. For teachers salaries to be based on their knowledge and skills 6. For high quality teaching to be the central investment of schools. The teaching profession emphasized improving teaching methods to accommodate the new educational needs of a changing society. skills.). and for every 100 families. Many teachers now focus on preparing students for careers through technical education. and prepares them to become worthwhile citizens of society. In 1954. The 1996 report of the Department of Education‘s National Commission on Teaching presented clear program and developed standards to accomplish the six goals: 1. Massachusetts and Virginia passed laws requiring that for every 50 families. particularly at the elementary and secondary school levels. Many ancient Greeks hired private teachers to educate their children. as schools began placing greater value on formal preparation for teacher. The history of teaching can be traced to Confucious (561 B. teachers usually received little formal preparation before entering the classroom. most people in the United States believed that the teaching profession required mostly human-caring skills rather than a highest degree of instructional expertise. a turning point took place when the U. with most education funding directed toward classroom instruction Teaching Today Teaching today has advanced into the television and computer age. Teachers are expected to emphasize basic skills in the classroom. more men became teachers. who was the first famous private teacher. Until the late 20th century. "separate but equal schools" were inherently unequal. and commitment to teach children well 2.C. which has changed the emphasis in teaching. o In the 1800: required all towns with more than 500 families to have a high school for all students.
but schools are overcrowded and funding is limited. especially in inner cities and rural areas. These include: being good at explaining things being a people person and enjoy working with a wide range of people enthusiasm having a strong knowledge in particular subject areas being a good time manager ability to work in a team as well as using your own initiative keeping your cool under pressure having patience and a good sense of humour being fair-minded coping well with change Enjoying a challenge. there are problems that impede growth in the profession. Still.S. excitement. other professionals and community members that they can inspire students and improve their learning. Salaries are higher. parents. according to the U.Future of Teaching Teaching is a fast-growing profession. There are many personal qualities and skills that make someone a good teacher. Bureau of Labor Statistics. QUALITIES OF A GOOD TEACHER Teaching is a career that provides challenges. and is expected to continue to grow for many years. personal reward and a chance to encourage and support others to achieve their goals. 13 . Good teachers know that by listening to and working with colleagues.
therefore. Sometimes. Informal Lectures: The informal lecture includes active student participation. Usually. an instructor will stand before a class and present information for the students to learn. Student participation is severely limited. concepts. the lecture must involve some discussions and. explores a problem or explains relationships A lecture is an oral presentation of information by the instructor. teamwork. evaluation. Learning is best achieved if students participate actively in a relaxed atmosphere. The basic purpose of lecturing is the dissemination of information. Formal Lectures: The formal lecture method is primarily used when presenting information to large groups. It is the method of relaying facts and information which includes principles. Active student participation can be achieved through the use of questions and is an effective two-way communication process. The lecture method of instruction is recommended for trainees with very little knowledge or limited background knowledge on the topic. question and answer period to allow trainees to be involved actively.) or helping learners apply knowledge to working situations. Lectures may be formal or informal. describes or relates whatever information the trainees are required to learn through listening and understanding. analysis. you identify important information for the learner and transmit this knowledge in the lecture. intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject. Feedback Lecture Consists with mini lectures with 10-minute small group discussion opportunity to manipulate the lecture content D. slides. Traditional oral essay The teacher is an orator and the only speaker. facts. ideas and all THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE about a given topic. Lectures are much less effective at changing attitudes. It is therefore teacher-centered. Mediated Lecture Use of media such as films. Students are expected to take notes while listening to the lecture. doing all the listening. To be effective in promoting learning. Lecture as a Teaching Method: Lecture is a teaching method where an instructor is the central focus of information transfer.THE LECTURE METHOD Lecturing is probably the most widely used formal educational method in the world. In a lecture the instructor tells. It is the oldest method of teaching and still this method is used in most of the colleges and universities all over the world. A lecture is a formal or semi-formal conversation is which the instructor presents a series of events. C. Web-based images along with traditional lecture. the lack of active involvement of trainees limits its usefulness as a method of instruction. The lecture method is recommended for high consensus disciplines–those in which there is agreement on the fundamental principles and procedures. the informal lecture is encouraged over the formal. Participatory Lecture Begins with learners brainstorming ideas on the lecture topic on what they have read in preparation. doing all the talking. etc. they will write on a board or use an overhead projector to provide visuals for students. It is also useful for presenting an organized body of new information to the learner. developing other learning skills (e.g. Types of Lecture A. 14 . As an expert in your field. explains. The instructor is very active. or principles. Despite the popularity of lectures. The lecture is defined as the method of instruction in which the instructor has full responsibility for presenting facts and principles orally. Communication is virtually a one way communication from instructor to students. very little exchange occurs between the instructor and the students during a lecture. Typically. such as math and the natural sciences. Trainees on the other hand are very inactive. A lecture is an oral presentation. B..
This is where you must consult your lecture notes while at the same time maintaining rapport with your students. You might present a meaningful problem to students and describe the lecture as a solution to the problem. you will see how to develop these components to produce an effective lecture. This not only promotes interest and motivation. it is unlikely that we will retain it during the rest of the lecture. it includes many more teaching procedures than the introduction and conclusion. An effective lecture is composed of three components. Research supports a correlation between clarity of objectives and student achievement. Relate to students‘ goals and interests. might begin a lecture on DNA: "Three weeks ago we spoke about hereditary traits and how certain physical traits are passed to the next generation. They are essential to an effective lecture–one that helps students to learn most easily and effectively. In the following sections. Generalizations are relationships between or among concepts expressed at a higher level of abstraction than a principle. The instructor of a biology class. students will achieve at higher levels if they know what knowledge and skills they should gain from this instruction. The Body of the Lecture The body of the lecture covers the content in an organized way. the tendency might be to present one fact after another. Body and Conclusion. Make warm-up comments and initiate rapport to set the tone of the class. and principles communicate relationships among concepts. Based on learning theory. The introduction should do the following: Establish a relationship with the audience. Instead. and generalizations. designed to promote and support learning. This time is crucial in determining how well students learn and retain the information to be presented. It is also necessary to gain students‘ attention. Students need to see how the "new" lecture information relates to their existing knowledge or experience. In a constitutional law class. these procedures provide guidelines for preparing a lecture. but also is a first step in cognitive information processing. You might also introduce the lecture by describing how it will help students to be successful in their education and careers or by relating it to your students‘ inherent curiosity (as in the previous example where rock music was used to address censorship). Gain attention and foster motivation. Establish friendly communication to provide a positive learning environment in which students feel comfortable. Make a generalization about the topic or simply list the objectives. an Introduction. Concepts represent a class of terms (an idea usually expressed in a word). Today we are going to make those abstract laws concrete by looking at how DNA works. it is best to present a concept (one idea) by first defining it and then giving many concrete examples of the concept.Planning a Lecture How is a lecture planned and prepared? It is important to recognize that research findings and expert opinion have identified that certain teaching procedures should be included in a lecture. link them together 15 . Use an "ice breaker" to introduce yourself during your first meeting with students and maintain an approachable relationship with students in subsequent classes. Lecture material is a combination of facts. for example. concepts. providing the structure for the lecture‘s content information. The Introduction The introduction usually is the first three to five minutes of the lecture. As you introduce new concepts." Clarify the purpose of the lecture and describe how it is organized. If we fail to capture students‘ attention during the introduction. In a lecture. This type of information giving is ineffective because students cannot see the relationship or organization of the new ideas. principles. The main purpose is to provide a framework for students‘ learning. This can be accomplished by doing the following: Announce the lecture topic as a title. for example. Since this component is allotted the greatest amount of class time. Make a statement about the topic and how it will be developed. Prompt awareness of relevant pre-existing knowledge. the instructor could begin a lecture by discussing popular efforts to place warning labels on rock music and then suggest that a closer examination of the First Amendment and freedom of speech will help students to decide if warning labels are a form of censorship.
" Sequential–deals with chronological or cause/effect relationships. Active learning allows students opportunity to practice using the lecture information and obtain feedback on the accuracy of their responses. including a lecture. "Now that we know what Marxism is. 16 . "The Aids was discovered in 1982 and the treatment of the disease was discovered in 1996." Comparison–comparing two or more things using an explicit basis for comparison . . . In addition. assist students‘ learning. . . You should be able to apply . or even the chalkboard will enliven and strengthen the presentation of ideas and. . . Encourage note taking by speaking slowly and repeating important information. Material to purpose–information or a procedure is presented followed by its purpose or use (the "what" followed by the "why"). Provide motivational cues ("On the next exam you will be asked to . In the next twenty minutes. Use transition words as you present. Please note the following . Using transitions or links ("therefore. we need to look at how psychology. in this case ranchers. For example. "Before we can begin to talk about how urban planners tackle traffic congestion." "as a result") show how pieces of lecture information relate to each other." "because. Examples of relationships that can be used to organize lecture information include the following: Component (part to whole)–shows how a larger idea is composed of several smaller ones. Remember to include audiovisual aids while delivering your lecture. let us compare the Yellowstone controversy to efforts twenty years ago to clean up Love Canal and see if we can use this comparison to look for ways in which environmental and business interests can learn to work together. . thus. each time adding concrete examples as you develop these relationships. It is especially important to remember. then the likelihood of disgruntled labor supporting a revolution will increase. transparencies. Generalization: Economic instability can lead to political revolution. . Demonstrate enthusiasm about your subject. At the end of the lecture. . . economics and tradition contribute to the present-day layout of cities. Verbal or oral cues also alert students to more significant information. . Employ concept-related humor. "The recent reintroduction of the gray wolf into Yellowstone National Park once again demonstrates the inherent conflict between environmentalists and business. oral to visual). Using Power Point slides. I will ask you to recognize . Include active learning It is crucial to provide opportunities for active learning during any instruction. let‘s look at how Marxist theory can be used to address inequality between men and women.into principles. Change the mode of presentation (for example. you can use the "minute paper" by asking students to respond in one or two sentences to the following questions: What stood out as most important in today‘s lecture? What ideas from today‘s lecture are still unclear? Capture Attention Maintain attention throughout your lecture by employing techniques such as the following: Vary student activities–lecture for 15 minutes and then provide an active learning activity. . You will need to memorize. You could encourage students to think actively during a lecture by announcing at the beginning of the class period that you will interrupt your lecture midway so that students may write a one-minute paper on a topic derived from the lecture. Economics Principles: If wages are cut. a lecture should be organized based on the relationship of the ideas presented. and then into generalizations. ask questions or give students problem-solving activities that encourage them to use the information they should gain from the lecture. Fact: Membership in American communist parties increased substantially during the Great Depression of the 1930s. during the lecture."). Concepts: Revolution.
In this way. from SIMPLE to COMPLEX or from PARTS to a WHOLE. however. There are basically two aspects to nonverbal behavior: body language and voice. As students see the relationship among major concepts presented in different lectures. 17 . It is difficult to hold the trainees attention for a long period of time and careful preparation of lectures is very necessary. It is estimated to be 15-25 minutes only. Body movement and posture can convey messages to your audience. Knowing the trainees and addressing their needs and interests is very important. ask specific. codes and even the real objects during presentation. that it is often difficult for students to respond to the vague "Any questions?" Instead. For example. The attention span is the period of time during which the trainees are able to pay full attention to what the instructor is talking about. The more objects and distance–psychological as well as physical– between speaker and audience.The Conclusion The conclusion. they recognize that you are not bored. you should reduce these barriers. even better. Relate content to previous and subsequent topics. This procedure will help you to get feedback as to whether or not students identified the important information. Try to do the following in your lecture conclusion: Repeat and emphasize main points. in explaining technical processes the instructor should search for illustrations that will be familiar to the trainees. Careful organization of content helps the trainees to structure and store or remember it. nervous or tense. Signal students that you are going to summarize and reemphasize main points. the instructor should be adequately prepared. The following four elements make up body language Speaker-audience distance. pacing aimlessly with head down indicates nervousness. should be used to reinforce students‘ learning of the information as well as to clarify any misconceptions regarding their understanding of the concepts presented. and understanding can be reinforced. logical plan of presentation. the more formal the atmosphere. and standing stiffly indicates tenseness. If you desire to create a more informal atmosphere. Body movement and stance. A useful principle in any instruction is to go from the KNOWN to UNKNOWN. slouching communicates disinterest or boredom. In order to gain and focus the attention of trainees. Remember. the most frequently neglected component of the lecture. leading questions. Unfamiliar technical words should be introduced cautiously. Lecture Delivery Nonverbal behaviors play a significant role in effective public speaking: they can enrich or elaborate the spoken message. To communicate. and establish relationships between the various items. It is also helpful to rephrase information in order to clarify key ideas. By doing so. any misconceptions can be clarified. When developing a theme in a lecture. the instructor should use a variety of approaches. The last few statements in the conclusion should provide a connection between this lecture and previous lectures (as well as those to follow). The instructor should have a clear. fluent in his/her presentation and should use various teaching aids and illustrations such as charts. pause for a few moments after asking for questions. Or. He/she should work out the essentials of the topic. Question and Answer periods should be included in the lecture. have several students summarize your main points. New terminologies should be defined and explained and examples given. PREPARATION AND DELIVERY OF A LECTURE During the lecture. It is therefore very important to consider the attention span of trainees when preparing a lecture. Encourage questions from students. organize them according to priorities and logical connections. Being animated during your lecture helps convey your own enthusiasm and interest to students. they gain a sense of direction. transparencies. For example. you will encourage your students to review their notes and formulate questions of their own. To allow students time to review their notes and thoughts. Move from behind the lectern from time to time and walk in the aisles as you present information or carry on discussions with students. you must compensate for distance by employing larger gestures and more volume. the trainees merely listen to the instructor.
Lectures permit efficient coverage of content in a limited time. pauses. A good lecture builds on existing knowledge. pitch. Pauses can provide emphasis and allow students time to think and take notes. o Pronunciation. Purposeful movements of the head. Lectures increase the trainer's ego. However. A good lecture should not be too long as to exceed the trainees‘ attention span (up to 25 minutes). A good lecture uses illustrations and examples. overhead transparency or handout) and refer to it as you move from point to point. and timing." "well-uh" make a presentation seem disconnected and can be distracting. people believe that lectures have these advantages: Lectures are the cultural norm of adult education. 7. Pause to give listeners time to think and write. o Pauses. Furthermore. 18 . In a good lecture technical terms are carefully explained. avoiding slurring or skipping parts of words in order to limit the possibility of misunderstanding. Preparation reduces stress. Advantages of the Lecture Method The reasons the lecture method is popular are obvious. Right or wrong. Use lectures to complement. In a large lecture. frustration. volume and inflection. o Enunciation. 8. o Variety. a rate of 120-130 words per minute is comfortable. Look directly at different individuals as though you were carrying on a conversation with them. 2. insecurity and consequent ineffectiveness. with students concentrating on note taking. Use your body to indicate a change of topic or transition. Learn students‘ names and make contact with them during the lecture. Meet your audience‘s expectations in regard to acceptable pronunciation. o Rate of speech. Speak loudly enough so that the audience does not have to strain to hear. Three characteristics of effective gestures include relaxation. QUALITIES OF A GOOD LECTURE 1. pausing indicates that you are a conscientious speaker who thinks about what you are going to say. Voice variables allow the speaker to make a message clear and interesting. the text. Familiar examples and analogies are given. hands and shoulders accentuate or dramatize ideas. Stress important points (through your tone or explicit comments). Gestures. 4. A good lecture should address a single theme. stress. Avoid racing through the last part of the lecture. Use short sentences. This is a common error made by instructors wishing to cram too much information into the allotted time. Lectures do not require extensive preparation. A good lecture employs a variety of approaches. Regular eye contact helps you establish credibility. vigor. Facial expressions. Make an effort to speak crisply. 3. Facial expressions tell students how you feel about them and yourself and give students cues to help them interpret the content of the message." "ah. 6. arms. A significant portion of the emotional impact of a speaker‘s message is conveyed by facial expressions. A good lecture establishes fluency in technical content. not simply repeat. Include examples and concrete ideas. PREPARE. 5. filling in pauses with sounds like "um. Additional HINTS for a successful lecture include the following: Present an outline of the lecture (use the blackboard. Some of the vocal characteristics of good speaking are as follows: o Strength. Schedule time for discussion in the same or separate class periods as the lecture. Vary the characteristics of your voice in terms of rate. Repeat points in several different ways.
which hinders learning. Can complement/match and clarify text material. Can be used to arouse interest in a subject. It may fail to promote active learning unless other teaching strategies.. e. Lectures are a straightforward way to impart knowledge to students quickly. require the instructor to deal with unanticipated student ideas. Gives the instructor the chance to expose students to unpublished or not readily available material. more student-centered methods. Logistically. which prove to be an important fact that less time is required to arrange such lectures. are incorporated into the lecture. discussions or laboratories.. no laboratory equipments and other materials are necessary. Learners do not waste their time sharing their ignorance with each other. such as questioning and problem-solving activities. In contrast. As a result of information provided through the lectures. It is difficult to adapt to individual learning differences. it is found to be very economical by some experts and is suitable for the schools of our nation. questions and comments. It provides an economical and efficient method for delivering substantial amounts of information to large numbers of student. teacher feels very secure and satisfied as he can follow it without much botheration. It provides a summary or synthesis of information from different sources. An effective lecture requires both extensive research and preparation and effective delivery skills to maintain students‘ attention and motivation. students gain experience in this predominant instructional delivery method. As in this method. By making use of this method. Students who are auditory learners find that lectures appeal to their learning style. where problem of shortage of resources is generally faced. It places students in a passive rather than an active role. usually it is found that in students level of motivation and confidence get boost up to considerable extent. By making use of this method. Lecture is a method familiar to most teachers because it was typically the way they were taught. Disadvantages of the Lecture Method There are disadvantages to using the lecture method as a primary teaching method. Learners believe that the lecturer will present correct and critical information. Instructors also have a greater control over what is being taught in the classroom because they are the sole source of information.g. pace and direction of a presentation. Lectures can Facilitates a large group communication at the same time.g. Allows the instructor to precisely determine the aims. discussion. It offers current information (more up to date than most texts) from many sources. content. 19 . It affords a necessary framework or overview for subsequent learning. teacher can keep a logical sequence of subject properly. It creates interest in a subject as lecturers transmit enthusiasm about their discipline. This method does not lead to wastage of time and money in any form as there is no student participation in the teaching process. e. Lectures delivered by highly qualified and able teachers have high inspirational value. small group activities. Lesson develops continuously as teacher plans the lectures in advance. In addition. Some students depend upon the structure provided by highly teacher-centered methods. Because most college courses are lecture-based. the lecture has other drawbacks: It does not afford the instructor with ways to provide students with individual feedback. organization. thus. reading assignments. a lecture is often easier to create than other methods of instruction. Complements certain individual learning preferences.
thus they are not inspired to indulge themselves in independent thinking and self. with this method. d. This method has certain limitations. This method is the sole alternative in situations where the number of students in a class is large. Generally it is seen that half of the students present in the classroom do not pay any kind of attention on the information provided by the teacher. the lecturer must make a conscious effort to become aware of student problems and student understanding of content without verbal feedback. Students may not feel that they are able to ask questions as they arise during lectures. therefore. Encourages one-way communication. Thus. as a result of which. lecture delivered by the teacher prove to be mere wastage of time and energy and no benefits get accrue to students through this method. but as it is provided orally. In contrast. However. e. no place is provided to experimental work as a result of which power of observation found in the students get stagnate. problem-solving sessions) allow the instructor to influence students when they are actively working with the material. 20 . Requires the instructor to have or to learn effective writing and speaking skills. Requires a considerable amount of unguided student time outside of the classroom to enable understanding and long-term retention of content.exploration processes. then forget it after some period of time. Students who are weak in note taking skills will have trouble understanding what they should remember from lectures. It does not promote independent learning. Thus. it can be said that this method is unsuitable for teaching sciences in primary and high school classes and should be used by able teachers who can modify it by mixing it with various practical methods of teaching. When to Use: This method should be used by the teacher when the number of students in the class is more and there is no proper provision of various scientific materials and equipments in the school or institution. Thus. This method does not help in any way to inculcate scientific attitudes and training in scientific method among the students. Students strong in learning styles other than auditory learning will have a harder time being engaged by lectures. interactive methods (discussion. students get ready made information from the teacher. Students can find lectures boring causing them to lose interest. As through this method. Teachers may not get a real feel for how much students understand because there is not that much opportunity for exchanges during lectures. an important objective of science teaching cannot be fulfilled successfully and all the efforts of teacher will prove to be wastage of time. In this method. b. objective of getting the all round development of the students cannot be achieved in any way. which are as follows: a. it can be said that information obtained through such method does not take the permanent position and possibilities of students forgetting it are more. It also finds utility in the situation where there is limited number of periods available on the time table to cover the entire syllabus. c. Sometimes students understand the information imparted by teacher for a short period of time.
etc… c. therefore. etc… d. and then understanding is conveyed back by trainees to trainer. A method in which group discussion techniques are used to reach instructional objectives Discussion involves two-way communication between participants. nuclear testing. clarification of points e. Although parts of this section speak directly to you as if you were leading a semester long discussion section.DISCUSSION METHOD Discussion method is used with proper sequence i." Some class sizes are small enough for the instructor to conduct class periods as group discussions. the information throughout the section is valuable for any type of class discussion. In the classroom situation an instructor and trainees all participate in discussion.e. Students must have base knowledge to work from c. attitudes g. In larger classes. it may contribute to desired attitudinal changes. The Discussion method consists a two-way flow of communication i. A discussion is the means by which people share experiences. cloning. it might take time to break the class into small groups for discussion. 1990) Reflective Discussion a. a more active learning experience for the trainees than the lecture. Indisputable facts are not good discussion topics f. Low-level questions too often used. becomes drill and review e. Many courses have a "discussion section" separate from a "lecture section" or "lab section. The discussion is. Class discussion or small group discussions can be used to accomplish a variety of learning goals. the instructor spends some time listening while the trainees spend sometimes talking. Pace is slower with more development of ideas.e. Questions based on readings. Discussion Types Recitation a. Questions should aim at higher cognitive levels f. Challenge students to think critically and examine beliefs. Call on volunteers as well as non-volunteers Guided Discussion a. apply. The collaborative exploration of concepts and ideas by a diverse group of students in a safe and fair environment can lead to tremendous student learning. More varied interaction pattern than recitation d. Not imperative that all students speak up i. Should allow demonstration of understanding and application to new situations f. can achieve higher level knowledge objectives. Students should interpret. Questions should be prepared in advance and sequenced g. labs. During discussion. Discussion is a primary form of active learning. No set interaction pattern h. As it helps to foster trainees‘ involvement in what they are learning. Open expression of ideas b. illustrate. Excellent approach to controversial ideas: AIDS. conclude (Wilen. lectures. lectures. such as problem solving and principle learning. followed by discussion and questioning. Teacher asks questions and the students answer b. Conflicting laboratory data can be a good topic e. explain. Introduce topic and ask initial question. and will often help students understand and remember material better than a simple lecture would. but allow it to go where it will c. knowledge in the form of lecture is communicated to trainees. Still rests on students having enough background knowledge 21 . ideas and attitudes. generalize. Help students construct knowledge for themselves b. Purpose is to determine student understanding and to clarify misunderstanding d.
It develops habits of collaborative learning. 22 . 3. Everyone has a chance to get involved. To foster an appreciation among participants for the diversity of opinions that invariably emerges when view points are exchanged openly and honestly. 6. To act as a catalyst to helping people take information action in the world. Give learners an opportunity to apply principle. don‘t discuss. Make your expectations clear. Content is limited and the method is time consuming. Expands the cognitive and affective domains of students. Develops confidence of students. Arrange the physical space. The larger the groups the more difficult it is to guide the discussion. Encourage quiet group members. 5. 2. Advantages of discussion method It increases students· awareness of tolerance for ambiguity or complexity. Discussion is an important way for people to affiliate with one another to develop the sympathies and skills that make participatory democracy possible. Not suitable for presenting information for the first time Not very effective in describing procedures or breakdown of a component Discussion Techniques 1. Attitudes can be changed through discussion. It encourages attentive and respectful listening. Active students prevail over the discussion process Restricts size of groups and It is effective only to a small group.The purposes of Discussion method The purposes of discussion method are: To help the participants reach a more critically informed understanding about the topic or topics under consideration. Plan a discussion starter. One person or a few people can monopolize the discussion. James dillon (1994) said. It helps students become connected to a topic. Requires preparation by student. Set the ground rules. concepts. and theories. Students· intellectual development takes place Puts the burden of learning on the student and increases learner involvement Provides both learner and teacher immediate feedback Is useful for guiding learners to higher levels of thinking and inquiry Provides valuable clues about learner motivation and how to best facilitate learning Helps students identify and build on preexisting knowledge Disadvantages of discussion method It is time consuming. Require highly skilled instructor. 4. Slow learners hesitate to take part in the discussion. it develops the capacity for clear communication of ideas and meaning. Irrelevant points come in the discussion from different students. it opens up the minds to think and re-thinking for new ideas. It shows respect for students· voices and experiences. Facilitate. It helps students to develop their skills of synthesis and integration. discussion is a good way for us to be together so that we can share personal stories of our problem Clarification of information and concepts Students can learn process of group problem solving. Enhance participants self-awareness and their capacity for self-critique. .
do so. 2. Be Prepared.. Direct the discussion among members. but you should know what types of problems and/or topics you intend to cover and how to go about these tasks. 12. Think of a science-related anecdote or a short comment on material presented in the previous lecture to use as a possible opening ice-breaker for the session. 1. Tolerate some silence. frustrating and. lesbian and bisexual students. This also invites diverse perspectives from students who often find themselves on the fringe of classroom life. Encourage students to come prepared to discuss and to take full advantage of the time. Displays of disgust. women and students of color. teachers can enlist student support in their enforcement. any questions?" as a means of stimulating interest and participation. Don't be afraid to show warmth and concern. by gaining class consensus on ground rules. Share experience Rather than generalizing about whole groups of people. you're more comfortable and effective in a less casual. Participation Ask students who know they tend to monopolize discussions or interrupt others to self-monitor and 23 . 11. Ground Rules for Discussions Establishing ground rules can be a way to have students take responsibility for creating a classroom environment conducive to learning.K. to help students who are unable to identify troublesome homework items or points to discuss. 10. You may find certain students' lack of ability and apparent unwillingness to learn annoying. by all means. however. all aggravate the situation and diminish students' respect for you. older students. Treat students with respect and consideration. Keep the discussion on track. nor is informality necessarily associated with a lack of preparation or organization. 8. Such planning is infinitely better than asking "O. Be ready to ask them questions if they don't question you. then. Don't excuse students early because they don't have any questions. You obviously won't enter a discussion session with a word-by-word script. 2. such as gay. Such an attitude turns students off quickly. Don‘t allow monopolies. on the other hand.7. don't try to fake the "good buddy" routine. Nothing undermines class morale more quickly or completely than an unprepared instructor. Be yourself. If you are effective in an informal atmosphere without losing class control or student respect. gang. Realize that concern and compassion are not synonymous with a lack of control. more structured environment. You're not at your best when you're ill at ease from trying to assume a character that isn't you. Arm yourself with plenty of back-up problems or exercises supporting current topics. From the outset. try to be sympathetic to difficulties they may encounter. 1. ask students to use "I" statements and speak from their own experience. This may help you to avoid the trap of expecting excessive student respect simply because you know more than they do. contempt or ridicule. at times. Summarize when appropriate Discuss the rules of managing a discussion. Identify with your students as much as possible by recalling reactions you had the first time you encountered such material (which may not have been that long ago). 9. Avoid conveying a sense of self-importance and superiority by showing how simple and selfevident your discipline is for you. Clarify when confusion reigns. 3. nononsense approach and later easing up with discretion is easier to accomplish and better received by students than trying to "tighten up" after a class has seen fit to take advantage of a casual. If. A suggestion: previous generations of faculty have found that starting off with a more formal. easygoing approach. exasperating.
