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YEMEN

HISTORY:
The history of Yemen dates back to the Minaean (1200650 B.C.) and Sabaean (750115 B.C.) kingdoms. Ancient Yemen (centred around the port of Aden) engaged in the lucrative myrrh and frankincense trade. It was invaded by the Romans (1st century A.D.) as well as the Ethiopians and Persians (6th century A.D.). In A.D. 628 it converted to Islam and in the 10th century came under the control of the Rassite dynasty of the Zaidi sect, which remained involved in North Yemeni politics until 1962. The Ottoman Turks nominally occupied the area from 1538 to the decline of their empire in 1918. North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement and brief civil war in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border. Fighting in the northwest between the government and Huthi rebels, a group seeking a return to traditional Zaydi Islam, began in 2004 and has since resulted in six rounds of fighting - the last ended in early 2010 with a ceasefire that continues to hold.

The southern secessionist movement was revitalized in 2008 when a popular socioeconomic protest movement initiated the prior year took on political goals including secession. Public rallies in Sana'a against President SALIH - inspired by similar demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt - slowly built momentum starting in late January 2011 fueled by complaints over high unemployment, poor economic conditions, and corruption. By the following month, some protests had resulted in violence, and the demonstrations had spread to other major cities. By March the opposition had hardened its demands and was unifying behind calls for SALIH's immediate ouster. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in late April 2011, in an attempt to mediate the crisis in Yemen, proposed an agreement in which the president would step down in exchange for immunity from prosecution. SALIH's refusal to sign an agreement led to heavy street fighting and his injury in an explosion in June 2011. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 2014 in October 2011 calling on both sides to end the violence and complete a power transfer deal. In late November 2011, President SALIH signed the GCC-brokered agreement to step down and to transfer some of his powers to Vice President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI. Following elections in February 2012, won by HADI, SALIH formally transferred his powers.

CAPITAL:
The political capital of Yemen is Sanaa, whereas economic & political capital is Aden.

POPULATION:
The total population of Yemen is 2,54,08,288 (July 2013). The average increase in population is 2.5%. The density of population in Yemen is 47 Inhabitants/sq.km. The urban population in Yemen is 32.3%.

LITERACY RATE:
The literacy rate in Yemen is 65.3%

CURRENCY:

The national currency of Yemen is Yemini Rial (YER). RELIGION : Religion in Yemen consists primarily of two principal Islamic religious groups; 55% of the Muslim population is Sunni and 45% is Shiite according to the UNHCR LANGUAGE: The official language is Modern Standard Arabic. CULTURE: Yemen is a culturally rich country with influence from many civilizations, such as the early civilization of Sheba. SPORT: Football is the most popular sport in Yemen. EDUCATION: The adult literacy rate in 2010 was 63.9%. The government has committed to reduce illiteracy to less than 10% by 2025. Although Yemens government provides for universal, compulsory, free education for children ages six through 15, the U.S. Department of State reports that compulsory attendance is not enforced. HEALTH : according to 2009 estimates, life expectancy in Yemen is 63.27 years

COUNTRY OVERVIEW:
The area of Yemen is 527,970 km. The type of Government is Republic. The country is a low income economy and is based on petroleum and gas sectors. The rank of Yemen in Human Development Index is 144/187.

HISTORY:
India

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian

subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century. By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Largescale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

INTRODUCTION OF PHARMA INDUSTRY:


The pharmaceutical industry develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceuticals licensed for use as medications.[1] Pharmaceutical companies are allowed to deal in generic and/or brand medications and medical devices. They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations regarding the patenting, testing and ensuring safety and efficacy and marketing of drugs. The word pharmaceutical comes from the Greek word pharmakeia. The modern transliteration of pharmakeia is pharmacia. The Pharmaceutical industry in India is the world's third-largest in terms of volume.[1] According to Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, the total turnover of India's pharmaceuticals industry between 2008 and September 2009 was US$21.04 billion.[2] While the domestic market was worth US$12.26 billion.[citation needed] According to Brand India Equity Foundation, the Indian pharmaceutical market is likely to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14-17 per cent in between 2012-16.[citation needed]India is now among the top five pharmaceutical emerging markets of the world.[citation needed] Exports of pharmaceuticals products from India increased from US$6.23 billion in 200607 to US$8.7 billion in 200809 a combined annual growth rate of 21.25%.[2] According

toPricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC) in 2010, India joined among the league of top 10 global pharmaceuticals markets in terms of sales by 2020 with value reaching US$50 billion.[3] The government started to encourage the growth of drug manufacturing by Indian companies in the early 1960s, and with the Patents Act in 1970.[4] However, economic liberalisation in 90s by the former Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and the then Finance Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh enabled the industry to become what it is today. This patent act removed composition patents from food and drugs, and though it kept process patents, these were shortened to a period of five to seven years. The lack of patent protection made the Indian market undesirable to the multinational companies that had dominated the market, and while they streamed out. Indian companies carved a niche in both the Indian and world markets with their expertise in reverse-engineering new processes for manufacturing drugs at low costs. Although some of the larger companies have taken baby steps towards drug innovation, the industry as a whole has been following this business model until the present.[5] India's biopharmaceutical industry clocked a 17 percent growth with revenues of Rs. 137 billion ($3 billion) in the 200910 financial year over the previous fiscal. Bio-pharma was the biggest contributor generating 60 percent of the industry's growth at Rs. 88.29 billion, followed by bioservices at Rs. 26.39 billion and bio-agri at Rs. 19.36 billion.[6] In 2013, there were 4,655 pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in all of India, employing over 345 thousand workers

STEEPLED ANALYSIS
STEEPLED analysis is a means of conducting a scan of an organisations/ Industrys/ sectors external environment, with particular reference to the future and any changes that may come about. The purpose of STEEPLED is to identify factors that may impact on the services, customers, products, markets, staff, profitability, etc. of the organisation/ sector/ industry. STEEPLED analysis should not be an activity reserved only for an annual bases but it is a continuous activity. STEEPLED analysis i.e.

S=Social T=Technological E= Economic E= Environmental P=Political L=Legal E=Ethical D=Demographic

SOCIAL YEMEN Income Distribution:


In Yemen, the income inequality gap is huge, The richest 20% of Yemeni citizens have income of 41.2%. Whereas the poorest 20% of Yemeni people have income of 7.4%. The richest 10% of Yemeni people have total share of income of 25.9%. Whereas the poorest 10% of Yemeni people have only 3% of the total income of the country. Population of having income of $1/day is 15.7%. $57.76 billion (2012) $58.91 billion (2011) $65.8 billion (2010) note: data are in 2012 US dollars $36.37 billion (2012) -1.9% (2012) -10.5% (2011)

GDP (purchasing power parity)

GDP (official exchange rate) GDP - real growth rate

GDP - per capita (PPP)

GDP - composition by sector Population below poverty line Labor force Labor force - by occupation Unemployment rate Household income or consumption by percentage share Distribution of family income - Gini index Investment (gross fixed) Budget Taxes and other revenues Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) Public debt

7.7% (2010) $2,200 (2012) $2,300 (2011) $2,700 (2010) note: data are in 2012 US dollars Agriculture: 7.9% industry: 40.6% services: 51.5% (2012) 45.2% (2003) 7.158 million (2012) note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force 35% (2003) lowest 10%: 2.9% highest 10%: 30.8% (2005) 37.7 (2005) 33.4 (1998) 17.8% of GDP (2012) Revenues: $7.63 billion expenditures: $12.01 billion (2012) 21% of GDP (2012) -12% of GDP (2012)

42.5% of GDP (2012) 36.9% of GDP (2011) Inflation rate (consumer 11.4% (2012) prices) 19.5% (2011) Central bank discount NA% rate Commercial bank prime 25% (31 December 2012) lending rate 25% (31 December 2011) Stock of money $3.489 billion (31 October 2009) $3.399 billion (31 December 2008) Stock of narrow money $4.868 billion (31 December 2012) $4.645 billion (31 December 2011) Stock of quasi money $6.077 billion (31 October 2009) $5.985 billion (31 December 2008) Stock of broad money $10.59 billion (31 December 2012) $10.17 billion (31 December 2011) Stock of domestic credit $8.817 billion (31 December 2012) $7.662 billion (31 December 2011) Market value of publicly $NA

traded shares Agriculture - products Industries

Industrial production growth rate Current Account Balance Exports Exports - commodities Exports - partners Imports Imports - commodities Imports - partners Reserves of foreign exchange and gold Debt - external Stock of direct foreign investment - at home Exchange rates

grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production 9% (2010) -$2.19 billion (2012) -$1.663 billion (2011) $7.958 billion (2012) $8.662 billion (2011) crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas China 29.5%, Thailand 13.4%, South Korea 10.6%, India 7.5%, Japan 6%, US 5.8%, UAE 4.7% (2011) $8.893 billion (2012) $8.248 billion (2011) food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals UAE 18.8%, China 11.8%, Saudi Arabia 8.9%, Kuwait 6.6%, India 6.5%, France 4.7%, US 4.2% (2011) $4.7 billion (31 December 2012) $4.531 billion (31 December 2011) $6.726 billion (31 December 2012) $6.314 billion (31 December 2011) $NA Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar 215.6 (2012) 213.8 (2011) 219.59 (2010) 202.85 (2009) 199.76 (2008

Family:
Yemeni household consist of parents, their children and sometimes grandparents. Adult children do not leave the house even when they are in college. In most Yemeni families mothers do not work, however it is acceptable for a mother to be a professional and also be responsible for the family. In some families both mothers and fathers have equal authority in the household, but in some families most authority is with the father.

Teen Life

In Yemen family members are expected to have time to pursue to their own interests. Family members respect each others needs for private time.

Responsibilities
In Yemen, household responsibilities are different for boys and for girls. Girls are expected to help their mothers with the laundry and other household responsibilities while boys are expected to run errands and clean their rooms. In Yemen, meals are often eaten all together as a family.

Parental Involvement
Yemeni parents usually monitor and limit what their children do online and even what their children do outside the house. Boys in general are more independent than females but Yemeni teenagers are mostly dependent upon their parents.

Culture:
Yemen is a culturally rich country with influence from many civilizations. Yemen shares in many of the customs and life way that are found in other parts of the Arab world. Culture is intensely patriarchal, and households usually consist of an extended family living in a single domicile or family compound. The head of the family is the eldest male, who makes all significant decisions for the family and its members. Women play a secondary role in running the household and raising the children and, in rural areas, helping to work the family farm. Though nearly one-fourth of Yemeni women obtain work outside the home, a woman traditionally earns most of her social status through bearing children, particularly males. The birth of a male child is considered one of the most important social events in Yemeni society.

Health and Life expectancy:

Despite the significant progress Yemen has made to expand and improve its health care system over the past decade, the system remains severely underdeveloped. Total expenditures on health care in 2004 constituted 5% of gross domestic product, which increased to 5.2% in the year 2010. In the year 2004, the per capita expenditure for health care was very low compared with other Middle Eastern countriesUS$34 per capita according to the World Health Organization. According to the World Bank, the number of ,doctors in Yemen rose by an average of more than 7% between 1995 and 2000, but as of 2009 there were still only three doctors per 10,000 persons. In 2005 Yemen had only 6.1 hospital beds available per 10,000 persons, which rose to 7 hospital beds available per 10,000 persons in 2010.

Health care services are particularly scarce in rural areas; only 25% of rural areas are covered by health services, compared with 80% of urban areas. Most childhood deaths are caused by illnesses for which vaccines exist or that are otherwise preventable.

Currently, Yemen is ranked 127th in the world when it comes to mortality rate with 7.24 deaths per 1,000 population. Life expectancy of Yemeni nationals averages about 63.3 years of age. A high mortality rate and low life expectancy figures could only mean that people are not living that well in Yemen.

Education Level:
Basically, the school system of Yemen consists of Basic Education, Secondary Education and

- College.
Education in Yemen has always been a top priority by the government.

Living Condition:
Many people in Yemen are still struggling to earn a living and support their families. Their working conditions have been particularly difficult owing to the deterioration in security throughout the country. Between April and July, 2013 over 55,000 people in Abyan, Khanfar district, were given seed and fertilizer to restart farming activities so that they could feed their families. Nearly 4,000 others in Abyan governorate took part in a cash-for-work scheme for over two months. Besides access to clean water remains difficult in much of Yemen.

Religious attitude:
Attending religious services is considered very important and essential in Yemeni culture.

INDIA
CULTURE
The culture of India refers to the way of life of the people of India.

