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The Steel Book

A stronger, lighter and more sustainable world


SSAB's vision

The Steel Book

Contents
The world needs steel How steel is used SSAB in the world ofsteel HOW WE MAKE STEEL Ore-based hot metal and steel Scrap-based steel Strip products Heavy plate Rolling Quenching A sustainable world People and steel The future IN MORE DETAIL Ore-based hot metal and steel Secondary metallurgy and continuous casting Strip products Heavy plate 4 5 8

10 12 14 16 18 20 23

26 30 32 34 36

Production The Steel Book: SSAB Communications, Lena Westerlund. Reviewed by SSAB Technical Communication Committee Illustrations: Gunvor Ekstrm Mediagrak & illustration AB Design: Ola Hglund, Hglund Design AB Printing: Henningsons Tryckeri AB, Borlnge 2012

Glossary

The world needs steel


The global demand for steel is great. Annually about 1.4 billion tons of steelis producedin the world. The steel industry is central to our social structure, in particular our infrastructure, but steel also improves the everyday lives of most people.
Steel is one of the materials that most affects society simply because it is so prevalent in everyday life. It is hard to imagine a day without the use of steel in some shape or form. There is a need for steel for all forms of development and growth around the world. At the same time, demands for resource management and sustainable development are increasing, which benets SSAB as manufacturers of highstrength steels. Management of the Earth's resources requires energyefcient processes, including making the most efcient and smart use of steel. The steel industry is very energy intensive and uses large amounts of commodity resources, but at the same time steel can be recycled and used again and again. Steel scrap such as old cars, industrial machinery or railway equipment is melted down and turned into new steel and new products. About a third of the world's steel production is based on scrap recycling.

How SSAB's steel is used


SSAB has strong brands for steel plate for different applications, which require strength, wear resistance and formability. SSAB sells not only steel, but also the knowledge and services around the applications of its steels.
SSAB's steels are used for transporting, lifting or carrying, and for security applications. SSAB's high strength steels allow a user to reduce the weight of a product while increasing its strength and extending the life of various structures. These are properties that are especially valuable to manufacturers of construction machinery, mining equipment, trucks, cranes, and containers. These tough steels also are used for various safety applications in the automotive industry. SSAB also produces a variety of lower strength steels, which are used for various products within the manufacturing, construction, and energy (including wind turbines) industries.

Did YoU KNow?


Steel is the world's most important engineering material due to its high strength relative to weight and cost effectiveness. Steel is produced in many forms from thin sheets to thick load-bearing bridge girders. Industrial development requires steel. Steel is constantly evolving and is a high-tech material. Steel makes up part of a cycle, and is the world's most recycled material.

Garbage trUcKs carrY larger loads

Specialists

A Canadian garbage truck manufacturer has designed a vehicle which takes advantage of the breadth and possibilities of high strength steels. It is a front-loader garbage truck which can carry about 700 kg more payload using SSAB's steels compared to previous models. The new design has not only become lighter, but also can withstand higher compression in the hopper. The result is a more efcient vehicle that requires fewer trips and therefore has a reduced environmental impact.
DUmp trUcKs iN miNes

SSAB focuses on solving difcult problems. The company has specialists with unique expertise in everything from the steel properties such as strength, bending, cutting and joining to fatigue and wear. The close collaboration between SSAB's application engineers and customers contributes to new knowledge, new ideas and solutions to problems. SSAB is at the forefront of design, innovation, technology and environmental responsibility. The specialists in technical customer support are involved in new products and projects at an early stage. Collaboration with customers is very valuable for both parties.

Dump trucks for use in mining are exposed to very high wear conditions. A South African company uses high strength wear plate in its redesign of the truck bed to create a lighter and more durable component. The weight of the truck is reduced by 19%, nearly eight tons. As a result, operating and maintenance costs are reduced, as well as the impact on the environment due to lower emissions.

RIGHT: A front-loading garbage truck with approximately 700 kg higher payload capacity when SSAB's steel is used. BELOW: Reduced operating and maintenance costs and environmental impact when SSAB wear plate is used for dump trucks that are exposed to excessive wear.

HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL HAS MANY APPLICATIONS


1. For mining and heavy transport, resistance to wear and extreme dura bility are important characteristics. Hardox and Weldox give designers many possibilities. 2. Prelaq Energy was used for roofs and walls in the Swedish pavilion at the World Exhibition in Shanghai in 2010. The material makes it possible to reduce the energy consumption in buildings. 3. SSAB's steel is often used in award winning interior design, such as the bookshelf Cell by Peter Cohen. 4. For extreme racing gear Docol is a super-strong and light material. 5. Armox makes embassy buildings more secure. 6. Weldox increases the reach of cranes by utilizing the steel's extreme strength.

Learn more about SSAB's product brands on page 9.


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SSAB in the world ofsteel


In the world of steel, SSAB is a relatively small player, with a production capacity of 6 million tons of steel annually. SSAB has production facilities in Sweden and the U.S. SSAB steel production takes place in blast furnace processes using iron ore and coal, as well as in the steel mills that use recycled scrap as the raw material. It is customary to divide steel production into long products, such as pipes and beams, and at products, such as heavy plate and strip products. SSAB produces both plate and strip products. In Sweden, about 3.5 million tons of steel is produced using blast furnaces and rening equipment in Oxelsund and Lule. In Borlnge, there is a roll mill, which renes the steel into strip products. Oxelsund has the entire process chain with hot metal and steel manufacturing, as well as rolling facilities for rening heavy plate production. In the United States, SSAB has two steelworks that use scrap as the basis for the production of heavy plate. SSAB produces about 2.5 million tons of steel per year in the U.S.A. SSAB produces high strength steel that has several advantages from a sustainability perspective. The steels are stronger and can be used to build lighter equipment compared to ordinary steels. This means lower carbon emissions during equipment use. There is great demand for SSABs high strength steel products.

SSAB's product brands


Structural steel for lightweight and durable solutions. Used mainly in the transportation sector in truck beds, containers and chassis.

Wear plate for maximum payload and longer service intervals in truck beds, containers, buckets, and wear parts in raw material handling and recycling.

Cold rolled steel for light and safe components. Mainly in crash beams and seats of vehicles. Suitable for bending and forming.

THE COMPANIES PLANNJA AND TIBNOR AREINCLUDED IN THE SSAB GROUP


Tibnor Tibnor is a one-stop source of steel and metals for manufacturing, processing and construction companies in the Nordic countries and Baltic States. Tibnor is the leading distributor in the Nordic countries, and a strategic and long-term partner of the industry. Together with customers and suppliers the best solutions for materials, logistics and production aredeveloped. www.tibnor.se Plannja Plannja is one of Europe's leading brands within rened strip products for construction and sheet metal work, small house construction and other producers of housing modules. The production facilities in Lule, Jrnforsen and Landsbro deliver both product systems as well as custom-made solutions. This contributes to simple and economical construction and aesthetically pleasing buildings. www.plannja.com
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Structural steel for heavy and demanding applications. Used for cranes and other structures with requirements for high strength and good weldability.