If others challenge their ideas. Use role-playing or debates to help students see how others might perceive issues differently. use data from the surveys as the basis for discussion. c. However. 3. For example. Add that if someone raises a point a student strongly disagrees with or finds offensive. not even the humorous variety called "zaps. Why might someone think that way?"). encourage students who tend to be quieter to enhance everyone's learning by sharing their unique perspectives and experiences. Relate relevant personal experiences or events which have occurred in the work setting. for example. 4. gender. First. personal stories raised by individuals should be kept confidential. ask for evidence. based on an agreement to honor others' differences and experiences. In either case. Set ground rules for class discussion." To "zap" one person often discourages open and honest exchange of ideas among the group. Respectful Listening Encourage students with differing points of view to raise questions by listening first. Encouraging Student Contributions There are several strategies that facilitate student contributions to discussion. culture. Acknowledge that a certain amount of conflict may be necessary for the learning process.g. Everyone should be efficient in their discourse. Be Clear and Concise Encourage students to ask for clarification when they don't understand a point someone has made. making points and then yielding to others. If it is not properly guided. 6.. fearing embarrassment or conflict. even when one disagrees with what they are saying. "That's something that a lot of people believe." Don't assume. Techniques that may help overcome this discomfort include: Start with less controversial topics before tackling more sensitive ones. it is important for the student to inform others. a discussion can degenerate into a consideration of inappropriate or unimportant topics adding confusion rather than clarification to the lesson. it is important to think about using classroom space wisely. the discussion of race. they should be open to the possibility of changing their minds if errors in their logic or use of facts are demonstrated. Ask students to complete anonymous in-class surveys on controversies... Avoid "tokenism. the goal is to meet the lesson objectives by allowing the trainees to:a. Express what had been learned. Confidentiality Encourage students to take concepts and ideas from class and discuss them freely. Whether the discussion is instructor led or takes place in groups it must be guided by the instructor. At the same time. or can take place in groups. CONDUCTING A DISCUSSION Discussion sessions can be led by the instructor. b. that a student who uses a wheelchair can represent the views of all Americans with disabilities.make room for quieter students. Identify the issue that is the source of controversy and make it an analytic question. faculty and students are often uncomfortable addressing such issues. Have students respond to controversial statements posed by the instructor. It must be focused on the objectives of the lesson: it is the instructors‘ responsibility to see that the objectives are met. and/or sexual orientation in relation to social issues is an appropriate part of the curriculum. Apply what has been learned to familiar situations or solving problems d. Contribute ideas or personal opinions. 7. 5. they do so with factual evidence and appropriate logic. No Zaps Tied to the notion of respect is the ground rule of no put-downs in class. Facilitating Discussion of Sensitive Issues In many disciplines. Challenge and Be Challenged Ask that if students challenge others' ideas. However. having the students sit in a circle may 24 . It is also important to remember that the human being stating the question or comment deserves respect. De-personalize a student's biased or inflammatory remark before continuing (e.
Be sure to include every student in the discussion. The panel discusses the topic informally without set speeches. The easiest way to learn students' names is to take digital pictures and attach names to the faces. The leader opens the discussion to the group and summarizes what others have said. Limitations-Thought must be given to the purpose and organization of the groups (e. Limitations-This process can get off track. each of whom is given a specific topic to study. application or continuation of the point. A vocal speaker can monopolize the program if the leader is ineffective. as well as the point the student made. It may be difficult to control time used by each panelist. It requires panel members who are articulate and can think quickly. learning students' names quickly helps establish rapport.differentiate this setting from the lecture setting.It tends to present the topic in an unsystematic manner. or do so yourself when necessary. When Used-As a technique to stimulate interest and thinking. Finally. 2. It allows for both questions and answers. It provides for spontaneous interaction of participants and audience.. Many questions can be left only partially answered.g. and then take part in a discussion with the entire group. Third. Ask the student to restate complex or inaudible comments for the whole class. Suggestions for rewarding student contributions: Talk directly to the student who contributes. depending on the purpose of the instructor: Buzz groups Panels Symposia Debates Experience discussions Brainstorming sessions Case studies Jigsaws 1. Procedure-Prepare one to two questions on the topic to give each group. any of the following methods may be used. Fast moving questions and answers create class interest. Comment on the thinking process the student has used. it is important to strike a balance between encouraging students to contribute and providing corrective feedback. Panels Description-A selected group of persons with a leader converse in front of an audience that joins in later. Invite other students to add their reactions to build further on the original point. Success is dependent upon the kinds of questions selected and the suitability of those questions. Listen carefully and ask follow up questions. 25 . set some ground rules for discussion. Buzz Groups Description-All group members participate in small subgroups. preferably with the help of students. Choose a leader in each subgroup to record and report pertinent ideas to the whole group. In addition to group discussion. including a variety of ability levels). to provoke better discussion. The personalities of the speakers can overshadow the content of the discussion. as well as encourage the students to talk to each other and not just to you. If you see potential in a comment. Divide the members into small subgroups of 2 to 4 individuals. ALTERNATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS Seminars and tutorial sections vary enormously in their types and purposes. ask the student for elaboration. Procedure-The leader plans the conversation with the four to six panel members. Incorporate student points in later material. Make eye contact and use the student's name. then paraphrase the comments. When Used-When participation from every group member is desired. Second. in conjunction with other group methods. Discussion can cover a great deal of ground under a skillful leader. Point out specifically what you thought was valuable in the contribution. Put student comments on the chalkboard/whiteboard.
5. The leader explains to the group the meaning of brainstorming and the following rules: criticism is applied later many ideas are wanted the more ideas. followed by time for rebuttal if desired. When Used-When specific information is desired Procedure-The facilitator meets with three or four group members and plans an outline. Brainstorming Sessions Description-This is a creative thinking technique in which group members think about a problem or topic and then share all the ideas they can come up with. It can also be used to synthesize ideas and to apply theory to practical problems. 4. The group questions the speakers. Participants are introduced and give reports. A vocal speaker can monopolize the conversation. the better chance there is of developing good ones the wilder the idea. especially if the topic is controversial.if you can improve on someone's idea. It may not provide thorough coverage of the topic. The personalities of the speakers can overshadow the content. Limitations-This process can also get off track. 6. · It may consist only of opinions if participants are not well prepared. Procedure-Divide the group into sides. concise speech. and is generally followed by discussion. This method is often used to supplement traditional lectures.3. Experience Discussions Description-A small. The emphasis on taking sides can be divisive and may inhibit learning for some students. It creates interest. Changing speakers and breaking up the time helps hold attention of the class. 26 . When Used-When a specific example is the best means of illustrating a topic. Procedure-The facilitator documents a case study. such debates can bring these differences out in the open in a friendly manner. When Used-If a controversy exists on which there are fairly definite opinions on both sides. When Used-To get new ideas and foster individual students' ability to think of ideas. Procedure-The facilitator and members of the planning group select suitable problems or questions related to the topic selected by the entire group. The objective of the debaters is to convince the audience rather than to display skill in attacking the opponent. Brainstorming becomes disorganized without careful planning of the material to be covered and skillful direction from the discussion leader. the better. It can handle only one minor issue. 7. using a pro and con comparison. Advantages: A variety of knowledge and experience can be presented. to stimulate thought and discussion. so much the better a recorder should list the ideas Limitations-This method is not practical with more than 20 people.or large-group discussion takes place following a report on the main point of a book. Then have an open discussion on pertinent issues and points of view. since it's easier to tame them down than to pump them up "hitching is legitimate" . When Used-To present a new point of view or an issue. The case study is presented to the class. Symposia Description-A topic is broken into various parts: each part is presented by an expert or well-informed person in a brief. Debates Description-A controversial issue is discussed. article. Limitations-Students may need assistance in preparing a presentation that will lead effectively to a class discussion. Procedure-Plan with participants how the review is to be presented. Limitations-Members may have difficulty defending a view which they do not hold themselves. or life experience. it is important to adhere to a schedule. The facilitator summarizes what has been said. Each speaker should be limited to a predetermined time. Speaking times can vary. altering actual names and places if required. Case Studies Description-An actual account of a particular incident and/or problem is presented to the class including how the matter was resolved.It encourages more class involvement than a lecture.
The student who will not talk Instructors need to set clear expectations for participation. including students with a variety of abilities). For example. traditions. it could be interpreted as saying.. 1988). avoid asking an American-born student of Chinese descent. but also reinforces the mistaken notion that every member of a minority group is an ad hoc authority on his or her group (Pemberton. do not assume all students are familiar with their ancestors' language. instructors tend to favor students who question assumptions. avoid. When Used-When participation by every group member is desired and the subject. saying "Let's hear from someone who has not yet contributed. Limitations-Thought must be given to the purpose and organization of groups (e. 1991). or nationality. They teach each other their areas of responsibility and then use the new knowledge to solve a problem. Students return to their home groups.g.g. Jigsaws Description-All group members participate as both experts and learners. It is unfair to ask a student to speak for his or her entire race.. "What you said made me feel uncomfortable.d. Recognize. Explain why a comment is offensive or insensitive. To do so not only ignores the wide differences in viewpoints among members of any group. 1988). which include one member from each expert group. speak out. A way to approach non-participants is to provide opportunities for small group discussions." Instructors might also ask one or more members of the class to act as observers for a few class periods. Pemberton. Another technique is to talk to the student individually outside of class. singling out an African-American student in the class to ask him about his reactions to the theories. after lecturing on population genetics and theories of racial intelligence.g. write a group essay or exam. 1991).. Perhaps assigning the avid talker to the observer role would help the student develop sensitivity. sexist comments. topic or skill is easily broken down into manageable chunks. "What idiom do you use in Chinese?" (Flick. and other types of discriminatory statements are unacceptable in class. The facilitator rotates among the groups to answer questions and make sure the material is being mastered and understood." Avoid singling out students as spokespersons. Institute for the Study of Social Change. Speak up promptly if a student makes a distasteful remark. reporting back their observations to the class. It is also important to reinforce participation. 1990. Furthermore. however. that some of your students were brought up to believe that challenging people who are in positions of authority is disrespectful or rude. etc.. n. 8.Limitations-Case studies require additional work by the facilitator to ensure that they are straightforward and good examples of the issue being represented. Smaller groups may help put some students at ease. e. Let your students know that racist remarks. Observers note that in discussion sections. Don't let disparaging comments go unnoticed. Re-evaluate your pedagogical methods for teaching in a diverse setting. This is often followed by a problem-solving situation where all the knowledge must be used for the group to succeed. For example. culture . Here are some common problems with suggestions for how to deal with them. "How do you feel about this?"). or history. Although you may not have meant this. For example. Potential Problems in Discussions Maintaining discussions often means dealing as smoothly as possible with the problems that arise. The challenge for teaching a diverse student body is to be able to engage both verbally assertive students and those with other styles and expressions of learning (Institute for the Study of Social Change. The student who talks too much A way to approach the avid talker and pull in non-participants is to avoid looking in the direction of the persisting student or to structure the discussion in a way that precludes that person's participation. challenge points of view. Some students may be reluctant to ask questions or to participate out of fear of reinforcing stereotypes about their ignorance. culture. This may encourage participation by reducing students' fear of 27 . Procedure-Students work in small groups (expert groups) to master the material. even if the student is joking. Success is dependent on the kind of material chosen and the final problem to be solved.. A second strategy is to ask opinion questions occasionally (e. and participate actively (Collett..
The instructor can list both sides of the argument on the board. Set appropriate ground rules for discussion. but now I'd like you to share your perspective.. What I really hear you saying is.. and then move the discussion on to another topic. Stopping and asking a student to summarize where the discussion is at the point it appears to go off track may also help.. the instructor may use the occasion to help students become aware of the values involved. Reframing The focus can be on clarifying the assumptions behind the person's argument and then inviting her or him to see alternative possibilities. If there is an experimentally verified answer." Turning the question back to the questioner forces him or her to take responsibility for his or her opinion. the best strategy is to invite students to come up after class and arrange for a time to talk about the disagreement further... The instructor can also restate points for verification or rejection by the students. address behavior problems promptly and diplomatically. Another strategy is to have students write out their answers to a question.. Monitor your own behavior to make sure that all students are treated fairly. Other ways to handle these situations include: Confrontation Instructors can confront the questioner with their reactions to his or her behavior. conflicts will often arise.. or give enthusiastic nonverbal cues and patience. "How do you really know that. This situation often occurs when instructors are going over exams or assignments. The discussion that goes off track Some instructors keep discussions on track by listing the questions or issues they want to cover on the board or summarizing the discussion on the board as it proceeds. Having the words written out may make it easier for a shy or fearful person to speak up.answering incorrectly." Active listening Instructors can paraphrase the message they heard and check out the accuracy of their assumptions before responding. Unclear or hesitant comments The instructor can encourage students making unclear contributions to give examples and factual evidence of their points.?" Such questions can be handled by playing boomerang. the instructor can ask students to refer to the text or another authority. "What I'm saying is. She or he can lay ground rules for discussion.. the instructor can use the opportunity to review the method by which the answer could be determined. If students are simply trying to embarrass the instructor. The discussion that turns into an argument In good discussions. preventing students from interrupting each other or speaking simultaneously. Summary of Discussion Act as a facilitator during discussion. they may cause continuing trouble. 28 . they may seek to make him or her defensive with such comments as. The instructor can take a strong position as moderator. The instructor might say. use the strategic methods described above to depersonalize topics and make students more comfortable. Locating Instructors can ask the questioner to explain the context behind the question.?" or "You're not really saying that. "I'm uncomfortable with the imprecision of your questions. When discussing controversial issues. Deferring Often. Here are some ways to resolve them: If the solution depends on certain facts. so simply giving them some recognition while firmly moving on often takes care of the problem. such as asking students to focus conflict on ideas rather than people and to resist being judgmental. Experiment with alternative instructional methods to increase student participation and learning. instructors will usually lose if they take the bait. Reward constructive student contributions. Students who attack usually want attention. If the question is one of values. If such conflicts are left ambiguous.. The student who attacks the instructor When students argue for the sake of argument.
the teacher‘s role becomes supporting students in their attempts. and through explanations brings out why. demonstration method should be accompanied by the discussion or lecture method. but the member giving the demonstration also gains communication skills and confidence in speaking in front of a group. and offering suggestions for alternative approaches A method of instruction where the instructor by actually performing an operation or doing a job shows the students what to do. Those designed to show the learner ‗why‘ certain things occur. Used in classes of all sizes in multiple grade and subject areas. THE PURPOSES OF DEMONSTRATION: a. one of the two most essential teaching skills is the ability to demonstrate. An example of a demonstration is how to make bread. The eventual goal is for learners to not only duplicate the task. the teacher. where. performs the tasks step-by-step so that the learner will eventually be able to complete the same task independently. and when it is done. demonstrations are most commonly found in science and technology courses. A method of instruction is required to perform under controlled conditions the operations. trainer shows the trainee how to perform or how to do the tasks of the job. Here the behavior is intended only as a strategy to aid the learner‘s understanding of a concept of principle.. As an example. This method is a visual display of how something works or how to do something. (Basavanthappa B. Demonstration means any planned performance of an occupation skill. but to recognize how to problem-solve when unexpected obstacles or problems arise. A finished product should be available because the process of actual baking would be too time-consuming.T.. 29 . ―The most effective way to teach an occupational skill is to demonstrate it. When using the demonstration model in the classroom. Both are vital to the success of either an operation lesson or an information lesson‖. scientific principle or experiment. After performing the demonstration. concepts and procedures‖. or some other expert on the topic being taught. Not only does everyone learn a new skill.. Demonstrations can be done by the leader. In order to be more effective. b. Here the learner must reproduce exactly the behavior of demonstration. inquiry-based learning opportunities in classes or labs.). To teach manipulative operations or procedures To teach troubleshooting To illustrate principles To teach operation or functioning of equipment To teach skills and teamwork To set standards of workmanship To teach safety procedures Demonstrations in the classroom Demonstrations can be used to provide examples that enhance lectures and to offer effective hands-on. providing guidance and feedback. Those designed to show the learners ‗how‘ to perform certain psychomotor skill.THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD DEFINITION ―Demonstration can be defined as visualized explanation of facts. skills or movement being taught. but are preferably done by members. the other is the ability to explain. how to do it.
4. one step at a time. Show and describe the equipment and materials to be used. keep demonstration smooth and continuous. 5. Remove all extraneous materials. . tools. visibility. possible interruptions etc. Be enthusiastic. Relax. 1. To the extent possible. 2. check lighting. related information may be injected into the procedures by the presenter. 2. 2. Have all materials within reach and conveniently arranged. The presenter can finish by showing items not named by the group. The presenter should follow the steps to be used in the actual demonstration.Having the finished product available for inspection will make it easier for the learners to understand the demonstration. Summarize as needed. . .Each step and important point should be identified and listed. ask and encourage class questions. visual and teaching aids in advance and check their useful condition. professional. Care must be taken to show and explain each step in a way learners can see and understand. 6. The presenter should point out steps where accidents may occur and emphasize safe work habits at all times. 4. effective but not dramatic. Emphasize safety. If additional time is available. 3.Explain what is to be demonstrated and how it relates to the instructional program. Explain WHY and HOW: use the techniques of SHOW and TELL. PRESENTATION 1. 4. the presenter may summarize. Plan to use a skill or method to advantage. PRECAUTIONS 1. Use a medial summary to strengthen your explanation. use any mishaps or humour to YOUR advantage. Rehearse your presentation in advance of the lesson. work from simple to complex. 7. . gas and water outlets. 3. 5. . Observe all safety rules and procedures. a learner may be called on to perform the demonstration. . Obtain all materials. Make sure all students can see and hear the lesson. and proximity to electric. Allow time for possible student participation. 3. student grouping. if possible. Time the demonstration NOT to exceed 15 minutes. Anticipate any difficult steps. equipment. the learners can be asked to discuss the demonstration as it is being given. Keep eye-contact with the class. The purposes of the demonstration should be discussed. or the entire group may be directed to perform the activity demonstrated. Work towards one aim. 5. 3.The group can be asked to name and describe equipment and materials needed with the presenter producing the items as they are named. learners and presenter should be wearing them. 6.If goggles are required. Give the demonstration. 6.Depending on the situation and learner objectives. TEACHER PREPARATION 1. 4. Orient the learners to the demonstration. Never demonstrate on a student‘s material. 7. Show the learners. Avoid interruptions.Process Outline for Giving a Demonstration The presenter should try on any demonstration prior to actually giving it. 2. The amount of time to be used in this way should be estimated during the "dry run" so that appropriate preparation can be made. 30 . what the demonstration is to produce or achieve.
Check trainee‘s completed work for accurate performance and record. 9. Orally discussing subject matter is not encouraged Teaching can lapse into lecturing. Requires tools and equipment. Explain each step or process as you proceed. 7. Coach weak or slow trainees. It makes the students aware of equipments use Demonstrations are useful as models They can save time.c. Advantages of Method Demonstrations: It is possible to instruct a reasonable number of people in basic skills of Science and health at one time People attending can see. aids such as chalkboard. charts.CARRYING OUT A DEMONSTRATION 1. Promotes safety Disadvantages of method demonstrations: If there are too many participants some of them may be unable to hear and see clearly what is being demonstrated and may adopt wrong techniques Many people may not be able to practice the skill demonstrated adequately due to shortage of time or facilities. and if possible prepare before hand ask key questions as you go along and allow trainees to ask questions. during and after demonstration. Requires special classroom arrangements. as well as providing the skills required for it. hear. and emphasize them. Observe and analyze trainee(s) performance and correct mistakes. Demonstrate the correct way only. Be sure everyone can see and hear. Follow your lesson plan. Requires large block. Make sure the trainees see the demonstration from the angle they will perform it themselves. Give a good performance. 4. even if illustrations are used to support it If properly carried out demonstrations can generate a great deal of interest and enthusiasm for a practice. Make arrangements to have the trainees practice the skill as soon as possible in a practical class session. Allow sufficient time interval before demonstrating another operation. 2. AFTER DEMONSTRATION 1. Teachers may not deviate from the textbook It may be difficult for the teacher to demonstrate and discuss at the same time. 5. Enable learning evaluation. 2. 6. Remember that the trainees learn by your good example. Require careful preparation and rehearsal. 31 . Provide for trainees participation where possible. Observe all safety rules. make them correct ones. 3. Emphasize key points. 5. 8. Return all items used during demonstration to their storage places. Use proper instructions. to support your demonstration. Maintain eye contact. 10. First impressions are important. handouts e. 3. Requires more instructors. and participate in the demonstration This results in much more complete learning than passively listening to a talk. precautions and procedures. Minimize damage and waste Builds confidence. 4.t. discuss. 6. 7. Offer reinforcement where necessary. therefore. Always summarize the steps and emphasize key points again.