India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. The Indian culture often labeled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by a history that is

several millennia old.[1][2] Many elements of India's diverse cultures, such as Indian religions, yoga, and Indian cuisine, have had a profound impact across the world.

FAMILY
For generations, India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. It is a system under which extended members of a family parents, children, the childrens spouses and their offspring, etc. live together. Usually, the oldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. He makes all important decisions and rules, and other family members abide by them.

Education stats: India vs Yemen

Education enrolment by level > Primary level

Indian Education stats 125,568,597 Ranked 1st in 2002. 42 times more than Yemen 9,404,460 Ranked 2nd in 1999. 53 times more than Yemen 4.4%

Yemeni Education stats 2,950,403 Ranked 41st in 2002. 173,130 Ranked 51st in 1999. 10.6%

Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level

Education expenditure of government > As percentage of GNI

Ranked 60th in 2000. Education expenditure of government > As percentage of total government 12.7%

Ranked 2nd in 2000. 141% more than India 32.8%

Ranked 59th in 2000.

Ranked 1st in 2000.

Education, primary completion rate

Education spending (% of GDP)

89 Ranked 91st in 2004. 44% more than Yemen 4.1% Ranked 82nd. 12.7% Ranked 68th.

158% more than India 62 Ranked 123rd in 2004. 9.5% Ranked 5th. 132% more than India 32.8% Ranked 1st. 158% more than India 57.537 Ranked 182nd. 49.7% Ranked 16th in 2003. 23% more than India 69.8% Ranked 8th in 2003. 35% more than India 32.68 % Ranked 113rd in 1990. 25.05 % Ranked 120th in 1990. 49.97 % Ranked 110th in 1990. 65% Ranked 12th. 67% more than India 9.9 % Ranked 4th in 2000. 125% more than India 32.78 % Ranked 1st in 2000. 158% more than India 26.13 Ranked 59th in 2004. 10

Education spending (% of total government expenditure)

Geographical aptitude results

Illiteracy rates by sex, aged 15+

77.883 Ranked 17th. 35% more than Yemen 40.5% Ranked 26th in 2003. 51.7% Ranked 25th in 2003.

Illiteracy rates by sex, aged 15+ > Women

Literacy rate, adult total > % of people ages 15 and above

49.32 % Ranked 95th in 1990. 51% more than Yemen 54.22 % Ranked 97th in 1990. 116% more than Yemen 64.25 % Ranked 98th in 1990. 29% more than Yemen 39% Ranked 31st. 4.4 % Ranked 57th in 2000.

Literacy rate, youth female > % of females ages 15-24

Literacy rate, youth total > % of people ages 15-24

Primary school girls out of school

Public spending on education, total > % of GDP

Public spending on education, total > % of government expenditure

12.71 % Ranked 57th in 2000.

Pupil-teacher ratio, primary

Scientific and technical journal articles

40.2 Ranked 27th in 2004. 54% more than Yemen 10,589

Secondary education, teachers (per capita)

Ranked 13th in 1999. 1058 times more than Yemen 2.4 per 1,000 people Ranked 104th in 2004.

Ranked 131st in 1999. 2.8 per 1,000 people Ranked 100th in 2004. 17% more than India 0.25 Ranked 138th in 1984.

Women to men parity index, as ratio of literacy rates, aged 15-24

0.68 Ranked 109th in 1984. 172% more than Yemen

TECHNOLOGICAL
Science and technology (S&T) has a very unique side to it it is intrinsically linked to most, if not all, sectors of an economy. So naturally, economic development should be the result of advancing S&T. The world has changed far more in the past 100 years than in any century in history. The reason is not political or economic but technological technologies that flowed directly from advances in basic science Recent analysis shows that economic growth over the period 1950 to 2010 is indebted to the innovations, incentives, and productivity gains arising from technological advancements. It is estimated that about 35 percent of the worlds GDP growth from 2000 to 2008 can be explained by productiv ity derived from technological capability and its enhancement through information technology, human capital development, and so on.

Productivity in Yemens agriculture sector which contributes about 40 percent of our GDP, and employs more than half our workforce remains low. Global experience shows that with the right investment in S&T for agricultural processes, output can rise quickly. Yemen is making some contributions to the development of S&T, but they are underperforming, relative to their abundant human capital. Even though our scientists doubled their productivity in the period 2005 to 2009 relative to output between 1990 and 1994, other African countries like Algeria and Uganda saw their productivity increase by a factor of 6.3 and 5.4, respectively. There are a number of reasons for the poor state of our S&T sector. Firstly, they need a better and more coherent national strategy, as the sector remains highly fragmented, lacking effective coordination. Secondly, our scientists complain about lack of funding. The numbers of internet users are only 9.48% of the total number of people are living in Yemen. The Yemen country is 17.93% below the global average, because of the only 9.48% are internet users. It means that there are only 23, 49,000 approximately Yemenis are users of internet from whole Yemen country. There are only 12, 70,383 secure internet services are in Yemen. There are only 186 secure internet services per 1 million people of the Yemen.

In Yemen, for instance, our telecommunications sector has been growing at over 30 percent annually (32.83 percent in Q1 2012) outperforming growth in any other sector by far, on the back of rising mobile phone and internet subscriptions.

INDIA

1) Government spending on technology


Indian pharmaceutical industry is third largest in the world and is one of the most developed industries. Technologically strong and totally self-reliant, the pharmaceutical industry in India has low costs of production, low R&D costs, innovative scientific manpower, strength of national laboratories and an increasing balance of trade. Indian pharmaceutical industry today is ranked world class, in terms of technology, quality and range of medicines manufactured. From simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds, almost every type of medicine is now made indigenously. The industry today can boast of producing the entire range of pharmaceutical formulations, i.e., medicines ready for consumption by patients and about 350 bulk drugs, i.e., chemicals having therapeutic value and used for production of pharmaceutical formulations. The pharmaceutical industry in India is stated to be valued at approximately US$ 12.26 billion as per industry estimates. This industry is growing @ 10-11% per annum on

compounded growth rate basis. Although total turnover of pharmaceutical industry is estimated at 21.04 billion, about 65% of this revenue is from exports. It spends around 18 % of this revenue on research and development (R&D) activities. Additionally, Indias clinical research industry is estimated to be a US$ 2.2 billion with a high growth rate of 23%. Moreover, Indian pharmaceutical off-shoring industry is slated to become a US$ 2.5 billion opportunity by 2012, due to low R&D costs and a high-talent pool. Through the introduction of a system of product patents since 2005, Indian industry has today become very a worldwide exporter of high quality generic drugs. India exports pharmaceuticals to many countries across the world, including the U.S., Germany, France, Russia and UK.

Investment Policy The Indian Government is very proactive for boosting growth and investment in Indian pharmaceutical sector. It allows 100 per cent FDI under the automatic route in the drugs and pharmaceuticals sector. The DIPP data suggests that the drugs and pharmaceuticals sector has attracted an impressive level of FDI worth US$ 1,882.76 million during April 2000 to March 2011. Industrial licenses are not required in India for most of the drugs and pharmaceutical products. Manufacturers are free to produce any drug duly approved by the Drug Control Authority. Indian Governments Initiatives

The Department of Pharmaceuticals has prepared a "Pharma Vision 2020" document for making India one of the leading destinations for end-to-end drug discovery and innovation. Through this, the government provides support by way of world class infrastructure, internationally competitive scientific manpower for pharma R&D and venture fund for research in the public and private domain.

The Government is also embarking on a major multi-billion dollar initiative with 50 per cent public funding through a public-private partnership (PPP) model to harness Indias innovation capability. The vision is to catapult India into one of the top five pharmaceutical

innovation hubs by 2020, targeting to achieve a global niche with one out of every five to ten drugs discovered worldwide by 2020 originating from India.

The Government has also been taking various policy initiatives for the pharmaceutical sector. These include tax-breaks to the pharmaceutical sector and weighted tax deduction at 150% for the R&D expenditure incurred. Steps have also been taken to streamline procedures covering development of new drug molecules, clinical research etc. Indian Government has launched two schemesNew Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative and the Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Research Programmedspecially targeted at drugs and pharmaceutical research.

The Central Drug Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), which falls under the purview of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, is the primary pharma regulatory body in India. The Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) presides over the CDSCO at both the central and state levels.

The Government also plans to set up a Pharmacopeia Commission to support Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) through guidelines laid down in the review of the Eleventh Plan. Market Highlights Some of the major Indian private companies are Alembic Chemicals, Aurobindo Pharma, Ambalal Sharabhai Limited, Cadila Healthcare, Cipla, Dr. Reddys, IPCA Laboratories, Kopran, Lupin Labs, Lyka Labs, Nicholas Piramal, Matrix Laboratories, Orchid Chemical and Pharmaceuticals, Sun Pharmaceuticals, Ranbaxy Laboratories, Torrent Pharma, TTK Healthcare, Unichem Labs, and Wockhardt. The foreign companies in India include Abott India, Astra Zeneca India, Aventis Pharma India, Burrough-Wellcome, Glaxo SmithKline, Merck India, Novartis, Pfizer Limited, and Wyeth Ledele India.

2) New innovation and development (computerization): The Indian pharmaceutical industry represents a successful high technology based industry, which has witnessed consistent growth over the last three decades. It is the 14th largest in the world accounting for a market of US$ 2.5 billion (Ramani, 2002) and 4th largest market by volume. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has developed enough capabilities to make the country self sufficient in health care needs and its export ability

makes it a strategic trade sector in the Indian economy. The Indian pharmaceutical industry exports generic drugs to CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries, Africa, and recently to the highly regulated US and European markets. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is characterized by a low degree of concentration; a large number of firms with similar market shares, a low level of R&D 5 intensity ratios with a high level of brand proliferation. The need and incentive for innovation was undermined by low purchasing capability of the domestic market along with the ease of imitation and horizontal product differentiation; features that are representative of an industry behind the technological frontier (DEste; 2001). 3) Rates of technology transfer: Technology Transfer in Pharmaceutical Industry has been viewed from the perspective of Innovation and Research & Development. Since research is carried out in Laboratories on small scale before it could be produced on commercial scale. Thus, Technology Transfer is important for such research to materialize on a larger scale for commercialization especially in case of developing and under developing countries. Technology Transfer is defined as the process of taking an invention from its inception in a laboratory to product development phase and then to a commercial scale. Technology Transfer is an integral part of New Drug Discovery and development of new medicinal products. Thus if Technology Transfer process to production site is carried out at an affordable cost, the cost of product development would not raise during pilot scale up. For successful Technology Transfer of a product, the Departments responsible in a pharmaceutical industry are:- Research & Development; Production; Engineering; Quality Control and Quality Assurance. Technology Transfer may be said to be successful if the receiving unit and the transferee can effectively utilize the technology for business gain. 1) Changes in IT, Mobile technology and internet:

Growing at a rate of 8-9 per cent per year, the pharmaceutical industry in India is pegged to reach $48 billion by the year 2007 according to a CII study. This growth has led the players in the Indian pharmaceutical industry to explore newer avenues of drug research, discovery and development, promising higher capital investments in the near future. Also, many multinational companies have entered India to market drugs and conduct clinical trials and

research. Thus, Indian pharmaceutical research, manufacturing, and outsourcing have received an impetus, creating the image of a land of opportunities in the pharmaceuticals space. Harnessing Technology Some specific challenges that plague the Indian pharma industry:

The "silo effect" in large pharmaceutical companies that prevent clinicians from sharing pertinent data

A lack of standardized data definitions, necessitating duplicate testing and trials Weak process and systems integration that slows time to market

System thinking based communication platforms could help pharma companies overcome these obstacles by developing an electronic clinical development system based on Internet platform initiatives. 2) Industrial processes and industry focus on technology: Drugs and pharmaceutical industry plays a vital role in the economic development of a nation. It is one of the largest and most advanced sectors in the world, acting as a source for various drugs, medicines and their intermediates as well as other pharmaceutical formulations. Being the intense knowledge-driven industry, it offers innumerable business opportunities for the investors/ corporate the world over. The existence of well-defined and strong pharmaceutical industry is important for promoting and sustaining research and developmental (R&D) efforts and initiatives in an economy as well as making available the quality medicines to all at affordable prices. That is, it is essential to improve the health status of the individuals as well as the society as a whole, so that positive contributions could be made to the economic growth and regional development of a country. The Indian drugs and pharmaceutical industry, over the years, has shown tremendous progress in terms of infrastructure development, technology base creation as well as product usage. On the global platform, India holds fourth position in terms of volume and thirteenth position in terms of value of production in pharmaceuticals. The pharmaceutical industry has been producing bulk drugs belonging to all major therapeutic groups requiring

complicated manufacturing processes as well as a wide range of pharma machinery and equipments. It has also developed excellent 'good manufacturing practices' (GMP) compliant facilities for the production of different dosage forms. Besides, the amendment to the Patents Act, 1970 [enactment of Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005], has opened up new avenues for the sector. The new patent regime has ushered in the era of product patents for the pharmaceutical sector, in line with the obligations under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. As a result, the Indian pharmaceutical industry has become self-reliant in several areas and has developed a more sound and technologically advanced R&D segment. The industry offers several opportunities for investments and trade owing to the following advantageous features:

Self-reliance displayed by the production of 70 per cent of bulk drugs and almost the entire requirement of formulations within the country;

Low cost of production of quality bulk drugs and formulations Low R&D costs Strong scientific, innovative and technical manpower Excellent and world-class national laboratories specializing in process development and development of cost effective technologies

Increasing balance of trade in pharma sector Efficient and cost effective source for procuring generic drugs, especially the drugs going off patent in the next few years

Excellent centre for clinical trials in view of the diversity in population Fast growing biotech industry which has great potential in the international market Apart from its strengths in manufacturing and exporting allopathic medicines, the systems of medicines like Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy and Homeopathy are also prevalent in the country.