Pre-painted sheet steel for environmentally-friendly construction products. A sustainable solution for roofs, walls, guttering and ttings.

Protective plate used for armored car transports, buildings, mine sweepers and personal property protection.

Steel for machine components and tools that can withstand extreme temperatures. Hardened and ready to go into production.

HOW WE MAKE STEEL

Ore-based hot metal and steel


In Sweden, SSAB produces strip products and heavy plate, while only heavy plate is produced in the United States. Swedish production is ore-based, and in the United States, production is scrap-based.
In Sweden, hot metal is produced from iron ore pellets in blast furnaces in Lule and Oxelsund. There alsois a small amount of scrapadded as the hot iron is rened into crude steel in LD converters. High strength steels derive their strength partially by the addition of alloying elements and partially by the manufacturing methods, for example, by quenching in rapid cooling processes in a matter of seconds. Precise precision is a prerequisite for product . SSAB's strength lies in the business concept where the company works with customers to nd optimal solutions.

3. The blast furnace is fed continuously with iron ore pellets, coke, limestone and additives.

1a. SSAB purchases coal from Australia and the United States. The coal is shipped by sea to Lule and Oxelsund.

2. The coking plant converts coal to coke and gas by heating in a battery of sealed furnaces. The gas is converted to energy. The coke goes to the blast furnace.

4. The hot metal is tapped as soon as the correct level in the blast furnace is reached. The carbon content is about 4.5%. The slag is skimmed off into a slag pot.

5. The hot metal is transported to the steelworks in a cigar-shaped railcar known as a torpedo car. This can hold approximately300 tons of liquid hot metal.

6. The hot metal is treated to remove sulphur.

1b. LKAB's iron ore pellets are shipped by rail to Lule and then onwards by sea to Oxelsund. 10

LEFT: The metallurgy processes

convert hot metal and scrap into molten steel. The steel is cast into a semi-finished slab product.
CENTER: The liquid hot metal is transported from the blast furnace to the steelworks in ceramic-lined vessels called torpedo cars. RIGHT: Heavy ladles with molten

steel in the production process can be transported by means of radio control.

9. In the continuous casting process, the steel is converted from molten to solid slabs. The temperature of the molten steel at the caster is approximately 1600C. 10. The mould consists of water-cooled copper plates, between which the steel solidies to form a long strand. 7. Hot metal and cooling scrap are charged into the LD converter. The operator injects oxygen at high pressure by means of a lance. The oxygen combines with the coal. The hot iron is considered to have been converted to steelwhen the carbon content has dropped to less than 1.7%. Alloying elements are added when the steel is tapped from the LD converter into steel ladles. 11. The steel strand is cut into slabs. The slabs are labeled and placed into piles to cool while awaiting shipment to the roll mills.

8. Fine tuning of the steel's chemical composition and temperature is carried out in the secondary metallurgy process. The steel also is vacuum treated to remove hydrogen and nitrogen, if required.

See also the in more detail section on page 26.


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HOW WE MAKE STEEL

Scrap-based steel
Recycling of scrap is a smart way to manufacture steel. Steel scrap has already been transformed into steel in its previous life and is an energy-efcient alternative to producing new steel. Moreover, it is good management of Earth's resources.
Steel scrap is the world's largest recycling system and covers the entire world in a global cycle. Scrap is always sorted carefully because the scrap steel can be alloyed and contain various additives. The scrap types suitable for the steel produced is selected. SSAB has scrap-based steelworks in Montpelier, Iowa and Mobile, Alabama. Scrap melting occurs in twin-shell electric arc furnaces. The scrap is rst preheated by means of natural gas. While the scrap is preheated with natural gas in one shell, scrap is melted using electric and chemical power in the other shell. Carbon electrodes immersed in the scrap bath creates a high current arc. The melted scrap is converted into new crude steel and is tapped into ladles.

1. Steel is the world's largest recycling system. Steel used in everyday life can be melted down to become new steel products.

2. Montpelier and Mobile use twin-shell, electric-arc furnaces for scrap melting. In one shell, scrap is preheatedusing natural gas, while in the other shell, scrap is melted using electric and chemical energy. Then, the molten steel is tapped into ladles.

3. At the ladles metallurgy furnaces, steel chemical composition and temperature is ne-tuned. Alloying elements are added, the carbon content is regulated, and the sulfur level is reduced. Some steel types also are vacuum treated to remove hydrogen and nitrogen.

4. The hot steel is turned into slabs by continuous casting. in an open, water-cooled, copper mould.

5. The slabs are heated in gas-red reheating furnace to a temperature needed for rolling.

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THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE


The electric arc furnace uses a high current and relatively low voltage, 6001200V, to melt the scrap. The power input is between 60100 MW. An arc is created between the electrodes and the scrap, which is grounded via the furnace shell. The arc creates a hot plasma that melts the scrap (comparable to lightning during a thunderstorm). The voltage varies with the distance between the electrodes and the scrap melting, and can be regulated.

LEFT: Steel scrap is recycled in SSAB's facilities in the U.S.

The scrap becomes raw material for heavy plate.


ABOVE: Finished plates at steelworks in the U.S. before being

shipped to customers.

Slag port

TAP HOLE

6. The steel slabs must be rolled to produce the required dimensions and properties. This is done in different ways at different sites. In the U.S., slabs are rolled on Steckel mills which have down coilers at both ends of the four-high rolling stand.

7. The heavy plate can be heated, quenched (rapidly cooled) and tempered to get the right properties.

8 Plates cool on a bed before they are painted, cut to length and prepared for delivery.
After all the scrap has been melted, the slag is poured off and the liquid crude steel is transferred to a ladle. Each charge contains 150 tons of steel in Montpelier and 175 tons of steel in Mobile.

Read about secondary metallurgy and continuous casting on page 30.

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HOW WE MAKE STEEL

Strip products
Rolling the sheet into thin dimensions takes place in hot mills, which the sheet passes through several pairs of rolls in a series one after another, each with a decreasing gap between the work rolls.
Consequently, the sheet becomes thinner as it passes through each rolling stand. This also increases the overall strip length. The process begins in the roughing mill followed by a hot strip mill in which the sheet is still glowing hot. Some of the hot rolled plate is then cold rolled to become even thinner and smoother.

6. Hot rolled strip products are sold as coils or cut into formatted sheets.

gldskal vatten

1. The slabs are heated in slab furnaces to the exact temperature for rolling about 1250C.

2. Mill scale is removed from the steel surface in several stages during hot rolling.

3. At the roughing mill, the thickness of the steel slabs isreducedfrom22 cm to 3 cm, and the length increases from 11 meters to nearly 80 meters. This partially-rolled slab is wound into a coil on the coil box.

4. In the nishing line, six stands (each with a pair of work rolls) reduce the nal thickness in the range of 1.8 and 16 mm.