CASE METHOD TEACHING Introduction Case-based teaching is an active learning strategy in which students read and discuss complex. Second group is student-centered teaching method. student is active during the learning process. According to Fitzpatrick (2004). In traditional teaching method. What is the case study method? The case study method of teaching uses stories to introduce students to an issue the instructor is attempting to teach. real-life scenarios that call on their analytical thinking skills and decision-making. In this method. During the 1980s and 1990s many universities and subject areas have adopted this method. apply learned knowledge. The case study method is an excellent way to help nursing student to gain knowledge necessary to effectively document patient care. Also instructors must help the students to enhance their ability for problem solving in future. In these methods. What is case method teaching? The case method is a form of learning where the students first read a description of a (real) case or a problem taken from their occupational area. The description can be 2-50 pages and can sometimes include a video etc. only the teacher decides on teaching. Each is dependent on the other to bring about teaching and learning. The situations in case studies represent real patients that students will document on when they work. First group is teacher-centered methods. teaching is a complex activity that involves mastery of content. The case method is a teaching approach that consists in presenting the students with a case. The instructor can use a real or a simulated story to depict a (writing) situation in which there is a ―moral to the story‖. the teacher speaks in most of time. Instructors are generally experts. The case study method also challenges students to think critically. A case study incorporates an issue that 32 . techniques of organization. teaching and mathematics. such as lecture. science. This method tends to produce shallow. nursing. And now it is focused on this form of teaching. law. In today's technologically advanced world. nurse educators must be aware about diversity of learning environments and new teaching methods and use of these methods for teaching. Slowly. Today's it is focused on changing of educational methods from traditional to new teaching methods that causes active learning in students. The case method has been used at Harvard university and many other universities for more than 50 years. classroom discipline. mostly within business and law studies. One way to enhance and develop nursing education is to determine the effect of teaching methods on nursing student‗s achievements and teaching effectiveness at nursing colleges. 2000). The case teaching method study has been used since the late 1800‘s (McGinty. For meeting of new educational needs in nursing. After that they meet with the class and discuss the case with one another and the teacher. and teaching skills. case study teaching methods are found in schools of medicine. What differentiates a story from a case study is the information and presentation of the case study. surface thinkers who primarily rely on rote memory rather than careful understanding of the content. Moreover. and think of several solutions while interacting with students and the instructor. The students elaborate on what to do in this case or how to solve this problem. I use the case study method everyday when I work with students. physical therapy. teaching methods is categorized in two groups. In a case method classroom. in nursing education the interest in improving student‗s achievements and the quality of teaching effectiveness have been increased over the time. putting them in the role of a decision maker facing a problem.learning process. Today. both the instructor and the student must be active in different ways. In general. the challenge for nursing faculty is to teach students critical thinking (CT) skills and the ability to practice competently in a variety of clinical situations. INTRODUCTION The nursing science has been changing daily specially in the last two decades. but they rarely deliver their expertise directly. The main goal of nursing education is to transfer of nursing science to students and help of them to enhance the required skills and insights for nursing care . the case study teaching method has grown to assist many disciplines educate their students.
consultation and experimentation and decides the nursing measures which will meet the patient‘s individual needs and solve nursing problems. But it was not used for several years. So. Basic elements of active learning include talking. identify where the problem started. The student tries to solve the problems through the study. Advantages of nursing care study The concentrated effort on the part of the student to define and solve the problems in the patient care arouses interests in him and results in better nursing care. The student can present the report in front of the group and it should be evaluated in terms of content. What is the scenario? The students are participated in discussions and the teacher shows any necessary information such as lab tests. and an audio tape. The teacher present the scenario and the students listen and take notes carefully. writing and reflecting. and decide how to deal with clinical situations. 33 . It also offers students opportunities to discuss real-life situations and nursing challenges in a safe environment and stimulates students to think critically about the cases. organization. Students must be participated actively in teaching process and they must not to be an inactive audience merely. The case study can be presented as a narrative. Lately. It used in business and law schools at Harvard University in 1999. The teacher‘s role is to act as an initiator/moderator/facilitator for the group discussion and directs the students to goals. The Case Method requires a certain amount of time (45-90 minutes) and usually only one case can be addressed per sitting. to understand his/her behavior. clarity of thought and interest. to gain his/her confidence. compare and evaluate optional solutions. This method demands active participation and interactions between learner and teacher. The student also learns about the problem solving approach to nursing. The student must be given opportunity to take care of the patient over a long duration of time. A law case. In the Case Method. The situation contains a problem that must be solved and requires decisionmaking. a disease process.presents a problem. a dialogue. One of the strategies that lead to active learning in student and prepare them for implementing of nursing care. The teacher asks open ended question. Nursing is a practice based profession that using of teacher centered methods decreases the effectiveness of teaching and student‗s achievements. The presentation method for case studies is dependent on the creativity and innovation of the teacher. and attempt to solve the problem. and a writing method can be taught via the case study method. this method can be defined by contrasting it with the traditional lecture-based method. The students are then challenged to find the problem. Case studies can be used to teach anything. Nursing case study • The student with the help of the clinical instructor selects one of her patients for intensive study which she finds interesting. etc. The students learn to recognize the effect of personal and social factors on illness and recovery. Then they will have opportunity to think about it. The report may act as a reference material for the student. The oral presentation helps the student to speak in front of the group. to organize the information and identify the problems. This works well with groups of up to 20-30 students. is case-based teaching method. an ethical issue. This method was first introduced in the 1870s by Harvard school faculty. The development of these skills requires students to engage in discussions to become active participants in their own learning. symptoms. In fact. a ‗case‘ is built up as a scenario by teacher around a real situation and presented in classroom. Case based teaching engages students and teachers in active dialogue about nursing situations by helping learners analyze an authentic case to identify client problems. case-based teaching has been adopted by various disciplines including nursing both as a teaching strategy and as a problem-solving and decision-making tool . a television show. reading. nursing instructors could use nontraditional teaching method to help students to learn critical thinking and problem solving skills. to learn the real nature of his/her problems. and to note the effect of nursing measures and the results of the care. a video clip or movie. active listening.
and • Examine the consequences of decisions they make. • asserts that students must be able to apply the collection of concepts and facts they learned to new situations. Case teaching actively connects students with course content and shifts responsibility for learning to students. and thinking about what they are doing. Case teaching enhances learning by engaging students in very powerful ways. effect and evaluation of teaching cases. This method is used to explore and describe a case and help to develop science about real-life situations. • improve their ability to listen and to communicate with faculty and other students. • enhance their ability to use new concepts and information to substantiate their arguments (learn to use empirical evidence to support their claims and why it is important to do so). • Encourages active learning—thinking. the scientific base of this method is lacking for the design. using reasoned argument. • they demonstrate the application of. • Emphasizes time on task—provides lots of useful. and • Posits that integrating knowledge from other classes and/or life experiences is important. • Communicates high expectations—and encourages students to have high selfexpectations. and in their communities. processing cases in a classroom setting can help faculty exercise ―good practice‖ in their teaching. facilitate learning for application in clinical environment and problem solving strategy. students simultaneously discover (or construct) a body of knowledge and master life learning skills. • they make course content relevant to students in an extraordinarily powerful way. guided practice. and careers. the nursing faculties use these methods seldom and nursing education is done by traditional methods. With faculty as their guide.Case based teaching can be used to meet educational goal. Case teachers are absolutely committed to • student learning. • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning—engenders respect for intellectual diversity. and • They have heard from alumni that case learning contributed to their subsequent successes in law school. graduate programs. Despite the diversity of new teaching method. doing. as well as the limitations of. productive. • they compel students to take responsibility for their learning. 34 . concepts and theories. Good Practice in College & University Teaching • Encourages contact between students and faculty—especially contact focused on the academic agenda. at home. • Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students—teaching them to work productively with others. Faculty use cases because • they are interesting and they are real. • develop hypothetical solutions to problems. they do seem to share an inward one. • build on points made by others to develop a response that draws on the best thinking of a group. The case method is consistent with a philosophy of teaching that • assumes a major goal of higher education is to empower students to think critically and act responsibly in their various roles at work. Although the case method is used in many academic disciplines. Finally. not professors‘ teaching. Cases work in classes where teachers want students to • sharpen their skills—both quantitative and qualitative—in analyzing material. Teachers use cases because they believe that students learn more when they are at the center of the process. • Gives prompt feedback on performance—helps students figure out what to do in response. • contest or refute the points of others. Although case teachers cannot be distinguished by an outward standard profile.
Answer only two of the study questions given for each case as part of your assignment. to get feedback on both the ideas and presentation. and neatness. a. As noted in the syllabus. or values are involved in deciding what action to take? Whose interests are really at stake? What are the alternatives? g. well-written pages that really do answer the question. that is fine. Quickly read the case: Read the entire case rapidly. a. community leaders. 1. the case study discussions represent a significant portion of your final grade. Now you know what you are getting into. In short. therefore. Not only do study groups help improve your own skills. Read the case meticulously. self-starting members of an intellectual community. perspectives. The following guidelines and suggestions are meant to help you achieve your best performance. and engaged citizens. Form a study group to prepare for case discussions. competent professionals. b. 35 . c. • creating curious. You will. a. Highlight. • helping students develop the skills they will need to function as full-fledged purveyors and consumers in the marketplace of ideas and as citizens of an increasingly competitive world polis. underline. willing to experiment with pedagogies that promise to turn classrooms into active learning communities. who enjoy a lifelong thirst for knowledge and understanding. Each answer should comprise one or two coherent. b. to compare different views. c.• preparing this generation of students to become the next generation of serious scholars. and to build confidence for making contributions to the case discussion with the whole class. using the relevant information located during the reading and study group session. 3. or make marginal notes to organize the details and record new thoughts or questions generated by reading. good writing. Doing so will require you to know the case well and thus be better prepared to discuss it in class. want to do as well as you can in them. you also can learn from other students‘ thought patterns and problem-solving styles. Reformulate the problem: What is the case really about? What issues are central to the problem? What conflicts between ideas. without underlining or highlighting. Preparing for Case Method Discussions We will be using formal case studies as the basis for class discussions this semester. Set preliminary goals: What do the study questions ask? What will it take to answer them? What issues in the course does the case illuminate? e. You now know the basic structure of the case and where the main information is. originality. analysis. informally. Credit will be given for answers that demonstrate thoughtful. careful reading of the case. Make a brief outline: Who is involved in the case? What problems do they face? What is their situation like? d. Write the answers to the case analysis exercise questions: Answers are due the first day of the case discussion. 2. Work the problem: Answer the specific study questions. (If you decide to answer more than two as a method of studying. Prepare case writing assignments very carefully. to practice articulating your ideas. Essays must be typed or word-processed. and • developing students who recognize their own responsibility for the quality of the knowledge they possess. case teachers are risk takers. I will only grade two answers—the first two I see!) b. h. f. Many questions do not have a right or wrong answer. critically reflective. analysis to others. Peruse the case: Quickly look at the case by reading the introduction and conclusion and by skimming the rest of the contents. Reread the case: Focus on the important information that was located during the skimming and take initial steps toward forming answers to the preliminary questions. Experience and research both show that preparing cases alone is not as productive (nor as much fun!) as doing it in groups. Use the study group to present. Make thoughtful assumptions about the information that is not available in the case. to refine and rethink positions.
you should explore ideas and discuss your thoughts within the study group. To be safe. you have a problem!] Hence. However. etc. essays should be well organized. Have fun with it! -Be prepared. Tips -Be creative with your issue and case study presentation. e. The advantages of case study methods are that they provide a great amount of description and detail about a particular case. -Provide enough information in the case presentation for students to gain what knowledge you wish them to attain -Create questions that stimulate the students to think about all aspects of the case study -Create dynamic classroom activities that stimulate thought and student creativity Advantages A case study is an in-depth investigation of one participant. the specimen is likely to chage their behavior Hard to draw definite cause-effect conclusions Hard to generalize from a single case Possible biases in data collection and interpretation (since single person gathers and analyzes the information) 36 . The case study method for teaching will benefit students by encouraging students to: -Think critically -Creatively solve problems -Reflect on issue -Resolve dilemmas -Apply knowledge -Be prepared for real-world exposure to work related issues Recommendations for using the case study method for teaching include: -Providing students experiences similar to real-world work issues -Assessing student‘s ability to analyze problems -Applying theory to real-world issues -Increase student‘s collaboration skills -Increase student communication skills -Increase student‘s ability to reflect on a problem and synthesize Solutions. Creating and presenting a case study requires a lot of preparation by the teacher.d. appropriate use of commas. follow the common canons of good grammar (complete sentences. written in clear. Another advantage can be to offer more opportunities for the researchers that they would not have otherwise Develops analytic and problem solving skills Allows for exploration of solutions for complex issues Allows student to apply new knowledge and skills Good source of ideas about behavior Good opportunity for innovation Good method to study rare phenomena Good method to challenge theoretical assumptions Good alternative or complement to the group focus of psychology Disadvantages Students May not see relevance to own situation Insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results Not appropriate for elementary level With a researcher observing the specimen closely.). This helps to set the groundwork for future studies. coherent sentences and paragraphs. [Should your grammar inhibit my ability to understand what you are trying to say. Essays are an individual project! You should not cooperate with any other student in writing the case analysis exercises. Essays will be evaluated on the basis of both substance and style. Be sure you have knowledge regarding every aspect of the case study. use only correctly spelled words. it is usually best to proofread before handing in a paper.
reading. and is generally used in small scale investigations and projects. It involves asking questions. teachers are encouraged to avoid giving answers when this is possible. Why Use Inquiry-Based Teaching? Teachers can play a vital role in achieving some of the standards in science. and in any case to avoid giving direct answers in favor of asking more questions. social science. scenarios or problems .g. Students are encouraged to ask questions which are meaningful to them. Inquiry-based learning is a constructivist approach. resolving doubt. the answers proposed by learners lead to even more questions— much like the outcomes of research. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions. as well as research. and which do not necessarily have easy answers. generating solutions. or solving a problem. math.often assisted by a facilitator. and apply new information in seeking a better understanding of the world. they utilize skills from across multiple disciplines (e.‖ Inquiry-based teaching and learning covers a range of approaches to learning and teaching. A theory of inquiry is an account of the various types of inquiry and a treatment of the ways that each type of inquiry achieves its aim. Inquiry-based teaching methods provide flexibility to the teachers and students by facilitating student contribution of their strengths. science. Often. students are able to assemble ideas to create their own knowledge and understanding. making decisions. including: Field-work Case studies Investigations Individual and group projects Research projects 37 . and creative thinking) by collaborating with others. individuals construct much of their understanding of the nature.INQUIRY METHOD INQUIRY: An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge. Inquiry education (sometimes known as the enquiry method) is a student-centered method of education focused on asking questions. The natural process the learners follow when seeking answers and deeper understanding closely follows the generally accepted scientific method. collecting and interpreting data. Inquiry-Based Teaching Inquiry-based teaching is a teaching method that combines the curiosity of students and the scientific method to enhance the development of critical thinking skills while learning science. so students of different developmental levels and learning styles learn together. and sharing their findings with others. math. observe. problem or idea. justifying conclusions and taking action. Inquiry-based learning requires students to actively use their hands and minds. gathering and analyzing information.. and as a result. and writing. When students engage in inquiry. in which students have ownership of their learning. they formulate questions. language arts. It starts with exploration and questioning and leads to investigation into a worthy question. Inquiry-based learning (Also enquiry-based learning in (British English) describes approaches to learning that are based on the investigation of questions. explore problems. As learners encounter problems they do not understand. Students engage in five activities when they engage in inquiry learning and use the scientific method. while teaching the any curriculum. ―Through the process of and human-designed world‘s inquiry. Inquiry-based learning includes Problem based learning. organizing and developing representations of their data. issue.
educators should ensure that each of the six stages of the inquiry cycle. and communicate their results. 4. confirmation inquiry. to experience investigation processes. people are provided with the question and procedure (method) where the results are known in advance. the fundamental goal of inquiry is student engagement during the learning process. 38 . teachers must decide how much guidance they will provide. 3. structured inquiry. 5. promoting student dialog. or to practice a specific inquiry skill. When using inquiry-based lessons. such as collecting and recording data. Confirmation inquiry is useful to reinforce a previously learned idea. design procedures for carrying out an inquiry. 1. When incorporating inquiry-based methods into the classroom. as shown below. 2. 6. Regardless of the amount of assistance that teachers provide. people are provided with the question and procedure (method). however the task is to generate an explanation that is supported by the evidence collected in the procedure.Specific learning processes that people engage in during inquiry-learning include: Creating questions of their own Obtaining supporting evidence to answer the question(s) Explaining the evidence collected Connecting the explanation to the knowledge obtained from the investigative process Creating an argument and justification for the explanation More recently. How Can Inquiry-Based Teaching Be Implemented? Teachers play a vital role in adapting the inquiry process to the knowledge and ability level of their students. In open inquiry. In confirmation inquiry. and confirmation of the results is the object of the inquiry. Open inquiry. intervening to clear misconceptions or develop students' understanding of content material. 2. Heather Banchi and Randy Bell (2008) suggest that there are four levels of inquirybased learning in science education. Utilizing student experiences to create new content knowledge. and. Because this kind of inquiry is more open than a confirmation or structured inquiry. Based on the objectives of the lesson and the abilities of the students. teachers are responsible for 1. people form questions. and the task is to design the procedure (method) and to test the question and the resulting explanations. it is most successful when people have had numerous opportunities to learn and practice different ways to plan experiments and record data. modeling scientific procedures and attitudes. people are provided with only the research question. starting the inquiry process. 3. In structured inquiry. transitioning between small groups and classroom discussions. In guided inquiry. guided inquiry and 4. is complete.
In order to answer the questions. Exhibition Sharing and communication results 2. the teacher must gather and prepare the materials for the lesson. 39 . Implementation Designing and carrying out a plan 3. Inquisition – stating a "what if" or "I wonder" question to be investigated b. and discover answers. Exhibition – sharing and communication results (Llewellyn. Summation – collecting evidence and drawing conclusions f. The teachers can then expand upon the discoveries the students make to provide explanation of the discovery and instruction. Implementation – designing and carrying out a plan e. students work individually or in small groups to explore. Supposition – identifying an "I think" statement to test d. They must also design activities which will allow students to discover or obtain the necessary experiences for the basis of the lesson. Teachers should give a brief introduction and quickly distribute the materials. Acquisition – brainstorming possible procedures c. the teacher should move throughout the room and provide limited assistance to ensure that students don't become too frustrated and quit. 2002. students are given concrete materials and questions. observe.Six Stages of the Inquiry Cycle a. Acquisition Brainstorming possible solutions Inquiry cycle 5. Teachers should encourage classroom discussion throughout the process but refrain from giving the ―right‖ answer. student discovery should begin as soon as possible. Supposition Selecting a statement to test Six Stages of the Inquiry Cycle Implementing Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods MODEL 1: Inquiry Instruction Model: Guided Discovery Guided Discovery In this model. Strategies When using guided discovery. While the students are involved in the discovery process. Preparation Teachers must develop important questions for which they want students to search for the answers to start the lesson. Teachers may provide direction by asking questions or giving hints. Inquisition Stating a question to be investigated 6. Finally. p. 13-14) The inquiry cycle is illustrated further in Figure below 1. Summation Collecting evidence and drawing conclusions 4.
40 . principles. Students should be able to immediately transition into the exploration phase. Explanation In this stage teachers invite their students to share their discoveries and explanations. Together. Based on the descriptions provided by the students. and procedures. students and teachers utilize the concept and the experiences to describe and explain the phenomenon and answer the initial question. and/or theories. such as tests or projects. Small group and classroom discussions continue to play a vital role in the learning process by allowing students to share and defend their understandings and explanations. Exploration provides concrete experience from which student learning and knowledge can build. The application of this new knowledge provides an opportunity for students to move beyond memorization to deeper understanding of what they have learned. and realworld experiences by applying them to a new situation. This model also follows a step-by-step progression. and evaluation. rules. It builds curiosity and provides direction for the remainder of the lesson. explanation. During this stage the question for investigation is developed. The teacher provides scaffolding by observing. Engagement The first step serves as an interest approach or motivator. or direct students. Teachers should encourage students to make connections to their experiences during the exploration phase. and share their findings with classmates and the teacher. elaboration. questioning and guiding. where each step builds on the previous step.MODEL 2: Inquiry Instruction Model: The 5-E Model 5-E Model The 5-E model focuses on the five phases of engagement. prior knowledge is activated. Students manipulate the materials. Evaluation Evaluation provides teachers an opportunity to assess students‘ knowledge and provide feedback on performance. teachers introduce relevant concepts. make discoveries. provide the teacher with feedback and allow them to determine how much the students have learned from the activity. and many lessons can be adapted to either instructional model. Formal assessments. and safety precautions are outlined. Elaboration Elaboration allows students to create connections between new concepts. This model shares features with guided discovery. theories. exploration. encourage. Informal assessment and feedback may be provided throughout the inquiry learning process to reassure. Exploration This stage imitates guided discovery. Students should also be encouraged to utilize self-assessment throughout the learning process. Teachers can use the 5E model to meet objectives and deliver specific concepts and explanations. principles.
and predict. explain. when students learn through inquiry. The students decide to monitor the temperature in each location to see if a temperature difference exists. use evidence to describe. Since the students know the water is the same for each plant. they: 1. For one week. connect evidence to knowledge. Ask a question about objects. Example Step 1: Question Students in an introductory agricultural education course notice that one of the two plants the class planted on the same day and placed in different parts of the classroom is bigger than the other. and 5. Share findings. ―What is making Plant A grow faster than Plant B?‖ Step 2: Investigate Students know plants need water to grow. the students take the temperature next to each plant in the morning and the afternoon. organisms and events in the environment Communicate investigation procedures. they decide there must be another explanation for the difference in plant growth.Inquiry-Based Instruction According to the National Academy of Sciences (1995). question. 2. data and other explanations to others Scientific inquiry Plan and conduct a simple investigation Use evidence and scientific knowledge to develop explanations Use appropriate tools and techniques together and interpret data Tasks of Inquiry Each of these factors can be found in the following example. 41 . investigate. The students‘ research plant growth and find light and temperature are also important factors. This observation may cause the students to ask. They know the plants receive the same amount of water because they are responsible for watering the plants and give the same amount of water to each plant. 4. 3.
the students note that water. The learners predict that light is the cause of the difference in plant growth. Advantages of Inquiry Method: By making use of this method. students should engage in each element of the inquiry cycle and extend their knowledge to different situations. is creative. thus they learn to verify the hypothesis after reading and experimentation processes. When to Use: This method should be used by the teacher when he intends to develop spirit of enquiry in the students. They can conclude light affected the different growth rates of the two plants. who is making use of it.Step 3: Use Evidence to Describe. the students review all of the data collected and determine the temperature is the same in both locations. lifelong learners. and light affect plant growth. as it will motivate them to find out for themselves the answers of various questions arising in their mind by making various kinds of enquiries instead of getting or accepting readymade information from the teacher. then the class room will become dominated by few students. When learning through inquiry approaches. Explain. and Predict At the conclusion of the experiment. Thus. Step 2: Investigate The students decide to count the hours of sunlight each plant receives in one day. following advantages are obtained by teacher as well as students: Teacher can keep a vigil check on the activities of the students as it is the teacher who evokes the responses in the students through the puzzling event. Conclusion Inquiry-based teaching methods provide educators with another tool to add to their experiences of educational practices. Through this method. The students explain each aspect of their experiment process and discuss the findings and conclusions. Explain. Disadvantages of Inquiry Method: This method has some limitations also. Step 5: Sharing Findings Since the students did such a good job finding the answer to their question. mention of which are as follows: It is not possible to use this method under the structured school curriculum as it is slow in nature and requires a lot of time. 42 . They do not rely on the readymade information provided by the teacher in any way. temperature. and Predict At the end of the week. It can not be used properly if the teacher. Not only this. the teacher asks them to share their work during a parent showcase night. They realize a difference in one of these factors can cause a noticeable difference in plant growth. the students find Plant A receives four hours more sunlight than Plant B. if the teacher does not know how to arrange practical experiments work. Their findings eliminate temperature as the cause of Plant A growing faster than Plant B. the students check each plant and mark if the plant is in the sun or not. Every hour. students get the opportunity to learn various kinds of information on their own. students develop important skills that will help them become successful. so they decide to monitor the amount of light the plants are receiving. While completing inquiry-based lessons. As students do not accept hypothesis designed by them on the basis of information provided by teacher. Educators can use this method to capitalize on the naturally inquisitive behaviors of students. As students of different mental capabilities attend the same class in the school. Step 4: Connecting Evidence to Knowledge As a result of their experiment. this method helps in making the students creative in their own way. as a result of which other less able students will feel a sense of neglect. Step 3: Use Evidence to Describe. then also he cannot make use of this method properly. thus it is not possible for all of them to learn various information's through this method effectively If all the students do not take participate in question asking function.
