MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION TO

COMPRESSORS

Engineering for the Petroleum and Process Industries

WHAT ARE COMPRESSORS ?
Compressors are machines used to increase the total energy level of a compressible fluid (either gas or vapor).

Molecular weight of compressed gas vary from 2 (Hydrogen) ~ 352 (uranium hexafluoride)

WHAT ARE COMPRESSORS APPLICATIONS ?
Compressors applications vary from home refrigerator to large complex petrochemical plants

Compressors can be used for:
Gas transmission through pipelines Storage and transmission of energy (e.g. shop air compression) Volume reduction for storage or transportation (e.g. LPG, LNG) Process requirements (e.g. chemical reactions) Energy conversion (e.g. Ref. system, heat pumps)

COMPRESSOR TYPES DYNAMIC Ejector Centrifugal Axial Rotary POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT Reciprocating Single Acting Double Acting Free Piston Vane Liquid Ring Screw Lobe Labyrinth Diaphragm .

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SELECTION OF COMPRESSORS .

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSORS RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS .

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSORS Positive Displacement Compressors. . are machines in which successive volumes of gas are confined within a closed space where the pressure is increased as volume of the closed space is decreased.

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS Reciprocating compressors are positive displacement machines that compress and move gases by using a combination of Rotational and Linear (Reciprocating) motion .

HOW RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS WORK ? Reciprocating compressors are positive displacement machines that compress and move gases by using a combination of Rotational and Linear (Reciprocating) motion Ideal Reciprocating Compressor cycle as following: Suction Compression Discharge Expansion .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS CLASSIFICATION Reciprocating compressors are available in:Single Acting (Trunk or automotive piston Type) Double acting (Cross Head Type) Cylinder Volume Trunk Piston Head-End Cylinder Volume Crank-End Cylinder Volume Rod Packing Connecting Rod Crank Piston Piston Rod Cross Head .

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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS CONSTRUCTION CRANK SHAFT Large Access To Crosshead Guide and Packing Robust Guides and Frame Large Selection of Standard Cylinders Heavy Duty Guide Support 44” (1118 mm) Throw Spacing Steel backed tri-metal Shoes and Bearings Consolidated Relief Valve simplifies the Oil System Digital No-Flow Lubrication Counter and Shutdown .

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Small Bore Piston & Step Liner Cylinder Body & Piston Rod Common To 3 Diameters Large Bore Piston & Stub Liner Medium Bore Piston & Liner Variable Volume Head – Common To 3 Diameters .

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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS VALVES CONSTRUCTION Plate valve .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS VALVES CONSTRUCTION .

Frame & Cylinder Lubrication Digital No-Flow Timer Oil Pressure Gauges Oil Filter Mount Divider Block Plate-type Oil Cooler Oil-level Controller (option) Pre-lube Pump Lubricator .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS CONSTRUCTION PISTON ROD PACKING .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS CONSTRUCTION CROSS HEAD .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS CONSTRUCTION CONNECTING ROD .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS CONSTRUCTION CRANK SHAFT .

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Variable Volume Clearance Pockets Locking Collar .

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS PULSATION DAMPENER .

COMPRESSORS GAUGE BOARD .RECIP.

RECIP. COMPRESSORS DRIVE METHODS Electric Motor .

RECIP. COMPRESSORS DRIVE METHODS Internal Combustion Gas Engine .

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS .

GAS AFTER ACCELERATION 3 1 3.GAS INITIAL CONDITION AT INLET 2 2.GAS AFTER DECELERATION FROM BENOLLI EQUATION: P3+RV3/2+RGZ3 = P2+RV2/2+RGZ2 .HOW CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS WORK? 1.

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS IMPELLER TYPES .

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HORIZONTALLY SPLIT COMPRESSORS TOP NOZZLES .

HORIZONTALLY SPLIT BACK TO BACK ARRANGEMENT COMPRESSORS .

HORIZONTALLY SPLIT HIGH FLOW COMPRESSORS .

VERTICALLY SPLIT COMPRESSORS TOP NOZZLES .

VERTICALLY SPLIT VERY HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSORS .

VERTICALLY SPLIT PIPELINE COMPRESSORS .

HIGH SPEED INTEGRALLY GEARED CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

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