5. The plate is water cooled to about 600C before winding the long strip into a coil.

Did YoU KNow?


A slab that is 11 m long, 22 cm thick and 1.5 m wide can be rolled down to 0.4 mm and then becomes a 6 km long strip.

7. The pickle bath removes the mill scale (oxide layer) formed during hot rolling. Pickling is carried out in hydrochloric acid solution and then the strip is rinsed in several steps.

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LEFT: A new water cooling section was built in Borlnge in 2011 The facility allows for the direct quenching of thinner plates in addition to conventional cooling. RIGHT: The pickled sheet is rolled in the Cold Roll Mill, this time without heating. This makes the plate thinner and harder.

14. Some sheet coils are hot-dip galvanized to provide a corrosion-resistant shield. This involves another heating step and immersion in molten zinc followed by cooling.

15. Hot-dip galvanized steel can be further treated, for example, by painting before delivery to customers.

8 Hot rolled 6 mm can be made thinner and smoother by cold rolling.

9. Strip products can be rolled as thin as 0.3 mm.

10 Cold rolled steel is hard and brittle. and it must be annealed at 850C in order to become formable again.

11. To harden the plate it is quickly cooled.

12. After cooling, there is usually another heating step (200500C) to make the hardened steel more formable.

13. Cold rolled sheet plate is sold as coils, or cut into formatted sheets.

See also the in more detail section on page 32.


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HOW WE MAKE STEEL

Heavy plate
SSAB's great success with high strength steel began in Oxelsund with a special cooling technology.
A rolling mill is needed in order to produce heavy plate. The thick, heavy steel slabs must be rolled out to become plates of the right thickness and width. SSAB's Swedish rolling mill for heavy plate, located in Oxelsund, is one of the strongest in the world.

1. Steel slabs are heated in slab reheating furnaces to the exact rolling temperature.

2. High pressure water sprays remove scale from the heat slabs.

3. The slab is rolled back and forth in the four-high rolling mill until the plate reaches the desired thickness and width.

4. SSAB's four-high rolling mill in Oxelsund works with forces of 100,000 kN (10,000 tons) and is one of the world's most powerful rolling mills.

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LEFT: Heavy plate is cut into manageable

lengths after rolling.


CENTER: The finished plate is blasted,

painted and labeled.


RIGHT: The granulation facility at the steelworks in Oxelsund converts hot metal into iron pellets.

5. The hot plates are cut into sheets of manageable lengths after rolling.

6. Quenching is done by rapid and evenly distributed cooling with water. This gives the plate its high-strength properties.

7. Heating (tempering) of the plate occurs at between 200700C. This makes the quenched plate more ductile.

8 The plate is cut to length before being blasted to provide a scale-free surface. Then the plate is labeled and painted with anticorrosive paint.

See also the in more detail section on page 34.


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HOW WE MAKE STEEL

Rolling Quenching

Steel slabs are large and heavy. They weigh about 25 tons each and must become thinner and lighter to be able to be used. Therefore, slabs are processed in roll mills. Slabs can be rolled into heavy plate, or strip products. Plate products are supplied in at form, while sheets can be supplied as either at sheets, or in coils.
The steel slabs are heated in furnaces until they become soft and glowing. The roll mill acts as a giant rolling pin, which rolls out the steel slab to its nal thickness. After rolling, the plate can be rapidly cooled, quenched and tempered and further treated. Some plate products are cut to length and painted before they are delivered to SSAB's customers. SSAB has rolling mills in Oxelsund, Borlnge, Montpelier and Mobile.
SSAB's focus on producing high strength steel started in Oxelsund in the 1970s. The brand Hardox is steel with exceptional wear resistance.

HOW TO MEASURE THE STRENGTH OF STEEL?


The strength of steel can be measured by a so-called tensile test, which a piece of steel is pulled with such force until it breaks into two pieces. One measure of strength is yield strength, which refers to the point where the steel loses its ability to regain its original shape. Draghllfastheten mts i Megapascal, MPa. An example of steel with very high yield strength is Docol 1500M. A 1 dm wide piece of metal which is 0.5 mm thick can resist a pulling force equivalent of six tons before it deforms permanently. The yield strength of Docol 1500M is 1,200 MPa. This means that the sheet metal piece is strong enough to lift ve connected normal size cars under each other. Another way to measure the strength of steel is the tensile strength the maximum load of the steel before breakup. Toughness and durability are also important characteristics of steel products.

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TOP: The hot strip mill in Borlnge manufactures sheet products. Slabs are reheated to about 1250C prior to rolling. LEFT: Sheet products can be delivered as coils, or as cut-to-length at sheet.

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A stronger, lighter and more sustainable world


SSAB's vision
SSAB's vision mirrors the direction the company is heading. SSAB's work method is consistently characterized by its respect for employees, partners, countries and environments in which it operates. SSAB has signed the UN Global Compact. The UN Global Compact is an initiative to promote corporate responsibility. Its frame-work comprises ten principles in the areas of human rights, labor rights, environment and corruption.
MaNagiNg resoUrces

The world's resources are nite. Therefore it is important to manage raw materials and use them as efciently as possible. The steel industry is central to social structure, and SSAB's high strength steel has several advantages from a sustainability perspective. Management of the worlds resources requires energy-efcient processes, and efcient and smart utilization of the nished steel. The business activity requires environmental efforts that contribute to a lasting and sustainable development. A lighter, but stronger design needs a smaller amount of steel, provides greater capacity, and reduces emissions of carbon dioxide. This leads to energy conservation, good management of resources, and a reduced environmental impact.

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ENergY

Ore

The steel industry is one of the world's most energy-intensive basic industries. Steel production uses mainly electricity and coal. The processes generate energy-rich gases from coke ovens and blast furnaces. Using the gases created from the processes means that, for example, the need for oil can be reduced. Using process gases as a raw material produces electricity in gas turbines in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. It covers half of SSAB's electricity needs for the production facilities in Lule, Oxelsund and Borlnge. Process gases also contribute to the production of district heating. The households connected to the district heating network in Oxelsund, Lule and Borlnge have SSAB as their district heating provider. Natural gas is used to preheat the processes of scrap recycling in SSAB's U.S. facilities. Thereafter, the scrap is melted in electric arc furnaces. Natural gas is also used for the slab reheating furnaces.

SSAB is one of the world's most energy-efcient steel producers. For example, the pellets provided by LKAB consist of 100% magnetite ore. This represents a major energy advantage. Magnetite ore requires less energy and generates only a third as much carbon dioxide compared to pellets made from hematite ore.
ENergY-efficieNt blast fUrNaces

SSAB's blast furnaces are some of the most energy-efcient in the world. The amount of coal and coke used per ton of hot metal are among the lowest. Efcient processes are crucial for the energy-efcient use of resources. Electric power and district heating produced by SSAB's process gases are examples of the efcient use of natural resources.