The observer should be given a checklist to facilitate observation and feedback. Role-plays can be based on previously scripted written scenarios or on a real case that may have been presented to the group. An example of a role-play is parents and a teenager discussing curfew time. ROLE PLAYING Strategy/Methodology One or more participants adopt a specified role and try to behave in ways characteristics of a person in that role. should first be given the opportunity to self-assess by being asked ―what went well‖ and ―what would you have liked to have done differently?‖ Opportunities for a ―re-play‖ may be given if desired. They have no script but are given a situation and individual roles that they must act out. A group of participants act out a real-life situation in front of the club. students should switch roles so that each one has the opportunity to practice each role. timing.ROLE-PLAY ROLE-PLAY Role-play is an excellent technique for building clinical skills in the safety of the small group setting. the physician. a brief dramatic presentation reveals not only the problem but its context as well. Clear instructions must to be given regarding the nature of the roles. and usually end with practical answers. Role-play can also take place in form of the Dramatic enactment. with an observer added to the group. give them the opportunity to understand or even feel empathy for other people‘s viewpoints or roles. The role-play may be enacted in groups of two. The student in the role-play. there are two types of role-plays: Students are assigned roles based on written scenario to simulate real interaction in a classroom setting Controlled role-play (for lower classes in which the dialogues. Participants create their parts as they act. This method can be used spontaneously to act out a situation or ―test‖ a solution proposed by the group. In Health education. particularly communication skills. The role-play should always be followed by a debriefing and an opportunity for self-assessment and feedback. When done well. In Role-play: Teacher has to define problem situation and roles clearly Teacher must give very clear instructions Teachers or students decide a situation and also decides what to say as they go along. participants use their own experiences to play a real life situation. roles and characters are decided by the students) Members give spontaneous answers with this method. Role-play can also take place in groups of three. also known as a fish bowl. When it is used in this way it is usually called role-play. with the rest of the group observing and participating in the feedback session. and specific objectives. roles and situation is fixed) Free role-play (for upper primary classes in which a situation is given and the dialogues. with one student playing the ―physician‖ and another playing the ―patient‖. Faculty member demonstrates technique and serves as observer to assess skills and to provide feedback In role plays. The performance is discussed in relation to the situation or problem under consideration. Develops problem-solving and verbal expression skills Provides practice to build skills before real-world application and when ―real‖ experiences are not readily available 43 . ADVANTAGES The role-play method allows learners to practice clinical skills. role plays increase the participant‘s self-confidence. Ideally. It is particularly effective for practicing communication skills. A particularly compelling and efficient technique for presenting the problem is to enact it. in a safe environment without the expense of paying for a Standardized Patient. An alternative is to have a role-play demonstration. solutions or guidelines. often revolves around a specified clinical scenario.
etc. the student can get a better understanding of the patient‘s point of view. It is therefore essential that a role play is followed by a thorough debriefing. Can lack focus unless well planned. May not work with trainees who do not know each other well. Some role plays can generate strong emotions amongst the participants. Role play : Adds variety. This provides the opportunity for the trainer and the participants to raise and assess new issues. empathy. DISADVANTAGES/CAUTIONS However. orchestrated. and monitored KEYS TO SUCCESS Establish a safe environment for learner to experiment and make mistakes without sanction Use realistic situations that relate to learning objectives Use only when learners have adequate knowledge and skills to perform what is requested Provide clear directions and specific time limits Observe performance (for multiple groups. The biggest limitation of role-play is the almost universal hesitance of students (and sometimes faculty) to role-play. Depends heavily on learner‘s imagination and willingness to participate Some trainees may feel a role play is too exposing. role plays can be time-consuming and their success depends on the willingness of participants to take active part. and specificity to the learning experience Introduces problem situation dramatically Provides opportunity for students to assume roles of others and thus appreciate another point of view Allows for exploration of solutions Provides opportunity to practice skills Actively involves participants Role plays are useful for exploring and improving interviewing techniques and examining the complexities and potential conflicts of group meetings. rotate through them) Conduct a feedback/debriefing session after the role plays 44 . Puts pressure on learner to perform. By playing the role of the patient. threatening or embarrassing. Can be unpredictable in terms of outcomes Can reinforce ineffective behaviors/strategies if performance is not observed by knowledgeable person who provides appropriate feedback Some students may be too self-conscious Not appropriate for large groups Some students may feel threatened Participants might be reluctant. Can provide an entirely new perspective on a situation and develop insights about feelings and relationships Enables learners to experiment in a safe environment with behaviors which strike them as potentially useful and to identify behaviors which are not Provides teacher immediate feedback about the learner‘s understanding and ability to apply concepts Improves the likelihood of transfer of learning from the classroom to the real world They help participants to consolidate different lessons in one setting and are good energisers. The faculty member can directly observe the skills of multiple students during a single session. which can create embarrassment and even resistance This reluctance may be overcome at the outset by careful explanation of the objectives and the outcome. reality. Can engender strong emotions related to past experiences.
and their progeny would listen in rapt attention when the teacher spoke.you help them grow. As children become young adults. a friend --. you will guide students through yet another important transition: adolescence. children will first learn from you. They have already been where their students are going. teachers have fallen in disgrace. In order to motivate his students. undergone what they will go through and are in a position to pass along lessons. Teachers are founts of experience. Such is the state of affairs that it is considered a stigma these days to be called a teacher. “We think of teacher-heroes that taught us the academics but we don’t often think of those teachers that taught us life’s lessons. the teacher was their guide. not only regarding subject matter.” Much of what students learn from their greatest teachers is not detailed on a syllabus. you will carefully guide them and intervene when necessary. their elementary school teacher. you will answer their questions. Then. Though a teacher‘s influence on the social sphere of school lessens as students mature. At six to eight hours a day. During their initial school years. The rules. A role model can be anybody: a parent. We learn through them. he would have achieved his mission. 45 . He must be a true exemplar of his teachings in front of his students. Teachers follow students through each pivotal stage of development. Even in his life time. not only in our early years of education. As a teacher. listen to their problems and teach them about this new phase of their lives. and this is true. but lessons on life. The teacher's word was regarded as the word of God.ROLE MODEL ROLE MODEL: A role model is a person who inspires and encourages us to strive for greatness. To them. other children of the same age and begin to form some of their first friendships. School is as much a place of social learning as academic learning. To some extent because of their own doings. as a middle school teacher. Teachers who help us grow as people are responsible for imparting some of life‘s most important lessons. the teacher must himself possess a goodly character. if a teacher can thus influence a few. five days a week. live to our fullest potential and see the best in ourselves. and to some because of the norms of a decadent society in which we all exist. students encounter. through their commitment to excellence and through their ability to make us realize our own personal growth. those early lessons still have an effect on how they will interact with others in the future. but all the way through college. perhaps for the first time. a few teachers today satisfy these criteria. their counselor and their truest friend. Teacher as a role model There was a time when the teacher was known as epitome of all virtues. you will show your students how to become independent and form their own relationships. learning throughout middle school and into high school. We look to them for advice and guidance. kings and queens. You not only watch your students grow --. nay even a single life. In general.but some of our most influential and lifechanging role models are teachers. a sibling. you as a teacher are poised to become one of the most influential people in your students‘ life. After their parents. A role model is someone we admire and someone we aspire to be like. If at all.
mission and followers/learners) Discernment . and attitudes. Peaceful.‖ It is Used to introduce learners to clinical skills and problem solving and help them to develop appropriate ethical behaviors.Role Modeling as teaching method: Intentional teaching strategy in which learners listen to and observe role model performing regular duties of the profession and/or ―thinking out loud. habits. Wise Demonstrates humility Admits when they are wrong Genuine love (devotion to their work .understands the whole situation ADVANTAGES • Can be subtle but powerful learning • Tends to generate high learner interest • Doesn‘t require additional planning on part of role model DISADVANTAGES • Relies on learner identifying with the model • Role model who does not effectively represent desired behaviors can send the wrong message KEY TO SUCCESS • Be aware that this occurs unconsciously as well as intentionally and consider what is being communicated • Connect learning to objectives • Make thinking visible to the learner during the learning experience 46 . Characteristics of positive role models include: Feels a since of duty to better "society" or work for the common good of the community Compassionate Has developed powerful and effective habits of the mind and soul Can work through challenges Committed to what he or she does Capacity to achieve goals and obtain self-fulfillment Possesses high standards and values Admired for courage and strength Models forgiveness Trustworthy.
Self-directed learning views learners as responsible owners and managers of their own learning process. (It is important to bear in mind that most of the research that has been conducted on self-directed learning has 47 . 1997) Self-directed learning recognizes the significant role of motivation and volition in initiating and maintaining learners' efforts. Motivation drives the decision to participate." to diagnose their learning needs. Self-directed learning integrates self-management (management of the context. Alao & Rinehart. in which learners control the objectives and institutions control the means Informal learning. 1997. is an approach that has also been tried with learners in elementary and secondary schools. in which institutions control the objectives but learners control the means of learning Some self-directed learning takes place in comparative isolation in secluded libraries. which has its roots in adult education. Other selfdirected learners engage in more interpersonal communication (with experts and peers. formulate learning goals. control objectives and the means of learning Non-formal learning. and actions) with self-monitoring (the process whereby the learners monitor. 1993). Sharkey. 1997) In Self-directed learning. & Firestone. but a survey of the literature on the subject identifies several tenets that are central to the concept As the term suggests. for instance) than is typically available in conventional classroom setting Who is engaged in self-directed learning? About 90 percent of all adults conduct at least one self-directed learning project per year. The model is a two-by-two matrix of learner and institution. Learners exercise a great deal of independence in setting learning goals and deciding what is worthwhile learning as well as how to approach the learning task within a given framework (Lyman. 1992. 1997. highly collaborative.SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING Self-directed learning has been described as "a process in which individuals take the initiative. the self-directed learning situation occurs when learners--not the institution--control both the learning objectives and the means of learning The following situations occupy the other cells of the matrix: Formal learning. evaluate and regulate their cognitive learning strategies) (Bolhuis. It seeks to bridge the gap between school knowledge and real-world problems by considering how people learn in real life (Bolhuis. 1996. Morrow. identify resources for learning. 1995) Self-directed learning in a descriptive model of lifelong learning based entirely on the locus of control for decision making about the objectives and means of learning. Corno. resources. 1996. ironically. control gradually shifts from teachers to learners. not learners. Temple & Rodero. 1992. including the social setting. in which institutions. Temple & Rodero. 1995) Self-directed learning develops domain-specific knowledge as well as the ability to transfer conceptual knowledge to new situations. Leal. 1993) Self-directed learning is. with or without the help of others. Typical learners engage in five. Learners collaborate with teachers and peers in (Guthrie. Garrison. Garrison.' They model learning strategies and work with students so that they develop the ability to use them on their own (Bolhuis. and volition sustains the will to see a task through to the end so that goals are achieved (Corno. and evaluate learning outcomes (Knowles 1975) Self-directed learning. spending an average of 100 hours on each project (Tough 1978). Teachers scaffold learning by making learning 'visible. There may be slight variations in how different educators define Self-directed learning. 1996. select and implement learning strategies.
The individual. enjoy the arts and physical recreation. To be autonomous requires that people have a developed self. 'In turn this requires a consciousness of oneself as a being who acts for reasons. Here we might go back to the work of Cyril Houle. Self-directed learning integrates self-management (management of the context. and attitudes to improve their work performance. or simply increase their intellectual capital. an autonomous person is someone who is not manipulated by others.those who use education as a means of accomplishing fairly clear cut objectives Activity-orientated .investigated the activities of middle-class adults). Self is relative to other selves and to the inclusive environment. or resources. and linked with the above. evaluate. whose behavior can be explained by reference to one's own goals and purposes' (Lindley 1986). However. resources. The problem here is that individuals can exist only so long as there are groups. participate in a hobby. including social setting. (Lindeman 1926). and even the adults who practice self-directed learning also engage in more formal educational experiences such as teacher-directed courses (Brookfield 1985) Defining the self-directed learner: According to Abdullah (2001). to which their actions can be ascribed. That is to say. the group and the nature of autonomy: A further run on. is the extent to which an emphasis is placed on the individual at the expense of the group. and the dynamics of the context in which it takes place.it always has to take account of the wishes of others. autonomy on its own is not enough to get around the problems of reconciling self and society within education. A second dimension of autonomy requires freedom from external constraints. rather than a laundry list of observable behaviors we wish students to exhibit. None of us is self-determined. and actions) with self-monitoring (the process whereby learners monitor. 48 . Freedom can never be absolute. Others conduct their selfdirected learning to improve family life and health.those who take part in such activities because of an attraction in the circumstances of learning rather than in the content or announced purpose Learning-orientated . and regulate their cognitive learning strategies). self-directed learners are "responsible owners and managers of their own learning process. administrators. Many self-directed learners are attempting to gain new skills. These orientations are: Goal-orientated . Adult educators have found that some adults are incapable of engaging in self-directed learning because they lack independence.those that seem to seek knowledge for its own sake Implications for Instruction: The research and literature on what teachers. knowledge. Not all adults prefer the self-directed option. Here are the features that help foster and learning. and school communities can do to promote the development of self-directed learners strongly reinforce a central theme: A student cannot become a self-directed learner without becoming self-directed learners engaged in a curriculum that allows it to happen. Such individuals have the skills to access and process the information they need for a specific purpose. Such a person is able to act in pursuit of self-chosen goals. It is important to note that being a self-directed learner is a trait or disposition we want students to develop. He argued that there are three main groupings of adults who continue to learn. confidence. We live in freedom when we are conscious of a degree of self-direction proportionate to our capacities. In this sense no project can be wholly self-directed .
or facilitate activities. make lesson plans. there is 49 . inquiry. study groups. it is important to point out that developing selfdirected learners can be a viable and worthy component of school improvement efforts. self-directed learners are not nurtured in isolation but where there are ample opportunities to collaborate and interact with their peers Rewards are used sparingly and when they are used. but students should be able to have some choice in acceptable ways to show they have met the standards Teachers raise awareness of students' role in their own learning (Abdullah. expressing differing and conflicting views. However. risk taking. and critical friends' groups are just a few of the ways to Learning/Collaboration/Reward achieve this in classrooms. self-efficacy. and subjecting assertions and hypotheses to public scrutiny and debate. questioning. they reward achievement. State standards and local district curriculum standards don't need to be adjusted. revise work. This is not to suggest that the teacher should not teach." They should be able to avoid taking the shortest path to correct answers and should help students to determine correct answers through critical questioning. note taking. 2001). Educators encourage study skills. they should have an opportunity to apply their knowledge to understanding the factors contributing to civil wars in other countries Collaboration and cooperation are high. perseverance. A thoughtful reader may look at the information presented above and draw the reasonable conclusion that committing time and resources to develop school environments that enable students to become self-directed learners appears to be antithetical to the provisions of state accountability systems and adequate yearly progress determinations. First. and reflect on their own thinking and learning processes. Second. Teachers need to be able to comfortably inhabit "a world of ambiguity. perseverance. the teacher can instruct the class in those features over which students have control: amount of effort. Journals. and putting assertions and hypotheses to the rigor of disciplined inquiry (scientific method) Teachers provide opportunities for students to self-monitor. Students also have opportunities to transfer conceptual knowledge to new situations. risk taking. if students complete a social studies project about the factors contributing to the American Civil War. rewards are part of an ethos that reinforces extrinsic motivation Teachers model the behaviors they wish students to exhibit.Student Choice / Responsibility: The curriculum has opportunities for student choice in the way mastery of content and subject matter is demonstrated and investigated. and locus of control. For example. The curriculum has a strong strand of problem-based and project-based learning. Remember. Teachers need to model the discipline it takes to really investigate complex problems and formulate possible solutions Policy and Accountability Issues: Several key issues and concerns leap to mind when looking at the literature on self-directed learners. and collaboration. Teachers should model critical questioning. and self-regulation. Students have opportunities to explore solutions to real-world problems and focus on innovation. Interestingly. Teachers shift some of the responsibility for learning from themselves to the learner. and an atmosphere where errors are acceptable during the process of arriving at correct answers.
Houghton Mifflin. 276). Encourage adult learners to view knowledge and truth as contextual and that they can act on their world individually or collectively to transform it Create a partnership with the learner by negotiating a learning contract for goals. Help the learner identify the starting point for a learning project and discern relevant [ways] of examination and reporting. After many years of reflection about learning. personal development. decision making. 1961. He adds. study circles. whether they be leaders. Carl Rogers. p. ―The only learning which significantly influences behavior is self-discovered. managers. Table (below) describes the traits of self-directed learners and the research demonstrating the effects on student achievement. strategies and evaluation criteria Be a manager of the learning experience rather than an information provider Teach inquiry skills. self-managed teams of selfdirected learners) Provide staff training on self-directed learning and broaden the opportunities for its implementation 50 . self-appropriated learning‖. asserted that ―anything that can be taught to another is relatively inconsequential. eminent psychologist. and learning exchanges. and are wonderful ways for supervisors and learners to turn the workplace into a classroom.empirical evidence that self-directed learning leads to increased student achievement. and has little or no significant influence on behavior‖ (On Becoming a Person: A Therapist‘s View of Psychotherapy. Self-directed learning programs: Self directed learning programs hold numerous advantages over traditional forms of classroom instruction for employees in the workplace. National nursing council requires that school improvement interventions meet rigorous scientific research criteria. Advantages of Self-directed learning programs: Are more effective in development because learning accommodates employees‘ learning styles and objectives Save substantial training costs because learners learn to help themselves and each other with practical and timely materials Achieve increased employee effectiveness in their jobs as they learn to learn from their own work experiences and actually apply their learning in their place of work Some of those suggestions are listed below. or individual contributors. and self-evaluation of work Help learners develop positive attitudes and feelings of independence relative to learning Recognize learners' personality types and learning styles Use techniques such as field experience and problem solving that take advantage of adults' rich experience base Encourage critical thinking skills by incorporating such activities as seminars Create an atmosphere of openness and trust to promote better performance Behave ethically. which includes not recommending a self-directed learning approach if it is not congruent with the learner's needs Obtain the necessary tools to assess learner's current performance and to evaluate their expected performance Provide opportunities for self-directed learners to reflect on what they're learning Promote learning networks. founder of self-directed therapy.
cooperative/collaborative learning.Fisher adds that "Self-directed learning is more than a form of education. 2001 inquiry/problem-based learning that includes problem framing. data gathering. Lange. It is a component in human development" As a process. evaluating alternatives. 2003. & Marshall. Goal Orientation Caraway. student goal orientation. choice in task/task Rinehart. relevant assignments. a higher general level of Jones. Ngeow & thinking processes. Self-Regulation Palmer & Students can develop self-regulation through Wehmeyer. Couture. idea generation. He popularized these through various books and courses. individual goal setting. Alao. Lumsden. 1999 rather than breadth of topics. emotions/teacher instructional strategies influence 2003. The four distinct but related phenomenons are as follows. accomplishment. & Boyles. & conceptual theme instruction. 2003 problem-solving/goal-setting instructional activities. mastery learning/outcome-based Howse. learner Reinke. Type of assessment influences motivation. Challenging. 2004. 51 . competence/ability is changeable. & Hancock. 1997. His five step model involved: Diagnosing learning needs Formulating learning needs Identifying human material resources for learning Choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies Evaluating learning outcomes Research on traits of Self-Directed Learners: Learner Traits Research Classroom Implications Student Anderman. motivational Thomas. at2003. teachers assist students Linnenbrink & to maintain self-efficacy beliefs. 1993. motivational engagement. but achievable. Fitch risk students have a higher external locus of . Stefanou & curriculum. accelerated learning. divergent thinking. Parkes. students should engage in Kong. confidence increases student engagement in 2003. Zimmerman. Self-direction as: A personal attribute (personal autonomy) The willingness and capacity to conduct one's own education (self management) A mode of organizing instruction in formal settings (learner control) The individual. suggests that there are four main ways of approaching the literature. and evaluate their 1990. Metacognition Blakey & Spence. depth 1994. 2003. carrying out and evaluating their own learning experiences' (Merriam and Caffarella 1991). 2003 control. Self-Efficacy Bouffard & Student demonstrates behavioral. & Hall. Students should plan. 2002 performance feedback improves independent learning. teacher modeling of positive behaviors. Learning goals rather than performance goals. non-institutional pursuit of learning opportunities in the 'natural social setting' (autodidaxy) Knowles‘ skill was then to put the idea of self direction into packaged forms of activity that could be taken by educators and learners. instruction. In an influential review and exploration of self-direction. Nichols. cognitive. monitor. foster belief that Pintrich. Motivation Guthrie. Farran. variables do not change much across subject matter. Miller. 'self directed learning is a form of study in which learners have the primary responsibility for planning. 2003. 2003 Locus of Control Harlen & Crick. Tucker.
Hiemstra 1982. which includes not recommending a self-directed learning approach if it is not congruent with the learners' needs Conduct research on trends and learners' interests Obtain the necessary tools to assess learners' current performance and to evaluate their expected performance Provide opportunities for self-directed learners to reflect on what they are learning Recognize and reward learners when they have met their learning objectives For its implementation. employ different strategies to achieve goals. Bauer 1985. including programmed learning kits Encourage critical thinking skills by incorporating such activities as seminars Create an atmosphere of openness and trust to promote better performance Help protect learners against manipulation by promoting a code of ethics Behave ethically. Cross 1978. and enjoy learning (Taylor. They are curious and willing to try new things (Lyman. self-disciplined. Self-directed learning allows learners to be more effective learners and social beings. Brockett and Hiemstra 1985. desire change. 1995). and evaluation criteria Be a manager of the learning experience rather than an information provider Help learners acquire the needs assessment techniques necessary to discover what objectives they should set Encourage the setting of objectives that can be met in several ways and offer a variety of options for evidence of successful performance Provide examples of previously acceptable work Make sure that learners are aware of the objectives. and evaluation criteria once they are decided upon Teach inquiry skills. independent. Taylor also found them to be motivated and persistent. Guthrie. strategies. view problems as challenges. Promote learning networks. (1996) noted that the self-directed learners in a Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) program demon-strated the ability to search for information in multiple texts. self-directed learning can encourage students to develop their own rules and leadership patterns. Act as advocates for educationally underserved populations to facilitate their access to resources Help match resources to the needs of learners Help learners locate resources Help learners develop positive attitudes and feelings of independence relative to learning Recognize learner personality types and learning styles Use techniques such as field experience and problem solving that take advantage of adults' rich experience base Develop high-quality learning guides. and to appreciate that they can act on their world individually or collectively to transform it Create a partnership with the learner by negotiating a learning contract for goals. and Reisser 1973) regarding how adult educators can best facilitate self-directed learning: Help the learner identify the starting point for a learning project and discern relevant modes of examination and reporting Encourage adult learners to view knowledge and truth as contextual. Brookfield 1985. 1985. to see value frameworks as cultural constructs. and to represent ideas in different forms (drawing and writing). (1993) observe that with proper planning and implementation. self-confident and goal-oriented. resources. personal development. Morrow. learning strategies. 1997). study circles. et al. et al. and self-evaluation of work. decision making. 1997). Roles for Educators and Institutions: The following list summarizes points made by several writers (Ash 1985. and learning exchanges Provide staff training on self-directed learning and broaden the opportunities 52 . The literature on self-directed learning asserts that self-directed learners demonstrate a greater awareness of their responsibility in making learning meaningful and monitoring themselves (Garrison.Benefits of Self-Directed Learning: The benefits of self-directed learning are best described in terms of the type of learners it develops.
district. There has been some research on assessing self-directed learners. formulate learning goals. widespread. select and implement learning strategies. to diagnose their learning needs. only the methods of instruction may have to be altered. with or without the help of others. the school. 53 . and state systems of gathering achievement data should not change. knowledge and attitude to improve their work performance. Basically it is adult learning which also needs teacher guidance because isolated learners lack confidence and resources. However. and proven to be effective.Conclusion: Self-directed learning is a process in which individuals take the initiative. Learners attempt to gain new skills. The development of self-directed learners can be accomplished within a framework of current academic standards and strict accountability. most Learning is Informal and Self-Directed in Nature the emphasis on fostering self-directed learners cannot take place in one or two classrooms. but must permeate the academic culture of schools. Self-directed learners' achievement cannot be measured separately from other students' achievement. Many of the types of teaching and instruction that foster selfdirected learning are well-known. and evaluate learning outcomes. identify resources for learning.
7. 6. Good: audio visual aids are those aids which help in completing the triangular process of learning that is motivation. classification and stimulation. According to good’s dictionary of education: audio visual aids are any thing by means of which learning process may be encouraged or carried on through the sense of hearing or sense of sight. A.Aids is useful in for education of masses.Aids helps in effective perceptual and conceptual learning.V. Advantages: 1. 4. According to McKean and Roberts: audio visual aids are supplementary devices by which the teacher. through the utilization of more than one sensory channel is able to clarify. A.Aids helps in saving energy and time of both the teacher‘s and students.V. 2. To make teaching as an effective process. It helps the process of learning that is motivation. 3. To create interest among the group.V.AUDIO VISUAL AIDS Introduction: Audio visual material must be seen in their relationship to teaching as a whole and to the learning process as a whole. Neeraja: an audio visual aid is an instructional device in which the message can be heard as well as seen. To serve an instructional role in itself. A. until the teacher understands the relationship between audio visual material and teaching learning process. James: Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete. A.V. v. A. 8. A. 5. These are also termed as multi sensory materials. 4. Audio visual materials are produced. According to KP. A. distributed and used as planned components of educational programs. According to Carter.V. 5.Aids arouses interest and motivates students to learn. A. classification and stimulation. aids are multisensory materials which motivate and stimulate the individual.V.Aids provides near realistic experience. 3. more realistic and more dynamic. interpretations and appreciations. Definitions: 1. Audio visual aids are sensitive tools used in teaching and as avenues for learning.Aids can meet individual demands.V. 2. Characteristics of good teaching aids: Teaching aids should be Meaningful and purposeful Motivates the learners Accurate in every aspect Simple and cheap Improvised Large in size Up-to-date Easily portable 54 .V. These are planned educational materials that appeal to the senses of the people and quicken learning facilities for clear understanding. A. 7. Purposes: To supplement and enrich teachers own teaching to make teaching-learning more concrete. According to Burton: audio visual aids are those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning.V. establish and correlate concepts. According to Kinder S. It provides significant gains in thinking and reasoning. 6.Aids is helpful in new learning. According to Edger Dale: audio visual aids are those devices by the use of which communication of ideas between persons and groups in various teaching and training situations is helped.Aids helpful in capturing and sustaining attention of students. It makes dynamic learning experience more concrete realistic and clarity.
The teacher can write or draw diagrams on the transparency while he teaches. Audio materials are those which can be heard. Audio aids b. b. material should be carefully located to eliminate duplication.radio. Sophisticated A. utilization and expenditure of the program. AIDS: OVER HEAD PROJECTOR: The over head projector is the most used in all A. tape recorder. and print material. Keep the screen in full view of participants Make sure you are not blocking any ones view when presenting. films. Ex:. e.V. An advisory committee consisting of representative from all areas of curriculum should be appointed to assist in selection and coordination of A. 3d-aids. Budget appropriations should be made regularly for A. material should be available whenever and wherever they needed for effective utilization as an integral part of curriculum. display boards. Classification of A. Audio visual aids: these aids can be heard and seen simultaneously.V.NMC and ICN etc.V. Talk to the audience.AIDS: Various classifications are given for Audio visual aids according to the type of projection by various authors. aids should be centralized. display boards. materials.projected aids. Simple A.V. Visual aids: these are helpful to visualize the things.Aids a. easy accessibility and convenient use.Aids: includes audio-visual aids. PROJECTED A.V.AIDS: Audio visual materials should function as an integral part of the educational program.Aids: It includes graphic aids.V. c. Headphones. A. An education program should be flexible. TV.V. A. education programs. A. d.g.graphic aids. Periodic evaluation to be done to assess the function of. print material etc.V. Turn the screen off between slides if you are going to talk for more than two.V. not to the screen 55 .Aids a. 1.V.According to intellectual level of students Sources of A. Darken the room appropriately by blocking out sunshine and dimming near by.V. Classification of A. Aids: Government Educational institutions Professional organizations Non-governmental organizations Voluntary organizations(national and international) Commercial producers of educational material Commercial advertisement In nursing organizations like PNC. Ex: .V. walkman. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF A. . under specialized direction and leadership in educational programs. aids. these are projected simultaneously on the screen by the OHP. PRINCIPLES TO BE FOLLOWED FOR THE EFFECTIVE USE OF A.V. It projects transparencies with brilliant screen images suitable for use in a lighted room. During presentation: Keep the screen above the heads of the participants. 3d-aids.V.
