Trends in the Criminal Justice System

Mike Lawlor, Undersecretary

Presented

March 2014

Judiciary Committee

Trends in criminal justice
• Reduction in index crimes 2008 to 2012: 11.2%
• Reduction in criminal arrests 2009 to 2013: 23.7%
• Reduction in prison population 2010 to 2014: 8.1%
• Reduction in minority prison population 2010 to 2014: 10.2%
• Reduction in prison admits 2009 to 2013: 16.8%
• Reduction in pre-trial admits 2009 to 2013: 15.9%
• Reduction in total prison releases and discharges 2009 to
2013: 18.5%

Trends in criminal justice (2)
• Reduction in EOS releases 2009 to 2013: 17.3%
• Reduction in parole releases 2009 to 2013: 40.2%
• Reduction in TS releases 2009 to 2013: 33.7%
• Reduction in DOC remands 2009 to 2013: 13.9%
• Reduction in adult probation 2009 to 2013: 16.7%
• Reduction in urban* homicides 2011 to 2013: 31%
• Reduction in urban* shootings 2011 to 2013: 32.5%
* Hartford, Bridgeport and New Haven

Total index crimes – CT UCR, 1960 - 2012

180,000

160,000

140,000

120,000

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

86,994
87,094
88,342
93,213
97,947
93,017
97,605
98,336
103,093
103,026
104,223
106,791
110,091
111,236
123,971
130,286
138,414
147,481
148,946
152,392
165,787
176,531
177,068
170,695
165,214
160,413
153,989
149,330
145,995
156,204
171,129
182,823
182,051
180,033
152,765
150,493
155,993
153,419
136,087
112,717
104,883
112,338
105,807
96,764
85,527
66,726
56,990
51,951
49,958
42,045
34,736
32,536
29,321

200,000

20,000

0

2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
1986
1985
1984
1983
1982
1981
1980
1979
1978
1977
1976
1975
1974
1973
1972
1971
1970
1969
1968
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961
1960

Reported crimes (UCR) and arrests
Violent crime

120000
100000
80000

92042

94197

92183

Property crime
90627

Reported crimes

86850

87442

82712

78519

77445

77380

60000
40000
20000

10399

10254

10096

10525

10550

10768

10532

10077

9887

10167

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

0

150,000
119,432

118,940

115,601

115,337

114,011

117,196

124,249

Statewide arrests
114,156

114,789
101,065

100,000

94,856

50,000
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011*

2012*

2013*

Juvenile courts

The number of juveniles referred to the court is down 16.5% since 2008,
despite full implementation of Raise the Age.
Raise the age became effective for 16-year olds on January 1, 2010.
It became effective for 17-year olds on July 1, 2012.

Changing marijuana laws and arrests
150,000
119,432

118,940

115,601

115,337

114,011

117,196

124,249

Statewide arrests
114,156

114,789
101,065

100,000

94,856

50,000
2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

140,000
120,000

2009

Total arrests

2010

2011*

2012*

Marijuana citations

114,789
101,065

94,856

100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000

6,811

2,952

6,667

0
2011*

2012

2013

*CT PA 11-71 became effective on 7/1/2011

2013*

The prison population
20,000
19,000
18,902

18,000
17,000

18,001

19,438

Total prison population, Jan. 1
18,978
18,053

17,928

17,746
17,022

16,000

16,347

16,594

2013

2014

15,000
14,000
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

20,000

2011

2012

Sentenced prison population, Jan. 1

15,000
10,000

13,810

13,739

14,432

2005

2006

2007

14,998

14,745

13,876

13,578

12,955

12,104

12,417

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

5,000
0
2008

2009

4,000

Pre‐trial prison population, Jan. 1

3,900
3,906

3,800

3,853
3,788

3,700
3,600

3,685

3,738

3,668

3,697

3,694
3,623

3,614

3,500
3,400
2005

Source: CT DOC

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Racial disparity in the prison population
WHITE

BLACK

HISPANIC

20000
18000
16000

4863

5093

4962

4983

4993

5141

5226

5022

4834

4623

14000

4379

4326

4336

12000
10000
8000

8197

8152

7873

7818

7984

8140

5154

5351

5251

5348

5535

5739

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

27%

27%

27%

27%

45%

44%

43%

28%

29%

2002

2003

8409

8045

7732

7360

6949

6738

6934

5803

5675

5668

5586

5404

5176

5207

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

27%

27%

27%

27%

26%

26%

26%

26%

26%

43%

43%

43%

43%

43%

42%

42%

41%

41%

42%

29%

29%

30%

30%

30%

30%

31%

32%

32%

32%

31%

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

6000
4000
2000
0

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

WHITE

BLACK

HISPANIC

OTHER

DOC admissions 2005 - 2013
40000
30000

All prison admits
33,710

34,944

34,467

33,180

31,452

30,036

20000

27,429

27,338

26,155

2011

2012

2013

10000
0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

30,000
20,000

Pre‐trial DOC admits
23,644

24,528

23,935

23,958

22,298

21,523

19,211

19,464

18,744

2011

2012

2013

10,000
0
2005

Source: CT DOC

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Releases and discharges, sentenced
30,000
20,000