SSAB uses scrap as a raw material in the electric arc furnaces in the United States. Scrap is recycled using natural gas and electricity. SSAB uses scrap as a coolant in the LD converters in Lule and Oxelsund. SSAB recycles steel in both ore-based and scrapbased metallurgy.

Did YoU KNow?


SSAB annually awards the international Swedish Steel Prize. Every year in November, a winner who has made the best use of high strength steel in a design is selected from dozens of candidates.

THE LIFECYCLE OF STEEL


All steel can be recycled. Steel is one of the most recycled materials in the world. Used materials are melted down and turned into new products again. Scrap is an important raw material.

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Blast fUrNace slag

Blast furnace slag is formed during hot metal production and is a good raw material for cement-like binders, road materials, and other applications. The uses of blast furnace slag include road construction. It is sold under the name Hyttsten and has the advantage of being a lightweight construction material. Blast furnace slag contains lime and is therefore also used as a raw material for KRAV certied agricultural lime. Blast furnace slag is a good example of the resource management of raw materials in the steel industry.
MeroX

Merox is a subsidiary of SSAB operating primarily at the three production sites in Sweden. The company specializes in the handling and sale of by-products formed during steelmaking. Meroxs responsibilities include bringing ferrous materials back into SSAB's processes. Merox produces and sells products covering a wide range of areas, including construction materials for roads, riding tracks, raw materials for cement, fertilizer, magnets, and coloring pigments. Bringing materials back into the processes and using by-products as new materials are examples of effective management of the world's resources.
ABOVE LEFT: Hyttsten is an environmentally friendly road construction material for major and minor roads. ABOVE RIGHT: Finely crushed blast furnace slag (Hyttsten) a bearing surface layer for equestrian sports. LEFT: Fine-grained materials such as filter dust are mixed

with cement and used in the form of briquettes as a new raw material in the blast furnace.

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People and steelThefuture


SSAB is a knowledge-intensive company with sites on all continents and in over 45 countries. SSABs major production facilities are in Sweden and the United States. There are nearly 300 different professions in the company, and many employees are working locally and globally at the same time.
SSABs operations have a high knowledge content, and the company is dependent on the initiatives and innovation of all employees to continuously improve and streamline operations.
KNowledge-iNteNsive

Producing advanced steel products requires great knowledge and a thorough understanding of metallurgical processes. SSAB also conveys knowledge to its customers about how high strength steel can be used. New applications, designs and productsareconstantly developed together with customers. Hence the need for employees with skills and innovative ideas across many areas from marketing, research and development to logistics, production and process development. The impact on the environment can be reduced by constantly improving and streamliningthe various stages ofsteel manufacturing. Continuous professional development is essential in order for employees to meet their different missions and to contribute in the best way possible. Development opportunities within SSAB's operations are numerous.

Development opportunities for employees within SSAB are plentiful. There are close to 300 different professions within the company.

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ENviroNmeNt aNd safetY

SSAB is systematically and persistently working to create a safe working environment for all employees. The company's demanding work sites require a high level of safety-focused thinking from everyone involved. The goal of SSAB is to be the safest steel company in the world.
A fUtUre for YoU?

Are you a future employee? Do you want to be part of creating a stronger, lighter and more sustainable world?

To learn more, please visit: www.ssab.com/career or look us up on Facebook.

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Some of the more than 300 occupations that are represented at SSAB
Application and product developer Technician Electrician Seller Chemist HR partner Crane operator Bricklayer Controller Development engineer Metallurgist Project leader Researcher Strategic buyer Product developer Economist Application Engineer Fireman Planner Mechanic Continuous caster Constructor Ergonomist Logistician System developer Customer service engineer Welder Controls and control engineer Machine operator Truck driver IT architect Work environment engineer Construction leader Designer with different orientations

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IN MORE DETAIL

Ore-based hot metal and steel


CoKiNg plaNts

INSIDE THE BLAST FURNACE

The blast furnace is charged continuously with iron ore pellets, coke and additives from the top.

In addition to iron ore pellets, SSAB uses both pulverized coal and coke for producing hot metal. SSAB metallurgical processes have coking plants in Lule and Oxelsund. Injection coal and coke are the reduction agents in the blast furnace process. At the core of the coking plant is the coking battery which comprises a number of tall, narrow ovens. Coking is a dry distillation process, i.e. combustion without access to oxygen. The black coal is charged by coal machines above the oven battery. The ovens have brick partitions in which the heating wall channels are heated by the gas generated in the coking battery itself, possibly mixed with blast furnace gas. The coal is heated in the narrow, airtight ovens until it is in an almost uid-owing, plastic form. The elements that are to be removed will then be gasied. The total process takes approximately 18 hours. The temperature is above 1000C and the coal is converted to 75% coke and 25% gas. The coking plant has a series of processes in which the gas is puried in several steps and many raw materials are recovered. The most important is the puried coke oven gas that provides energy to the coking plant and other facilities, such as the blast furnace.

Raw materials are also recovered for use in the chemical process industry, such as sulphur for agricultural fertilizer use, tar and asphalt. Other customers to the coking plant include manufacturers of perfumes and pharmaceuticals.
Blast fUrNaces A smeltiNg redUctioN process

Puried process gas is an important energy source for SSAB's own processes, for power generation and district heating.

The gas from the reduction process rises through the burden. It consists of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

150 C

One hundred years ago, Sweden had approximately 120 blast furnaces. Combined, they produced about half a million tons of hot metal per year. Today, Sweden has three blast furnaces, all of which are owned by SSAB. The largest of them is in Lule, and this aloneproduces2.5 million tons of hot metal per year. There are two smaller blast furnaces in Oxelsund. SSAB's total hot metal capacity is just over 4 million tons. All Swedish hot metal is produced using pellets from the LKAB ore deposits in northern Sweden. The LKAB pellets are produced from magnetite ore and have a high iron content more than 66%. LKAButilizes the properties of the magnetite ore in its pellets, so that a lower amount of energy is needed for producing the blast furnace pellets. The high purity of the LKAB pellets provides SSAB with benets in hot metal production.

The furnace's interior temperature reaches approximately 2200C. The melting reduction process combines the ore's oxygen with coal.

Hot blast air is forced with high pressure through large nozzles, called tuyeres.

Pulverized coal is injected at high pressure to the blast air.

1 400 - 1 800 C Malmen smlter

The hot blast air meets the ore and coke in the blast furnace belly. The burden lets the process gasthrough, while the molten iron drips down.

2 200 C Koks frbrnns

1 500 C Rjrn tappas ut

The hot metal is collected at the bottom of the blast furnace, the hearth.

Tapping goes on for two hours and then there is a 4050 minutes break before the next tapping takes place. The slag is separated from the hot metal using a skimmer. The iron temperature is more than 1500C.