Test knowledge and ability. printed matter. Advantages: It permits the teacher to stand in front of the class while using the projector. Advantages: Permits face to face interaction with the students. thus enabling her to point out features appearing on the screen by pointing to the materials at the projector it self and at the same time. Helps students to retain knowledge for longer period. hand-written material can be used. directly from the originals. Requires limited planning and can be prepared in variety of inexpensive methods. Does not require any written or typed materials. when one copy is available.book pages. Keep the message clear and simple. Review instructional problems. as projector is large and not reality movables. To give the illusion of motion in the transparency. or any other similar flat material that is non-transparent. pictures and maps. To show relationships by means of transparent overlays in contrasting color. Can be used for enlarging drawings. objects. specimen. Can present information in systemic developmental sequences. The projector is used from near to the front of the room with the teacher standing or sitting beside. 56 .Purposes: To develop concepts and sequences in a subject matter area. while other classmates observe. Use color and lettering with discretion. A 10*10 inches sheet with printed. Simple operation. Use diagrams in proposition to its lettering. written or drawn material is placed on the platform of the projector and a large image is projected on a screen behind you. THE OPAQUE PROJECTOR Opaque projector is the only projector on which you can project a variety of materials ex: . It requires a dark room. coins. To make marginal notes on the transparencies for the use of the teacher that can carry with out exposing them to the class. Emphasize the key messages. They are simple to prepare and easy to prepare and easy to operate with the over head projector which is light weight. postcards. facing the student. to observe the students reactions to her discussion. Advantages: Stimulates attention and arouses interest. all kinds of written or pictorial matter in any sequence derived by the teacher. To test students performances. Guidelines for making effective transparencies: Have one main idea an each transparency. Easily available. Include only related figures and diagrams. Use simple lettering style in writing. The opaque projector will project and simultaneously enlarge. Gains attention of the student OVER HEAD TRANSPERENCIES: Transparencies are popular instructional medium. Can project a wide range of materials like stamps. coins. Can be used in daylight conditions.
It should be introduced appropriately and its relationship to the topic of the study brought out. build attitudes and to point up problems. Cellophane c. Types of filmstrip: 1. Types of slides 1. which is synchronized with the pictures. A tap recorded narration can be synchronized with film strip. Hand made slides: can be made with a. 5. Colored 2. Lumarith Slides can be made from photographs and pictures by teachers and pupils taking photographs and snapshots when they go on fieldtrips for historical. realistic. Use a pointer to direct attention. Sound slide film: it is similar to filmstrip but instead of explanatory titles or spoken discussion recorded explanation is audible. reproduction original subject. The standard size of the slides is 2 ―X 2 ―any 35mm camera will make satisfactory slides. They are still pictures on positive film which you can process and mount individually yourself or send to a film laboratory. 57 . 6. Plain glass e. geographical. according to the topic discussed. Preparation with any 35mm camera for most uses. May be adapted to group or individual use FILMSTRIPS Film strips are sequence of transparent still pictures with individual frames on 35mm film. Etched glass d. Black and white b. literacy or scientific excursions. 7. Each strip contains from 12 to 18 or more pictures. is an important aspect of teaching with them. 2. stored and re-arranged for various uses. It is a fixed sequence of related stills on a roll of 35mm film or 8mm film. Acetate sheet b. PRINCIPLES 1. Discussion filmstrip: it is continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames arranged in sequence usually with explanatory titles. Results in colorful. 4. Preview filmstrips before using them and selected carefully to meet the needs of the topic to be taught. Easily handled. The arrangement of slides in proper sequence. Show again any part of the filmstrip needing more specific study. Use filmstrip to stimulate emotions.Disadvantages: Costly equipment. to specific details on the screen. Needs a dark room for projection SLIDE PROJECTOR A slide is a small piece of transparent material on which a single pictorial image or scene or graphic image has been photographed or reproduced otherwise. Slides are a form of projected media that are easy to prepare. Needs to use it with care. Easy to revise and up-date. Advantages: 1. 2. 4. 3. 3. processing and mounting by self or laboratory. Requires only filming. 5. 2. Photographic slides: 2‖ X 2‖ 3‖ X 4‖ a. Can be combined with tape narration or can control time for discussion.
To provide outline for materials covered in presentation. As the speaker wishes to visually reinforce a point with words or symbols. 2. it is otherwise difficult to explain only in words. Definition: Chart is defined as a visual aid which depicts pictorial and written key information in systematic way to summarize. 58 . rectangles. The message can be shown to the viewer. Are compact. For creating problems and stimulating thinking. Are inexpensive when quantity reproduction is required. Are projected with simple light weight equipment. tape or sticky substance or pins. The cause and effective chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing the relationship between rights and responsibilities or between a complex of conditions and change or conflict. It produces interest. comparing. These are very valuable aid in the teaching situation where breakdown of a fact or a statement is to be listed. circles. processes.V. Can be supplemented with recordings. Pull chart: it consists of written messages which are hidden by strips of thick paper. The chain chart: arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing transitions or cycles. In this chart lines. 5. he removes the appropriate strip or paper. AIDS: GRAPHIC AIDS: It is a combination of graphic and pictorial material designed for the orderly and logical visualizing of relationships between key facts and ideas ex: comparisons. compare. Types of charts: Narrative chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing the events in the process or development of a significant issue to its point of resolution or we can show an improvement over a period of years. one after another by6 pulling out the concealing strips. It includes the following CHARTS Introduction: These visual symbols used for summarizing. A chart is a combination of pictorial. contrasting or performing other services in explaining subject matter. and contrasts between two or more things. graphic. Purposes: To visualize an item. To highlight important points. While making the table charts the following points must be kept in the mind. For showing development of structure. It increases learning and aids recall. 4. NON PROJECTED A. are connected by lines showing the directional flow. classification or organization. The chart should be captioned in bold letters. easily handled and always in proper sequence. ex: anatomical charts and figure. The information on the chart is covered with thin paper strips to which it has been applied either by wax. numerical or vertical material.Advantages: 1. Strip tease chart: it enables speaker to present the information step by It increases the interest and imagination of the audience. Tabulation chart: it shows the schedule of an activity or of an individual ex: time-table of a class. Also it is a useful aid for showing points of comparison. Are useful for group or individual study at projection rate are controlled by instructor or user. which presents a clear summary. diagrams etc. The evolution chart: facts and ideas for expressing changes in specific items from beginning data and its projections in to future. Flow chart: diagrams used to show organizational elements or administrative or functional relationships. The chart should be 50 X 75 cm or more in size. relative amounts developments. To show continuity in process. distinction. 3.
Flash the card in front of the class by holding it high with both your hands so that all the students can see it. Give instructions to students about their actions while you flash the cards. Flip chart: a set of charts related to specific topic have been tagged together and hang on a supporting stand. 10-12 cards for one talk can be used. 2. Disadvantages: Can not be used for a large group Prone to get spoiled soon Preparation is time consuming. 10‖ X 12‖ or 22‖ X 28‖ is commonly used size. 4. 1. cartoons and the content will be written in few lines at the back of the each card.The vertical columns should be filled in short phrases rather than complete sentences. 5. Give brief introduction about the lesson to students. It is relevant for showing the component part FLASH CARDS Definition: ―Flash cards are a set of pictured paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence. Can be used for drill and practice in elementary classes To develop the cognitive abilities of recognition and recall of students. plane paper using colors or ink on them for drawings. Let the student respond as per instructions already given. It can work as a useful supplementary aid and can be effectively used with other material. 3. each section will be coded differently and code key will be given at right corner of the chart as legend. To give health education. The circumference is divided into suitable sections. It should not be less than 3 and more than 20. The silent points of specific topic will be presented. Using the flashcards: For class room instruction. Review the lesson by selectively using flash cards. The height of writing on the flash card is to be approximately 5cm for better visualization. 59 . simple line drawing or photographs.‘‘ Purposes: 1. ‗‘Flash cards can be self made or commercially prepared and are made up of chart or drawing paper. To teach the students. 3. 4. The individual charts will carry a series of related materials or messages in sequence. It can be used to apply information already gained by students to new situations It can be used to review a topic. the flash card s is to be properly used.‖ 1. The following steps are used while displaying flash cards. 2. Useful for small group. Used in group discussions. Prepare a picture for each idea which will give visual impact to the idea. Pie chart: a circle will be drawn and divisions will be made into different sections. Principles: The messages can be brief. Advantages: Flash cards can be used to introduce and present topics.
It does not require a detailed study. To support local demonstration... To thrust the message for leading to action. For the class room and community. The bars should be equi-spaced.‖ Purposes: To provide general motivation. Numbers specifying the magnitude of the bars should be on the top on the bars. where people pass or gather. Use two different color shades for the two contrasting groups. So it should be dynamic GRAPHS Definition: Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical data and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes. To create an esthetic or atmospheric effect. For drawing the bar graph use the chart paper of 50x 72 cm size. Method of preparation: Before making the bar chart makes a rough sketch of it in a note book. Features of a good poster: Brevity: message should be concise Simplicity: message should be easily understandable Idea: should base on single idea and it should be relevant. It conveys the message very quickly. Display: while displaying one should be sure to find a place where there is adequate light and where the larger population will see it. Use bold letters. Planned for specified people Tell the message at single glance. Write the key to the bar graph in a box on the right hand side corner of the chart paper. To promote one point. 60 .POSTERS Definition: ―Posters are the graphic aids with short quick and typical messages with attention capturing paintings. Advantages: It attracts attention. Disadvantages: Poster does not always give enough information When a poster is seen for longer time it may not attractive. It should place. Preparation and rules: To do a special job. Use pleasing colors. To communicate a more general idea. Color: suitable color and combination should be used to make the poster attractive and eye catching. Good poster leads to action with good motivation It can stand alone and is self explanatory.
etc. Pictures are used for the expression of ideal. The concepts are represented with the help of lines drawn either horizontally or vertically.. the surface of the earth. area. In determining the circumference of a circle we have to take in to consideration a quantity known as pie. The original meaning was in fine art. Bar graph: The graphic presentation extends the scale horizontally along the length of bars. 61 . the required sectors in the circle are drawn.TYPES: Pie graph: These are called as circle diagram. Physical maps: shows the physical contour of a place. and there cartoon meant a preparatory drawing for a piece of art such as a painting. symbols. Weather maps: shows the amount of rains. Definition: A cartoon is humorous caricature which gives a subtle message. Vivid pictures will be used to create rapid association with the graphic message. world or parts there of. Railway maps: shows the railway links between various points. Principles: The quality of the drawing should be high primarily for visual effectiveness. Relief maps: it shows the actual elevations and depressions in a place. based on several very different forms of visual art and illustration. instead of the base thus producing the curve. country. area. The total frequencies or value us equated to 360 degree and then the angles corresponding to component parts are calculated. and region. a continent. The symbols used should be familiar and represent a concept or idea to which students can react intellectually. The term has evolved over time. Pictorial graph: It is an out standing method of graphic representation. The surface area of a circle is to cover 360 degree. After determining their angle. region country. In a cartoon the features of objects and people are exaggerated along with generally recognized symbols. temperature extremes. The data are presented thorough the sections of portions of a circle. a nation. Road maps: shows the roads of a region connecting various parts and points together. Graphs are available in 2 forms that is vertical and horizontal Line graph: To show the trends and relationships ex: single line shows the relation and the variation in the quantity. Each bar must be of the same width. each visual symbol may be used to indicate quantity. Population maps: shows the distribution of population in various parts of region. and region. height of the bar over a period represents the corresponding time of the variable. The plotted points are connected to one another. humidity in an area. MAPS Definition: A map is a graphic aid representing the proportionately as a diagram. Types of maps: Political maps: these maps show political divisions of the world. words and colors. Sea root maps: shows the sea routes between various sea ports CARTOONS The word cartoon has various meanings. Quantitative data are plotted or when the data is continuous. It conveys the message by lines. Picture or tourist maps: shows historical spots monumental sites. they are more attractive and easily understood. Air maps: shows the air routes between various points.
It can be used for making a lesson lively and interesting. plaster of Paris. width. Limitations: Comic strips misguide children by depicting characters with supernatural powers divorced from the hard realities of life. Advantages Best method to reach a large group Pictures will help in easy understanding Attractive and easy to understand Lot of information can be obtained in various fields Disadvantages useful for literates only detailed information cannot be produces COMIC STRIPS Definition: A comic strip is the graphic depiction in a series of pictures or sketches of some character and events full of action. that is height. Comics can soon become an obsession with young children and they tend to avoid serious studies 3. and depth is felt as reality. It stimulates reality and involvement. Uses: Comic strips fire the imagination of children It boosts the courage of children and builds up the spirit of adventure. Classics brought out in the form of comics develop the tendency in children to ignore or by pas s the original work. Ex: globe. 62 . Cross sectional models are difficult to make in the class room or institutions as they require expertise to construct them. clay model of human and animal.the people may learn to read and interpret the contents along with pictures to enhance easy grasping. The information will be available in low cost. easy to read and understand simple language .Advantages: A cartoon can be effectively used to initiate certain lesson. This medium of communication is found very interesting and exciting by children. Comic strips hamper the development of language of children. to show the external parts of the things. 2. Cutaway and x-ray models: are the replicas of the original things to show internal parts of a thing. NEWS PAPERS It can furnish health messages in local languages which cancan reach to the public easily. Fantasy Satire Exaggeration. It communication detailed and vivid. Solid models: it is the replica of an original thing made with some suitable material like clay. Types of models: 1. wood. iron etc. Ex: cross sectional model of human body.DIMENTIONAL AIDS MODELS Definition: a model is a recognizable representation of a real thing three dimensionally.
clips. Using objects and specimens: while using the specimen and objects as teaching aids. Time consuming. insects can also be procured. a teacher must keep the following points in his/her mind. For illustrating an operation. Models explain the complex and intricate operations in a simplified way and thus make comprehension easier. Models are lasting and ultimately work out to be cheaper teaching aids. Models illustrate the application side of certain principles and laws. saw dust. Models are to reasonable size and convenient to handle. Also label each object or specimen using self adhesive paper. ex: a tribal village. clay. pins. Students when collect and display objects and specimens derive satisfaction of contributing to the school and teacher something worthwhile. Models involve the use of all the five senses and thus make learning effective. stones butterflies moths. OBJECTS AND SPECIMENS Definition: A collection of real things for instructional use refers to objects. Student‘s power of observation and first hand experiences is enhanced by collection of objects and specimens. Ex: a motor. Plan your teaching with certain simple and direct observations of the object or specimen being referred to. a generator. Advantages of objects and specimens: Collection of objects and specimens by students requires interaction with others leading to development of social skills and values. Student‘s personal collection of objects and specimens can be good source of doing investigatory projects. leaves shells. nails. Working models: these models are either actual working things or their miniature replicas. Clarify and emphasize important structural details of the object or specimen under observation Provide review and practice to make learning permanent. Some of the models may be very expensive. It arouse some interest among students in learning Objects and specimens involve all the five senses in the process of learning It heighten the reality in the class room It makes teaching lively. Ask questions from the students to elicit more details of the features of the object or specimen under observation. Sand models: made by using sand. Advantages: Models heighten reality of things and make learning direct and meaningful as they are three dimensional. 4. and clay. Limitations: It requires expertise to make. Sources of objects and specimens: Local markets Manufacturers and factories Discarded material from the houses Specimen found in the nature can be collected by students from field trips and nature hunt Plasters casts can be purchased Wild flowers. A specimen is a sample of the real object or a material. Collection of objects and specimens become an interesting educational pursuit of the teacher and students alike. 63 . a forest area. Still models are easy to make with the help of discarded materials like empty boxes.3. Mounting the objects and specimens: Objects and specimens should be mounted in shallow boxes in an artistic way and the boxes should be covered with cellophane paper.
a department of the school or a class put up their work for showing it to the people out side the school. and such a show called exhibitions. collect old and new objects and articles Accept donations from various organizations who donates the articles Students can be guided to prepare the exhibits All the collected and prepared articles should be displayed and labeled A detailed report book should be maintained giving a brief description of each museum pieces The museum rooms should be well lighted It should be cleaned and maintained timely. literature and other artifacts of general interest. Museums can be useful both for public education and specific class room instructions. Advantages: Exhibitions inspire the students to learn by doing things themselves and they get a sense of involvement Exhibitions give students a sense of accomplishment and achievement Exhibitions develop social skills of communication . coordination Exhibitions foster better school community relations and make community members conscious about the school Exhibitions couple information with pleasure Exhibitions foster creativity among students. 64 . Requisites for exhibition: The exhibition should have a central theme with a few sub themes to focus attention to a particular concept The exhibits should be clean . handles. cooperation. can see them The place and exhibits should be well lighted To capture attention and interest of visitors .EXHIBITIONS Many times in the school. The exhibition should include lot of demonstrations as they involve deeply the students and the visitors The exhibition should be able to relate various subjects‘ areas to provide integrated learning. works of arts. Ex: a harvest scene. curiosities. The pieces of work done by the students for an exhibition are called exhibits. antiques. models. Setting up school museum: School should have enough space Take the help of students. to be operated by the visitors to observe some happenings. MUSEUMS Definition: A museum is a building displaying a collection of historical relics. Dioramas: Definitions: A diorama is a three dimensional arrangement of related objects. works of science. Disadvantages: Requires thorough preparation Time consuming Require funds or budget. labeled properly The concepts of contrast in color and size should be used for lying out the exhibitions The exhibits should be so placed so the most visitors . and cut outs to illustrate a central theme or concept. both motion and sound should be utilized The exhibition should have some exhibits with operative mechanism such as switches. a planting scene etc. The objects and models are generally placed in a big box or show case with a glass covering and background printed with a shade or a scene.
impression and/or art work have to be tested and approved. You determine the type. String or marionettes puppets:-Marionettes consist of puppets with hinged body parts which are controlled by nine strings produces required movements in the puppet. In common usage. Certain element of the original reality is emphasized to make it more meaningful for the purpose of instruction. Mockup is also a frequently used term when talking about an early layout or sketch of a Web site or GUI program. and with care . The simulations can be made liquid-proof. Mockups are also used in the Consumer goods industry. MOCK UPS It emphasizes the functional relationship between the device reality and its workability. It is used as an effective teaching aid for languages and social sciences. with care. 2.Advantages: Provide a good opportunity to learn It gives the appearance of actual things which can not be brought to the class room Interesting and enhance creativity Live things also can shown in diorama ex: aquarium Provides students to do project works Disadvantages: sometimes cost effective Needs expatriation for the preparation Require budget Sometimes it may misguide the student if is not the replica of actual thing. disease. scope and Size of the injuries and create as many as you wish. as part of the product development process. IMAGE PERSPECTIVES' MOULAGE PROCESS The basic material we use to create our soft tissue injuries is very inexpensive. as you would a real injury. when the size. If someone walks off with a simulation it can be recreated in a matter of minutes! You are not limited to mass-produced latex or plastic "one-size-fits-all injuries". Definition: A puppet is a manipulative doll dressed as a character and the performer is a person termed as a puppeteer. Stick puppets: . When bandages are removed. surgical intervention. the injury simulation will remain intact.reusable! PUPPETS One of the old and popular arts in Indian villages is puppetry. it costs only pennies per simulation. A good puppeteer has to blend his art with dramatization to produce the desired effect. in whatever size you need. a mockup is a scale model of a structure or device. Ex: An artificial kidney to demonstrate dialysis. These puppets are mainly manipulated by professional puppeteers. The actions of these puppets are manipulated by the teacher and students by hiding behind a screen so that only puppets are visible to the audience or the class. Types of puppets 1. infection. Puppetry is an education cum entertaining aid in which puppets manipulated by the performer is a person termed as a characters in a story to be depicted. Our simulations can be handled and bandaged. testing a design.g. MOULAGE Mould can be made up of plastic material to stimulate some life in objects. E. etc. demonstration. body which shows evidence of trauma. The simulations will not shift and/or be damaged. usually used for teaching.stick puppet are the painted cutouts attached by sticks. 65 .
Hand puppets are round balls painted as heads with overflowing colorful costumes. The scratching of fingernails on a blackboard is a sound that is well-known for being extremely irritating. It can be illustrated on a larger scale by pressing two tooth brushes or hair brushes together. depending on the quality of chalk used. Modern versions are often green or brown and are thus sometimes called a green board or brown board instead. which can be scrolled to create additional writing space while saving what has been written. Blackboards were originally made of smooth. the age. usually resting on an easel.as well as to keep the score in darts matches FLANNEL BOARD Sometimes called a flannel graph This teaching tool is called by different names: Visual Board . these alternative methods of displaying information have drawbacks of their own. thin sheets of black or dark grey slate stone. Blackboards are also used in many establishments (typically public houses ) as a form of advertising often for upcoming events and menus . green. Selection: In writing or selecting a puppet play. In case of flannel graph similar principle of friction helps an object to cling to the surface of the board. Shadow puppets: . The motion of these silhouettes is manipulated by the teacher and students. rather than as a toy . Slap Board. Video graph Flannel graph is a storytelling system that uses a board covered with flannel fabric. Motivate students Easy to carry and operate Disadvantages Needs group cooperation and coordination Requires skills in preparation and supply Skills needed in presentation DISPLAY BOARDS CHALK BOARD DEFINITION :chalkboard or blackboard is a reusable writing surface on which text or drawings are made with chalk or other erasable markers. Finger of hand puppet: .3. A short puppet play is always preferable. These are operated from below the stage. Porcelain is very hard wearing and chalkboards made of porcelain usually last 10-20 years in intensive use. Frick Board. blue or sometimes other colours). 4. Blackboards have disadvantages: They produce a fair amount of dust. It is very similar to Fuzzy felt .shadow puppets are silhouettes of cardboard which produce shadows on white screen. Advantages: Creates interest Gives the knowledge in a brief period Puppet is an effective method in teaching. background and tastes of the students should be taken in to consideration. Some people find this uncomfortable or may be allergic to it. and there has been speculation about links between chalk dust and respiratory problems. so that the pieces pressed on to a background which is hard and vertical will stay. 66 . so the bristle inter-1ook. The highest grade chalkboards are made of rougher version porcelain enameled steel (black. Coherograph. However. A more modern variation consists of a coiled sheet of plastic drawn across two parallel rollers. The dust also precludes the use of chalk in areas shared with dust-sensitive equipment such as computers. although its primary use is as a storytelling medium. Felt Board. A blackboard can simply be a piece of board painted with matte dark paint (usually black or dark green). These are worn on fingers which operate their movements. How to use The principle involved is the inter1ooking of fibers of two rough or bairy surfaces.
Dormitory corridors. publications. To tell a complete story it often takes either too much board space or smaller designs and materials some of which cannot be seen well. Cost of boards themselves can't be overlooked. ADVANTAGES Permits numerous and varied arrangements of visua1 materials. 3) Permits the development of a complete story. 67 . lampposts . Promotes conscientious planning. MAGNETIC BOARDS It is a framed iron sheet carrying porcelain coating in some dark color generally black or green. Permits the use of either chart or small pieces of material Materials can be packed and transported complete notes. or with some other substance that adheres lightly to the flannel background.The flannel board is usually painted to depict a background scene appropriate to the story being told. At some universities. Challenges one to develop symbols to portray such things as abstractions. name of the personal or faculty member. to advertise things to buy or sell. pin board or notice board in British English) is a place where people can leave public messages. which must precede the development of the material in the first place. Simple device placed either indoor or outdoor. such as coarse sandpaper. cutouts and light objects with disc magnets or magnetic holders. posters. Advantages Movement of visual material is easy. Suitable tables to support boards must be available. PEG BOARD It is a type of board which contains small holes to fix certain letters into the holes which is used especially in the offices to display certain items. Advantages Explains important events Reports special activities Disadvantages Not effective for illiterate group. bollards . announce events or provide information. Items generally displayed are photographs. for example. and freestanding kiosks often have cork boards attached to facilitate the posting of notices. Paper cutouts of characters and objects in the story are then place on the board. These cutouts are backed. trees. Disadvantages: Transportation and storing of boards and materials is a problem. lobbies. either with flannel. It can be used to display pictures. Time and cost of making material for presentation present a problem. and walls often become impromptu postering sites in areas where official boards are sparse in number. news paper cut outs. Presentation is limited a new idea involves a lapse of time before the new material can be added Might tend to deter one from using other more effective methods and techniques when it is evident that other methods might be more appropriate. Easier to construct materials for flannel board than to make slides or movies. well-trafficked hallways. Takes lot of preplanning and preparation A bulletin board (pinboard. and moved around. BULLETIN BOARD DEFINITION: It is a soft board which will hold pins or tags almost suitable. as the story unfolds.
Experiments 4. Field trips are valuable aids to what students are curious about the natural and man-made process and objects. and fails to fulfill the requirement 68 . A field trip may be occasional activity which at best supplement some learning segments of the syllabus. Uses: it is used to learn foreign languages. and recite a poem in the right way. They can be expensive and out of reach for many disadvantaged and poor students. and songs with clarity. Field trips can effectively supplement the classroom learning through application and reviewing the experiences of student. This device can be used without much fuss by any body by operating the following press buttons attached to the recorder. and systems in their real life setting. gram phones come under this category. It provides meaningful direct experience and hence results in lasting learning. Field trips 2. Limitations of field trip: 1. stop. A record player can be used for an appreciation lesson in literature. Field trips require proper and detailed planning to make them meaningful otherwise the trip leads to confusion. wind. A record player can be used for an appreciation lesson in music. The students learning can be easily diverted towards effective learning. and eject. Demonstrations 3. play. these are called activity aids. namely:a) Local school trips b) Community trip c) Educational trips d) The natural hunt Advantages of field trip: Field trip provides learning experience in the real life situation by direct contact with objects. rewind. 2. erase and re record sound on a magnetic tape. A record player can be used for students to acquire the singing ability. field trips are mainly of the following four types. There are five important activity teaching aids. rhymes. viz.‖ Types of field trips: Depending on the place of visit and its duration. process. Helps to listen to famous speeches To teach good pronunciation in a foreign language . which are listed below:1. Dramatizations FIELD TRIPS DEFINITIONS: According to Hedger ken Field trip may be defined as ―an educational procedure by which the student studies firsthand objects and materials in their natural environment. pause. deliver a speech properly. The player can be used to end or conclude a lesson. ACTIVITY AIDS There are certain learning situations in which student participation through direct experiences can be easily incorporated. usually radios. reproduce.AUDITORY AIDS These are also an effective aid. process. 3. Introduce a lesson and review a lesson. The activity teaching aids are really of great value as they put students in a role of active seekers of knowledge. record. Using a record player for teaching: A record player can be used in the following ways in the actual class room situation A record player can be used to supplement a lesson. A record player can be used for physical exercises accompanied with music TAPE RECORDER: A tape recorder is a portable electronic gadget to record. recorders. GRAME PHONES Like radio gramophones are also important teaching devices. and systems and thus has many advantages which are enumerated as follows: It provides accurate information objects.
