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PROBLEMS OF THE CITY OF YASRIB: Yasrib is a city located 300 miles to the north of Makkah, on the route to Syria,

, in the north-west corner of Hijaz. Fleeing from the persecution of the Babylonian, Greek and Roman empires, the Jews settled at Yasrib, Khyber, Fadak and other places in northern Arabia. There were three tribes of Jews settled in Madina, Banu Nazir, Banu Qunayqa and Banu Qurayza. In the 4th Century AD, two Arab Himyarite tribes of Aus and Khajraz, migrating from Yemen, settled in Madina. Jews threatened the idol-worshipping Aus and Khazraj that soon they would have a Jewish prophet and then, they would vanquish their enemies. Aus and Khizraj soon dominated the Jews and took away some of their property. However, the two tribes started fighting each other. Banu Nazir, Banu Qurayza and Aus formed one alliance while Banu Qaynuqa and Khazraj formed another alliance. There was constant bloodshed. In 616 AD, the more numerous Khazraj lost the Battle of Buath and lost their date orchards and there was horrendous destruction of life and property. Just like Makkah, Madina lacked a real ruler. Wars between the Aus and Khazraj were getting too frequent, and were destroying precious resources and property. First conversion of Yasribites: In the 11th year of prophethood, hearing of a prophet in Makkah, six people from the Yasribite tribe of Khazraj came to Muhammad (PBUH) during the pilgrimage season. They saw that Muhammad (PBUH) was indeed the prophet that the Jews thought would come from among them. They seized the opportunity and accepted Islam. Muhammad (PBUH) sent Hazrat Musab bin Umair with them to assist the preaching of Islam. First Pledge a1of Aqabah: In the 12th year of prophethood, twelve people came from Yasrib and accepted Islam. These Muslims helped spread Islam in the city of Yasrib. Second Pledge of Aqabah: In the 13th year of prophethood, seventy five people came from Yasrib to take the usual pledge. Islam began to spread very rapidly after this. Importance of Hijrat: I. Starting point of Muslim calendar. II. Hijrat saved Islam from becoming just another small sect in Makkah. III. Starting point of Islamic consolidation and expansion. IV. Madina became a center around which all the tribes of Arabia were united into a nation. V. Hijrat gave Muslims a chance to learn and develop their religion. VI. Hijrat revealed the moral and physical strength of the Muslims. VII. Put an end to the vicious rivalry between Aus and Khazraj. VIII. Hijrat provided the Holy Prophet (PBUH) with an opportunity to practically establish an Islamic state based on the principles of equality, fraterninty, brotherhood, justice, fair-play and welfare of all citizens. IX. Having gathered together in one land, the Muslims were now able to defend Islam effectively and proclaim its teachings to everyone around. X. As the Muslims now actually had a country based on solid foundations, it enabled them to take necessary steps to keep that country strong and stable.

XI. The Muslims were able to invite people to the fold of Islam not only in Macca or Madina but also in other parts of the inhabited world. XII. As Muslims were strong in Madina unlike Macca, a group of hypocrates emerged under Abdullah bin Ubai which tried to weaken Muslims from within. XIII. The presence of Muslims at Madina posed a direct threat to the trade caravans which used to ply from Makkah to the northern regions of Arabia.

Foundation of the Republic of Madina

Political parties in Madina after Hijrat: There were four parties in Madina: The Muhajirin (about 150 in all) and the Ansar on one side, and the Munafiqeen and the Jews on the other. The Munafiqeen (hypocrites) were lead by Abdullah bin Obay. The strife-weary people of Madina had almost chosen him as their ruler when Muhammad (PBUH) came and he was cast aside. Brotherhood of Muhajirin and Ansar: The Muhajirin arrived in Madina in a deplorable condition. Most had left their families, children, friends, houses and money behind for the sake of Allah. They had no food or shelter. Muhammad (PBUH) formed between Muhajirin and Ansar a brotherhood based not on blood or kinship, but one based on religion. The Ansar gave their Muhajirin brothers half of their property and wealth. During the period they were cut off from their relatives in Makkah, the Muhajirin were treated as real brothers of the Ansar in matters of inheritance as well. Soon, the Muhajirin took to trade and grew rich themselves. After the Battle of Badr, the League of Brotherhood was abrogated because of the immense war booty that was capturedThe sins of the emigrants are forgiven. (3:195)

The Charter of Madina:

The Charter was basically divided into three part

I. Political Clauses. II. Civic Clauses. III. Religious Clauses. Political Clauses: Clause Republic and Nation of Madina. The Peace of the Republic Sovereignty of Allah and the Presidency of His Prophet

Duties of War and Peace

Prohibition of civil strife. Duties of non-Muslims. .

Description Muslims and Jews constitute one political Ummah against the whole mankind. The valley of Madina would be a place of peace for its citizens, Muslims or Jews. Muhammad (PBUH) would settle differences, controversies and disputes between people. If there is any mischief, guidance will be sought from the Prophet (PBUH). No one in Madina could declare war without the permission of the Prophet (PBUH) War and Peace shall be in common. The Jews and Muslims will help each other if someone attacks Madina. If the Jews and Muslims fight side-by-side, each will bear the cost. If either the Muslims or the Jews make peace, both will have to make peace, except for religious wars. During Jihad, no Muslim will make peace with the enemy without others unanimous consent i.e. Muslims will be one body during war or peace. There will be love, faithfulness and fidelity between the Muslims and Jews. None may offer refuge to the life or property of the Quraish of Makkah.