Internet stats: India vs Yemen

Indian Internet stats


Country code Hosts Hosts (per capita) International Internet bandwidth > Mbps International Internet bandwidth > Mbps (per capita) International Internet bandwidth > Mbps (per $ GDP) Internet Service Providers ISP ISP (per capita) Livejournal users Price basket for Internet > US$ per month Secure Internet servers Secure Internet servers (per capita) TLD Users Users (per capita) .in 2,707,000
Ranked 24th in 2008. 16209 times more than Yemen

Yemeni Internet stats


.ye 167
Ranked 179th in 2008.

2.4 per 1,000 people


Ranked 130th in 2008. 336 times more than Yemen

0.01 per 1,000 people


Ranked 206th in 2008.

1,475 Mbps
Ranked 34th in 2001. 245 times more than Yemen

6 Mbps
Ranked 101st in 2001.

1.4 Mbps per 1 million peop


Ranked 97th in 2001. 3 times more than Yemen

0.3 Mbps per 1 million peop


Ranked 117th in 2001.

3.1 Mbps per $1 trillion of


Ranked 107th in 2001. 4 times more than Yemen

0.6 Mbps per $1 trillion of


Ranked 153rd in 2001.

43
Ranked 27th. 42 times more than Yemen

1
Ranked 197th.

43
Ranked 16th in 2000. 42 times more than Yemen

1
Ranked 154th in 2000.

0.04 per 1 million people


Ranked 125th in 2000.

0.1 per 1 million people


Ranked 123rd in 2000. 33% more than India

1,602
Ranked 24th. 6 times more than Yemen

226
Ranked 77th.

6.78 $/month
Ranked 170th in 2005.

10.93 $/month
Ranked 146th in 2005. 61% more than India

825
Ranked 29th in 2006. 824 times more than Yemen

1
Ranked 179th in 2006.

0.6 per 1 million people


Ranked 127th in 2005. 5 times more than Yemen

0.1 per 1 million people


Ranked 161st in 2005.

.in 80,000,000
Ranked 3rd in 2007. 249 times more than Yemen

.ye 320,000
Ranked 103rd in 2007.

70.8 per 1,000 people


Ranked 116th in 2007. 4 times more than Yemen

14.4 per 1,000 people


Ranked 137th in 2007.

ECONOMIC
Yemen is a low income nation that is highly dependent on declining oil resources for revenue. Petroleum accounts for roughly 25% of GDP and 70% of government revenue. Yemen has tried to counter the effects of its declining oil resources by diversifying its economy through an economic reform program initiated in 2006 that is designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. In October 2009, Yemen exported its first liquefied natural gas as part of this diversification effort. In January 2010, the international community established the Friends of Yemen group that aims to support Yemen's efforts toward economic and political reform. The Arab revolution that began in early 2011 caused GDP to plunge more than 10% in 2011, and GDP in 2012 began a modest recovery but has not reached pre-2011 levels. Yemen continues to face difficult long term challenges, including declining water resources, high unemployment, and a high population growth rate.

ECONOMY OF YEMEN
Currency Yemeni Rail (YER)

Trade organizations

GAFTA

Statistics
GDP GDP growth GDP per capita GDP by sector Inflation (CPI) $54.85 billion (2012 est.) -1.9% (2012 est.) $2,200 (2012 est.) Agriculture: 7.9%, industry: 40.6%, services: 51.5% (2012 est.) 11.4% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line Gini coefficient

45.2% (2012)

37.7 (2005)

Labor force Labor force by occupation

7.158 million (2012 est.) most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than onefourth of the labor force

Unemployment Main industries

35% (2003 est.) crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair

Ease of Doing Business Rank

99th

External
Exports $7.958 billion f.o.b. (2012 est.)

Export goods

crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas China 37.3%,

Main export partners Thailand 15.8%, South Korea 11.4%, India 9.9%, United Arab Emirates 5.3% (2012 est.)

Imports Import goods

$8.893 billion f.o.b. (2012 est.) food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals China 15.7%,

Main import

partners

United Arab Emirates 14.4%, India 9.7%, Saudi Arabia 6.8%, Kuwait 5.1% (2012 est.)

Gross external debt

$6.472 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Public Finances
Public Debt Revenues Expenses 42.5% of GDP (2012 est.) $7.83 billion (2012 est.) $10.55 billion (2008 est.)

Employment Statistics:

Employment Statistics

Employment Rate Long-Term Unemployment Rate

65% 1.75%

Employees Working Very Long Hours Job Security

3.89% 14.5%

Female Employment Rate Female Long-Term Unemployment Rate

68% 0.99%

Female Employees Working Very Long 1.88% Hours Female Job Security 14.8%

Male Employment Rate Male Long-Term Unemployment Rate

71% 2.22%

Male Employees Working Very Long Hours Male Job Security

5.96% 14.3%

Monetary Policy The Central Bank of Yemen uses all the tools of monetary policy at its disposal in order to keep inflation under control, stabilize the exchange rate of the national currency and create an environment that is conducive to investment and high growth. The main monetary tools the Bank uses are the following: The interest rate, the discount rate, Bank reserve requirements, Open market operations, Intervention in the foreign exchange markets, Repo operations, Issue of certificates of deposits.

Real interest rate (%) The value for Real interest rate (%) in Yemen was 5.69 as of 2011. Over the past 15 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 29.26 in 2009 and a minimum value of -7.03 in 1999.

Deposit interest rate (%) The value for Deposit interest rate (%) in Yemen was 20.00 as of 2011. Over the past 15 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 23.75 in 1996 and a minimum value of 10.67 in 2009.

INDIA
Indias economic freedom score is 55.2, making its economy the 119th freest in the 2013 Index. Its score is 0.6 point higher than last year, with improvements in the management of public finance and monetary freedom offsetting a continuing decline in freedom from corruption. India is ranked 23rd out of 41 countries in the Asia Pacific region, and its overall score is below the world average. Indias institutional shortcomings continue to undermine the foundations for long-term economic development. In the absence of a well-functioning legal and regulatory framework, corruption throughout the economy is becoming a more serious drag on the emergence of a more dynamic private sector. The states presence in the economy remains extensive through state-owned enterprises and wasteful subsidy programs that result in chronically high budget deficits. Progress in structural reform has been uneven and often stalled. Plans to open up key service sectors have been reversed, and no significant reforms have been implemented

effectively in recent years. Efforts continue, however. Reform measures aiming at reducing government subsidies and encouraging foreign direct investment were announced in 2012. BACKGROUND Although more than 80 percent of Indias population is Hindu, its Muslim population is one of the worlds largest. In 2010, India resumed bilateral talks with Pakistan that had been suspended after attacks in Mumbai in 2008 by a Pakistan-based terrorist group. Improved relations between the U.S. and India are evidenced by a Strategic Dialogue aimed at fostering cooperation in defence, energy, trade, education, and counterterrorism. Prime Minister Manmohan Singhs government has been roiled by a series of corruption scandals, a faltering economy, and skyrocketing inflation. The ruling Congress Party fared poorly in state-level elections in March 2012 and is increasingly beholden to regional parties, whose populist agendas prevent the central government from enacting much-needed economic reforms. Though its size makes India a significant force in world trade, the economy continues to operate far below its potential.

Economy
Economy overview India India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and has served to accelerate the country's growth, which has averaged more than 7% per Yemen Yemen is a low income country that is highly dependent on declining oil resources for revenue. Petroleum accounts for roughly 25% of GDP and 70% of government revenue. Yemen has tried to counter the effects of its declining oil resources by diversifying its economy through an economic reform program initiated in 2006 that is designed to

year since 1997. India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly more than half of the work force is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly twothirds of India's output, with less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services and software workers. In 2010, the Indian economy rebounded robustly from the global financial crisis - in large part because of strong domestic demand - and growth exceeded 8% year-on-year in real terms. However, India's economic growth began slowing in 2011 because of a tight monetary policy, intended to address persistent inflation, and a decline in investment, caused by investor pessimism about domestic economic reforms and about the global situation. High

bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. In October 2009, Yemen exported its first liquefied natural gas as part of this diversification effort. In January 2010, the international community established the Friends of Yemen group that aims to support Yemen's efforts toward economic and political reform. The Arab revolution that began in early 2011 caused GDP to plunge more than 10% in 2011, and GDP in 2012 began a modest recovery but has not reached pre2011 levels. Yemen continues to face difficult long term challenges, including declining water resources, high unemployment, and a high population growth rate.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

GDP - real growth rate

international crude prices have exacerbated the government's fuel subsidy expenditures, contributing to a higher fiscal deficit and a worsening current account deficit. In late 2012, the Indian Government announced reforms and deficit reduction measures to reverse India's slowdown. The outlook India's mediumterm growth is positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. India has many long-term challenges that it has not yet fully addressed, including poverty, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-tourban migration. $4.735 trillion (2012) $4.492 trillion (2011) $4.205 trillion (2010) note: data are in 2012 US dollars 5.4% (2012) 6.8% (2011) 10.1% (2010)

$57.76 billion (2012) $58.91 billion (2011) $65.8 billion (2010) note: data are in 2012 US dollars -1.9% (2012) -10.5% (2011) 7.7% (2010)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

GDP composition by sector Population below poverty line Household income or consumption by percentage share Inflation rate (consumer prices) Labor force Labor force - by occupation

$3,900 (2012) $3,700 (2011) $3,500 (2010 ) note: data are in 2012 US dollars Agriculture: 17% industry: 18% services: 65% (2011) 29.8% (2010)

$2,200 (2012) $2,300 (2011) $2,700 (2010) note: data are in 2012 US dollars Agriculture: 7.9% industry: 40.6% services: 51.5% (2012) 45.2% (2003)

lowest 10%: 3.6% highest 10%: 31.1% (2005)

lowest 10%: 2.9% highest 10%: 30.8% (2005)

9.2% (2012) 8.9% (2011) 498.4 million (2012) Agriculture: 53% industry: 19% services: 28% (2011)

11.4% (2012) 19.5% (2011) 7.158 million (2012) note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force 35% (2003) 37.7 (2005) 33.4 (1998) Revenues: $7.63 billion expenditures: $12.01 billion (2012) crude oil production and petroleum refining; smallscale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum

Unemployment rate Distribution of family income Gini index Budget

9.9% (2012) 9.8% (2011) 36.8 (2004) 37.8 (1997) Revenues: $171.5 billion expenditures: $281 billion (2012) textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals

Industries

Industrial production growth rate Agriculture products

4.8% (2011)

products factory; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production 9% (2010)

Exports Exports commodities

Exports partners

rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish $309.1 billion (2012) $305 billion (2011) petroleum products, precious stones, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, vehicles, apparel UAE 12.7%, US 10.8%, China 6.2%, Singapore 5.3%, Hong Kong 4.1% (2011) $500.3 billion (2012) $490 billion (2011) crude oil, precious stones, machinery, fertilizer, iron and steel, chemicals China 11.9%, UAE 7.7%, Switzerland 6.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.1%, US 4.9% (2011) $299.2 billion (31 December 2012) $287.5 billion (31 December 2011) Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar 53.17 (2012) 46.671 (2011) 45.726 (2010) 48.405 (2009)

grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish $7.958 billion (2012) $8.662 billion (2011) crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas China 29.5%, Thailand 13.4%, South Korea 10.6%, India 7.5%, Japan 6%, US 5.8%, UAE 4.7% (2011) $8.893 billion (2012) $8.248 billion (2011) food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals UAE 18.8%, China 11.8%, Saudi Arabia 8.9%, Kuwait 6.6%, India 6.5%, France 4.7%, US 4.2% (2011) $6.726 billion (31 December 2012) $6.314 billion (31 December 2011) Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar 215.6 (2012) 213.8 (2011) 219.59 (2010) 202.85 (2009)