Role-play 2. 6. This makes learning easy and permanents. 2. it is used for this purpose and also for clinics. 4. Apparatus required 3. Types of dramatizations suitable for class room instruction:1. autopsies. Results or conclusion 7. and alert. This increases learning. co-ordination. Procedure or methodology 4. It provokes interest by use of concrete illustrations. the students become both the spectators and participants. the teacher should organize the instruction so as to make the students aware of the following steps of the experiments: 1. Play lets 3. Observations of data 5. 69 . and teaching of health to patients. Pageant 4. It activates several senses. 5. laboratory classes. Dramatization develops the social skills required for them such as cooperation. Precautions 8. DRAMATIZATION Dramatization is a very potent method of keeping the class room instruction lively and interesting. Tableaux Advantages of dramatization: 1. Objectives of the experiments 2. 3. because it gives a better opportunity for observational learning. While giving a lesson on an experiment. because of its wide use in the teaching of nurses. The demonstration method teaches by explanation and exhibition.DEMONSTRATIONS:Demonstration method is a concrete visual aid. Dramatization gives an added advantage of students working as both observers (spectators) and doers (participants) unlike in experiment where there are just doers and in demonstration where there are just observers. In nursing education. it is a performance to show a process or activity to others. students observe and imitate to learn Advantages of demonstration:The following are the advantages of demonstration method. conferences. In science subjects experiments are used invariably used as instructional aid as they encourage learning by doing. 3. It encourages student‘s participation in learning through questions and answers as the teacher performs. 2. It correlates theory with practice engages student‘s attention and concentration. symposia. When a teacher demonstrates. Showing the cause and effect relationship. and human relations etc. 5. 1. Ideas for future work The student performs the experiment and writes a report on it. Dramatization makes students creative. When a teacher dramatizes a lesson. Dramatization involves students totally and they appreciate the lessons remember it better 4. punctuality. Pantomime 5. EXPERIMENT An experiment is a learning activity in which students collect and interpret observations using measuring instruments to reach some conclusions. sensitive. Computation (totaling) of the observations made. It clarifies the underlying principles by demonstrating the ‗why‘ or ‗how‘ of the procedure. Dramatization makes learning a pleasure children love to act and show off. In short.
affective. and AJ Harrow (1972). within which the detail may vary. you should try to use language that your audience will easily recognize and understand. Bloom continued to develop the Learning Taxonomy model through the 1960's.improving the effectiveness of developing 'mastery' instead of simply transferring facts for mindless recall. The three domains are cognitive. identified three domains of educational activities. Since the work was produced by higher education. will benefit significantly by simply understanding the basics of Bloom's taxonomy. Various people suggested detail for the third 'Psychomotor Domain'. Development of bloom's taxonomy Benjamin S Bloom (1913-99) attained degrees at Pennsylvania State University in 1935. EJ Simpson (1966/72). when Benjamin Bloom chaired a committee of educational psychologists.) The Three Types of Learning There is more than one type of learning. and writing for other academics. looking at learning as a behavioural science. A committee of colleges. which would perhaps have made more sense to people in the business world. and psychomotor. As such 'Bloom's Taxonomy' describes the three-domain structure. Learning in the Geosciences. Bloom and his colleagues were academics. Bloom's Taxonomy has since been expanded over many years by Bloom and other contributors whose theories extend Bloom's work to far more complex levels than are explained here. As early as 1956 Educational Psychologist Benjamin Bloom divided what and how we learn into three separate domains of learning LEARNING DOMAINS (Bloom’s taxonomy) 'Bloom's Taxonomy' was originally created in and for an academic context. He joined the Department of Education at the University of Chicago in 1940 and attained a PhD in Education in 1942. or 'structure'. (the development commencing in 1948). especially for the third domain.LEARNING DOMAINS LEARNING DOMAINS How We Learn Humans are lifelong learners. the words tend to be a little bigger than we are normally used to. Here he met his mentor Ralph Tyler with whom he first began to develop his ideas for developing a system (or 'taxonomy') of specifications to enable educational training and learning objectives to be planned and measured properly . Explanation of bloom's taxonomy Taxonomy means 'a set of classification principles'. (Interestingly this example of the use of technical language provides a helpful lesson in learning itself. namely. during which time he specialized in examining. which is why they never called it 'Bloom's Learning Structure'. whose aim was to develop a system of categories of learning behaviour to assist in the design and assessment of educational learning. can be categorized into the domains of concept knowledge. how we view ourselves as learners and the skills we need to engage in the activities of geoscientists. based in American education. Most corporate trainers and HR professionals. From birth onward we learn and assimilate what we have just learned into what we already know. He served as adviser on education to several overseas governments including of Israel and India. Bloom's (and his colleagues') initial attention was focused on the 'Cognitive Domain' which was the first published part of Bloom's Taxonomy. and Domain simply means 'category'. and which are more relevant to the field of academic education than to corporate training and development). which explains why this domain detail varies in different representations of the complete Bloom Taxonomy. coaches and teachers. The three most popularly referenced versions of the Psychomotor Domain seem to be those of RH Dave (1967/70). and was appointed Charles H Swift Distinguished Service Professor at Chicago in 1970. 70 . led by Benjamin Bloom. like all learning. if you want to get an idea across to people.
The committee then produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains. Skills-Knowledge-Attitude. Articulation (combine. ie. However. and the concept of developing competence by stages in sequence. Respond (react) 3. and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills.Recall data 2. Bloom used rather academic language. For the more precise original Bloom Taxonomy terminology and definitions see the more detailed domain structures beneath this at-a-glance model. or 'think') 2. for example. Cognitive domain (intellectual capability. affective is for growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude). to assist explanation and understanding. Again. Manipulation (follow instructions) 3. Cognitive Domain .this overview helps to clarify and distinguish the levels. Bloom's Taxonomy underpins the classical 'Knowledge. ie. KAS. Affective domain (feelings. Bloom’s taxonomy overview Here's a really simple adapted 'at-a-glance' representation of Bloom's Taxonomy. or 'overlapping domains'. etc. the learner should have acquires these new skills. Cognitive is for mental skills (Knowledge). Bloom's Taxonomy model is in three parts. That is. skills. Refer back to it when considering and getting to grips with the detailed structures ." That is. It's helpful at this point to consider also the 'conscious competence' learning stages model. knowledge. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educational and training world. Skills' structure of learning method and evaluation. 71 Affective attitude 1.(intellect . This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as "the goals of the training process. and Skills). SKA. There are six major categories. Value (understand and act) 4.. or 'feel') 3. the first one must be mastered before the next one can take place. Psychomotor domain (manual and physical skills.Synthesize (create/build) 6.Analyze (structure/elements) 5. starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. but none for the psychomotor domain. Attitude. Imitation (copy) 2.'think') The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. The definitions are intended to be simple modern day language. This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions. or attitudes.Understand 3.Apply (use) 4. starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex (Evaluation). This simple overview can help you (and others) to understand and explain the taxonomy. Trainers often refer to these as KAS.Evaluate (assess. become expert) . or KSA (Knowledge. integrate related skills) 5. judge in relational terms) 1. but the meanings are simple to understand: 1. or 'do') This has given rise to the obvious short-hand variations on the theme which summarize the three domains. ie. procedural patterns. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts. Naturalization (automate. which provides a useful perspective for all three domains. Do-Think-Feel. Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today.knowledge . Organize personal value system 5. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. Receive (awareness) 2. attitude. knowledge. emotions and behaviour.. after the training session. Cognitive knowledge 1.. Internalize value system (adopt behaviour) Psychomotor skills 1. Develop Precision 4. Attitude. while psychomotor is for manual or physical skills (Skills).Domains can be thought of as categories.
design solutions. reword. . direct. recall a process. predicts. test. present a case for. manipulate. report on. names. assess sustainability. ideas. measure. composes. respond. react. re-arrange. relate. or demonstration and evidence to be measured recall or recognize multiple-choice test. manage an activity identify constituent parts and functions of a process or concept. discover. quality. memorize. resources. differentiates. recall. discuss. project-manage. value. reaction or solution to given problem. re-state data in one's own words. explain. translate. explains. extends. critical thinking. break down. classify. revise. summarizes review. or de-construct a methodology or process. relate. repeat. creative thinking. internal relationships. viability. solve. reproduces. quantify. integrate. create examples or metaphors 3 Application 4 Analysis 5 Synthesis (create/build) use or apply knowledge. computes. theorize. interpret. concludes. plot. list. values and effects. discriminates. use. perform. perform a detailed and costed risk analysis with recommendations and justifications Evaluation 72 . reliability of individual components develop new unique structures. role-play. outlines. conduct. criticize. reorganizes. rules. parts. build. report. extrapolate. paraphrase. demonstrate. contrasts. devise. prepare. strategic comparison and review. perform a SWOT analysis in relation to alternatives. operations put a theory into practical effect. critique. relate. recognize. suggest treatment. outputs. assemble. explains. select. illustrates. investigate. combines. construct. integrate methods. efficacy. distinguishes. use knowledge in response to real circumstances interpret elements. create teams or new approaches. modify. write protocols or contingencies 6 assess effectiveness of whole concepts. design. example comprehends.discriminates. definitions. states. . supports. manage. systems. demonstrates. outlines. infers. converts. labels. create. rearranges. in relation to values. structure. selects. diagram. tells establish. operate. catagorize. selects. evaluates. identifies. defends. formulate. argue. categorizes. experiment.Cognitive Domain level category behaviour or 'level' descriptions 2 Comprehension Knowledge 1 examples of activity to be trained. generates.organize. approaches. change. divide. construction. calculate the effects of a plan or strategy. quote law or procedure 'key words' (verbs which describe the activity to be trained or measured at each level) arrange. deconstructs. estimate. return on investment or costeffectiveness. label. illustrate. relationships. discovers. graph. plan. apply. generalizes. infers. understand meaning. ideas. develop. summarizes. produce a financial justification for a proposition or venture. examine. critiques. reproduce. judgement relating to external criteria review strategic options or plans in terms of efficacy. interpret. put theory into practice. define. models. rewrites. justify. compare. matches. reference. implement. modify. contrasts. organizational principles. interprets. recount information facts or statistics. distinguishes. making qualitative assessment of elements. relate. separates. measure requirements or needs develop plans or procedures. rewrite. propose. compiles. describe. . reconstructs. know. extrapolate. solve a problem. assess. show execute. produce. identifies. analyze. appraise. compare. practicability. summarize. state. relates. describes. defend. translate explain or interpret meaning from a given scenario or statement. gives examples. review.
modifies. cite. Krathwohl) 1964. presents. Act. verifies. enthusiasms. greets. sits. selects. concentrate. works. accept or commit to particular stance or action qualify and quantify personal views. question. enthusiasm for action. active participation in activity. revises. performs. listens. formulates. clarify. gives. develop value system adopt belief system and philosophy self-reliant. uses. state personal position and reasons. follows. write. reports.discriminates. The Affective Domain' (Bloom. take notes. tells. selects. studies. organizes. perform.2. argue. differentiates. contribute. emotions . aids. hear. answers. develop. defends. conforms. relates. challenge. make time for learning experience. points to.(feeling. . be open to. respond. complies. recites. invites. integrates. debate. and attitudes. generalizes. qualifies. persuade. questions. reports. prioritise. locates. provide other references and examples. arranges. holds.'feel') How does one approach to learning? With confidence. completes. labels. This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally. listen. willing to hear 2 Respond react and participate actively examples of experience. justify. appreciation. explains. influences. discuss. proposes. interest in outcomes. such as feelings. experiences. describes. focus. identifies. forms. alters. orders. acknowledge. feel. combines. 73 . . The Affective Domain describes each category in the domain and provides illustrative examples and keywords for the cognitive. help team. 3 Value attach values and express personal opinions 4 Organize or Conceptualize values Internalize or characteri ze values 5 reconcile internal conflicts. refute. state beliefs 'key words' (verbs which describe the activity to be trained or measured at each level) ask. question and probe ideas. erects. Build. retain. names. practice. motivations. present. chooses. initiates. follow. seek clarification. discusses. modifies. selects. shares. a can do attitude. reconcile. and psychomotor domains. Masia. confront. interpret. reads. serves. affective. behave consistently with personal value set Based on the 'Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives: Volume 2. joins. helps. take interest in session or learning experience. Affective Domain . prepares. turn up. do. criticise. identifies. participate passively participate actively in group discussion. or demonstration and evidence to be measured listen to teacher or trainer. read. react. attend. demonstrates. reads. become animated or excited. replies. assists. Affective Domain level category or 'level' behaviour descriptions 1 Receive open to experience. contrast. values. influence. completes. take part. proposes. synthesizes. practices. compares. adheres.attitude . explains. solve. suggest interpretation decide worth and relevance of ideas. display.
Thus. 3 Precision reliably. expertise to develop methods to adapt. able to demonstrate an activity to other learners adapt and relate and combine construct. or techniques in execution. however it also concerns and covers modern day business and social skills such as communications and operation IT equipment. unconscious and strategy for use of invent. implement instruction or instruction memory execute skill perform a task or demonstrate. help without assistance or instruction. 5 Naturalization automated.3. precision. Dave’s psychomotor domain Psychomotor domain (Dave) level category or behaviour examples of activity or 'key words' (verbs which 'level' descriptions demonstration and describe the activity to be evidence to be trained or measured at measured each level) copy action of watch teacher or trainer copy.skills .(physical . Each has its uses and advantages. build. repeat. integrate. Whatever the training situation. and use of the motor-skill areas. so always consider using this domain. The Dave version of the Psychomotor Domain is featured most prominently here because it is the most relevant and helpful for work. 'motor' skills extend beyond the originally traditionally imagined manual and physical skills. approach design. novel modify. for example telephone and keyboard skills. 1970. independent of and to high quality control. specify. 1 Imitation another. 2 Manipulation reproduce activity from written or verbal execute. manage. formulate. coordination. develop.and life-related development. 74 . even if you think your environment is covered adequately by the Cognitive and Affective Domains. adhere and replicate process or activity carry out task from re-create. although the Psychomotor Domains suggested by Simpson and Harrow are more relevant and helpful for certain types of adult training and development. perform.'do') The psychomotor domain includes physical movement. replicate. so do explore them all. satisfy a nonmeet varying. activity with expertise show. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed. follow. solve. or public speaking. it is likely that the Psychomotor Domain is significant. project-manage mastery of activities to meet activity and strategic need related skills at strategic level Based on RH Dave's version of the Psychomotor Domain ('Developing and Writing Behavioral Objectives'. procedures. complete. distance. The Psychomotor Domain was established to address skills development relating to manual tasks and physical movement. master standard requirements objective define aim. calibrate. combine. as well as the teaching and development of young people and children. perfect. observe and repeat action. 4 Articulation integrate associated activities to coordinate. Psychomotor Domain .
because the Harrow model focuses on the translation of physical and bodily activity into meaningful expression. display. heats. psychomotor domain (Simpson) level category or description examples of activity or 'key words' (verbs which describe the 'level' demonstration and activity to be trained or measured at evidence to be measured each level) awareness use and/or selection of recognize. integrate. etc. trial and error reproduce. assuming that you are dealing with fit and healthy people (probably adults rather than young children). shape. construct. and expressive movement than. moves. builds. 1 Perception senses to absorb data for feel. but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker. assemble. grind. formulate. fasten. the Simpson model or the Harrow version is probably preferable than the Dave model for the development of young children. If not. 6 Adaptation proficiency meet varying challenges changes. volunteers. sketches. Harrow’s psychomotor domain taxonomy Harrow's interpretation of the psychomotor domain is strongly biased towards the development of physical fitness. notice. modify. which to me makes it rather special. to a considerable level of expertise. then the more comprehensive Simpson version might help ensure that these two prerequisites for physical task development are checked and covered. get set. grinds. 5 Complex proficiency with expertise builds. dismantles. solve. organizes. Response manipulates. constructs. dexterity and agility. fix. begins. reorganizes. expert execute a complex process coordinate. sketches. and control of the physical 'body'. Arguably for certain situations. identifies. makes. describes. measures. better. As such the Harrow model is more appropriate to the development of young children's bodily movement. selects etc readiness mental. detects. revises. re-design. 2 Set emotional preparation explains. more accurate. initiate. attempt imitate or follow imitate. mends. physical or arrange. react. . relates. the development of a corporate trainee's keyboard skills. originates. follow. try. creative develop and execute new design. creates. before experience or task states. reacts. fix. prepare. 7 Origination proficiency integrated responses and trouble-shoot . combines. vary. measure. calibrates. rearranges. mixes. complete. copy. skills. By the same token. The Harrow model is the only one of the three Psychomotor Domain versions which specifically implies emotional influence on others within the most expert level of bodily control. adapt. adaptable alter response to reliably adjust. activities composes. arranges. isolates. perform. Overt displays.Simpson’s psychomotor domain Elizabeth Simpson's interpretation of the Psychomotor domain differs from Dave's chiefly because it contains extra two levels prior to the initial imitation or copy stage. constructs. As such. 75 . displays. the Harrow model would be perhaps more useful for the development of adult public speaking or artistic performance skills than Dave's or Simpson's. fastens. 'Perception' and 'Set' stage are assumed or incorporated within Dave's first 'Imitation' level. learned or measured. manipulate. distinguish. mixes. guiding movement differentiates. chooses. hear. mends. 3 Guided instruction. fixes. touch . assembles. traces. shows. 4 Mechanism proficiency stimulus for action calibrate. organize. heats. proceeds. NOTE: The key words are the same as Mechanism. demonstrate. say. Simpson's first two levels. responds Response basic competently respond to make. alter. dismantle. and that 'getting ready' or 'preparing oneself' is part of the routine to be taught.
Imitating Attempted copying of a The learner follows directions and sequences under close physical supervision. juggle. This is how a good player becomes a better the physical player. exceed drive. Coaching often very adjustments in valuable here.Psychomotor Domain (Harrow) level category or 'level' description 1 2 3 involuntary movements. stand. reaction Basic Fundamental basic simple Movements movement basic response Perceptual Abilities Reflex Movement Physical Abilities Skilled Movements Non-discursive Communication fitness complex operations meaningfully expressive activity or output Effective body language examples of activity or demonstration and evidence to be measured respond physically instinctively alter position. Practicing Trying a specific The entire sequence is performed repeatedly. The learner begins to acquire the rudiments of the skill. endurance. Perfection of the skill. Psychomotor Domain Level Definition Example The learner observes a more experienced person in 1. the learner may read about the topic and then watch a performance. The learner is conscious of deliberate effort to imitate the model. Adapting Fine tuning. agility. Thus. activity in order to perfect it. Observing Active mental attending of a his/her performance of the skill. move. improve. 2. Making minor influence the total performance. build. Here. Direct observation may be supplemented by reading or watching a video. This domain is characterized by progressive levels of behaviors from observation to mastery of a physical skill. 76 . 3. repeat. the person has acquired the skill but is not an expert. fades as the performance becomes more or less habitual. increase. nor is timing behavior. Timing and coordination are emphasized. craft express and convey feeling and meaning through movement and actions 4 5 6 activity expresses meaningful interpretation Psychomotor Domain taxonomy Psychomotor objectives focus on physical and kinesthetic skills (including keyboarding. integrated movements 'key words' (verbs which describe the activity to be trained or measured at each level) react. walk. maintain. or coordination emphasized. play a musical instrument. respond grasp. distinguish using senses endure. explore. The total act is not important. control execute and adapt advanced. using technical instruments and other skills). Asked to observe physical event. sequences and relationships and to pay particular attention to the finished product. Conscious effort over and over. throw catch. write. All aspects physical activity of the act are performed in sequence. Minor adjustments are made that 4. perform simple action use than one ability in response to different sensory perceptions develop strength.
Bloom's Taxonomy is continuously evolving. At its basic level (refresh your memory of the Bloom Taxonomy overview if helpful). not vice-versa.or more suitably . quick and easy checklist to start to plan any type of personal development. and suggests a variety of the methods available for delivery of teaching and learning. the Taxonomy provides a simple. Use Bloom's Taxonomy in the ways that you find helpful for your own situation. The more detailed elements within each domain provide additional reference points for learning design and evaluation.a toolbox. or a whole organization. As with any checklist. it also helps to reduce the risks of overlooking some vital aspects of the development required. through the work of academics following in the footsteps of Bloom's early associates. And at its most complexes.In conclusion Bloom's Taxonomy is a wonderful reference model for all involved in teaching. 77 . across a large group of trainees or students. It's a tool . programme or syllabus. As with so many of the classical models involving the development of people and organizations. delivery and evaluation of these development methods. It helps to open up possibilities for all aspects of the subject or need concerned. coaching .in the design. whether for a single lesson. session or activity. learning. you actually have a choice as to how to use Bloom's Taxonomy. as a fundamental concept for the development of formalized education across the world. or training need. training. Tools are most useful when the user controls them. or for an entire course.
It provides guidance to the teacher as to what and home he should teach. it enables you to save much time in the coming years. subject being covered. Since it is like a script in movies. and a lesson is the best way to keep the interests of students and pupils interests all throughout. 1. You can able to determine when to insert icebreakers and interesting facts and lessons to keep your student and pupils glued to their lessons. the level and previous knowledge of students. knowledge. 10. always be up to the point. and the need and/or curiosity of children. 6.LESSON PLAN LESSON PLAN A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for one class. 4. Finally. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher. Although can be difficult to do and requires tones of effort to accomplish at first. It stimulates the teacher to think in an organized manner. It inspires the teacher to ask proper and important questions. The teaching matter is organized in a time-frame. and same can be said on the part of your students or pupils. lesson plans makes teaching mundane and easy. Proper care is taken on take into consideration. and the need and/or curiosity of students. it gives you the guide you need to pull through. Here are the essences of having a lesson plan: It is a one step backward two steps forward approach. Lesson plans is vital in teaching. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. It allows you to manage your time. It gives you a bird‘s eye of view of things to be taught and learned every day. Students need structure and clear as well as defined outcomes and boundaries. It inspires the teacher to improve the further lessons. 5. It gives you a reality check of your everyday performance. It develops self confidence in the teacher. A lesson plan is a teacher's detailed description of the course of instruction for one class. Bear in mind that teaching is a difficult since you are dealing with children or teenagers with raw skills. Bear in mind that you are dealing with a class that has multiple intelligence. 8. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class instruction. It helps the teacher to understand to objectives properly. When the teacher has lesson planning. and wisdom. It makes you organized whilst teaching. with lesson plans you will be able to impart the things they need to do the best of your abilities. It helps in creating the interest of students towards the lesson. since the lesson plans that you just made can be employed over and over again. Lesson plans will easily help you to achieve your goals and objectives. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan. subject being covered. Lesson plans helps you get rid of problems or avoid them. she can use the time rationally. 7. There may be requirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan. 9. It provides the teacher many ways to keep the teaching process not monotonous and redundant. effort and resources efficiently. 78 . 3. It helps the teacher in evaluating his teaching. Lesson plans allow teachers to ensure that they are covering all outcomes that need to be taught. Keep in mind that the attention of your students and pupils is just equivalent to half of their age. It improves the habit and attitude of your students or pupils. Advantages of Lesson Planning Organization is the key to success. and different activities will cater to all types of students and pupils. 2. Variations in the activities are easily whipped out which will benefit your students. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher. It definitely improves your teaching skills. A good teacher knows how to deal with the tangents that arise mid lesson and steer students back to the designated path. but If updates is necessary do so though.