Total releases and discharges, sentenced
21,277

21,475

21,586

20,746

21,371

20,439

20,641

19,844

17,425

10,000
0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

15,000
10,000

2012

2013

EOS discharges
11,901

11,532

12,044

12,214

11,750

11,035

11,642

2010

2011

10,841

9,716

5,000
0
2005

Source: CT DOC

2006

2007

2008

2009

2012

2013

DOC community supervision 2005 - 2013
3,000

Parole releases
2,663

2,000

2,255

2,237
1,720

1,000

2,223

2,099

1,869

1,536

1,338

0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

5,000

TS releases

4,000
3,944

3,000
2,000

2013

2,398

2,537

2,745

2005

2006

2007

3,735
3,215

3,123

2,939

2,479

1,000
0
2008

2009

2010

2011

2013

Remands

 4,000
 3,000
 2,000

2012

3,422 
2,840 

2,939 

2,759 

2,715 

2,667 

2009

2010

2,430 

2,352 

2,337 

2011

2012

2013

 1,000
 ‐
2005

Source: CT DOC

2006

2007

2008

DUI home confinement and special parole
150

103

119 116 117 123

133 140 133
103 101 104

121 122

81

100

DUI Home confinement
102 99

99 102 107 99 95

90 94

31

50

0

2

FEB '12

MAR

0
MAR

FEB

JAN '14

DEC

NOV

OCT

SEP

AUG

JULY

JUNE

MAY

APR

MAR

FEB

JAN '13

DEC

NOV

OCT

SEP

AUG

JULY

JUNE

MAY

APR

Special parole discharges
500
400
300
200
100
0

476
273
137

321

405
327

191

17
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

500

2010

2011

2012

2013

Special parole remandees, Jan. 1

400
388

300
200

383

310
262

225

233

2006

2007

335

382

399

2013

2014

299

100
0
2005

Source: CT DOC

2008

2010

2011

2012

Recidivism among prisoners

Recidivism rates, new arrests, males
80%

70%

70%

62% 59%

60%
50%
40%

44% 41%

Recidivsm rates, return to prison, males
66% est.
62%

54%

70%
60%

53% 51%

50%
40%

38%

38% 37%

61% 58%
est.
52%

48%

34%

30%

30%

20%

20%

10%

10%
0%

0%

12 month rate
2005 cohort

24 month rate
2008 cohort

36 month rate
2011 cohort

12 month rate
2005 cohort

24 month rate
2008 cohort

36 month rate
2011 cohort

Source: OPM - CJPPD

Probation population
80,000

Adult probation population in January

60,000
54,314

57,498

57,723

56,293

55,687

40,000

51,712

48,778

46,898

2012

2013

20,000
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Source: CSSD

Recidivism among adult probationers

Recidivism among juveniles

Murders in Connecticut 1960 - 2013
250

216

97
88
96

100

146

150

OCME
UCR
200

50

0

2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
1986
1985
1984
1983
1982
1981
1980
1979
1978
1977
1976
1975
1974
1973
1972
1971
1970
1969
1968
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961
1960

Source: UCR - OCME

Urban homicides and shootings
Homicides in CT cities, 2011 ‐ 2013
40

2011

2012

Shooting incidents in CT cities, 2011 ‐ 2013
140

2013
34

35
30
20

22

2012

120

27

25

2011

105
95

100
23

22

80

20

20

10

40

5

20

0

0

Bridgeport

Hartford

92

69

66
56

60

13

92

79

17

15

133

2013

New Haven

Bridgeport

Hartford

New Haven

Homicide totals, statewide & top 3 cities 
200

Statewide
Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven

150
146
100

129
81
61

96

56

50

Source: OCME

0
2011

2012

2013

Intimate partner homicides
16
14

14
12

12

9

10
8
6
4
2
0
2011

2012

2013

Source: CCADV

OPM’s input-output model of the CJ system

www.ct.gov/opm/CriminalJustice/Research

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