Imports Imports commodities Imports partners

Debt - external

Exchange rates

Fiscal year Investment (gross fixed) Public debt

43.319 (2008) 1 April - 31 March 30% of GDP (2012)

199.76 (2008) calendar year 17.8% of GDP (2012) 42.5% of GDP (2012) 36.9% of GDP (2011)

51.9% of GDP (2012) 50.5% of GDP (2011) note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by sub national entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions Reserves of $287.2 billion (31 December foreign exchange 2012) and gold $297.9 billion (31 December 2011) Current Account -$80.15 billion (2012) Balance -$46.91 billion (2011) GDP (official $1.947 trillion (2012) exchange rate) Stock of direct $256.6 billion (31 December foreign 2012) investment - at $232.7 billion (31 December home 2011) Market value of $1.015 trillion (31 December publicly traded 2011)

$4.7 billion (31 December 2012) $4.531 billion (31 December 2011) -$2.19 billion (2012) -$1.663 billion (2011) $36.37 billion (2012) $NA

$NA

shares

$1.616 trillion (31 December 2010) $1.179 trillion (31 December 2009) Central bank 5.5% (31 December 2010) NA% discount rate 6% (31 December 2009) note: the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate - was 8% during December 2012 Commercial bank 10.8% (31 December 2012) 25% (31 December 2012) prime lending 10.19% (31 December 2011) 25% (31 December 2011) rate Stock of money $278.8 billion (31 December $3.489 billion (31 October 2009) 2009) $239.8 billion (31 December $3.399 billion (31 December 2008) 2008) Stock of quasi $853.4 billion (31 December $6.077 billion (31 October money 2009) 2009) $687.7 billion (31 December $5.985 billion (31 December 2008) 2008) Stock of $1.402 trillion (31 December $8.817 billion (31 December domestic credit 2012) 2012) $1.249 trillion (31 December $7.662 billion (31 December 2011) 2011) Stock of narrow $342.3 billion (31 December $4.868 billion (31 December money 2012) 2012) $305.7 billion (31 December $4.645 billion (31 December 2011) 2011) Stock of broad $1.451 trillion (31 December $10.59 billion (31 December money 2012) 2012) $1.293 trillion (31 December $10.17 billion (31 December 2011) 2011) Taxes and other 8.8% of GDP (2012) 21% of GDP (2012) revenues Budget surplus -5.6% of GDP (2012) -12% of GDP (2012) (+) or deficit (-)

ENVIRONMENTAL
Natural Resources:
Yemen's principal natural resources are oil and natural gas as well as agriculturally productive land in the west. Other natural resources include fish and seafood, rock salt, marble, and minor deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper.

Environmental Issues:
Its major environmental issues include: limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; and, Desertification.

Environmental Regulation:
In Yemen, the main responsibility for wildlife conservation and environmental protection lies with the Environment Protection Council. Threat from natural causes:

Flooding has always been a phenomenon in Yemen, in recent years Yemens environmental events have been growing more severe as a component of the global climate change that has been taking place in recent decades. Climate change is the pattern of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods. Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these variables over shorter periods. Yemen is one of the Arab countries most affected by climate change, and she is relatedly facing enormous developmental challenges. Because most Yemenis depend on Yemens natural resources, climate change has a serious impact on their economic prospects, agriculture, household income and food security. Yemen is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Rainfall is erratic and variable, a situation made worse by high evapotranspiration rates. The World Bank study found that one of the most important factors behind Yemens climate problems is the lack of long-term, systematic records of rainfall and temperature, which severely hampers efforts to quantify long-term changes in climate, assess renewable natural resources such as water, prepare climate projections, and develop adequate policies and programs. In addition, institutional weaknesses undermine the states ability to adjust to demographic pressures, a problem made more difficult by the countrys poor economic outlook.

Hazardous waste generation At present, the total volume and composition of industrial hazardous waste in Yemen are unknown. Hazardous waste management Much of hazardous waste is mixed with ordinary waste and dumped in open garbage dumps or directly into bodies of water or onto uncultivated land, causing severe impacts on the environment and risks to human and animal health.

Sustainable energy in Yemen: Yemen is rich in renewable resources, such as wind, solar and geothermal. This means that large power generation projects can be developed in the country, as well as decentralized systems to meet the needs of energy in rural and remote communities. Yemen is one of the regions in the world that has high levels of solar radiation, with an average of 6.85.2 kW/m2 per day. According to a study completed in the 1980s, the Dhamar region alone could produce 125-250 MW of geothermal energy. The potential for wind is also very high. It is technically and economically feasible for Yemen to produce 34 GW of electricity. Wind is considered to be the second most developed and mature renewable energy resource after hydropower. Wind capacity has grown very quickly across the world. New capacity was added worldwide in 2006 bringing the total installed figure in that year to 74 GW. The growth rate in 2006 was 25 per cent, compared with 24 per cent in 2005, and investments amounted to $23 billon. Installed wind capacity as of 2008 was more than one per cent of the worlds electrical energy consumption. According to The World Wind Energy Association (WWEA) the installed capacity in 2010 was 160 GW. Wind capacity has only reached this level because of countries adopting policies and laws to promote renewable energy and creating financial incentives.

Business Environment

Management Style: Decisions are usually taken by certain superiors/managers and work their way down. Ideas are generated by senior staff and rarely come from the average employee. This also changes from organization to another. Private sector organizations involve employees in the decision making process more than any other organizations. However, in general decisions are made at the top of the hierarchy and work their way down. It is acceptable to go your immediate

supervisor for answers and feedback. Yemenis are generally conservative in feedback and may avoid constructive criticism through a face-to-face interaction.

Relationship Building: Developing a solid personal relationship with a colleague or client is key to any business relationship within Yemen. Having a good relationship with key individuals can make all the difference in making or breaking the deal. It is personal contacts that make things happen in Yemen. The best way to establish a strong relationship is to socialize with the client or colleague in casual times. It is also important to maintain frequent contact via phone as a sign of courtesy.

Staff Engagement: Special privileges or considerations would be expected from a Yemeni manager given a personal relationship or friendship. However, this is rarely the case with a foreign manager. It is common knowledge that foreigners are less likely to provide special privileges or considerations based on a personal relationship.

Conflicts in Workplace: The best way to deal with a work-related problem with a colleague is to confront him or her directly in private, as a public confrontation is considered insulting and offensive. The best way to know if a colleague is having problems with you or is offended by something youve done is to ask them when in doubt. They will appreciate the fact that you are taking their feelings into consideration.

Investors Value:

Yemen has a relatively small economy. Economic activity, management, investors, and infrastructure all tend to be simple and unsophisticated. Concepts such as governance, stakeholders, and transparency are not even part of public discourse. Yemen has no financial markets, a very limited financial services sector, and overall economic activity is dominated by a handful of sectors like oil, agriculture, trading, etc.

INDIA:

The environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative. PPCPs are substances used by individuals for personal health or cosmetic reasons and the products used by agribusiness to boost growth or health of livestock. PPCPs have been detected in water bodies throughout the world. The effects of these chemicals on humans and the environment are not yet known, but to date there is no scientific evidence that they have an impact on human [1] health.

There are many environmental issues in India. Air pollution, water pollution, garbage, and pollution of the natural environment are all challenges for India. The situation was worse between 1947 through 1995. According to data collection and environment assessment studies of World Bank experts, between 1995 through 2010, India has made one of the fastest progress in the world, in addressing its environmental issues and improving its environmental quality.[1][2] Still, India has a long way to go to reach environmental quality similar to those enjoyed in developed economies. Pollution remains a major challenge and opportunity for India

Geographic coordinates Map references Area

20 00 N, 77 00 E Asia total: 3,287,263 sq km land: 2,973,193 sq km water: 314,070 sq km

Area comparative

slightly more than one-

15 00 N, 48 00 E Middle East total: 527,968 sq km land: 527,968 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen) slightly larger than twice

Land boundaries

Coastline Maritime claims

Climate

third the size of the US total: 14,103 km border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km 7,000 km territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

the size of Wyoming total: 1,746 km border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km

Terrain

upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes

Natural resources

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore,

1,906 km territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula lowest point: Arabian Sea 0m highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west

Land use

Irrigated land Natural hazards

chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land arable land: 48.83% permanent crops: 2.8% other: 48.37% (2005) 622,860 sq km (2003) droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

Environment - current issues

Environment - international

deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources party to: Antarcticparty to: Biodiversity,

arable land: 2.91% permanent crops: 0.25% other: 96.84% (2005) 6,800 sq km (2003) sandstorms and dust storms in summer volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (elev. 244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

agreements

Geography note

Total renewable water resources Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)

Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI

Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal 1,907.8 cu km (1999) total: 645.84 cu km/yr (8%/5%/86%) per capita: 585 cu m/yr (2000) 1.3 % of GNI Ranked 23rd in 2005. 48% more than Yemen 0.74 % of GNI Ranked 45th in 2005.

Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

4.1 cu km (1997) total: 6.63 cu km/yr (4%/1%/95%) per capita: 316 cu m/yr (2000) 0.88 % of GNI Ranked 36th in 2005. 0.75 % of GNI Ranked 43rd in 2005. 1% more than India

Adjusted savings: particulate emission damage > % of GNI

Areas under protection CO2 Emissions

CO2 emissions > kt

CO2 emissions > kt (per capita)

Forest area > % of land area

Forest area > sq. km

Forest area > sq. km (per capita)

Freshwater withdrawal > Industrial

497 Ranked 21st. 1,007,980 Ranked 5th. 96 times more than Yemen 1,273,175 kt Ranked 4th in 2003. 74 times more than Yemen 1.2 kt per 1,000 people Ranked 120th in 2003. 38% more than Yemen 22.77 % of land area Ranked 115th in 2005. 21 times more than Yemen 677,010 km Ranked 10th in 2005. 122 times more than Yemen 0.6 km per 1,000 people Ranked 162nd in 2005. 136% more than Yemen 5% Ranked 68th in 2000. 4 times more than Yemen 458 Ranked 11th. 4 times more than Yemen 390 Ranked 8th. 5 times more than Yemen 293,938 Ranked 4th. 58 times more than Yemen 4.8 Ranked 82nd. 75 Ranked 3rd. 14 times more than Yemen

0 Ranked 146th. 10,367.7 Ranked 85th. 17,051.27 kt Ranked 83rd in 2003. 0.9 kt per 1,000 people Ranked 136th in 2003.

1.04 % of land area Ranked 184th in 2005. 5,490 km Ranked 131st in 2005. 0.3 km per 1,000 people Ranked 175th in 2005.

1% Ranked 113rd in 2000. 93 Ranked 139th. 66 Ranked 123rd. 4,983 Ranked 75th. 0 Ranked 149th. 5 Ranked 122nd.

Known breeding bird species

Known mammal species

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999

Protected area Threatened species > Mammal

Water pollution, chemical industry 9.37 % > % of total BOD emissions Ranked 27th in 2001. 23% more than Yemen Water pollution, metal industry > 13.96 % % of total BOD emissions Ranked 15th in 1994. 160% more than Yemen Water pollution, textile industry > 12.67 % % of total BOD emissions Ranked 23rd in 2001. 67% more than Yemen Water pollution, wood industry > 0.36 % % of total BOD emissions DEFINITION: Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard watertreatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. SOURCE: World Development Indicators database Ranked 64th in 2001.

7.64 % Ranked 40th in 2001. 5.37 % Ranked 52nd in 1994.