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RedUciNg elemeNts, additives

In order to convert ore pellets into hot metal in the blast furnace, the oxygen in the ore must be removed. This is called reduction. The blast furnace process is a melting reduction process. In the iron ore, the iron is bound to oxygen as magnetite, with the chemical formula Fe3O4. Fe is the chemical symbol for iron and O the chemical symbolfor oxygen. The numerals specify the number of atoms of each element. A reducing agentthat will combine with the oxygen at high temperature must be added. Carbon, with the chemical symbol C, is used as a reducing agent in the form of coke and injection coal.
Hot metal flowiNg aroUNd the clocK

The blast furnace is continuously charged around the clock from the top with iron ore pellets, coke and additives. The coke supports the large column of ore and coke inside the blast furnace. The particle size of the coke allows the molten hot metal to trickle down and the gas to rise through the blast furnace. Some of the coke can be replaced by injecting pulverized coal to the blast furnace'sblast air.

Hot blast air is supplied at high pressure though a number of large nozzles under the broad belly of the blast furnace, where pulverized coal is injected at the same time. The blast air nozzles are known as tuyeres. The blast air is heated in tall brick towers, cowpers or heaters using energy recovered from the blast furnace gas and coke gas. The reduction process takes place inside the ceramic-lined blast furnace, where the temperature is 2200C in the hottest zone. The iron melts at about 1500C. When the iron has been reduced and melted, it trickles down and collects at the bottom of the blast furnace, which is known as the hearth. The blast furnace is tapped at a uniform rate. Tapping takes place during two hours and is then interrupted for 4050 minutes before the next tapping.
BUT WHAT HAPPENS TO THE OXYGEN AND CARBON THAT HAVE BEEN REDUCED?

The carbon monoxide is rich in energy. The blast furnace gas is recycled as energy for the processes of the blast furnace itself and for other energy customers in the steelworks. It is also used for power generation and district heating. SSAB participates in research on how carbon monoxide can be recycled and used in the reducing process. SSAB is also involved in research projects which aim to halve carbon emissions of future steel production.

SLAG

When the hot metal is tapped from the blast furnace, the slag is also discharged. The slag consists mainly of silicon and lime. The silicon is a residue from the ore gangue the rock that surrounds the ore veins. Lime is added to the blast furnace process in order to collect silicon and other undesired substances to form a slag. The slag oats on top of the molten hot metal. It is separated by the runner and then tapped separately. The slag is recycled once it has cooled and solidied.

They form two gases, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, COandCO2, which are discharged from the blast furnace through large pipes to a treatment facility.

EFFICIENT BLAST FURNACES IN WESTERN EUROPE


The blast furnaces in Sweden recirculate furnace soot in the form of briquettes in the process a way to recycle materials so that they are used as efciently as possible. Blast furnace 3 at SSAB in Lule is the most energyefcient furnace in its category. Blast furnace 4 in Oxelsund uses injected furnace soot another way to recycle by-products.

Barrel at Blast furnace 3 in Lule.

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IN MORE DETAIL

Ore-based hot metal and steel

The LD process
The LD process is an oxygenrelated steelmakingmethod used to decarburize iron, i.e. to lower the carbon content so that the iron isconverted into malleable steel. Hot metal is converted into steel when the carbon content has been lowered to 1.7%.

The puried process gas is very rich in energy and is used both in our own processes for metallurgy and for energy for consumers. Half of SSAB's electricity demands are met by its own process gases, primarily from the blast furnace but also from the coking plant and the LD process.

DESULPHURIZATION OF HOT METAL

STEEL PRODUCTION USING THE LD PROCESS

The LD converter has a thick lining of a special ceramic brick. The bricks and tap hole wear out and must be replaced at regular intervals.

The oxygen lance is inserted in the molten metal and oxygen is blown at high pressure into the vessel.

The hot metal is transported in liquid form to the steelworks for rening via ceramic-lined vessels, called torpedoes. The hot iron is close to 1500C, and contains about 4.5% carbon, 0.1% sulphur and 0.5% silicon. In the rst step, the sulphur is removed by rening by adding magnesium oxide or calcium carbide to the molten metal. It binds the sulphur to form a liquid slag which is skimmed off the top of the hot metal. Transportation of hot metal and steel at the steelworks is done by ceramic-lined containers, ladles.

The oxygen reacts with the carbon to make carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. The oxygen infusion continues until the predetermined carbon content has been reached. 1.7% is the threshold between the brittle hot metal (pig iron) and malleable steel. The tapping temperature is over 1600C.

The LD process (converter) is a steel-making method in which hot metal is decarburized and converted to steel by blowing oxygen from above into the molten metal with a water-cooled lance. Hot metal is converted into steel when the carbon content has been lowered to 1.7%. The nal carbon content can vary from 1% for very hard carbon steel to only a few hundredths for steel with ultralow carbon content. Such ultra low-carbon steels are soft and pliable. Besides hot metal, scrap is also added to the converter. Scrap is an important raw material in the LD process and is melted without the addition of any other energy a highly energy-efcient recycling method. The scrap is added primarily to cool the molten metal which sees a sharp rise in temperature when oxygen reacts with, for

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The hot liquid steel is continuously cast into manageable slabs.

example, carbon and silicon. The carbon reacts with the oxygen and forms carbon monoxide, while other elements, such as silicon, form a slag. Burnt lime is also added to capture silicon and other unwanted substances in the slag. When the hot metal is tapped to a ladle, at a temperature of about 1700C, a variety of alloying elements also are added. These will form the basis of the steel analysis which will be manufactured.
ENERGY-RICH GASES

The puried process gas is very rich in energy and is used in our own processes for metallurgy and as energy for consumers. For example, half of SSAB's electricity needs in Lule, Borlnge and Oxelsund is produced using our own process gases, mainly from the blast furnace but also from the coking plant and the LD process.

In Lule, BorlngeandOxelsund, house-holdsreceivedistrictheating with the help of SSAB. SSAB gas produces steam that drives turbines with electric generators. The hot water is used for district heating. The top picture shows one of the blast furnaces in Oxelsund which, besides hot metal, also produces energy-rich gas.

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IN MORE DETAIL

Secondary metallurgy and continuous casting


All raw steel is converted into slabs by continuous casting. SSAB produces about 500 different grades, each with its own special "recipe". Steel grades and quality demands are constantly evolving.
Liquid steel is tapped from the bottom of the ladle to an intermediate vessel, called a tundish. The temperature is now below 1600C.

The mould is an open mould with four water-cooled plates that the hot steel glides between. A hardened shell is formed when casting. The casting temperature is now around 1540C. Various alloying elements such as niobium, manganese, titanium, boron and aluminum are added at the secondary metallurgy process. Gas can be added in the secondary metallurgy both via lance and bottom ushing. SSAB has several different processes for secondary metallurgy. This ne-tunes the steel's analysis and temperature. The recipe book contains 500 different types of steel. Accuracy is measured in hundredths of a percent. Some steel types can also be vacuum treated to remove hydrogen and nitrogen. Cooling continues by quenching with water sprayed throughout the strand. The steel is still glowing hot, but has solidied throughout when it is cut into slabs by oxygen lances. The temperature is 1000C. Each slab is labeled before being placed on a cooling bed.

