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ProjectManagement C i ti Framework F k Communications

RecaponProjectmanagementfundamentals Communicationmanagement CommunicationIssues&ProjectOrganizations

PMIProcessesGroups
PRO C ESS GRO UP EXEC UTIO N KNO WLEDGE AREAS INTEGRATIO N SC O PE TIME C O ST Q UALITY HUMAN RESO URC ES C O MMUNIC ATIO N RISK PRO C UREMENT STAKEHO LDERS INITIATING PLANNING MO NITO RING & C O NTRO L C LO SE O UT

1 2

1 4 6 3 1 1 1 5 1 1 24

1 3 1 1 1 9

2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11

Projects ojects&Project ojectManagement a age e t


Project:
Aproject j i isatemporaryendeavor d undertaken d k tocreateaunique i

product,service,orresult.

ProjectCommunication
Processes P required i dt toensuretimely ti l and dappropriate i t planning, l i

collection,creation,distribution,storage,retrieval,controland monitoringandultimatedisposalofprojectinformation Communication InformationLogistics g Right g Information,right g time,rightplace,rightpeople,rightmethod. Management PDCA communicationsoilintheengine

CommunicationInfluenceonaProject
WBS /CBS / RBS /OBS / TBS Organizational Structure to deliver (management teams, contractors, , supervision, p , suppliers) People make projects and need to knowthrough communication. Communication channels enable information flow so we can manage the project. Need to know / nice to know

Risk Base

Communications theImportant Link p Internal&External


SCOPE PROCUREMENT COMMUNICATIONS HUMAN RESOURCES RISK INTEGRATION STAKEHOLDERS

INTERNAL CONTROL _________________________________________________________________________________________________________

EXTERNAL INFLUENCES

Increasing Risk Decreasing Control

PMI Scope
Process
Communications ManagementPlan (Plan)

Inputs
Project ManagementPlan, stakeholder register, organizational assets ProjectCharter Stakeholder Register ProjectCharter, Requirements documentation, Organizational Assets

Tools
Communication requirements, communication technology, meetings, models/methods Interviews Workshops Observations Experience ExpertJudgment, Productanalysis, Alternatives, Workshops

Outputs
Plans&Updates.

Manage Communications (Do) Control Communications (Check/Action)

Requirements documentation, managementplan andtraceability Scopestatement, documentation updates

Communications
InteractionandinterfacingbetweenProjectTeammembers. CreatingabridgebetweentheProjectanditsStakeholders. Overcomingordealingwith: Organizational/national/culturaldifferences Varying y glevelsofexpertise p Differentperspectives/interests Internalandexternalconflict.

CommunicationsManagement
PlanCommunications developinganappropriate

planbasedonprojectneedandrequirementsand organisationalassets. assets (Contracts/records) ManageCommunicationscollecting,distributing, storing retrievinganddisposingofproject storing, informationasperplan.(EDMS,Filing/Records) ControlCommunications monitoring gand controllingcommunicationstoensureinformation needsaremet.Controlofmisinformation rumours.

CommunicationsPlanning
What informationisneeded Why isinformationneeded(RACI) When isinformationneeded(includingtimezones) How isinformationtobetransmitted Where isinformationavailable/stored/archived Who Wh needs d and dwho h is i authorised th i d

Communications Co u cat o s Types ypes


Internal Formal Vertical/Horizontal Official Writtenwords/images/drawings Oral l/Verbal b l Nonverbal(bodylanguage) Unofficial rumours,media,externalviews

CommunicationModel

CommunicationReality
INITIATOR
SENDER (Person/Situation)

RECEIVER
ANALYSED (Person,Situation)

UNDERSTANDING OR MISUNDERSTANDING

ENCODE(Ideas, S Speech, h Records) R d)

Filters Language, Knowledge, Reference F Frame

DECODE(Translation/ Language)

SEND (Verbal/Written)

RECEIVES (Hear,See,Read)

LackofAttention,disrupt,interrupt

TransmittingwithoutReceiving

Understanding
Iknowthatyoubelievethatyouunderstoodwhatyou thinkIsaid,butIamnotsureyourealizethatwhatyou heardisnotwhatImeant meant RobertMcCloskey,U.S.StateDepartmentspokesman,atapressbriefingduringtheVietnamWar

HumanSensesfasterthanthe speedofthought?
Sight 100,000,000bits/second(40bits/s) Hearing 100,000bits/second(30bits/s) Speak 250words/min Hear 500words/min(listeningisoptional) Think 750words/min(understandingisoptional) Look ???(seeingisoptional) Weseeandthinkfasterthanwehearandspeakand

formopinionsfasterthananalysingtheactual communication communication.