7.57 % Ranked 41st in 2001. 1.3 %

Ranked 49th in 2001. 3

times more than India

POLITICAL

TYPE OF GOVERNMENT: REPUBLIC PRESIDENT: AbdRabbuh Mansur Hadi Legislature Size: 412 members General People's Congress 20%

Controlling Political Parties

Percent of National Parliament Seats Held by Women

Yemens emerging democracy is a constitutional republic, where The people are the owner and the source of power. The people of Yemen participate in the governing system through referendums and elections, and indirectly through the legislature, the executive, and the judicial power, and through the elected local authorities councils. The political system in the Republic of Yemen rests on political pluralism and a multiparty system. Political participation and rotation in power are conducted through public elections. The President of the Republic is elected through direct competitive elections. It is stipulated that the President of the Republic should obtain the absolute majority of the electors votes. The seven-year term of a presidency begins with the Presidents constitutional oath taking. According to the bylaws, which were amended for the last time in 2001, a president might be re-elected only once.

Political stability in Yemen

There is political stability because the General peoples congress government is there since many years. The government is facing problems like Poverty, humanitarian, terrorist, etc. but on other side government has good relation with USA, Gulf countries, India, etc. and government is encouraging industries they privatize some industries to increase investment in the country.

Political Parties in Yemen


There are three major political parties, which constitute around of the Yemeni political scene: the General Peoples Congress (GPC), the Yemeni Congregation for Reform ( Islah), and the Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP).

General Peoples Congress (GPC)


The General Peoples Congress (GPC) was founded in the northern Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) on August 24, 1982.

The Yemeni Congregation for Reform (Islah)


In 1990, the unification agreement of the new Republic of Yemen (ROY) lifted the official legal ban on opposition parties.

Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP)


The YSP was established on October 11, 1978 in the former PDRY (South Yemen) as a union of a number of parties, organizations and national fronts operating in both the PDRY and the YAR (North Yemen).

Trade policy
The Republic of Yemen embarked on an ambitious structural reform program in the mid1990s, which included liberalizing the foreign exchange and trade regimes and

markedly improving macroeconomic management. Its tariff structure is based on four bands of 5, 10, 15, and 25 percent. No specific rates apply and all tariffs are specified in ad valorem terms so that the nominal rate is transparent and constant.

Privatization
The Government of Yemen is currently working with the private sector to develop a strategic plan to enhance the business environment. It aims to provide more incentives than those currently provided under Yemens investment law, accelerate Yemens acc ession to the WTO, execute free trade agreements with the European Union and the United States of America, and encourage privatization, particularly in the field of telecommunications. The latest version of the investment law (Law No. 15 of 2010) still allows foreign investors to hold 100% ownership in local companies, and guarantees intellectual property rights. Investment capital and profits can be transferred without limitations with respect to amount or currency.

Trade union activity


The Yemeni trade unions movement started in 1940, and the first trade union was established in 1956. In 1970 a law was promulgated for the Federations right to exist. While the Federation has headquarter established in Sanaa. The 9th General Trade Union Conference was held in March 2008, and considered the first Conference after unification of Yemen. The Recommendations of the Conference focused on the following issues:

- Strengthening trade union movement towards more independent and democratic representations. - Promoting protection of acquired rights, freedom of association, social dialogue, collective bargaining and negotiation skills. - Participating in socio-economic decisions related to social security, wages policy, and improving living conditions.

- Amending social security law and extension of social protection to include health insurance and expand coverage to informal economy workers. Expand participation and membership with special emphasis on the private sector and youth members Increase the membership base of women in trade unions (25%) and ensuring womens participation in leadership roles. Improving social dialogue, tripartism, and collective bargaining and negotiation skills.

Industrial relation
India-Yemen Relations
India had actively supported Yemens independence from the British with India being one of the first countries to recognize Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) in 1962 and Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY) in 1967. In 1994, YAR and PDRY merged to become Republic of Yemen. India relationship with Yemen began to deepen only during the 1980s. Yemen is also currently a member of IOR-ARC among others. A range of bilateral agreement exists encompassing cooperation / agreement in economic and technical cooperation, air services, agriculture and allied sector, cultural, bilateral investment promotion, health and medicine, oil and gas industry and Education Exchange.

India is the second largest destination for Yemens exports (after China), accounting for 23% of its total exports (2010). Likewise, India is the third biggest source for Yemeni imports (after UAE and China), accounting for around 9% of Yemens imports (2010). India exports tea, rice, wheat, cereals, spices, tobacco, meat and meat products, Pharma, hand tools, chemicals etc. to Yemen. On the other hand, India imports crude oil, metal scrap, hide skin and limestone from Yemen.

America-Yemen relations

Political and diplomatic relations between Yemen and the United States date back to 1946. These relations were reinforced in 1959 with the establishment of the first U.S. resident mission in the city of Taiz. In mid-nineties the Yemeni-American relations overcame the Gulf Crisis. Washington demonstrated favorable intentions concerning Yemen. The U.S. also acknowledged Yemen for its efforts regarding democratic orientation, freedom of the press, parliamentary elections of 1993-1997 as well as its manifest backing of Economic and Financial Reforms with the cooperation of the IMF and the World Bank. The United States has a strong and growing partnership with Yemen. The people of Yemen are looking to create a new political reality, with a government that is increasingly responsive, accountable, and capable of addressing urgent needs and building a solid foundation for the countrys long-term development, growth, security, and stability. The United States has committed $256 million in assistance to Yemen to date in Fiscal Year (FY) 2013.

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)


The bilateral relations of other GCC member-states with Yemen appear to be dwarfed by the relative importance of Saudi Arabia. This does not mean that they do not matter: on the contrary, the hesitancy of the smaller five member-states to welcome Yemen into the GCC is a critical block on progress towards eventual membership.

Kuwait harbors bitter memories of what it regards as Yemens betrayal of the country in the Security Council following the Iraqi invasion of 1990. More importantly, the Kuwaiti government remains skeptical that Yemens accession to the GCC will solve the more intrinsic problems of corruption and violence in Yemen.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) The UAE federal government has consistently pledged large sums of development assistance to Yemen, but has admitted to significant problems in disbursing such aid due to corruption and other absorption

capacity problems. UAE official overseas aid over US$772 million, to be spent across a range of sectors including education, water and electricity projects as well as funding government services, most of which are managed by the Abu Dhabi Fund for International Development.

Oman is an aid contributor to Yemen; it also competes with Yemen for a share of assistance from regional organizations. Despite seeking support for its own development, Oman is committed to a US$100 million contribution for projects in Yemen. Oman has signed over seventy-six agreements on bilateral cooperation with Yemen, and officials in Sanaa have expressed their appreciation of Omans efforts to keep Yemen on the GCC agenda.

Qatar has been the most proactive of the Gulf emirates in seeking to resolve Yemens internal problems. Nevertheless, Qatar, easily the wealthiest GCC country in terms of GDP per capita, has continued to be a generous humanitarian donor to Yemen.

Bahrain has indicated that it is willing to undertake technical assistance projects in Yemen, most probably through the Social Development Fund, as well as providing limited development assistance through multilateral donors. Bahrain is, however, emerging as an important investor in Yemens underdeveloped financial sector.

Duties and Taxes on Pharmaceuticals (Market)


Yemen imposes84 duties on imported active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and duties on imported finished products are also imposed. Value-added tax or other taxes are imposed on finished pharmaceutical products. Provisions for tax exceptions or waivers for pharmaceuticals and health products are in place8

Pharmaceutical procurement and distribution in the public sector


This section provides a short overview on the procurement and distribution of pharmaceuticals in the public sector of Yemen.

Public Sector Procurement


Public sector request for tender documents are publicly available and public sector tender awards are publicly available. Procurement is based on the prequalification of suppliers. Currently Forecasting is based on previous year consumption and not on morbidity burden and pattern. With sluggish, irregular and dried supply pipeline, the consumption based forecasting is misleading. There is lack of transparency in procurement. Storage conditions are not satisfactory and there is weak inventory control. Public sector procurement in Yemen is both centralized and decentralized. During the availability of National Drug Fund (1/1999) which had a headquarter office with main store in Sana'a, and four regional stores in Aden, Hodeida, Mukallah and Dharma. Governorates, districts and hospitals are supplied from these stores according to their request. And against payment of costs of the goods plus a service fee, the Drug Fund increased transparency of procurement procedures through Introduction on new buying procedures in 2000. The by-laws of the DF stress that it is financially and administrative independent, and that it is supervised by a Board of Directors, consisting of the Minister of Health (Chairman), and senior staff of various other Ministries, the Social Security Fund, representatives of donor countries and organizations, as well as the Executive Director of the Drug Fund.

Public Sector Distribution


The government supply system department in Yemen has 92 a Central Medical Store at National Level also known as Sanaa central medical store.93 There are another 4 94 public warehouses in the secondary tier of the public sector distribution. There are 95 national guidelines on Good Distribution Practices (GDP). A licensing authority that issues GDP licenses does not exist.

Private Sector Distribution


Legal provisions exist for licensing wholesalers and distributors in the private sector.97 A list of GDP certified wholesalers and distributors does not exist in the private sector Brief conclusion: essential medicines and health technologies Inadequate financing: The most important challenge is not having enough financing available from the Government for meeting the essential medicine needs of the population. Inconsistent national medicines policy: The policy has become outdated and is inconsistent with the actual policy and practice. This results in confusion and allow for varied practices in different governorates and levels of health care. Overlapping institutions: There are a number of government institutions involved in managing medicine related affairs without a central level coordination and sometimes their responsibilities are not clear and are overlapping.

Weak governance and management in medicine supply: There are problems in every area of governance and management of medicine supply cycle: selection of essential medicines; forecasting of needs; procurement; storage; transportation; and use of medicines. Weak regulation of quality and safety of medicines: Major regulatory challenges include: improvement in the performance of Supreme Board for Drugs and Medical Appliances; improvement in registration system; GMP inspections of the companies; lack of availability of pharmacists in private pharmacies; availability of unregistered medicines; availability of all kinds of medicines over the counter; etc. Availability of counterfeit medicines: Counterfeit medicines represent a major public health risk and may account for a considerable percentage of the medicines currently on sale in the market. Anecdotal accounts of their availability are abounding. Irregular supply of medical devices and equipment: Inappropriate medical devices and equipments are supplied at inappropriate level of health facilities without proper maintenance and availability of trained operators. Although of a lot of time has passed since these conclusion, the situation is still as it is.

International organization membership


Yemen is a member of the United Nations (UN) and the following UN affiliates and specialized agencies:

Food and Agriculture Organization International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labor Organization International Maritime Organization International Telecommunication Union UN Conference on Trade and Development UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UN High Commissioner for Refugees UN Industrial Development Organization Universal Postal Union World Health Organization

Yemen is also a member of the following organizations:


Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development Arab Monetary Fund

Council of Arab Economic Unity Group of 77 International Atomic Energy Agency International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Civil Aviation Organization International Confederation of Free Trade Unions International Criminal Court (signatory) International Criminal Police Organization International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies International Finance Corporation International Monetary Fund Islamic Development Bank League of Arab States Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Organization of Islamic Cooperation World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization

Yemen was granted observer status at the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1999 and in 2002 and 2003 submitted necessary documentation for full membership. The WTO working party on Yemen met in 2004 and twice thereafter to discuss Yemen's accession; negotiations are expected to take several years.

INDIA
India is the world's most populous democracy. A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system, it has six recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre-left or "liberal" in Indian political culture, and the BJP centre-right or "conservative". For most of the period between 1950when India first became a republic and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalitions at the centre.

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over three years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived: it lasted just under two years. Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. But the Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao. A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several shortlived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first nonCongress, coalition government to complete a five-year term. In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties. That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.