SECONDARY METALLURGY

Whether the hot metal is produced by ore-based or scrap-based raw materials, the operators fine-tune the temperature, and the amounts of various alloying elements. Analytical limits are very tight and tolerances are small. Each type of steel has a unique recipe that must be followed exactly. The operators use computers and analytics with rapid
30

laboratory evaluations to ensure that the steel contains the correct amount of the right ingredients and that the steel is at the right temperature. The requirements and degree of accuracy are identical across all SSAB steelworks, although the processes may differ. The steel can also be subjected to vacuum treatment for extremely high

purity, such as hydrogen and nitrogen removal.


Steel with precisioN

Accuracy is an important factor in the various manufacturing steps for SSAB's steel types. Hard or soft steel? This is determined in secondary metallurgy. The recipe follows every ladle right from the steelwork's rst processing step at the desulphurization

station through to the LD converters, vacuum treatment, and nally continuous casting. SSAB utilizes various carbon contents and alloys to achieve the desired strength and ductility. SSAB high strength steels belong to the family of low-alloy steel grades.

CoNtiNUoUs castiNg

Continuous casting is a process to convert the 1600C hot liquid steel into manageable slabs. The ladle carrying the liquid steel is placed in a holder. From here, the steel is tapped through a casting pipe to a tundish. The tundish is anintermediate vessel used during casting to allow the changeover from one ladle to another without any interruption in the process. Continuous casting is done using a watercooled mould, which is open both at the top and bottom. A casting powder is used, so that the steel slides smoothly through the mould. Powerful water-cooling of the mould's casting platesimmediatelygives the hot liquid melt a shell of hardened steel. The cooled steel shrinks in volume as it is withdrawn from the underside of the mould in a long strand. The strand is continuously cooled on its arcshaped path down to the cutting station. At this stage, the steel is still hot and glowing, but is sufciently solid to enable the strand to be cut with movable oxygen torches into pieces up to 11 m long.
Slabs

Swedish operations cast thicker slabs compared to the works in the United States which cast thinner and wider slabs. Each slab receives an "ID number" and is a carefully recorded entity intended for a specic end-product. Samples of the steel are taken throughout the production chain and ultimately also from the nished slab. All slabs are inspected and some further treatment may be required, such as grinding. The slabs are cooled in different ways. Some sensitive steel slabs require slow cooling at a steady pace and are allowed to cool under special hoods. The metallurgy process takes 12 hours from iron and steel production through to it becoming a steel slab, ready for rolling into sheets.
The steel commUter traiN

A recipe
SSAB produces the high strength steel Docol which is used, for example, for side impact protection in car doors to protect in a collision. To arrive at that particular steel grade, carbon, manganese, silicon and other alloying elements are used. After rolling, the sheet is still 600C when it is rolled up on coils. At this point, the sheet is 4 mm thick. The cold rollup mill reduces the sheet thickness to 1.5 mm, a standard thickness for safety features in cars. After cold rolling, the material is hard and brittle. That is why the sheet is heat-treated, which makes it moldable. To gain the highest strength, the plate can also be annealed and then cooled rapidly. This is an example of how SSAB produces steel grades according to customer requirements.

The steel commuter train is a train system in Sweden between Lule, Borlnge, and Oxelsund. Slabs are transported from Oxelsund and Lule to Borlnge for rolling. Borlnge then sends the nished strip product coils to Oxelsund where they are shipped worldwide from the Steel Harbor in Oxelsund.

A comparisoN
The steel in the Eiffel Tower in Paris weighs 7300 tons. At full operation, the steel commuter train between Lule and Borlnge carries 7000 tons per day on four trains. Every day, shipments equate to almost the weight of the Eiffel Tower. The cast iron manufactured in 1889, when the Eiffel Tower was erected, had a tensile strength of 200 MPa (megapascals). Today, SSAB's high strength steel with a tensile strength of 1400 MPa could be used for a new Eiffel Tower. It would reduce the weight by 40%.from 7300 tons to 3000 tons

Slabs can vary in length, width and thickness depending on in which of SSAB's plants the slabs are produced. A common slab weighs 25 tons. The steel from one ladle is enough for a handful of slabs, and is the smallest quantity of the same grade of steel that SSAB can produce.

IN MORE DETAIL

Strip products
Hot rolliNg

The slabs are heated to approximately 1250C in two furnaces at the works in Borlnge, using oil or gas as an energy source. The slabs are then rolled initially in the roughing mill. The thickness is reduced to 3 cm after ve passes back and forth in the roughing mill. The glowing hot slab hasthengrown in length from a slab measuring 11 m to an intermediate slab measuring 80 m. It is then wound up as a coil in the so-called coilbox and transferred to the nishing strip mill. The plate is then further rolled down to a thickness of between 1.816 mm in a continuous manner through six different mill stands. At the end of the hot strip mill, the steelreachesa speed of 120 km per hour. The decrease in thickness means the sheet must expand in a longitudinal direction. The speed increases with each mill stand, and is fastest at the end. At a nalthickness of 2 mm, the sheet strip has grown to a length of 1300 m.
QUeNchiNg

After cooling, the sheet undergoes a descaling treatment in one of two so-called pickling lines. During rolling, mill scale (iron oxide) is formed on the plate through its contact with air. In the acid pickling baths, the mill scale is removed from the sheet surface.
Cold rolliNg aNd ANNealiNg

A coil of hot rolled sheet can weigh 24 tons.

After the nal rolling stand, the sheet is cooled. For some grades of steel the cooling process is very rapid. Other steel grades require slower cooling. In the quenching line, the strip is rapidly cooled at about 100C per second. This gives the sheet its hardness and strength. SSAB can roll the world's toughest hot rolled strip in Borlnge.

Whenthe customer requires thinner plate than that obtained by hot rolling, the sheet must be cold rolled. Cold rolling gives a more precise thickness and a smoother surface. In the cold roll mill, the sheet is cold rolled in a rolling mill with ve consecutive pairs of rolls. Each rolling stand has two working rollers and two backup rollers. In order to make the plate thinner, high roll forces, as well as sheet tension are required between each pair of rolls. Everything happens automatically at high speed with the help of computers. Cold rolling makes the plate brittle and hard in the rst stage. This is because the grains in the structure of the steel have become elongated and deformed. Cold rolled sheet must therefore be annealed. Heating to a sufciently high temperature causes new grains to grow at the expense of the deformed grains, and restores the formability of the sheet.

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THE STRUCTURE OF STEEL


The steel's grain structure is affected by rolling. 1. In hot rolling, the steel regains its grain structure after rolling. 2. Cold rolling produces stretched and deformed grains. This makes the plate hard and brittle. 3. Heat treatment creates new tension-free grains, and the plate becomes formable again. A very strong grain structureis created by subsequent quenching and rapid cooling. Tempering (reheating) increases the steel's ductility in one last step. 1.

