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Submitted to: submitted by: ER. GAURAV SONI SUKHVINDER SINGH XII (NONMEDICAL) no . Roll

Alpine International School


This Project FULL WAVE RECTIFIER is a successful outcome of our hard work with the help and guidance of my respectable Sir Er. Gaurav Soni. I sincerely acknowledge the contribution of the suggestions given by my principal Mrs. Rajeshwari Dhir without which this project could never become successful. Last but not least I acknowledge all my friends who gave me suggestions and full support by heart.

Sukhvinder Singh


Introduction : A full wave rectifier is a device which is used to rectify all the alternating current components in an alternating supply and make it purely a direct current. The two alternating halves of an alternation current are rectified in a full wave rectifier which is an advantage over a half wave rectifier. Most electronic devices cannot withstand very high voltage or alternating current due to its intense high power. The use of batteries in all devices is not practical as their replacement and durability is a huge problem as the device has to be dismantled each time for such a replacement. So these rectifiers are used in most of the electronic devices like TVs !adios "hargers #ightings etc. There are several stages in a rectifier. $ased on their rectification they are classified into two. The single staged % multi staged. &n the multi staged rectifiers more than two diodes are used and these are used in the above'mentioned devices. The singled staged rectifier has only ( diodes the one we are to discuss in this pro)ect. The multi diode rectifier has only ( diodes the one we are to discuss in this pro)ect. The multi diode rectifiers has an efficiency * +,.-. while that of the single is only /0.(.

Theory involved The input transformer steps down the A." mains from (12V 3nominal4 to -V between the center tap and either of the two ends of the secondary winding. The transformer has a capability of delivering a current of 522 mA. The -V A." appearing across the secondary is the !MS value of the waveform and peak value would be - ( = /.,volts. The diodes rectify the A." waveform appearing across the secondary with the help of alternate forward and reverse biasing. The capacitor further filters ++. of the resident components and this is let to pass through the resistance and emerges out as 6ve and 7ve. The bulb connected verifies the output as it works on 8irect "urrent and if used on an Alternating "urrent the fluctuation will burn out the bulb. Material re!uired in the con truction " "onnecting wires a plug single lead wire ' (m 1 7 nuts % $olts of ( to 1 cm length "ircuit board of mica a small bo9 to place the model a transformer A capacitor A !esistor 30 : 4 ;'< )unction diodes &nsulation tape $lades soldering wa9 soldering lead soldering iron % sand paper.

#etail o$ the %aterial u ed i4 "onnecting wires and a plug A normal insulated copper wire able to withstand (12 7 (52 v is re=uired.


Single lead wire Thin wire with one single strand of copper well &nsulated and able to conduct a current of 0 ampere or a 8." current efficiently.


A circuit board A normal board of mica facilitated with clips to simplify the connection.


<uts ad bolt &n order to fi9 the board % transformer firmly. Si>e ( 7 1 cm.


Soldering wa9 % lead The wires are to be soldered firmly to make the connection tight so for this a thin lead wire is re=uired to affi9 the connections and wa9 to make the lead to hold on when soldered.

vi4 vii4

A small bo9 To place the e=uipments safely. A bulb To test the output voltage whether 8irect or not. Specification (.( 7- v it will get burnt on application of A.".

viii4 A -'2'- transformer Transformer is a device used to change the voltage of an alternating current. The transformer which converts low voltage to high voltage is called a step up transformer whereas the one which converts high voltage to low voltage is called a step down transformer. &t consists of a laminated core consisting of two coils a primary % a secondary coil. &n a

step up the number of turns in the secondary is greater that that of the primary and the reverse in a step down transformer. ?ere we use a step down transformer which steps down (12V to -V between the secondary terminals and the center tap. i94 A "A;A"&T@!

The ability of a metal to store electric charges measures the capacitances of a conductor. &t provides high impedance to Alternating "urrent and stores them while all the 8." components are let to pass. There are different types of capacitors 7 a4 ;A!A##A# ;#ATA "A;A"&T@! b4 S;?A!&"A# "A;A"&T@! c4 "B#&<8!&"#A# "A;A"&T@! ?ere we deal with a "ylindrical "apacitor. &t consists of two coa9ial conducting cylindrical shells. 8ue to attraction between unlike charges the charges spread out uniformly and thus it gets charged. "apacitance is measured in it Carads. The reactance a capacitors offers to A.". "urrent is D c where is the fre=uency of the supply. &t does not dissipate any power % the energy stored in it e=ual to E "V ( . &n a capacitor Voltage does not change instantaneously. &t leads current % voltage by an angle different of +22 .