COMPARISION OF INDIA & YEMEN


Country name conventional long form: Republic of India conventional short form: India local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya conventional long form: Republic of Yemen conventional short form: Yemen local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah local short form: Al Yaman former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen

local short form: India/Bharat Governmen federal republic t type Capital name: New Delhi geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) Administrat 28 states and 7 union ive territories*; Andaman divisions and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal note: although its

(Aden) or South Yemen] Republic name: Sanaa geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

20 governorates (muhafazat, singular muhafazah) and 1 municipality*; Abyan, 'Adan (Aden), Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amanat al 'Asimah (Sanaa City)*, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Raymah, Sa'dah, San'a' (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta'izz

Independe nce

status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi 15 August 1947 (from the UK)

National holiday Constitutio n Legal system

Suffrage Executive branch

Republic Day, 26 January (1950) 26 January 1950; amended many times common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts 18 years of age; universal chief of state: President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)

22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxistdominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK) Unification Day, 22 May (1990) 16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001 mixed legal system of Islamic law, Napoleonic law, English common law, and customary law

18 years of age; universal chief of state: President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (Field Marshal) (since 25 February 2012) head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Salim BA SINDWAH (since 27 November 2011) cabinet: on 27 November 2011, Vice

head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 May 2004) cabinet: Union Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held in July 2012 (next to be held in July 2017); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a fiveyear term; election last held in August 2007 (next to be held in August 2012); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held April - May 2009 (next to be held no later than May 2014) election results: Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president;

President HADI requested Interim Prime Minister Muhammad Salim BA SINDWAH to form a new government following the resignation of President SALIH on 24 November elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term based on constitution; however a special election was held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH based on a GCC-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011 (next election to be held in 2014); vice president appointed by the president but position is vacant; prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI elected as a consensus president with about 50% popular participation; no other candidates

Legislative branch

percent of vote Pranab MUKHERJEE 69.31%, Purno SANGMA - 30.69% bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of 245 seats up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder chosen in staggered elections by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve sixyear terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) elections: People's Assembly - last held in five phases on 16, 2223, 30 April and 7, 13 May 2009 (next must be held by May 2014) election results: People's Assembly percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party (as of 15 May 2009) - INC 206, BJP 116, SP 23, BSP 21, JD(U) 20, AITC 19,

bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies to serve six-year terms) elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (scheduled April 2009 election postponed for two years) election results: House of Representatives percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 238, Islah 47, YSP 6, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independents 5

Judicial branch

Political parties and leaders

DMK 18, CPI(M) 16, BJD 14, SS 11, AIADMK 9, NCP 9, TDP 6, RLD 5, CPI 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, independent 9, other 29, vacant 2; note seats by party (as of February 2013) - INC 204, BJP 115, SP 22, BSP 21, JD(U) 20, AITC 19, DMK 18, CPI(M) 16, BJD 14, SS 11, AIADMK 9, NCP 9, TDP 6, RLD 5, CPI 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, independents 9, other 31, nominated (INC) 2, vacant 2 Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed for "proved misbehavior") Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]; All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]; All India Trinamool Congress or TMC [Mamata BANERJEE]; Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath

Supreme Court

General People's Congress or GPC [Ali Abdallah SALIH]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah AL-YADUMI]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Sultan al-ATWANI]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Yasin Said NU'MAN]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties

SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [A.B. BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or DMK [M.KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADAV]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]; Rashtriya Lok Dal or RLD [Ajit SINGH]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; note - India has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties with four or more seats in the People's Assembly are listed

Political pressure groups and leaders

All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group); Bajrang Dal (religious organization); India Against Corruption [Anna HAZAREI]; Jamiat Ulema-e Hind (religious organization); Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (religious organization); Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Ashok SINGHAL] (religious organization) other: numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy; hundreds of social reform, anticorruption, and environmental groups at state and local level Internation ABEDA, ADB, AfDB (no al regional member), organizatio ARF, ASEAN (dialogue n partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, participatio BRICS, C, CD, CERN n (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IAEA,

Muslim Brotherhood; Women National Committee other: conservative tribal groups; Huthis, southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,

IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic chief of mission: representat Ambassador Nirupama ion in the RAO US chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000 FAX: [1] (202) 2654351 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago,

UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Adel Ali Ahmed ALSUNAINI chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760 FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017

Houston, New York, San Francisco Diplomatic chief of mission: representat Ambassador Nancy J. ion from POWELL the US embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021 mailing address: use embassy street address telephone: [91] (011) 2419-8000 FAX: [91] (11) 24190017 consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad; Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay) Flag three equal horizontal description bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation note: similar to the flag of Niger, which

chief of mission: Ambassador Gerald M. FEIERSTEIN embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266 FAX: [967] (1) 303-182

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white) note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band

National anthem

Internation al law organizatio n participatio n

has a small orange disk centered in the white band name: "Jana-GanaMana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; nonparty state to the ICCt

name: "al-qumhuriyatu l-muttahida" (United Republic) lyrics/music: Abdullah Abdulwahab NOA'MAN/Ayyoab Tarish ABSI note: adopted 1990; the music first served as the anthem for South Yemen before unification with North Yemen in 1990

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Ranked 32nd in 2004. General 66,485,830,000 constan 1,888,398,000 constant 2000 US$ governmen t2000 US$ t final consumpti on expenditur e> constant 2000 US$ Ranked 14th in Ranked 73rd in 2004. 2004. 34 times more than Yemen General 2787570000000 43237110000 governmen t final consumpti

Ranked 22nd in 2004. 17% more than India

on expenditur e> constant LCU General 91,366,390,000 $ governmen t final consumpti on expenditur e > current US$ Ranked 12th in 2005. 38 times more than Yemen General 83.5 $ per capita governmen t final consumpti on expenditur e > current US$ (per capita) Ranked 112nd in 2005. General 0.1 $ per $1 of GDP governmen t final consumpti on expenditur e > current US$ (per $ GDP) Ranked 105th in 2005. Prime minister Manmohan Singh

2,361,512,000 $

Ranked 74th in 2005.

112.6 $ per capita

Ranked 100th in 2005. 35% more than India 0.2 $ per $1 of GDP

Ranked 61st in 2005. 39% more than India

Procedures 6 to register property > number Ranked 78th in 2006. Secession East Punjab, Kashmir attempts Status federal democracy Start-up 11 procedures to register a business > number Ranked 46th in 2006. Time 270 days required to build a warehouse > days Ranked 38th in 2006. 152% more than Yemen Time 1,420 days required to enforce a contract > days Ranked 4th in 2006. 3 times more than Yemen Time 62 days required to register property > days Ranked 66th in 2006. 195% more than Yemen Time 35 days required to

Ranked 74th in 2006. Democratic Republic of Yemen democracy 12

Ranked 41st in 2006. 9% more than India 107 days

Ranked 149th in 2006.

360 days

Ranked 121st in 2006. 21 days

Ranked 134th in 2006.

63 days

start a business > days Ranked 84th in 2006. Time to prepare and pay taxes > hours 264 hours Ranked 32nd in 2006. 80% more than India 248 hours

Ranked 80th in 2006. 6% more than Yemen Transnatio since China and India nal Issues > launched a security and Disputes > foreign policy dialogue Internation in 2005, consolidated al discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial

Ranked 87th in 2006.

Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal crossborder activities

dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan have maintained the 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and

Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange territory for 51 Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 Indian exclaves in Bangladesh, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; India seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Burma to keep Indian

United Nations mission DEFINITIO N: SOURCE:

Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding in remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal http://www.indiaemba http://www.yemenembassy.org/ ssy.org http://www.nic.gov.ye/ http://www.un.int/indi http://www.yemeninfo.gov.ye/ENGLIS a/ H/home.htm United Missions mission or approximate website Wisconsin High School Model United Nations

Comparison of democracy
Indian Democracy stats 5.98 Yemeni Democracy stats 3.87

Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Management Index 2006

Bertelsmann Transformation Index > Status Index 2006

Ranked 33rd. 55% more than Yemen 7.21

Ranked 86th. 3.82

Bertelsmann Transformation Index>Political Transformation

Ranked 25th. 89% more than Yemen 7.95

Ranked 99th. 3.72

CPIA gender equality rating

Ranked 21st. 114% more than Yemen 3.5 Ranked 34th in 2005. 40% more than Yemen 3.5

Ranked 91st. 2.5 Ranked 72nd in 2005.

CPIA transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector rating

Electoral system Electoral system type Female candidacy

Ranked 16th in 2005. 17% more than Yemen first-past-the-post plurality 1,950 Ranked 78th.

Ranked 26th in 2005.

Female ministers

Female parliamentarians

Female suffrage First female parliamentarian Homosexuality laws of the world > Homosexuality laws > Adoption Homosexuality laws of the world >

first-past-the-post Plurality 1,967 Ranked 18th. 1% more than India 5.9% 10.1% Ranked 99th. Ranked 75th. 71% more than India 8.9% 0.7% Ranked 105th. 12 times Ranked 152nd. more than Yemen 1950 1967 1952 (elected) 1990 (elected) No No

No

No

Homosexuality laws > Laws against discrimination Homosexuality laws of Yes* the world > Homosexuality laws > Laws against homosexuality Parliamentary elections > 59.7% Registered voter turnout Ranked 118th.

Yes

60.7% Ranked 113rd. 2% more than India 2,792,680

Parliamentary elections > 370,580,000 Total vote Ranked 1st. 132 times Ranked 67th. more than Yemen Parliamentary elections > 65.5 35.9 Turnout Ranked 54th. 82% Ranked 102nd. more than Yemen Parliamentary elections > 565,780,000 7,772,620 Voting age population Ranked 1st. 72 times Ranked 52nd. more than Yemen Parliamentary elections > 620,394,000 4,600,000 Voter registration DEFINITION: The number of registered voters. The figure represents the number of names on the voters' register at the time that the registration process closes, as reported by the electoral management body. SOURCE: Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003 Ranked 1st. 134 times Ranked 63rd. more than Yemen

LEGAL
Legislation:
Yemen is a republic with a bicameral legislature. Under the 1991 constitution, an elected President, an elected 301-seat Assembly of Representatives, and an appointed 111member Shura Council share power. The President is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The 1991 constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by at least fifteen members of the Parliament. The prime minister,

in turn, is appointed by the president and must be approved by two thirds of the Parliament. The presidential term of office is seven years, and the parliamentary term of elected office is six years. Suffrage is universal for people age 18 and older, but only Muslims may hold elected office. The Constitution of Yemen was ratified by popular referendum on May 16, 1991. It defines the republic as an independent and sovereign Arab and Islamic country and

establishes sharia, or Islamic law, as the basis of all laws. In February 2001, several amendments were passed by national referendum extending the presidential term to seven years and the parliamentary term to six years and increasing the size and authority of the Shura Council. Due to the 20112012 Yemeni revolution, President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi is expected to draft a new constitution in the 2012-2014 periods.

Laws in Yemen:
Following are the various laws: Constitutional Law Electoral Law Administrative/ Public Law Criminal Law Commercial Law Mining Law Tax Law Banking Law Communication & Media Law Environmental Law Intellectual Property Law Agricultural Law

Regulatory body of Telecommunication:

The Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Technology (MoTIT) is the telecom regulatory authority of Yemen.

Competition Regulation in Yemen: Public Administration to Promote Competition and Prevent Monopoly and Commercial Fraud is the competition agency for preventing monopoly in the economy and maintaining healthy competition.

Employment & Contract Laws:


The Employment & Contract Law have been divided into 15 chapters describing various rules of the law.

CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS CHAPTER II. RULES ON EMPLOYMENT CHAPTER III. CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT
o o

Part I. Regulation of contracts of employment Part II. Termination of contract of employment

CHAPTER IV. REGULATION OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND YOUNG PERSONS


o o

Part I. Regulation of women's employment Part II. Regulation of the employment of young persons

CHAPTER V. WAGES AND ALLOWANCES


o

Part I. Wages

CHAPTER VI. HOURS OF WORK, REST, AND LEAVE


o o

Part I. Regulation of hours of work Part II. Regulation of leave

CHAPTER VII. REGULATION OF WORK AND PENALTIES


o o

Part I. Duties Part II. Disciplinary penalties

CHAPTER VIII. TRAINING


o o

Part I. Vocational training Part II. Apprenticeship

CHAPTER IX. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

CHAPTER X. INSURANCES CHAPTER XI. LABOUR INSPECTION CHAPTER XII. LABOUR DISPUTES AND LEGITIMATE STRIKES
o o

Part I. Settlement of labor disputes Part II. Legitimate strikes

CHAPTER XIII. WORKERS' AND EMPLOYERS' ORGANIZATIONS CHAPTER XIV. PENALTIES CHAPTER XV. FINAL PROVISIONS

Consumer protection: Consumer protection law was announced on September, 2008 as providing protection to the Yemeni consumer aiming at defining general rules that would protect the consumer and guarantee his health and fitness and quality of goods and services. The law also gives guarantee in transparency of the economic dealing which the consumer is one of its parties in addition to protecting the consumer from cheating and deceiving advertisement. It also helps to preserve the economic system of the society and securing health development of the market economy.

The law mentions rights of the consumer to protect his health and safety and to his obtaining correct data and basic requirements such as guaranteeing quality of any goods or services and their harmony with standard specifications and compensating the consumer in case of his being exposed to any damage resulting from consuming goods.