Thinking g

Telepathyisnotarecognised formof Communication

Ch l &Confusion C f i Channels

(n(n ( ( 1)/2) )/ ) two t people l two t channels, h l 10people l equates t to45!


Larger g p projects j /meetings g canleadtog greaterconfusion Thesamecanbetrueoflongcommunicationchains

Communications
ThisisalittlestoryaboutfourpeoplenamedEverybody, Somebody,Anybody,andNobody. TherewasanimportantjobtobedoneandEverybodywas surethatSomebodywoulddoit. Anybodycouldhavedoneit,butNobodydidit. S Somebody b d gotangryabout b that h b becausei itwasE Everybody's b d ' job. Everybody y ythought g thatAnybody y ycoulddoit,butNobody y realizedthatEverybodywouldn'tdoit. ItendedupthatEverybodyblamedSomebodywhenNobody didwhatAnybodycouldhavedone

ResultofPoorCommunication

FoodforThought
Iscommunicationaonewaystreet? Issilenceornoresponseacceptance? Receivingacommunicationdoesnotmeanthatitis

eitherunderstoodoraccepted. Good G dcommunication i i requires i f feedback db kto demonstrateunderstanding,acceptanceetc. Understandtheotherparty partys sreferenceframe

Send reinforcements were going to advance

Send reinforcements were going to our aunts Send these endorsements were going to France

Send three & fourpence were going to a dance!

HistoricalQuote

Thesinglebiggestproblemin communicationistheillusionthat ithastakenplace.

G George Bernard B dShaw Sh (1856 ( 8 6 1950

OrganizationalCommunication
Functional silosbutdisciplinedbynameandby

nature Matrix M i multiple l i l channels, h l manysources,many interpretations.

CommunicationChannels
ProjectizedOrganisation CHIEFEXECUTIVE

CONFLICTORCOOPERATION

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

Functional Manager

????

Managerof PMs

Co omomn G Goal

SpecialistStaff

Project Working co-operation cobut priority / SpecialistStaff SpecialistStaff Manager loyalty issues SpecialistStaff SpecialistStaff ProjectTeam

Project Manager

Project Manager

SpecialistStaff

ProjectTeam

ProjectTeam

SpecialistStaff

SpecialistStaff

SpecialistStaff

Conflict
TypesofConflict
Priorities Administration TechnicalOpinion&

Symptoms y p
Harmony noconlict MinorDisagreement&

PerformanceMatters Resources Cost Schedules Personalities

Misunderstandings OvertQuestioning&Challenging PassiveAggressive AssertiveVerbalisation Threats&Ultimatums PhysicalAttacks OvertDestruction/Sabotage

ConflictTreatment
Treatment Withdraw/avoid(ignore) Smoothing Compromising/collaborating Effectiveness Failuretotreat woundedwarriors, discontent,indecision Nodefinitivesolution, dividesopinions /loyalties.Shorttermfix. Giveandtakeattitude/realissues avoidedornotidentified.Intermediate termfix. Facingconflictandanalyzing underlying d l i i issuesb behind hi d problem. bl Longtermfix. win losewithonepartyaggrieved. Longtermrepercussions. repercussions

Confronting/FacingReality

Forcing

Conclusions
Communicationsareanessentialpartofproject management Peoplerelyoncommunicationstobeabletofunction EffectiveCommunicationscanresultinlessconflicton projectsasno/littleambiguityandclarity Eff i organisational Effective i i lstructureand ddefined d fi d communicationchannelsarealsoessential. Communicationsshouldbeunambiguous g sothereisno confusion. Communicationmustbeclosedsothatmessages(thedata transmitted)areunderstood

Remember
Historicalviewwas: The Thesinglebiggestproblemin communicationistheillusionthatithas takenplace. place. Todaywehavethesameproblem: Isent tanemail il butdidanybodyreadit/actonit?

Questions/Discussion