The capacitor can be connected in ( ways 04 &n Series D

0 0 0 0 + + + ..... = C C0 C ( C 1

% (4 &n ;arallel D 3" D "0 6 "( 6 "1 FF4 ?ere we use capacitor of 0222 C % (5 v. 94 A !esistor

A resistor is an electronic components whose resistance value tells us about the opposition it offers to the flow of electric current. !esistance is measured in ohms 3 4. Ge determine the value of a resistor using the colour coding on the rings of the resistor 7 0. $lack ' 2 (. $rown 70 1. !ed '( ,. @range 7 1 5. Bellow 7 , Tolerance Hold Silver -. Hreen ' 5 I. $lue +. Hrey ' ' / /. Violet ' I 02. Ghite ' +

' '

5. 02. (2.

"olourless '


0st "olour (nd "olour 1rd "olour ,th "olour ' 0st digit ' (nd digit ' ;ower to 02 ' Tolerance

Cor Ag: Cor a resistor of colour code 7 brown black green % gold. The resistance value is 02 025 5. ?ere we use a single resistor of $rown !ed !ed % Hold colour rings. &ts Value D 0( 02( 5. !esistance can be connected in ( ways 7 &n series ! D 3!0 6 !( 6 !1 F..4 % &n ;arallel
0 0 0 0 + + + ..... = R R0 R ( R1


P(N )unction #iode

Ghen one side of a semiconductor crystal 3Hermanium or silicon4 is doped with acceptor impurity atoms and the other side with donor impurity atoms a ;'< )unction is formed. &t is also called a semiconductor or crystal diode. Ghen diffusion of the two regions occur a resultant potential barrier is created between the two sides due to migration of electrons and holes.

Ghen the diode is connected with ; side to positive terminal of a battery % < side to 7ve terminal it is said to be forward biased % reverse biased when reversed. &n forward biasing the applied positive potential repels the holes and turns a current is made to flow overcoming the &nternal potential $arrier. Ghile in reverse biasing the 7ve electrons 0 st attract the holes and widen the $arrier and then only the repulsion between the inner electrons occur and current flows. So theoretically no current flows through due to the widening of the ;otential barrier but practically a very small current does flows through. 8ifferent types of diodes are present 7 0. Jener diode (. ;'< )unction diode 1. #A8 ,. #A8 5. Solar cell ?ere we use a ;'< )unction diode. The grayish ring indicated the < side and the $lack colouration the ; side. 9ii4 Cinally small e=uipments such as a soldering iron to solder the lead $lades holders insulation tapes 7 to insulate the wire from shocking and sand paper 7 to rub the o9idi>ed wire ends are used.

Circuit dia*ra%

Connection detail "onnections are done as in the circuit. The A.". supply is given to both the input wires of the transformer and the two ends of the secondary coil is given to the ; side of the two diodes and the < side of the diodes are twined and then connected to one end of the capacitor and the other end to the center tap lead and to the resistor. Curther the other end of capacitor with the diode connection is connected to the other end of the resistor . "onnect ( leads on both the ends of the resistor to measure the output and this is connected to the 6ve % 've terminals of the bulb.

Wor+in* 0st when the A.". is supplied to the transformer it steps down the (12V main supply to - volts. &t has a capability of delivering a current of 522mA. The - volts A.". appearing across the secondary is the !MS valur and the peak value is - ( or /., volts. 8uring the 0 st half cycle of the A.". input 8iode 80 is forward biased and a current K& flows in the circuit in the direction S080A$A@S0. 8uring this time diode 8( is reverse biased. So it does not conduct any electric current. 8uring the ne9t half cycle the diode 8( is forward and 80 is reversed. ?ence 8( conducts current in the direction S(8(A$A@S( and 80 does not conduct any current. &n subse=uent half cycles of the A." current the above processes are repeated. &n both the half cycles it is clear that current flows through the resistor in only one direction A$A. Aven though the voltage across !# is unidirectional it will still contain a few A." components. This is filtered and made smooth using a capacitor which filters ++. of the A." current. A resistor is then used to ad)ust the output voltage. Ge can then test the oLp Voltage using a multi'meter. Afficiency of !ectification '

8." power output Total A." input power

Cor a half wave rectifier * 2.,2- D ,2.- . Cor a full wave rectifier the one used here is * 2./0( D /0.( . $y the use of more number of diodes the efficiency can be increase to a ma9imum of +,.-.. ?ere we only use ( diodes. The use of multiple

capacitors also nearly filters all A." components from the supply and resistance is ad)usted for the re=uired output. As this is a simple circuit only one capacitor and a resistance is being used. $ut there will be slight factor of A.". current still left in the output but it is negligible.


@$SA!VAT&@<: "apacitance 3"4 3 C4 0222 0222 0222 0222 !esult: A full Gave rectifier is constructed % output voltage for different output resistance is measured and tabulated. !esistance 3!4 3: 4 5/2 (5+.--0.5-1.@utput Voltage 38"4 05.21 01.50 0,.-+ 0,.-/

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