It incorporates best practices for the educational field. where the teacher wraps up the discussion and answers questions An evaluation component. which may span several days or weeks. I wouldn't see that as disadvantage because of time saved in presenting a well. 2. Sometimes your students don't ask the specific questions that you wished they would ask in order to maximize their learning. Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan. but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles. 4. Harry Wong states that. The teacher also ensures that lesson plan goals are 79 . There is lack of flexibility in lesson-planning. Analysis component the teacher uses to reflect on the lesson itself —such as what worked. The teaching process becomes more difficult. or bridge-in) that focuses students on the lesson's skills or concepts—these include showing pictures or models. Unit plans follow much the same format as a lesson plan. asking leading questions. The lesson plan correlates with the teacher's philosophy of education. but cover an entire unit of work. DEVELOPING A LESSON PLAN While there are many formats for a lesson plan. Limitations of Lesson-Planning 1. which may be behavioral objectives (what the student can do at lesson completion) or knowledge objectives (what the student knows at lesson completion) The set (or lead-in. In such a situation the teacher will usually pose a question or two to address this matter. however. An objective statement itself should answer what students will be able to do by the end of the lesson. as it will determine the activities the students engage in. a statement of purpose for the whole lesson. but cover an entire unit of work. a test for mastery of the instructed skills or concepts—such as a set of questions to answer or a set of instructions to follow A risk assessment where the lesson's risks and the steps taken to minimize them are documented. it is the reason the lesson exists. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines. typically in this order: Title of the lesson Time required to complete the lesson List of required materials List of objectives. ―Each [objective] must begin with a verb that states the action to be taken to show accomplishment. what needs improving A continuity component reviews and reflects on content from the previous lesson A well-developed lesson plan A well-developed lesson plan reflects the interests and needs of students. including the teacher's instructional input and guided practice the students use to try new skills or work with new ideas Independent practice that allows students to extend skills or knowledge on their own A summary. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. which may span several days or weeks. Sometimes simple matters become complicated. which is what the teacher feels is the purpose of educating the students. The unit plan may include specific objectives and timelines. Care is taken when creating the objective for each day‘s lesson. or reviewing previous lessons An instructional component that describes the sequence of events that make up the lesson. most lesson plans contain some or all of these elements. 6. Teacher cannot work/teach independently. 3. More time is required to plan a lesson. Setting an objective The first thing a teacher does is create an objective. The most important word to use in an assignment is a verb. 5. In new or odd situations teacher feels himself helpless. Modern constructivist teaching styles may not require individual lesson plans. because verbs state how to demonstrate if accomplishment has taken place or not.prepared lesson and satisfaction that brings. but lesson plans can be more fluid as they adapt to student needs and learning styles.‖ The objective drives the whole lesson.The Disadvantages of Lesson-Planning are as follows: It requires extra time to plan a lesson really well.
to provide students with time to practice concepts. Provides a useful basis for future planning. 80 . independent work. help students reach objectives more easily and manage less. The resources needed. Proper classroom planning will keep teachers organized and on track while teaching. The tasks to be presented. independent. Is a proof that the teacher has taken a considerable amount of effort in his/her teaching. there are additional questions an instructor can consider when choosing which type of assignment would provide the most benefit to students. organizing and simplifying. This involves prediction. the more likely she/he will be able to handle whatever unexpectedly happens in the lesson. Gives a sense of direction in relation to the syllabus. thus allowing them to teach more. Helps the teacher to be more organized. When teachers plan a lesson. The lessons in the book to be included or skipped. The better prepared the teacher is. etc.g. These assignment categories (e. small groups. age. to practice incidental skills such as group process or independent research) How does the assignment fit with the rest of the lesson plan? Does the assignment test content knowledge or does it require application in a new context? The Importance of Lesson Planning Lesson planning is a vital component of the teaching-learning process. Types of Assignments The instructor must decide whether class assignments are whole-class. peer learning. so they can learn from one another. to track student learning. Independent work—students complete assignments individually. they have to make different types of decisions which are related to the following items: The aims to be achieved. Small groups—students work on assignments in groups of three or four. The teacher must take great care and select the most appropriate book for the students. workshops. anticipation. The school usually selects the text books or provides teachers with a limited text book choice for a particular unit. Workshop activities must be tailored to the lesson plan. Workshops—students perform various tasks simultaneously. sequencing. small groups) can also be used to guide the instructor‘s choice of assessment measures that can provide information about student and class comprehension of the material. Helps the teacher to plan lessons which cater for different students. The group to be taught: their background. face to face. Helps the teacher to be more confident when delivering the lesson. Lesson planning: Provides a coherent framework for smooth efficient teaching. interests. As discussed by Biggs (1999). The content to be taught. Contractual work—teacher and student establish an agreement that the student must perform a certain amount of work by a deadline. Peer learning—students work together. These include: What level of learning do the students need to attain before choosing assignments with varying difficulty levels? What is the amount of time the instructor wants the students to use to complete the assignment? How much time and effort does the instructor have to provide student grading and feedback? What is the purpose of the assignment? (e. peer learning. previous knowledge. Decisions involved in planning lessons: Planning is imagining the lesson before it happens. Selecting lesson plan material A lesson plan must correlate with the text book the class uses. The teacher ensures as well that their student achievement expectations are reasonable.g. etc. or contractual: Whole-class—the teacher lectures to the class as a whole and has the class collectively participate in classroom discussions.compatible with the developmental level of the students.
The outcome of your planning is a coherent framework which contains a logical sequence of tasks to prepare the field for more effective teaching and learning. A successful lesson plan addresses and integrates these three key components: Objectives for student learning Teaching/learning activities Strategies to check student understanding Specifying concrete objectives for student learning will help you determine the kinds of teaching and learning activities you will use in class. needs. teach the learners not the plan. Think about transitions (from speaking to writing or from a slow task to a more active one). while those activities will define how you will check whether the learning objectives have been accomplished. Include timing in the plan itself. Many things may happen which you had not anticipated. functions. STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE LESSON PLANNING A lesson plan is the instructor‘s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time. if you find yourself with too little time to do everything you have planned. Plans are projects which need to be implemented in a real classroom with real students. Attitude Lesson Plan Part 2 – Lesson Procedures (how we are going to teach) Warm-up Core lesson: teaching new language. Include variety if things are not working the way you have planned. the time and resources available. Planning enables you to think about your teaching in a systematic way before you enter the classroom. What do I want students to learn? How will I check for understanding ? What teaching and learning activities will I use? 81 . Tasks (which sequence to follow) Rounding off Hints for effective lesson planning: When planning. Pull the class together at the beginning and at the end. Language skills. you can design appropriate learning activities and develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning. The smooth running of your lesson depends to some extent on proper timing.The decisions and final results depend on the teaching situation. It is important to bear in mind Jim Scrivener‘s words: Prepare thoroughly. written and oral production. Plans only express your intentions. But in class. light ―reserve‖ activity ready in case of extra time . Before you plan your lesson. interests and the teacher‘s understanding of how learners learn best. Prepare more than you may need: It is advisable to have an easily presented. Language Content: (structures. project work. Lesson Plan Part 1– What to teach (refer to group task in session) Background info (students age – no of students – time limit) Objectives . think about your students and your teaching context first. the learners´ level. etc) Resources.Similarly. vocabulary. End your lessons on a positive note. Then. Keep an eye on your time. you will first need to identify the learning objectives for the class meeting. recycling. it is important to think in advance which component(s) of the lesson may be skipped. In the end you need to adapt your plans in order to respond to your pupils´ actual needs.
Steps for Preparing a Lesson Plan Below are six steps to guide you when you create your first lesson plans. Each step is accompanied by a set of questions meant to prompt reflection and aid you in designing your teaching and learning activities. (1) Outline learning objectives The first step is to determine what you want students to learn and be able to do at the end of class. To help you specify your objectives for student learning, answer the following questions: What is the topic of the lesson? What do I want students to learn? What do I want them to understand and be able to do at the end of class? What do I want them to take away from this particular lesson? Once you outline the learning objectives for the class meeting, rank them in terms of their importance. This step will prepare you for managing class time and accomplishing the more important learning objectives in case you are pressed for time. Consider the following questions: What are the most important concepts, ideas, or skills I want students to be able to grasp and apply? Why are they important? If I ran out of time, which ones could not be omitted? And conversely, which ones could I skip if pressed for time? (2) Develop the introduction Now that you have your learning objectives in order of their importance, design the specific activities you will use to get students to understand and apply what they have learned. Because you will have a diverse body of students with different academic and personal experiences, they may already be familiar with the topic. That is why you might start with a question or activity to gauge students‘ knowledge of the subject or possibly, their preconceived notions about it. For example, you can take a simple poll: ―How many of you have heard of X? Raise your hand if you have.‖ You can also gather background information from your students prior to class by sending students an electronic survey or asking them to write comments on index cards. This additional information can help shape your introduction, learning activities, etc. When you have an idea of the students‘ familiarity with the topic, you will also have a sense of what to focus on. Develop a creative introduction to the topic to stimulate interest and encourage thinking. You can use a variety of approaches to engage students (e.g., personal anecdote, historical event, thought-provoking dilemma, real-world example, short video clip, practical application, probing question, etc.). Consider the following questions when planning your introduction: How will I check whether students know anything about the topic or have any preconceived notions about it? What are some commonly held ideas (or possibly misconceptions) about this topic that students might be familiar with or might espouse? What will I do to introduce the topic? (3) Plan the specific learning activities (the main body of the lesson) Prepare several different ways of explaining the material (real-life examples, analogies, visuals, etc.) to catch the attention of more students and appeal to different learning styles. As you plan your examples and activities, estimate how much time you will spend on each. Build in time for extended explanation or discussion, but also be prepared to move on quickly to different applications or problems, and to identify strategies that check for understanding. These questions would help you design the learning activities you will use: What will I do to explain the topic? What will I do to illustrate the topic in a different way? How can I engage students in the topic? What are some relevant real-life examples, analogies, or situations that can help students understand the topic? What will students need to do to help them understand the topic better?
(4) Plan to check for understanding Now that you have explained the topic and illustrated it with different examples, you need to check for student understanding – how will you know that students are learning? Think about specific questions you can ask students in order to check for understanding, write them down, and then paraphrase them so that you are prepared to ask the questions in different ways. Try to predict the answers your questions will generate. Decide on whether you want students to respond orally or in writing. You can ask yourself these questions: What questions will I ask students to check for understanding? What will I have students do to demonstrate that they are following? Going back to my list of learning objectives, what activity can I have students do to check whether each of those has been accomplished? An important strategy that will also help you with time management is to anticipate students‘ questions. When planning your lesson, decide what kinds of questions will be productive for discussion and what questions might sidetrack the class. Think about and decide on the balance between covering content (accomplishing your learning objectives) and ensuring that students understand. (5) Develop a conclusion and a preview Go over the material covered in class by summarizing the main points of the lesson. You can do this in a number of ways: you can state the main points yourself (―Today we talked about…‖), you can ask a student to help you summarize them, or you can even ask all students to write down on a piece of paper what they think were the main points of the lesson. You can review the students‘ answers to gauge their understanding of the topic and then explain anything unclear the following class. Conclude the lesson not only by summarizing the main points, but also by previewing the next lesson. How does the topic relate to the one that‘s coming? This preview will spur students‘ interest and help them connect the different ideas within a larger context. (6) Create a realistic timeline GSIs know how easy it is to run out of time and not cover all of the many points they had planned to cover. A list of ten learning objectives is not realistic, so narrow down your list to the two or three key concepts, ideas, or skills you want students to learn. Instructors also agree that they often need to adjust their lesson plan during class depending on what the students need. Your list of prioritized learning objectives will help you make decisions on the spot and adjust your lesson plan as needed. Having additional examples or alternative activities will also allow you to be flexible. A realistic timeline will reflect your flexibility and readiness to adapt to the specific classroom environment. Here are some strategies for creating a realistic timeline: Estimate how much time each of the activities will take, then plan some extra time for each When you prepare your lesson plan, next to each activity indicate how much time you expect it will take Plan a few minutes at the end of class to answer any remaining questions and to sum up key points Plan an extra activity or discussion question in case you have time left Be flexible – be ready to adjust your lesson plan to students‘ needs and focus on what seems to be more productive rather than sticking to your original plan Presenting the lesson plan Letting your students know what they will be learning and doing in class will help keep them more engaged and on track. You can share your lesson plan by writing a brief agenda on the board or telling students explicitly what they will be learning and doing in class. You can outline on the board or on a handout the learning objectives for the class. Providing a meaningful organization of the class time can help students not only remember better, but also follow your presentation and understand the rationale behind in-class activities. Having a clearly visible agenda (e.g., on the board) will also help you and students stay on track. Reflecting on Your Lesson Plan A lesson plan may not work as well as you had expected due to a number of extraneous circumstances. You should not get discouraged – it happens to even the most experienced teachers! Take a few minutes after each class to reflect on what worked well and why, and what you could have done differently. Identifying successful and less successful organization of class time and activities would make it easier to adjust to the contingencies of the classroom.
Conclusion To be effective, the lesson plan does not have to be an exhaustive document that describes each and every possible classroom scenario. Nor does it have to anticipate each and every student‘s response or question. Instead, it should provide you with a general outline of your teaching goals, learning objectives, and means to accomplish them. It is a reminder of what you want to do and how you want to do it. A productive lesson is not one in which everything goes exactly as planned, but one in which both students and instructor learn from each other. STRATEGY FOR LESSON PLANNING STRATEGY FOR SET INDUCTION: (How to take start, Initiation, P.K test, Ice-breaking) <5min> I‘ll take start with a Chinese proverb/ quotation. STRATEGY FOR THE INTRODUCTION/ ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE TOPIC <2min> after picking the theme of planning from Chinese proverb, I‘ll relate this theme with Lesson Planning and after announcement of the topic, would give the breakup of the key concepts. TEACHING STRATEGY FOR THIS LESSON: I‘ll use Lecture method combined Questions/ Answers session. RATIONALE FOR CHOOSING THIS STRATEGY: Through lecture method, we can clarify the concepts of students and Questions/ Answers session would help to overcome the demerits of lecture method by making lecture interactive. STRATEGY FOR EVALUATION: Self-evaluation Analysis questions Home task/ assignment HOW WOULD I PROCEED/ PRESENTATION PHASE: <30min> STEP ONE: After the announcement of the topic, I‘ll write the following break up of key concepts on whiteboard: Definition of Lesson Planning. Significance of Lesson Planning. Phases of Lesson Planning. 1. Pre-interactive phase/ planning. 2. Interactive phase/ presentation. 3. Post Interactive phase/ evaluation. Essentials of Lesson Planning/ Check list for effective Lesson Plan STEP TWO: I‘ll write definition on whiteboard and explain keywords with suitable examples. STEP THREE: I‘ll explain three phases one by one using whiteboard. STEP FOUR: I‘ll pick questions after explaining each phase. STEP FIVE: I‘ll ask analysis based questions when I would have explained three phases. i.e. Which phase in lesson planning is the most vital phase? Cyclic process: Think -> Act -> Review TEP SIX: Case-study: The student with teaching exposure at school can be asked to share his/ her experiences of lesson planning with classmates. RECAP/ BLACKBOARD SUMMERY/ KEY POINTS: <5min> We can conclude that: Lesson planning is cyclic process. Lesson planning is vital for teaching learning process. Structure of lesson plan is flexible. Lesson plan is skill based tool in the hands of reflective teacher. END NOTE: <3min> EVALUATION: Self-evaluation: plus points, shortcomings, limitations, to do in next lessons. Assignment: develop a lesson plan for the subject of your choice ranging from grade 9 to higher education.
or even weeks. Learning outcomes should be closely related to the curriculum alignment but should not simply repeat goals and objectives of the Standard Course of Study. but all lesson plans share certain basic parts. Goal 1. List specific goals and objectives that this plan addresses. and so on. the amount of time a teacher will need to schedule for this lesson plan. Remember that teachers may see only the title and a short abstract of your plan in a page of search results. handouts. This field is required. what students are to learn. or teach the curriculum in a special context. Learning outcomes may be broader. Briefly describe the instructional techniques. hours. class periods. ―two hours over a week‖ or ―three consecutive class periods‖). publisher) so that teachers can easily locate it. Learning outcomes Learning outcomes are what students are expected to learn after completing the lesson plan. so they need to know what to expect if they click on it! This field is required. Title The title of your lesson plan should be concise. including computers and related resources (internet connections. paper and pencils. and assessment! This field is required. Classroom time required Classroom time required is. You might specify minutes. It should invite teachers to take a closer look at the plan. Technology resources The technology needed section includes technology resources used by both teacher and students. address particular aspects of curriculum objectives. If you use handouts or specific materials for presentation. and it is a rare plan that addresses more than three objectives at once. and descriptive. printers. and specific software such as 85 .THE PARTS OF A LESSON PLAN Not every lesson plan looks alike. provide a full citation (author. Remember that all objectives you list here must be addressed in the learning outcomes. This field is recommended. This guide to LEARN NC‘s lesson plan template explains what we are looking for in a lesson plan and how you can make your lesson plan as usable as possible to other teachers on the web. You might also offer a suggestion in the activities or supplemental information for breaking the plan into two traditional periods. If the lesson plan requires that the classroom be arranged in a particular way. Each learning outcome should be clearly reflected in the activities and assessed at the conclusion of the lesson. please make them available as separate files. If a specific book is needed or recommended. This field is recommended. Curriculum alignment Curriculum alignment is the relationship of the lesson plan to the North Carolina Standard Course of Study. mention that (―one block period‖). art supplies. clear. explain the time requirements as specifically as possible (for example. If the plan is appropriate to multiple grade levels or courses. Introduction Use the introduction to tell us a little about your lesson plan. and any activities or assessments that you think are particularly noteworthy. such as ―Grade 3 Social Studies. Objective 4‖ Your lesson plan must address at least one objective of a current curriculum. Materials needed Materials needed include resources used by both teacher and student. obviously. list goals and objectives for each grade level or course. Goal 3. activities. If you‘ve designed your lesson for a block schedule. including books. Consider different scheduling constraints. If the plan is intended to last for several days. title. This field is required. Objective 2‖ or ―High School Biology. mention that here.
ideas. Alternative assessments Alternative assessments are means of assessment for special audiences. Provide alternatives if possible. Assessment The assessment explains how the teacher will determine whether or to what extent students met the learning outcomes listed at the beginning of the lesson plan. For example.a word processing application or PowerPoint). explain how the teacher can adapt classroom management strategies to use this plan with multiple audiences at the same time. Similarly. They may be as simple as prerequisites — concepts or topics that should already have been covered. They may include activities that will help stimulate students‘ background knowledge of the topic. they may list things the teacher needs to do to prepare to teach this lesson. List specific activities for this audience. but it is helpful to teachers with diverse classrooms. Consider the following: If the teacher is to explain something. or English language learners. please attach it as a separate file. This field is recommended. This field is recommended. and so on. or cues the teacher can use to evaluate student understanding. If you provide modifications: Explain what audience the modifications are intended for. 86 . Activities Activities explain step by step what the teacher and students will do during the lesson. explain what words. This field is optional. projectors. If you provided modifications above. note key points she/he should cover. Pre-activities The pre-activities are what teachers and students need to do before beginning the lesson. try to offer a way to teach the plan with students in groups (in activities or supplemental information) and note here that the plan can be so adapted. are there steps that can be left out? Remember that many teachers who use this plan will not share your background or experience. They should be as specific as possible. This field is optional. Be as specific as possible when listing software and hardware requirements. gifted and talented children. include them in the Supplemental Resources field. if there is to be a discussion. Provide alternative assessments in the field below. Specify how many of each resource is needed (one computer per student? per group of students?). provide an alternative assessment for each modification or special audience. explain what audience this alternative assessment is intended for. such as students with learning disabilities. If you use a specific test or quiz. if you teach this plan with one computer per student. Or. It should explain the means of assessment as well as the standards by which students are to be assessed. Are there instructional techniques you use with which your readers might not be familiar? If there are additional resources or background information you think would benefit beginning teachers. note the goals for the discussion — what conclusions might or should students reach? If a teacher doesn‘t have certain materials or is pressed for time. refresh their memory of previous lessons related to this one. If you did not provide modifications above. or teach critical vocabulary. VCR or DVD player. and provide or link to any special resources needed. scanners and digital cameras. This field is required. It is not necessary to suggest modifications to your plan. Modifications Modifications are ways a teacher could adapt this plan to teach special audiences. such as students with learning disabilities or English language learners. This field is required. If possible or necessary. If assessment is oral.
handouts. city) what you teach (grade levels/subjects) how long you have been teaching special certifications. Critical vocabulary Critical vocabulary includes words and terms that students need to know in order to meet the learning outcomes for this lesson plan. a special vocabulary list may be provided here For each term. They may include: an explanation of how you developed the plan. note those as well. and brief explanation of how it relates to this lesson plan. degrees. Important! An external website should not be required for a teacher to use your plan unless it is a highly stable. A note on attachments You may have supplemental materials that you want to include with your lesson plan such as worksheets. Author Info Under author info. This field is optional. Don‘t hesitate to submit these with your lesson plan. such as images or multimedia reference material for the teacher about instructional strategies or classroom management issues referred to in the plan resources for students to use independently For each website. Websites Related websites are websites to be used by the teacher or students in the course of this lesson plan. This field is recommended. Supplemental information and resources might include: additional resources or websites that could be used for in-class presentations or student research if time permits ideas for extensions or extra credit background reading for teachers on the content of the lesson further discussion of instructional strategies or classroom management issues related to this lesson (or links to that information on the web) Be as generous as you can! Remember that beginning teachers will not have your experience or knowledge of available resources and will benefit from any additional help you provide. experience. URL. tests. Supplemental information Supplemental information is anything that teachers should or might consider when teaching this lesson. or other qualifications that lend credibility to your lesson plan This field is required. If modifications are provided for particular audiences (such as English language learners). If there are resources that may be used but that are not required for the lesson. and make it available for separate download only if absolutely necessary. tell us about yourself! Include the following: where you teach (school. This field is optional. They may be required or optional. Just be sure to send them in formats that can be easily opened and don‘t require any unusual software. Comments Comments may include anything you think teachers should know or consider that doesn‘t fit into the other parts of the lesson plan. we will reformat all lesson plan content for display on the web. please provide a definition or the URL of a website where teachers can obtain definitions. Related websites may provide: background information for the teacher about the content of the lesson reading material for students resources the teacher can use with students in the classroom. 87 . institutionally maintained resource. If possible. or why you wrote it in a particular way possible extensions or ways to shorten the plan reflections on the experience of teaching this lesson students‘ comments or reactions This field is optional. spreadsheets. system. even images. please provide a title.
comfortable learning environment • It builds your students‘ self esteem and it‘s creative and imaginative in daily lessons And it is different for EVERYONE!! WHY? – Teaching Styles – Personality/Attitudes – Student population – Not all management strategies are effective for every teacher • Try different strategies to see if they work for you Why is Classroom Management Important? • Satisfaction and enjoyment in teaching are dependent upon leading students to cooperate • Classroom management issues are of highest concern for beginning teachers Principles for successful classroom management • Deal with disruptive behaviors but also manage to minimize off-task. non-disruptive behaviors • Teach students to manage their own behavior • Students learn to be on-task and engaged in the learning activities you have planned for them – It is more natural to be off-task than on Techniques for Better Classroom Control • Focus attention on entire class • Don‘t talk over student chatter • Silence can be effective • Use softer voice so students really have to listen to what you‘re saying • Direct your instruction so that students know what is going to happen • Monitor groups of students to check progress • Move around the room so students have to pay attention more readily • Give students non-verbal cues • Engage in low profile intervention of disruptions • Make sure classroom is comfortable and safe • Over plan your lessons to ensure you fill the period with learning activities • Come to class prepared • Show confidence in your teaching • Learn student names as quickly as possible Transition vs. • Student engagement and on-task behaviors are dependent on how smoothly and efficiently teachers move from one learning activity to another Withitness • Withitness refers to a teacher‘s awareness of what is going on in the classroom 88 .motivating your students and for providing a safe.CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT • What is Classroom Management? • It is an effective discipline that is necessary for preparation for class . Allocated Time • Allocated time: the time periods you intend for your students to be engaged in learning activities • Transition time: time periods that exist between times allocated for learning activities Examples – Getting students assembled and attentive – Assigning reading and directing to begin – Getting students‘ attention away from reading and preparing for class discussion • The Goal: – Increase the variety of learning activities but decrease transition time.