Environment law
The Environment Protection law in Yemen, a national initiative completed with ESCWAs advice in the environment field, as in other fields, a clear law constitutes the corner stone of a good strategy for the preservation of natural resources. Almost all the member countries of ESCWA have adopted environmental protection laws, and Yemen has been one of them since 1995. Realizing the important role of reducing pollution and conserving resources in order to attain sustainable development, the Environment Protection Authority of Yemen

has reached the conclusion that this law became insufficient in the context of their ambition for a fast and sustainable development of their economy. A new law on the environment is, therefore, being prepared presently by a committee of local legal consultants and will be presented to the Parliament for ratification and adoption in 2006.

Corporate Governance Practices:


The governments of Yemen has laws for corporate governance but are not followed properly according to the laws. The banking sector is regulated, but most other companies get away with avoiding many of the legal requirements either by ignoring them, paying fines, or providing bribes. Companies know that the regulatory agencies are weak, and are willing to play their hand by simply evading the laws, such as tax payments and registration requirements.

INDIA PHARMACY COUNCIL OF INDIA


The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) is the statutory body of government of India constituted under the Pharmacy Act, 1948. The Council was first constituted on 4 March 1948. The Pharmacy Council of India is constituted by central government every five years. They are based in New Delhi. There are three types of members collectively forms a frame of PCI, 1. elected members 2. nominated members 3. Ex-officio members

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the PCI are to regulate the pharmacy education in the Country for the purpose of registration as a pharmacist under the Pharmacy Act. They also regulate the Profession and Practice of Pharmacy.

MAIN FUNCTIONS OF PCI


The main functions of the PCI are;

To prescribe minimum standard of education required for qualifying as a pharmacist. (Ref.: section 10 of the Pharmacy Act) Framing of Education Regulations prescribing the conditions to be fulfilled by the institutions seeking approval of the PCI for imparting education in pharmacy. (Ref.: section 10 of the Pharmacy Act) To ensure uniform implementation of the educational standards throughout the country. (Ref. : section 10 of the Pharmacy Act) Inspection of Pharmacy Institutions seeking approval under the Pharmacy Act to verify availability of the prescribed norms. (Ref.: section 16 of the Pharmacy Act) To approve the course of study and examination for pharmacists i.e. approval of the academic training institutions providing pharmacy courses. (Ref. : section 12 of the Pharmacy Act) To withdraw approval, if the approved course of study or an approved examination does not continue to be in conformity with the educational standards prescribed by the PCI. (Ref.: section 13 of the Pharmacy Act) To approve qualifications granted outside the territories to which the Pharmacy Act extends i.e. the approval of foreign qualification. (Ref. : section 14 of the Pharmacy Act) To maintain Central Register of Pharmacists. (Ref. : section 15 A of the Pharmacy Act)

THE PHARMACY ACT, 1948


INTRODUCTION
In India there was no restriction to practice the profession of pharmacy. One could practice this profession as any other profession. Persons, having no knowledge and having no education in pharmacy or pharmaceutical chemistry or pharmacology, were engaged in this profession. Hundreds of cases were brought to the notice of the Government wherein the compounding, mixing, or dispensing of medicines was being done by persons who were not adequately educated in this line. The system was causing great harm to the health of people by wrong compounding, mixing or dispensing. It was found necessary to enact a law for the regulation of the profession and practice of pharmacy. To achieve this goal the Pharmacy Bill, 1947 was introduced in the Legislature which was later referred to the Select Committee. The recommendations of the Selection Committee were incorporated in the Bill.

STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS


It is desirable that, as in most other countries, only persons who have attained a minimum standard of professional education should be permitted to practice the Profession of Pharmacy. It is accordingly proposed to establish a Central Council of Pharmacy, which will prescribe the minimum standards of education and approve courses of study and examinations for Pharmacists, and Provincial Pharmacy Councils, which will be responsible for the maintenance of provincial registers of qualified pharmacists. It is further proposed to empower Provincial Governments to prohibit the dispensing of medicine on the prescription of a medical practitioner otherwise than by, or under the direct and personal supervision of, a registered pharmacist.

ACT 8 OF 1948
The Pharmacy Bill, 1947, having been passed by the Legislature received its assent on 4th March, 1948. It came on the Statute Book as THE PHARMACY ACT, 1948 (8 of 1948).

LIST OF AMENDING ACTS AND ADAPTATION ORDERS


1. The Adaptation of Laws Order, 1950. 2. The Adaptation of Laws (No.3) Order, 1956. 3. The Pharmacy (Amendment) Act, 1959 (24 of 1959). 4. The Pharmacy (Amendment) Act, 1976 (70 of 1976). 5. The Pharmacy (Amendment) Act, 1982 (22 of 1982).

6. The Delegated Legislation Provisions (Amendment) Act, 1985 (4 of 1986).

Comparison of taxation
Indian Taxation stats CPIA fiscal policy rating Net taxes on products > constant LCU Net taxes on products > current LCU Net taxes on products > current US$ 3 Ranked 54th in 2005. 2379460000000 3 Ranked 64th in 2005. 11257150000 Yemeni Taxation stats

3162450000000

94305320000

71,429,870,000 $

492,432,800 $

Net taxes on products > current US$ (per capita)

Ranked 10th in 2005. 144 times more than Yemen 65,257.6 $ per 1,000 people

Ranked 92nd in 2005. 23,477.5 $ per 1,000 people

Net taxes on 0.03 $ per $1 billion of products > GDP current US$ (per $ GDP) DEFINITION: Net taxes on products (net indirect taxes) are the sum of product taxes less subsidies. Product taxes are those taxes payable by producers that relate to the production, sale, purchase or use of the goods and services. Subsidies are grants on the current account made by general government to private enterprises and unincorporated public enterprises. The grants may take the form of payments to

Ranked 89th in 2005. 178% more than Yemen 0.1 $ per $1 billion of GDP

Ranked 111st in 2005.

SOURCE:

ensure a guaranteed price or to enable maintenance of prices of goods and services below costs of production, and other forms of assistance to producers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 billion $ gross domestic product. World Development Indicators database Ranked 80th in 2005. 170% Ranked 119th in 2005. more than Yemen

ETHICAL

Intellectual Property Rights:


Intellectual Property Law in Yemen came into power in the year 1994. Yemen has a sufficient Intellectual Property Rights Law, but a feeble legal system. It is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) but has not acceded to any international IPR conventions. The year 2013 is the second year that Yemen has been deliberate in the Intellectual Property Rights Index (IPRI). The overall IPRI score of Yemen increased by +3.3% in the previous two years. However, the score is comparatively low at 3.1. From 2012 to 2013, the Legal and Political Environment constituent fell 0.1 points to 2.1. The turn down was due to wounded in Control of Corruption, Rule of Law, and Political Stability. Physical Property Rights and Intellectual Property Rights, on the other hand, increased between 2012 and 2013. Physical Property Rights increased by 0.1 points because of a 0.4 point gain in admittance to Loans. Intellectual Property Rights increased by 0.3 points due to a 0.5 point increase in Protection of Intellectual Property Rights.

Corruption & Bribery:

Corruption & bribery get a lot of forms in Yemen. Corruption & bribery has been a widespread feature of the Yemeni economy for the last 2 decades. Yet, it is not an insuperable problem. The truth is that there are certain structural deficiencies of the Yemeni economy that allow such burglary to take place.

Yemens ranked 103rd out of 158 countries on Transparency Internationals corruption perception index in 2005. One of the poorest countries in the world with an enormously overstaffed and poorly paid civil service, Yemen has a major and widely acknowledged corruption difficulty. Illegal activities include soliciting and paying bribes to facilitating or obstructing projects, leveraging quarrel settlements, skewing taxation and customs tariff augmentations, and engaging in family or tribal favoritism.

According to the Transparency International, Yemens Corruption Perceptions Index (2012) score was 23 out of 100, which shows the high level of corruption. And its rank was 156/176.

Whereas, the CPI Score of Countries in Asia was 36 out of 100. And All Country Corruption was 37 out of 100.

The impact of corruption

Investment: Corruption also discourages both local and foreign investment. The custom of favoritism means that favors or positions are given to those with familial connections or who bribe public officials. With no ability to guarantee their investments will reach the intended targets, many investors are reluctant to put their money into the Yemeni economy (Carnegie Endowment, 2010).

Small Businesses: Corruption is crippling the already moribund Yemeni economy. Small

business owners are unable to expand because of the arbitrary fines and fees they are frequently charged by police officers and local officials (Carnegie Endowment, 2010).

Shadow employees: This is when one employee draws two or more government salaries. Official statistics on the number of such employees are difficult to find, but the numbers are probably in the tens of thousands (Oxford Analytica Daily Brief Service, 2006). It was a cost to government.

Economic and political threats: Yemen faces a confluence of crises, and corruption only exacerbates the manifold economic and security threats the state faces (Carnegie Endowment, 2010). Abdul Moamen, a professor at Sana'a University, reviewed negatives impacts of the corruption on the legal, political, economic and administrative aspects, saying that the corruption weakens the political stability, wastes the limited resources, damages the democratic process and weakens the power of the state and the development in the country (Global Arab Network, 2010).

Wealth inequality: Dr. Adel Shoja, a professor of literature at Sana'a University, said that around 5 percent of people controls half of the national income which reflects high level of poverty in the country compared to other world countries at more than 40 percent (Global Arab Network, 2010).

Cut Yemen's funding: Widespread and growing corruption has a profoundly corrosive effect on governance and the quality of life in Yemen. Corruption is ranked as a major problem by many reports and donors comments including EU, world banks and the Americans. According to Mohamed Abdo Moghram, the World Bank recently declared that the government's performance indicators fell markedly and cut Yemen's funding support by 34 percent due to corruption. This significant reduction attributed to the failure of the government to meet the minimum standards of transparency, efficiency, and improvement of investment-related conditions, and its deficiency in fighting corruption.

Reasons of corruption
A Culture of Corruption: Graft is rampant, and has become such a part of the culture that is unlikely to change soon (Oxford Analytical Daily Brief Service, 2006). Officials routinely skim money off official accounts, and bribes are needed to get most things accomplished. One of the major features of Yemeni society that makes it difficult to combat corruption is what Alkebsi called the inevitability mindset (Carnegie Endowment, 2010). Corruption is so entrenched and pervasive in Yemeni society that many citizens feel as though they are powerless to do anything about it. In order to overcome this perception, Alkebsi said, it is important to enact incremental reforms to demonstrate that real change can be achieved by effective legislation. Political Culture of Corruption in Yemen: According to Mohamed Abdo Moghram, the main sources of corruption in Yemen are weak structure of governance, non-transparent structure of government institutions, and long tradition of breaking the laws by the high ranks officials. Therefore, improving the quality of governance in Yemen cannot take place without reducing corruption. The phenomenon of corruption in Yemen is a result of prevailing bad socio-economic and governance conditions in the country. Factors such as poverty, scarcity, and lack of access to basic services, lack of information, overly bureaucratic institutions and low incentives for civil servants come together in various permutations and combinations to give rise to corruption.

CSR:
This study focuses on the level of corporate social responsibility information disclosed in the three medium of communications (annual reports, websites, and newspapers) in Yemen. Overall, the descriptive results of this study show that the level of CSR disclosure in Yemen is very low with a total of 6670 words disclosed in the three medium of disclosure compared with the level of CSR disclosure in other countries in terms of CSR word counts .For example, Zeghal and Ahmed (1983) found that Canadian companies disclosed 14826 words of CSR activities in three medium of disclosure (annual reports, advertisements, and brochures). This result was expected in Yemen as it is a low developed county with secretive culture,

weak accounting systems and no stock market in addition to the lack of powerful NGOs groups in contrast to those in the industrialized countries (Abu-Baker and Naser, 2000). This result is consistent with Choi et al. (2002) argument that the level of economic developments influences the development of the accounting system which in turn affects disclosure system. The result of this study also shows that the community involvements category followed by human resources category were the most commonly disclosed categories with a mean of 551 and 379 words respectively. This result is consistent with the study conducted by Hinson et al (2010) where they have found that the community involvement information is most frequently disclosed theme in Ghana. They have argued that in a poor country like Ghana that depends on donation for its development by focusing on community involvement will have an immediate gain to legitimatize their activities. Regarding the medium of disclosure, Yemeni companies provided more of CSR disclosures on web sites than the annual reports and newspapers

India:
In India there are an existent but small number of companies which practice CSR. This engagement of the Indian economy concentrates mainly on a few old family owned companies, and corporate giants such as the Tata and Birla group companies which have led the way in making corporate social responsibility an intrinsic part of their business plans. These companies have been deeply involved with social development initiatives in the communities surrounding their facilities. Jamshedpur, one of the prominent cities in the north-eastern state of Bihar in India, is also known as Tata Nagar and stands out at a beacon for other companies to follow. Jamshedpur was carved out from the jungle a century ago. TATAs CSR activities in Jamshedpur include the provision of full health and education expenses for all employees and the management of schools and hospitals. In spite of having such life size successful examples, CSR in India is in a very nascent stage. In the informal sector of the Indian economy, which contributes to almost the half of the GNP and where approximately 93% of the Indian workforce is employed, the application of CSR is rare. On the contrary, the fight against poverty, the development of education, as well as the conservation of the environment are not existent in most of the Indian enterprises. India has an advantage as far as labor is concerned. To some extent, business and capital go to those places where costs are less or standards are lower like the ones in India. But also in India, the demand for responsible and ethical goods is constantly increasing. To guarantee the supply of responsible and ethical goods, it is especially important to implement a nationwide system of CSR standards. With the passing of the Companies Bill, the pharmaceutical industry will have to shell out around INR 300 crore under the Corporate Social Responsibility Scheme.