2.

3.

The rolled strip products in Borlnge are wound up as coils before continuing.

ANNealiNg aNd qUeNchiNg

SSAB's specialty is extremely high strength steels. To obtain a higher strength, the sheet must be quenched. This is done by annealing and rapid cooling. The extreme rapid cooling affects the ne structure of the steel grains The rapid cooling locks to carbon atoms in place, and causes the increase in strength. The thickness of cold rolled plate can vary from 0.3 to 3 mm. A cold rolled sheet that is 0.6 mm thick, becomes a coil of 4 km sheet.

The sheet also can be painted and is then coated with several layers of paint in a continuous process. The paint is applied on the moving strip by rubber rolls, and then passes through drying furnaces before being coiled up again. SSAB has painting lines for strip metal in Borlnge and Finspng.
CUTTING TO LENGTH

Strip products can be delivered as either coils or as at, cut-to-length sheet. Plate rolls are called coils. A large proportion of the produc tion tonnage is cut-to-length to suit the CoatiNg customers' exact needs. This process is Cold rolled sheet can be further processed carried out in shearing lines using forces by coating. Hot-dip galvanizing provides sufciently high to cut even the strongest good corrosion protection. In hot-dip galvanizing, the strip is rst annealed and then steels. To divide the wide coils into narrower strips, the material runs through a slitting line. cooled to 470C before passing through a molten zinc bath. After the nal cooling, the sheet passes through trimming and leveling rolls to provide it with the nal properties.

ABOVE, LEFT: Cut-to-length sheet. ABOVE, RIGHT: A thin layer of zinc gives

the sheet good rust protection.


RIGHT: Galvanized sheet can be

painted in a wide range of colors. The paint is applied with rubber rollers and quickly dried in curing furnaces.

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IN MORE DETAIL

Heavy plate
The slabs for making heavy plates are 1529 cm thick. The slabs are cut to the right length before being rolled.

Oxelsund has one of the strongest reversing four-high mills in the world. The separating force is 100,000 kN (10,000 tons). Here, 29 cm thick slabs are rolled to plate with thicknesses ranging all the way from 150 mm to 4 mm. The plates can be up to 40 m long. Four-high rolling means that four heavy rolls, two work rolls and two backup rolls, deform the plate with tremendous forces in a number of passes back and forth through the rollup stand.
HeavY plate oN a coil

to the other downcoiler back and forth in a number of rolling passes until the plate reaches the nal thickness. Plates up to 3 m wide can be rolled in Mobile and Montpelier, and they can be delivered as either at plate or as large coils.
Rapid cooliNg gives eXtreme streNgth

In the United States, Steckel rolling mills are used to manufacture heavy plate. The Steckel mills are similar to four-high reversing plate mills and also uses a four-high mill stand with work rolls and backup rolls through the rolling stand. However, Steckel mills also have heated coil boxes on each side of the rolling standm where the plate can be held between rolling passes (to minimize temperature loss). During the later rolling passes, the plate is run from one downcoiler
The four-high mill in Oxelsund is one of the strongest rolling mills in the world. The separating force is 100,000 kN (10,000 tons).

High strength steels are nished in SSAB's quenching lines. Quenching takes place through rapid cooling. The rapid cooling is done using water under very high pressure. SSAB was one of the pioneers in the development of high strength steels. SSAB is increasing its quenching capacity in both Sweden and the United States. An increasing volume of high strength steels are being produced.

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TEMPERING
Steel can take on different atomic structures, phases, which differ partly by the degree of hardness and/or ductility. By quenching, heating and rapid cooling, the steel transformsinto the martensite phase, which is very hard. Thereafter, the steel can be heat-treated to improve formability and reduce the risk of cracking. The tempering of hardened steel is a process used to increase the steel's ductility and reduce its hardness. To achieve this, the steel is reheated to 200700C. In this way, the ductility of most steel types increases.

ABOVE LEFT: SSAB steel is manufactured with a view to achieving different properties, such as Weldox for high strength and weldability. ABOVE, RIGHT: Monitoring the process from the control room. RIGHT: In Oxelsund, heavy plate is manufactured with a variety of properties including hardness, ductility and wear resistance. The steel's special properties are created with SSAB's different processes with alloying elements, heat treatment, quenching and rapid cooling.

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Dictionary, steel language


A
Abrasion resistance Ability to withstand abrasive wear; wear resistance Alloy Blending, mixing Alloying elements Substances that bind with iron or other metals, and alter the metal's properties Annealing Heat treatment, heating to above 680 degrees [Celsius], usually to make steel softer Application Final customer/end- product for which a certain grade of steel is used Application engineers Specialists in the properties and workshop performance of the mate-rials, with a focus on developing new applications Coiling, coiler Machine part that receives sheet or plate from the rolling mill and winds it into a coil Coilbox Rolling machinery for intermediate storage of partially-rolled plate between passes Coils Large rolls of rolled sheet Coke Dry-distilled coal converted into a metallic hard and porous form by heating in sealed ovens Cold rolling Technique in which hot rolled plate is rolled out to thinner dimensions without prior heating Cowpers Heaters, ceramic towers used for heating the blast air Continuous casting Method of casting steel in continuous long strands, which are then cut up into slabs Crude steel Iron that has been decarburized to remove part of the carbon in the molten metal but that has not yet been rened into a denite steel grade Cutting station Station in which the steel strand is cut into slabs Dry distillation process Combustion in the absence of oxygen Dual phase steel High strength steel that has a soft (ferrite) and a hard (martensite) microstructure, resulting in a desired combination of good ductility with high strength Dust lter Cleaning facility for gas or air in which the dust is separated and collected for recycling Heavy plate Plate with dimensions of and above 3 mm rolled in reversing plate or Steckel mills Hematite Fe2O3, non-magnetic iron ore High strength steel Steels which have been developed a higher strength by micro-alloying, heat treatment or so-called thermo-mechanical treatment Hot-dip galvanizing Method of applying an anti-corrosive coat of molten zinc and aluminum to the surface of sheet steel Hot metal Iron with a carbon content above 1.7% Hot rolling Technique in which slabs are heated in furnaces to high temperatures prior to rolling to reduce the slabs thickness Hot sheet mill Hot strip mill for wide, rolled strips wound into coils

E
Electric arc furnace Technique using high voltage between electrodes to create an arc that melts scrap Electrical arc furnance process Electrical method to melt iron and steel

B
Basic industries Industries for extracting and processing raw materials Blast air Heated air that is blown into the blast furnace at high pressure Blasting Sand or small steel balls are blasted, often with water, at high pressure against a surface to clean it, for example, before painting Burden The contents of a blast furnace and the supply of raw materials such as ore pellets, lime, coke and coal Bustle pipe Pipe around the blast furnace through which blast air is supplied and distributed