A teacher has “withitness” if: • When discipline problems occur. gestures. physical proximity to students. . the teacher deals with the most serious first • The teacher decisively handles instances of off-task behavior before the behaviors either get out of hand or are modeled by others • When handling misbehavior – make sure all students learn what is unacceptable about that behavior • Getting angry or stressed does not reduce future misbehavior • Deal with misbehavior without disrupting the learning activity Jones’ study of off-task behaviors • 99% of off-task behaviors take one of several forms – Talking out of turn – Clowning – Daydreaming – Moving about without permission • Antisocial. ―Don‘t Smile until Christmas‖ • A Businesslike Atmosphere • Take advantage of the first days of class • Establish an environment in which achieving specified learning goals takes priority over other concerns • It is much easier to establish this environment from the beginning rather than later 89 . dangerous behaviors make up a fraction of the time students spend off-task Proximity and Body Language • Eye contact. school personnel. • Be free to roam • Avoid turning Back to class Cooperation through communication • Verbalize descriptions of behaviors and never value judgments about individuals • Verbalize feelings but remain in control • DO NOT USE SARCASM • Do not place labels (good or bad) • Do not get students hooked on praise – Praise the work and behavior – not the students themselves • Speak only to people when they are ready to listen Classroom Rules For Conduct • Formalized statements that provide students with general guidelines for the types of behaviors that are required and the types that are prohibited • A few rules are easier to remember than many rules • Each rule in a small set of rules is more important than each rule in a large set of rules • Necessary classroom rules of conduct • Maximizes on-task behaviors and minimize off-task (esp. . and the way you carry yourself will communicate that you are in calm control of the class and mean to be taken seriously. the teacher consistently takes action to suppress the misbehavior of exactly those students who instigated the problem • When two discipline problems arise concurrently. disruptive) behaviors • Secures the safety and comfort of the learning environment • Prevents the activities of the class from disturbing other classes • Maintains acceptable standards of decorum among students. facial expressions. and visitors to the school campus Establishing a “Businesslike” Atmosphere • . Or.
etc. Be particularly prepared and organized 3. Take advantage of the new school year or term to set the stage for cooperation 2.. disinterest or feelings of inadequacy) Functions of Behavior • Many misbehaviors exhibited by students are responses to a behavior exhibited by the teacher • Do not tolerate undesirable behaviors no matter what the excuse • Understanding why a person exhibits a behavior is no reason to tolerate it • Understanding the function of a behavior will help in knowing how to deal with that behavior 90 . class discussion. etc. extra credit. Clearly establish expectations for conduct Beginning a new year • Take advantage of initial uncertainty • Ride your ―fences‖ • PLAN for a favorable beginning – Classroom/lab organization – Ongoing routines • Use learning activities with easy-to-follow.5 steps 1. Utilize a communication style that establishing non-threatening. policies. uncomplicated directions • Use a disclosure statement Disclosure Statement • Used to clearly communicate expectations to students and parents • Refer back to the guidelines throughout the term • Not a legally binding document Components of Disclosure Statement • Basic Course Outline • Grading Procedures – Include procedures for making up missed work. small group work. homework expected. comfortable environment 5. • Attendance Policies (should be consistent with school policy) • Other class rules. procedures • Safety considerations as necessary • Accommodation for disabilities statement • Signature of student and parent/guardian Room/lab arrangement • Make sure all students can see and hear clearly (and you can see them clearly) • Arrangement is determined by learning activity (lecture.e.) • Allow room and easy access for proximity control • Think through class procedures and learning activities and arrange the room in the best possible way Dealing with misbehavior Functions of Behavior • Every behavior has a function • Four primary reasons for disruptive behavior in the classroom – Power – Revenge – Attention – Want to be left alone (i. Minimize transition time 4.
begin to write on board.. admonished. organize thoughts • Either respond decisively or ignore it all together • Distinguish between off-task behaviors and off-task behavior patterns • Control the time and place for dealing with off-task behavior • Provide students with dignified ways to terminate off-task behaviors • Avoid playing detective • Utilize alternative lesson plans • Utilize the help of colleagues • Utilize the help of guardians • DO NOT USE CORPORAL PUNISHMENT – A form of contrived punishment in which physical pain or discomfort is intentionally inflicted upon an individual for the purpose of trying to get that individual to be sorry he or she displayed a particular behavior Modifying off-task behavior patterns • Use the principle of ―Extinction‖ – Whenever the positive rein forcers for a person‘s voluntary behavior pattern are removed or cease to exist. the person will begin to discontinue that behavior • Specify the exact behavior pattern to extinguish • Identify positive reinforcers for the behavior • Plan to eliminate positive reinforcement • Establish a realistic time schedule • Implement the plan • Evaluate the effectiveness by observing behavior • Use the principle of ―Shaping‖ – Reinforce behaviors that are similar to the behavior to be learned – Subsequent actions that are more like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are reinforced – Subsequent actions that are less like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are not positively reinforced Attention Seeking Behavior • Attention-seeking students prefer being punished. the teacher should direct attention to other members of the class BEHAVIOR: Rambling -. or criticized to being ignored • Give attention to this student when he or she is on-task and cooperating • ―Catch them being good!‖ – and let them know you caught them Power Seeking Behavior • Power-seeking students attempt to provoke teachers into a struggle of wills • In most cases. 91 . o Direct questions to group that is back on the subject o Ask how topic relates to current topic being discussed.?" • Behavior: Shyness or Silence -. o Say: "Would you summarize your main point please?" or "Are you asking.Dealing with off-task behaviors • Remain focused and calm.lack of participation . o Use visual aids.wandering around and off the subject. turn on overhead projector. Using far-fetched examples or analogies POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Refocus attention by restating relevant point..
o Ignore the behavior. o Involve by directly asking him/her a question.. "If by "queer" you mean homosexual. o Remain calm and polite. o Don't disagree. and then move on." or "It looks like we disagree. but now it's time we moved on to the next subject. BEHAVIOR: Talkativeness -. o Talk to him or her privately during a break. BEHAVIOR: Overt Hostility/Resistance -. o Appoint to be small group leader. belligerent.trying to shoot you down or trip you up. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Redirect question to group or supportive individuals. o Move closer to the hostile person." BEHAVIOR: Grandstanding -. combative behavior (continued) POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Say: "You seem really angry. o Make eye contact with another participant and move toward that person. BEHAVIOR: Heckling/Arguing -. o Acknowledge that this is a joint learning experience. o Always allow him or her a way to gracefully retreat from the confrontation. o Respond to fear.getting caught up in one's own agenda or thoughts to the detriment of other learners. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Hostility can be a mask for fear. making personal attacks. belligerent. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Say: "You are entitled to your opinion. Keep your temper in check. privately ask the individual to leave class for the good of the group. but I'd like to hear from others." BEHAVIOR: Overt Hostility/Resistance -. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Admit that you do not know the answer and redirect the question the group or the individual who asked it.POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Change teaching strategies from group discussion to individual written exercises or a videotape o Give strong positive reinforcement for any contribution." BEHAVIOR: Sharpshooting -.. if it is false or prejudicial.knowing everything. o Acknowledge positive points. o Make eye contact. not hostility. o Say: "I appreciate your comments.angry. o Say: "That's an interesting point.disagreeing with everything you say. but build on or around what has been said. manipulation." o Allow individual to solve the problem being addressed. He or she may not be able to offer solutions and will sometimes undermine his or her own position.g. Now let's see what other other people think. o Recognize participant's feelings and move one. o Give the person individual attention during breaks. e. Reframe hostility as fear to depersonalize it. 92 . o As a last resort. maintain eye contact." or o "Can you restate that as a question?" or o "We'd like to hear more about that if there is time after the presentation. o Do not accept the premise or underlying assumption. belief or feelings. combative behavior. chronic whining..angry. o Ignore behavior. o Give limited time to express viewpoint or feelings. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Acknowledge comments made. Does anyone else feel this way?" Solicit peer pressure.
etc. o Indicate time pressure. neglect. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Point out that we can't change policy here. fighting. o Casually move toward those talking. • Alcohol.may be related to subject or personal. intruder. etc. Distracts group members and you. o Ask their opinion on topic being discussed. and instructional materials IF YOU ADVISE A STUDENT GROUP: • Be familiar with: – Travel policies – Fundraising policies – Activity absence policies – Student organization finance policies 93 . suicide threats.BEHAVIOR: Griping -. o Make eye contact with them. intimidation. • Field Trip policies • Accident reporting procedures • Reporting academic progress • Purchasing guidelines • Substitute teachers – Requests for. BEHAVIOR: Side Conversations -. • Emergency procedures – Fire. and Drug Policies • Sexual Harassment Policy POLICIES YOU’LL NEED TO BE AWARE OF AS A TEACHER • Internet/Email use policies • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) Policies • Policies regarding the reporting of abuse. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: o Don't embarrass talkers. As a last resort. planning. o Indicate you'll discuss the problem with the participant privately. earthquake. o Ask talkers if they would like to share their ideas. bomb threat. etc. • Use of videos.maybe legitimate complaining. ask a near-by participant a question so that the new discussion is near the talkers. SCHOOL POLICIES • How to stay out of trouble • Be familiar with school policies from the start! POLICIES RELATING DIRECTLY TO STUDENTS: • Attendance/Tardy Policy • Academic/Grading Policies • Telephone use (school phones. etc. Tobacco. stop and wait. o Validate his/her point. movies. o Standing near the talkers. cell. pagers) • Student Dress and Grooming Policies • Safe School Policies – Weapons. verbal abuse.
Assess the Patient's Learning Needs. and attitudes to the other. once mutual trust and respect have been established. 94 . Evaluate the teaching-learning A. a. Cognitive involves the storing and recalling of new knowledge and information. STEPS IN THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS a. Develop a Teaching Plan d. The practical nurses' role has expanded to team leadership and patient teaching. PATIENT TEACHING Patient teaching is a function of nursing and a legal requirement of nursing personnel. These activities should help the patient meet individual learning objectives. Learning can be divided into three domains: cognitive. physical examinations. emotions. a relationship of trust and respect must exist between the teacher and learner. Patient teaching is a dynamic interaction between the nurse (teacher) and the patient (learner). Leadership is defined as influencing individuals or groups to take an active part in the process of achieving agreed-upon goals. and the nursing interventions that have been performed. Implement the Teaching Plan e. Read the history of medical problems as well as diagnoses. b. Identify the knowledge. Use all appropriate sources of information. values. 2. the patient's need should be reassessed and the activities replaced by others. This relationship is enhanced by communication that is continuous and reciprocal. Affective learning includes changes in attitudes. affective. making it a required function of nursing personnel by law. Shorter hospital stays which require patients to manage convalescence at home. or decide that the goals will not help meet the learning objectives. and emphasis on health promotion and health maintenance rather than on treatment alone. or skills needed by the patient or family/support persons. Before learning can occur. have increased the need for health teaching by nurses. It is an interactive process between the teacher and one or more learners. If they do not. The learner trusts the teacher to have the required knowledge and skills to teach and the teacher respects the learner's ability to reach the goals. In some states teaching is included in the legal definition of nursing. Nursing leadership may be defined as a process of interpersonal influence through which a patient is assisted in the establishment and achievement of goals toward improved well-being. Patient teaching is defined as a system of activities intended to produce learning. Teaching is considered a function of nursing. Diagnose the Learning Needs c. 1. b. Review the patient‘s medical records. perceptions. documentation of the nursing assessment. attitude.PATIENT TEACHING INTRODUCTION a. change the goals. For example. Actually preparing the syringe may be more effective. and feelings. the teaching process should continue until the participants reach the goals. You may categorize learning that is planned for the patient into these three areas. Both the teacher and the learner communicate information. b. and psychomotor. explanation alone may not teach a diabetic patient how to prepare the syringe for an injection. Once the nurse begins instructing a patient (or family/support persons). ASSESS THE PATIENT'S LEARNING NEEDS. The patient and the family or support persons are the best source of needs assessment information. Patient teaching is inherent to the role of nursing by virtue of the nurse's position at the bedside. Teaching refers to activities by which specific objectives or desired behavior changes are achieved. The goal of patient teaching is the patient's active participation in health care and his compliance with instructions.
2. b. such an agreement serves to motivate both the patient and the nurse to attain the learning objectives. b. but viewed as an aid to learning. You teach information and skills to patients which you lack. motor development. Anticipatory guidance focuses on psychologically preparing a person for an unfamiliar or painful event. 6. Formulate a verbal or written contract with the patient. c. anxiety is reduced and they are able to cope more effectively. B. or skill hinders a patient's self-promotion of health. When patients know what to expect. 95 . Individualize the standardized plans to the patient's needs and abilities. The contract is informal and is not legally binding. memory. the person who cooks for the patient is asked to participate in any nutritional teaching. if the patient knows how to cook. Learning strengths are the patient's personal resources such as psychomotor skills. 4. The teaching approach must be appropriate to the developmental stage of the learner. formal sessions. Being assured that they are partners in the teaching-learning process gives adult learners the sense of control that they are accustomed to in their daily living. DEVELOP A TEACHING PLAN. For example. Be realistic. Create a teaching plan. Confirm your diagnosis with the family. this knowledge can be useful when learning about a special diet. the nurse diagnoses the deficit. colostomy care) while others are met more easily in a group discussion with other patients that have similar problems. a. Failure to meet contracted objectives should be redirected into new learning and decisionmaking situations. One nurse or several nurses can prepare and use a teaching plan. Determine who should be included in the teacher-learning process (family members. Planning ensures the most efficient use of your time and increases the patient's chances for learning. There are standardized teaching plans available for major topics of health teaching (some for computer use). In addition. Identify the patient's strengths. Chronological age does not guarantee maturity. For example. attitude. Some learner objectives are met more readily in a one-to-one encounter (i. Prioritize the objectives. The readiness to learn in an adult may be related to a social role. DIAGNOSE THE LEARNING NEEDS. the contract should not be intimidating. more frequent sessions allow the patient to digest the new information and prevents him from becoming tired or uncomfortable due to his illness. Schedule teaching within the limits of time constraints. and emotional maturity. reasoning. Informal teaching occurs during nursing interactions with the patient and his family. Psychomotor learning has occurred when a physical skill has been acquired. It points out the responsibilities of both the nurse (teacher) and the patient (learner). Assess emotional and experiential readiness to learn. You should assess the patient's intellectual development. Match content with the appropriate teaching strategies and learner activities. Develop measurable learner objectives for each diagnosis of a learning need. Assess the patient's ability to learn. Include the patient in planning: Ask his permission to involve family members or others. or other support persons).e.. Whether verbal or written. When a lack of knowledge. Formal teaching is the planned teaching done to fulfill learner objectives. content explaining why certain treatments and medications are needed may be matched with printed or audiovisual materials. 3. Use anticipatory guidance. For example. C. Identify short-term and long-term objectives. above-average comprehension. or successful learning in the past. A teaching plan follows the steps of the nursing process. 5. 1. Informal teaching often leads to planned. d. however. Shorter. Children respond well to teaching strategies that permit them to participate actively. assess your own knowledge base and teaching skills.c. Readiness is not the patient's physical ability to learn. a. Decide on group or individual teaching and formal or informal teaching. d. psychosocial development. c. friends.
4. Return demonstration. printed material. c. and privacy. While hospitalized. I will read the materials given to me and ask questions if I do not understand. E. Your attitude has a greater effect on the patient than any other factor. Gather all teaching aids: posters. a. Observe the patient to verify that he has put the information that he learned into practice.D. Prepare the physical environment. Nurse/ LPN :_____________________ 1. Have the patient perform the procedure as it was demonstrated. I will call the Nurse …………………. It should be a nonthreatening atmosphere. d. and the Nurse. Quickly review how implementation of the plan went and mentally make note of both your strengths and weaknesses. Ask the patient a question requiring a response. Deliver content in an organized manner using planned teaching strategies. This is an excellent method of evaluating proficiency in psychomotor skills. Evaluate teaching. The key is to write measurable learner objectives in the teaching plan that describes the desired behavior. There are several ways to do this. b. The patient will usually state whether or not he or she understands the information being taught.. Observation. 3. Do not use technical and medical terms unless the patient has a medical background. Do not assume that learning has occurred without feedback. EVALUATE THE TEACHING-LEARNING. IMPLEMENT THE TEACHING PLAN. Immediately after each session. tell him or her that it takes time and practice to perform these new skills confidently. If you are teaching a skill or procedure. but avoid a condescending attitude. 96 . good ventilation. CONTRACT AGREEMENT I will participate in the learning activities planned to help me learn about a low cholesterol diet. evaluate your teaching effectiveness. or perhaps months. Review the contractual agreement before implementing the teaching plan. ……………. Patient's comments. 2. 1. a. Use interpersonal skills as well as effective communication techniques. in planning my meals. comfortable chairs.. Adapt or reorganize the teaching plan if necessary. free of distractions and interruptions. Observe the patient for clues or additional assessment data that could alter the original teaching plan. Be flexible. Direct questions. CPT ………. and equipment if needed. follow the correct sequence so that the patient is not confused. which reflects his or her level of knowledge about the topic. If I need help when I get home. audiovisual material. The implementation phase may be only a few minutes or the sessions may extend over a period of days. Patient‘s name:___________________ I will provide Julie Davis with the activities necessary for her to follow a low cholesterol diet accurately. 2. Evaluate whether learner objectives have been met.. Ensure adequate space and lighting. I will cooperate with the dietitian. If the patient must learn special techniques or procedures.
Sensory abilities. hearing. If the patient has a negative attitude about learning. b. a. 11. implementation of the plan. If the patient is in a state of crisis with a high level of anxiety. Include a summary of the diagnosed learning needs. Attitudes toward future learning are influenced by learning experiences in the past. Self-perception has an effect on the ability to learn. You will effectively promote learning if you are aware of the learner's intellectual ability and avoid "talking down" to him or her or using an inappropriate teaching strategy. Talk to the patient to get an idea of how he feels about learning to improve his health. Delayed development in any of these areas should be considered. 12. Past learning experiences. Educational level. Emotional health. Revise the teaching plan. Teaching is an important and required nursing responsibility. 97 . a. 3. or the teaching strategy inappropriate. 5. Alter the content and teaching strategies if the objectives were unrealistic. 1. any unrealistic self-image or body image should be addressed. To learn self-care or take preventive measures against illness. If effective learning about a health problem is to occur. The questionnaires may be more honest and helpful if anonymous. need to be assessed in order for appropriate teaching strategies to be used. Seek feedback from the patients. 9. Encourage the patient to participate in planning the learning activities to promote his feelings of control. Show evidence in the evaluation statement that learning has occurred. A patient. psychosocial. and touch so that teaching is planned appropriately. Encourage the learner to express how he views education so that you can deal with his feelings before teaching is attempted. Use a simple questionnaire with space for comments but one. establish a relationship that will help in altering that attitude. Use chronological age to assess whether the developmental stage is as would be expected. b. Help the patient deal with any social and economic problems before imposing the additional stress of learning information or a new skill. who is moderately anxious about his/her condition. 7. Attitude toward learning is difficult to measure. Self perception. it is not an indication of failure. Note any deficit in the learner's sight. will probably be attentive to presentation of information that will help him manage the condition. Social and economic stability. 4. 14. Reschedule teaching sessions if the time and frequency of sessions affected the teacher-learner process. Knowledge of intellectual. Developmental considerations. The patient will not be ready to learn until he is comfortable enough to pay attention to the information you present. c. and evaluation results. Adults learn more quickly than children because they are able to build upon previous knowledge. Make adjustments accordingly to meet the patient's needs. Evaluation may reveal that the teaching plan should be revised. 13. 15. Include the following factors in your assessment. a patient must have a sense of responsibility. which requires only check marks to answer. Revision is part of the teaching-learning process. 3. Attitude toward learning. it must be documented in the patient's record. Physical condition. the content too complex. FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LEARNING Factors. Responsibility. and physiologic age is necessary before you select age-appropriate teaching methods. The emotional state of the learner should be conducive to learning before teaching is done.b. the teaching plan. 2. Employ motivational counseling if the patient is unwilling to participate in learning activities or to learn how to care for himself. Children have limited past experiences. which affect patient learning. or how the problem was resolved if the patient or support person did not learn the material taught. Document the teaching-learning process. 6. 8. delay teaching until the crisis is over. 16. help the patient improve self-image before focusing on learning needs. 4. Being hospitalized and absent from work cause some patients excessive stress. If necessary. 10.
19.17. have been identified as cognitive. 3. The teaching-learning process is more effective when the client is included in the planning of learner objectives. scheduling. Motivation to learn. 4. while others view change or new practices as threatening. An example would be a patient's acceptance of having a colostomy and maintaining his self-esteem. PRINCIPLES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING These basic principles are effective guidelines when applied in situations in which the teaching-learning process is used by nurses to meet the needs of clients. b. a. with small groups. knowing. For example. affective. 1. 12. When learning objectives have not been met. 11. TYPES OF LEARNING Three domains. When the patient stores and recalls information. If the patient is not motivated to learn the material needed to improve his health. which apparently promote learning. Relating new learning material to clients' past life experiences is effective in helping to assimilate new knowledge. Some cultures value education that will improve their condition. 6. and understanding. Clients may be patients. or support persons. The teaching-learning process is facilitated by the existence of a helping relationship. The basic requirement for the teaching-learning process is communication. 2. Assess the learner's reading skills before using printed material as a teaching aid. 1. Knowledge of the communication process is necessary for the assessment of verbal and nonverbal feedback. An example would be a patient demonstrating clean technique when changing her dressing. family members. interests. The affective domain includes feelings. Communication skills. and the physical environment. b. Unless the client values these objectives. Do not stereotype any person because of his culture. The cognitive domain includes intellectual skills such as thinking. he is using the cognitive domain. 2. The psychomotor domain involves motor skills. little learning is likely to occur. Learner objectives provide the basis for evaluating whether learning has occurred. The patient must want to learn for teaching to be effective. but recognize that each person has a unique family background with certain cultural values that may have an effect on how teaching learning is perceived. or types of learning. and psychomotor. careful reassessment provides ideas for changing the teaching plan for subsequent implementation. Assess to what degree English is spoken and understood by the learner. Most hospitals have printed and audiovisual materials available for non-English speaking patients. Nurses should include each of these three domains in patient teaching plans 98 . 8. and in some instances with large groups. discussing his interest and concerns may lead to success. emotions. after attending classes on the low sodium diet a patient states how salt affects the blood pressure. a. Proposed behavioral changes must always be realistic and explored in the context of the client's resources and everyday life-style. A helping relationship exist among people who provide and receive assistance in meeting a common goal. 3. 7. Assess your communication skills as well as those of the learner. attitudes. A thorough assessment of clients and the factors affecting learning helps to diagnose their learning needs accurately. The teachers must be able to communicate effectively with individuals. Careful attention should be paid to time constraints. 5. 18. The relationship is established as a result of communication. The communication is continuous and reciprocal. Culture. The implementation of a teaching plan should include varied strategies for sensory stimulation. 9. 10. and appreciations.
3. Discussion is not the best strategy for teaching a psychomotor skill. 2. The content to be taught is determined by the objectives. 3. Start with what the learner knows and proceed to the unknown." This means that you must include content about body sites suitable for insulin injections. an adult burn victim could learn similar information by discussing safety measures. Consider the following in matching sources of content information with a suitable strategy for the individual learner and for you. one of the objectives may be "Identify appropriate sites for insulin injections. an explanation or one-on-one discussion may be the most suited method. Learning is facilitated when there is some personal interest. Consider the content and the types of learning. For example. Use of games and role-play are popular and fun ways for children to learn. Some people are visually oriented and learn best through seeing. You should have some knowledge of sources for content information as a result of your own education and training. teaching requires a plan or it becomes haphazard and the patient's need for information goes unattended. For example. b. 99 . A 10-year old recovering from burns as a result of playing with matches would be receptive to a comic book on personal safety. the teacher. SEQUENCING THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES Whether formal or informal. d. for the material to be learned. 4. the nurse-teacher: a. when teaching self-care to a recently diagnosed diabetic. Demonstration of techniques using a practice model is an effective way of teaching someone to give an injection. The following guidelines are helpful in sequencing or ordering the learning experiences. The nurse-teacher must be a competent group leader to use group discussion as a teaching strategy. Teach an area that is anxiety provoking first. and for you. women cannot concentrate on learning to bath her husband in bed because she is highly anxious about being able to move him and turn him in bed. A person who cannot read needs a source of content material in other than printed form. Start with something the learner has identified as a need or concern. before he learns how to administer insulin to himself. Some methods are better suited to certain learning objectives than others. c. an adolescent is seeking information on adjusting his lifestyle so that he can still play football.SELECTING TEACHING STRATEGIES 1. For example. 1. If you do not know the patient's knowledge or skill level. illicit this information by asking questions or having the patient complete a form. Use of a variety of teaching strategies aids learning. 2. See Table 7-1 for selected teaching strategies for the three types of learning and characteristics of each strategy. Others learn best through hearing. Consider the different teaching strategies during the planning stage and choose a method of teaching that is suited to the individual being taught. if the learner has a high level of anxiety that can impair concentration in other areas.
100 . small groups. Demonstration Psychomotor Group discussion Practice Printed and audiovisual materials Affective. Involves active participation by learner. Does not permit use of equipment by learners. Need not be present during learning. programmed instruction. or large groups. Nurse sets example by attitude. teach a patient how to insert a Foley catheter before teaching him what to do if the catheter stops draining. discussion Cognitive Answering questions Cognitive CHARACTERISTICS Teacher controls content and pace. Group members learn from one another. Can be used with individuals and groups. Permits "hands-on" experience. Learners can proceed at their own speed. Permits introduction of sensitive subjects Teacher controls most of content and pace. For example. values. pamphlets. Cognitive Affective. Teacher sometimes needs to confirm whether question has been answered by asking learner. and computer learning. lecture) One-on-one Affective. Permits reinforcement and repetition at learner's level. "Does that answer your question?" Often used with explanation. Allows repetition and immediate feedback. Forms include books. May be given to individual or group. Psychomotor Modeling 4. Teacher must understand question and what it means to learner. Permits expression of attitudes. then proceed to the variations or adjustments. and emotions. Encourages retention of facts. Nurse-teacher can act as resource person. Learner can obtain assistance from supportive group. films. Learners may become confused if they have to consider variations and adjustments before understanding the basic concepts of a procedure. Encourages participation by learner. Teach the basic concepts first when there are variations or adjustments in a procedure. psychomotor skills.STRATEGY TYPE OF LEARNING Explanation or Cognitive description (for example. Feedback is determined by teacher. Cognitive Psychomotor Cognitive Role playing Affective. Can assist in development of communication skills. Can be used with individuals.
Pediatrics Nursing. D. (1977). the Care of sick Family in the Care Discussion of Sick Child Lecture Discussion O. Define the Common Toddler.P & Transparences Quiz Assignment: Rewrite the Role of the Nurse in the Care of the Sick Child. Pediatric Nursing. London.B. the students will be able to: Explain the Role of the Family in The Role of the Lecture. Philadelphia. W.P & Transparences Quiz Reference: Marlow. Toddler. Terms: Pre-School Pediatrics Neonate.H. 101 .H. Pre-School Lecture Discussion O. Neonate. London 45 Minutes D-1 C-1 Describe the Role of the Nurse in The Role of the the Care of the Sick Child Nurse in the Care of the Sick Child Define the Common Terms: Pediatrics. Bibliography: Barlow.SCHOOL OF NURSING LESSON PLAN Subject: Pediatric Nursing Topic: Focus of Pediatric Nursing Level: 2nd Year Unit: 1 GOB: Understand the Focus of Pediatric Nursing Specific Objectives Contents Teaching/Learning Strategies Teaching/Learning Audiovisual Aids Date time Domain Evaluation D-1 C-2 At the end of this session.H. et all. Balliare Tindall. Saunders.P & Transparences Short Question Answer D-1 C-2 O. (1986).
Saunders. the Neonate. London 45 Minutes D-1 C-1 Describe the Role of the Nurse in The Role of the the Care of the Sick Child Nurse in the Care of the Sick Child Define the Common Terms: Pediatrics.P & Transparences Short Question Answer D-1 C-2 O.B.H. 102 . (1977). W. Toddler. the students will be able to: Explain the Role of the Family in The Role of the Lecture. Pediatrics Nursing. Define Toddler. London.P & Transparences Quiz Assignment: Rewrite the Role of the Nurse in the Care of the Sick Child.P & Transparences Quiz Reference: Marlow. Pre-School Lecture Discussion O.H. Bibliography: Barlow. Philadelphia. D.H. the Care of sick Family in the Care Discussion of Sick Child Lecture Discussion O. Common Terms: Pre-School Pediatrics Neonate. Pediatric Nursing.SCHOOL OF NURSING LESSON PLAN Subject: Pediatric Nursing Topic: Focus of Pediatric Nursing Level: 2nd Year Unit: 1 GOB: Understand the Focus of Pediatric Nursing Contents Teaching/Learning Strategies Teaching/Learning Audiovisual Aids Date time Domain Specific Objectives Evaluation D-1 C-2 At the end of this session. Balliare Tindall. et all. (1986).
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