With the passing of the Companies Bill 2012 in the Lok Sabha on December 18, 2012, the Indian pharmaceutical companies have to invest anywhere between INR 300-325 crore in the coming years under Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) scheme. Few pharmaceutical companies have already implemented CSR activities and published their contribution towards social activities. As per the Pharmabiz review, nearly 79 pharmaceutical companies will have to spend two per cent of their average net profits on social activities which come to around INR 325 crore. The Bill seeks to consolidate and amend the law relating to the companies and intends to improve corporate governance as well as strengthen regulations for participation of corporate in social welfare. According to the corporate affairs ministry, India will be the first country to include provisions on CSR in its company law. CSR can be understood as a management concept and a process that integrates social and environmental concerns in business operations and a companys interactions with the full range of its stakeholders. As per the latest changes, every company having a net worth of 500 crore or turnover of 1,000 crore or an average net profit of 5 crore in last three financial years would have to implement CSR practices and spend at least two per cent of average net profit in the preceding three years on CSR every financial year. If the company fails to implement CSR, the board of directors would have to state the reasons in its report.

Ethical factor:
No.
(1)

Points
Intellectual Property Rights

India
In India following areas covered by intellectual property: Patents Copyrights Trademarks Registered ( industrial) design Protection of IC layout design, Geographical indications, and Protection of undisclosed information

Yemen
In Yemen following areas covered by intellectual property: Patents Copyrights Trademarks Trade Secrets

(2)

Level of bribery and corruption

Political system: federal republic Political system: republic Corruption perception index rate is 3.4 Corruption perception index rate is 2.3

DEMOGRAPHICS
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 5,433,121/female 5,235,891) 15-24 years: 21.1% (male 2,720,793/female 2,640,652) 25-54 years: 30.6% (male 3,974,091/female 3,797,543) 55-64 years: 3.7% (male 446,293/female 490,628) 65 years and over: 2.6% (male 315,141/female 354,135) (2013)

Median age: Total: 18.5 years Male: 18.4 years Female: 18.6 years (2013)

Population growth rate: 2.5% (2013)

Birth rate: 31.63 births/1,000 population (2013)

Death rate: 6.64 deaths/1,000 population (2013)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 Population (2013)

Urbanization: Urban population: 32.3% of total population (2011) Rate of urbanization: 4.78% annual rate of change (2010-15)

Major urban areas - population: SANAA (capital) 2.229 million (2009)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.2 Note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (1997)

Infant mortality rate: Total: 51.93 deaths/1,000 live births Male: 56.33 deaths/1,000 live births Female: 47.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2013)

Ethnicity:
Ethnic Groups: predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans. The Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula are considered to be the original Arabs. The Arabian culture was

developed by tribes of nomads and villagers who lived in the Arabian Desert. It was also from there that Arab migrations began, eventually leading to the expansion of the Arab world.

The social structure of the Yemeni Arab consists of four classes of people: the Sayyid, or wealthy (who trace their decent to the grandson of Muhammad), the Qatani, (tribesmen), the Shafi'ite townsmen (merchants, artisans, and craftsmen), and the Akhdam (slaves).

Languages:
Arabic is the one and only official language in Yemen. It is also the most widely spoken language. Here is the list of all 10 languages spoken in Yemen: 1. Arabic, Gulf Spoken 2. Arabic, Hadrami Spoken 3. Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni (spoken by less than 100 Jews still living in Yemen.) 4. Arabic, Sanaani Spoken 5. Arabic, Standard 6. Arabic, Taizzi-Adeni Spoken 7. Bathari 8. Hobyot 9. Mehri, 10. Soqotri.

Disabilities: The life of persons with disabilities in Yemen is full of challenges. While in the majority of cases,disabled women, men, girls and boys are loved and taken care of well at home; their li

ve with their families are not free of problems. There is a tendency among family members t ooverprotect a disabled child, and to have low expectations for his or her development. INDIA With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census, India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew at 1.76% per annum during 2001 2011, down from 2.13% per annum in the previous decade (1991 2001). The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males. The median age was 24.9 in the 2001 census. The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361.1 million people. Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly. India continues to face several public health-related challenges. According to the World Health Organisation, 900,000 Indians die each year from drinking contaminated water or breathing polluted air. There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians. The number of Indians living in urban areas has grown by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001. Yet, in 2001, over 70% lived in rural areas. According to the 2001 census, there are 27 million-plus cities in India; among them Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmadabad are the most populous metropolitan areas. The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males. Kerala is the most literate state; Bihar the least. India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the AustroAsiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families. India has no national language. Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government. English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language"; it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 21 "scheduled languages". The Constitution of India recognises 212 scheduled tribalgroups which together constitute about 7.5% of the country's population. The 2001 census reported that Hinduism, with over 800 million adherents (80.5% of the population), was the largest religion in India; it is followed by Islam (13.4%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.9%),Buddhism (0.8%), Jainism (0.4%), Judais m, Zoroastrianism, and the Bahai Faith.[257] India has the world's largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Bahai populations, and has the third-largest Muslim population and the largest Muslim population for a non-Muslim majority country

Demographics
India 1,205,073,612 (July 2012) Yemen 24,771,809 (July 2012)

Population

Age structure

India 0-14 years: 29.3% (male 187,386,162/female 165,345,284) 15-24 years: 18.2% (male 116,019,042/female 103,660,359) 25-54 years: 40.2% (male 249,017,538/female 235,042,251) 55-64 years: 6.8% (male 41,035,270/female 40,449,880) 65 years and over: 5.6% (male 31,892,823/female 35,225,003) (2012)

Median age

Total: 26.5 years male: 25.9 years female: 27.2 years (2012)

Population growth 1.312% (2012 est.) rate Birth rate 20.6 births/1,000 population (2012 est.) Death rate 7.43 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)

Yemen 0-14 years: 42.5% (male 5,363,542/female 5,169,554) 15-24 years: 21.1% (male 2,653,988/female 2,578,724) 25-54 years: 30.1% (male 3,817,569/female 3,647,352) 55-64 years: 3.6% (male 428,920/female 464,740) 65 years and over: 2.6% (male 306,186/female 341,234) (2012) Total: 18.3 years male: 18.3 years female: 18.4 years (2012 est.) 2.575% (2012 est.) 32.57 births/1,000 population (2012 est.) 6.82 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.) 0 migrant(s)/1,000 Population (2012) At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2011) Total: 53.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 57.99 deaths/1,000 live births female: 48.78 deaths/1,000 live births

Net migration rate -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012) Sex ratio At birth: 1.12 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011)

Infant mortality rate

Total: 46.07 deaths/1,000 live births male: 44.71 deaths/1,000 live births female: 47.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2012)

India Life expectancy at Total population: 67.14 years birth male: 66.08 years female: 68.33 years (2012)

Yemen (2012) Total population: 64.11 years male: 62.05 years female: 66.27 years (2012) 4.45 children born/woman (2012) 0.1% (2001) noun: Yemeni(s) adjective: Yemeni predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans 12,000 (2001)

Total fertility rate 2.58 children born/woman (2012) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate Nationality Ethnic groups 0.3% (2009) noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)

HIV/AIDS - people 2.4 million (2009) living with HIV/AIDS Religions Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh Muslim (Islam - official) 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 including Shaf'i (Sunni) census) and Zaydi (Shia), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu HIV/AIDS - deaths 170,000 (2009) NA Languages Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi Arabic (official) 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9% note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census) Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write Definition: age 15 and total population: 61% over can read and write male: 73.4% total population: 63.9%

India female: 47.8% (2001 census) Major infectious diseases

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) Education expenditures Urbanization

Yemen male: 81.2% female: 46.8% (2010) degree of risk: high degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, food or waterborne hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever diseases: bacterial vector borne diseases: chikungunya, dengue diarrhea, hepatitis A, fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria and typhoid fever animal contact disease: rabies vector borne diseases: water contact disease: leptospirosis dengue fever and note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza malaria has been identified in this country; it poses a water contact disease: negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible schistosomiasis (2009) among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009) total: 10 years total: 9 years male: 11 years male: 11 years female: 10 years (2007) female: 7 years (2005)

3.1% of GDP (2006) urban population: 30% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15)

5.2% of GDP (2008) urban population: 32% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 4.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 ) improved: urban: 94% of population rural: 33% of population total: 52% of population unimproved: urban: 6% of population rural: 67% of population total: 48% of population SANAA (capital) 2.229 million (2009) 200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010) 43.1% (2003)

Sanitation facility improved: access urban: 54% of population rural: 21% of population total: 31% of population unimproved: urban: 46% of population rural: 79% of population total: 69% of population Major cities population NEW DELHI (capital) 21.72 million; Mumbai 19.695 million; Kolkata 15.294 million; Chennai 7.416 million; Bangalore 7.079 million (2009) 200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Maternal mortality rate Children under 43.5% (2006) the age of 5 years underweight

India Health 2.4% of GDP (2009) expenditures Physicians density 0.599 physicians/1,000 population (2005) Hospital bed density 0.9 beds/1,000 population (2005)

Yemen 5.6% of GDP (2009) 0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2009) 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

India Yemen Bilateral Trade


(US$) S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. EXPORT %Growth India's Total Export %Growth %Share IMPORT %Growth India's Total Import %Growth %Share TOTAL TRADE %Growth India's Total Trade %Growth %Share TRADE BALANCE India's Trade Balance 0.32 32.68 0.25 1,541.91 0.42 754.61 \Year 20082009 787.29 20092010 727.39 -7.61 20102011 514.10 -29.32 20112012 730.62 42.12 20122013 1,477.01 102.16

185,295.36 178,751.43 251,136.19 305,963.92 300,274.12 -3.53 0.41 1,575.55 108.79 40.49 0.20 1,743.90 10.69 21.83 0.24 973.65 -44.17 -1.86 0.49 880.76 -9.54

303,696.31 288,372.88 369,769.13 489,319.49 491,945.05 -5.05 0.55 2,302.95 49.36 28.23 0.47 2,258.00 -1.95 32.33 0.20 1,704.27 -24.52 0.54 0.18 2,357.77 38.35

488,991.67 467,124.31 620,905.32 795,283.41 792,219.17 -4.47 0.49 32.92 0.36 28.08 0.21 -0.39 0.30 596.25 -

118,400.95 109,621.45 118,632.94 183,355.57 191,670.93

India is the fourth biggest trading partner of Yemen constituting 7% of the total trade (2011). India is also the fourth largest destination for Yemens exports accounting for 7.6% of its total exports (2011). Likewise, India is the fifth biggest source for Yemeni imports accounting for around 6.4% of Yemens imports. The Total Trade between India and Yemen during FY 2011-2012 was put at US$1.70 billion, which included Indias exports valued at US$ 730.08 million and Indias imports from Yemen totalling US$ 973.68 million, as per the statistics provided by the Ministry of Commerce, GOI. As per the General Investment Authority (GIA) of Yemen, 19 Indian investment projects were established in Yemen during the period 2000-2012 at a total cost of US$ 154.9 million. The principal items of Indias exports to Yemen include tea, rice, wheat, cereals, spices, tobacco, meat and meat preparations, pharmaceuticals, hand tools, chemicals, etc., while its major items of imports from Yemen include crude oil, mineral fuels and oils, metal scrap, hides and skins and limestone.Both sides are discussing a Trade Agreement to boost the bilateral trade and economic relations. The Government of India has unilaterally offered a Duty Free Tariff Preference (DFTP) Scheme to Yemen, opening up as many as 95% of tariff lines for duty-free access to Yemeni exports.