F
Fatigue Deterioration of a material's strength caused by frequent changes in the mechanical state of stress Four-high reversing rolling mill A roll mill with two work rollers and two backup rolls that exert very high forces to reduce the thickness of slabs to plate in a number of passes

I
Impact guards Energy-absorbing vehicle feature for protection in the event of a collision. Injection coal Finely ground coal which is injected into the blast furnace at high pressure without rst being converted to coke Iron ore pellet Balls of puried compressed iron ore powder

D
Decarburizing Steelworks process where hot metal is converted into crude steel by reducing the carbon content Desulphurization Method used for removing sulphur from the hot metal or steel, e.g. by the addition of carbide ormagnesium oxide District heating Heating systems for cities and communities through a central energy producer and pipes carrying hot water to consumers. It can use different energy sources, such as SSAB's process gases District heating power plant Combined heat and power (CHP) plant power plant that generates both electric power and steam for district heating. Uses steam turbines that drive electric generators. Used steam then produces hot water

G
Granulation Liquid slag or steel is rapidly cooled in water in such a way that it turns into ne grains similar to coarse sand, i.e. granules

L
Ladle Containers for transporting or treating hot, liquid metal Ladle change Changeover from an empty ladle to a ladle fullof molten steel (at the caster) LD converter Steel process named after Linz Donawitz that consists of a vessel and lance for treatment with oxygen. Converts hot iron metal into crude steel by decarburizing Low alloy steels Steel whose properties have been changed with low amounts of alloying elements as opposed to high-alloy steel, oftenstainless

C
Carbon dioxide, CO2 Colorless gas, soluble in water to produce carbonic acid, what gives soft drinks their zz, and by making up 0.03% of the atmosphere is one of the so-called greenhouse gases Carbon monoxide, CO Colorless and odorless energy-rich gasthat burns with a blue ame, poisonous. When burnt, carbon dioxide isformed
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H
Hearth The blast furnace bottom where molten hot metal is collected Heat Refers to a batch of a given recipe from the steel shop

M
Magnetite Fe3O4, magnetic iron ore Melting reduction process Process used for melting and removing unwanted elements from metal raw materials Metallurgy The science of the production of metal and its properties Mill scale Residual scale (iron oxide) on the surface of the plate during and after hot rolling Mill stand A set of two or more cylindrical rollers in a machine Mould Casting mould

Process/methods Way to extract raw materials and manufacture products in a continuous process without interruption Process water Water from cooling or treatment in various SSAB processes. Always treated and can often be recirculated

Slag By-products of slabs separated in metallurgical processes, includes lime and silicon from coal and coke ash Steckel roll mill Four-high rolling mill with Steckel coiling furnaces at each side of the rolling stand. The plate is recoiled after each rolling pass in there coilboxes Steel Alloy of iron and carbon with a carbon content below 1.7% Steel commuter train Train system for the transportation of slabs between Lule, Borlnge and Oxelsund Steel slab Semi-nished product used for producing steel plate or sheet Strand Strand of cast steel Strength The material's ability to resist, for example, tensile stress without deforming(yield strength) or rupture (tensile strength) or cyclic loading leading to fatigue failure Strip products Thin sheet with a maximum thickness of 16 mm. Can be cold rolled down to 0.20.3 mm Submerged entry nozzle Ceramic tube that protects the steel against contact with air during casting Surface treatment, surface coating Cleaning, grinding or coating of surfaces, e.g. by galvanizing and/or painting

V
Vacuum cleaning Method to vacuum clean the steel from hydrogen and nitrogen

Q
Quenching Rapid cooling to make the steel harder

Yield strength The maximum stress that the steel can withstand without sustaining permanent deformation. At stresses below the yield strength the material deforms only elastically like a rubber band

R O
Ore wagon Railway car for transport of chunk ore, iron ore or pellets Oxygen lance Tubular lance for injection of oxygen into a liquid steel bath Recycling Restoring used products or by-products to a new cycle of production and use Reducing agents Substances that can unite with an undesirable substance in a process, such as carbon which can remove oxygen from iron ore Roll passThe steel's passage one time through rolling stand reduces the thickness Rolling mill Machinery using cylindrical rollers to roll out steel to thinner dimensions Roughing mill Two cylindrical rough rollers which reduce the slab to a thinner dimension prior to nish rolling Runner (for tapping the molten steel) Runner with a ceramic lining for controlling the hot metal

P
Pair of rolls A pair of cylindrical rolls used to reduce the plates thickness using high pressure Payload The useful load a vehicle can carry. If the truck's own weight is reduced, the load can be increased by an equivalent amount Phases Steels have different crystal structures at different temperatures and a number of different phases depending on heat treatment, alloy variety, quenching, cooling, etc. Best known are martensite (quenched), ferrite (pure iron) and austenite (non-magnetic) Pickling line Process line that uses dilute acid for descaling hot rolled sheet Post-treatment Heat treatment, cooling, etc. to give the steel certain properties; also galvanizing, painting and cutting to length Process gas Gas from metallurgical processes, often rich in energy

T S
Scrap Used materials that can be crushed and recycled, such as steel scrap Secondary metallurgy Technique for the ne adjustmentof alloying elements, purity and temperature of the steel Slab furnace Furnace used for heating steel slabs to rolling temperature Slabs Steel slabs Tempering Heating to 200700C with the aim of making hardened steel tougher and less susceptible to cracking Tensile strength Maximum strength that can be applied without breaking Torpedo car, torpedo Cylindrical railcar lined with bricks and used for transporting the hot metal from the blast furnace to steel shop Tundish Intermediate containment vessel used during casting to be able to pass the liquid steel between the ladle and casting mold
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Lule Borlnge Oxelsund

bUsiNess areas

SSAB AMERICAS
Annual turnover Crude steel volume Niche products Number of employees SEK 45 billion 5.7 million tons of crude steel 1.7 million tons 9000

Sales office Steelwork Rolling mill Distribution center

SSAB EMEA SSAB APAC

LARGE PRODUCTION SITES


Sweden United States China Exporting countries Lule, Borlnge, Oxelsund, Finspng Montpelier (Iowa), Mobile (Alabama) Kunshan More than 100 countries SSAB is a certied company within quality, environment and occupational environment, and fulls the requirements of the following standards: Lule: ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 and AFS 2001:1 Borlnge, Finspng: ISO 9001, ISO/TS 16949 and ISO 14001 Oxelsund: ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 Mobile: ISO 14001, ISO 9001 and OHSAS 18001 Montpelier: ISO 14001, ISO 9001, and OHSAS 18001

Figures from 2011. For more information, visit www.ssab.com

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SSAB has employees in over 45 countries, and production facilities in Sweden and the United States. SSAB is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Nordic Exchange, Stockholm.

www.ssab.com

1000-EN-The Steel Book-V2-2011 Hglund Design AB. Henningsons Tryckeri.

SSAB is a leading global provider of high strength steel. SSAB offers products developed in close cooperation with customers to create a stronger, lighter and more sustainable world.