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The Elements of Law Natural and Politic by Thomas Hobbes 1640 To the Right Honourable illiam! Earl of Newcastle!

"o#ernor to the Prince his Highness! one of His $a%esty&s $ost Honourable Pri#y 'ouncil The E(istle )edicatory $y $ost Honoured Lord! *rom the two (rinci(al (arts of our nature! Reason and Passion! ha#e (roceeded two +inds of learning! mathematical and dogmatical, The former is free from contro#ersies and dis(ute! because it consisteth in com(aring figures and motion only- in which things truth and the interest of men! o((ose not each other, .ut in the later there is nothing not dis(utable! because it com(areth men! and meddleth with their right and (rofit- in which as oft as reason is against a man! so oft will a man be against reason, /nd from hence it comes! that they who ha#e written of %ustice and (olicy in general do all in#ade each other! and themsel#es! with contradiction, To reduce this doctrine to the rules and infallibility of reason! there is no way! but first! to (ut such (rinci(les down for a foundation! as (assion not mistrusting may not see+ to dis(lace0 /nd afterward to build thereon the truth of cases in the law of nature 1which hitherto ha#e been built in the air2 by degrees! till the whole be ine3(ugnable, Now 1my Lord2 the (rinci(les fit for such a foundation! are those which 4 ha#e heretofore ac5uainted your Lordshi( withal in (ri#ate discourse- and which! by your command 4 ha#e here (ut into method, To e3amine cases thereby! between so#ereign and so#ereign! or between so#ereign and sub%ect! 4 lea#e to them! that shall find leisure! and encouragement thereto, *or my (art! 4 (resent this to your Lordshi(! for the true! and only foundation of such science, *or the style! it is therefore the worse! because whilst 4 was writing 4 consulted more with logic! than with rhetoric, .ut for the doctrine! it is not slightly (ro#ed- and the conclusions thereof! are of such nature! as for want of them! go#ernment and (eace ha#e been nothing else! to this day! but mutual fear, /nd it would be an incom(arable benefit to commonwealth! that e#ery man held the o(inions concerning law and (olicy! here deli#ered, The ambition therefore of this boo+! in see+ing by your Lordshi(&s countenance! to insinuate itself with those whom the matter it containeth most nearly concerneth! is to be e3cused, *or myself! 4 desire no greater honour! than 4 en%oy already in your Lordshi(&s +nown fa#our- unless it be! that you would be (leased in continuance thereof! to gi#e me more e3ercise in your commands- which! as 4 am bound by your many great fa#ours! 4 shall obey! being $y most honoured Lord
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6our Lordshi(&s most humble and obliged 7er#ant Tho Hobbes Part 4 Human Nature 'ha(ter 1 The "eneral )i#ision of $an&s Natural *aculties 1, The true and (ers(icuous e3(lication of the Elements of Laws! Natural and Politic! which is my (resent sco(e! de(endeth u(on the +nowledge of what is human nature! what is a body (olitic! and what it is we call a law, 'oncerning which (oints! as the writings of men from anti5uity downward ha#e still increased! so also ha#e the doubts and contro#ersies concerning the same! and seeing that true +nowledge begetteth not doubt! nor contro#ersy! but +nowledge- it is manifest from the (resent contro#ersies! that they which ha#e heretofore written thereof! ha#e not well understood their own sub%ect, 8, Harm 4 can do none though 4 err no less than they, *or 4 shall lea#e men but as they are in doubt and dis(ute, .ut intending not to ta+e any (rinci(le u(on trust! but only to (ut men in mind what they +now already! or may +now by their own e3(erience! 4 ho(e to err the less- and when 4 do! it must (roceed from too hasty concluding! which 4 will endea#our as much as 4 can to a#oid, 9, :n the other side! if reasoning aright 4 win not consent 1which may #ery easily ha((en2 from them that being confident of their own +nowledge weigh not what is said! the fault is not mine but theirs, *or as it is my (art to show my reasons! so it is theirs to bring attention, 4, $an&s nature is the sum of his natural faculties and (owers! as the faculties of nutrition! motion! generation! sense! reason! ;c, *or these (owers we do unanimously call natural! and are contained in the definition of man! under these words! animal and rational, <, /ccording to the two (rinci(al (arts of man! 4 di#ide his faculties into two sorts! faculties of the body! and faculties of the mind, 6, 7ince the minute and distinct anatomy of the (owers of the body is nothing necessary to the (resent (ur(ose! 4 will only sum them u( into these three heads! (ower nutriti#e! (ower moti#e! and (ower generati#e, =, :f the (owers of the mind there be two sorts! cogniti#e or imaginati#e or conce(ti#e- and moti#e, /nd first of the cogniti#e, >, *or the understanding of what 4 mean by the (ower cogniti#e! we must remember and ac+nowledge that there be in our minds continually certain images or conce(tions of the things without us! insomuch that if a man could be ali#e! and all the rest of the world annihilated! he should ne#ertheless retain the image thereof! and of all those things which he had before seen
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and (ercei#ed in it- e#ery man by his own e3(erience +nowing that the absence or destruction of things once imagined! doth not cause the absence or destruction of the imagination itself, This imagery and re(resentations of the 5ualities of things without us is that we call our cognition! imagination! ideas! notice! conce(tion! or +nowledge of them, /nd the faculty! or (ower! by which we are ca(able of such +nowledge! is that 4 here call (ower cogniti#e! or conce(ti#e! the (ower of +nowing or concei#ing, 'ha(ter 8 The 'ause of 7ense 1, Ha#ing declared what 4 mean by the word conce(tion! and other words e5ui#alent thereunto! 4 come to the conce(tions themsel#es! to show their difference! their causes! and the manner of their (roduction as far as is necessary for this (lace, 8, :riginally all conce(tions (roceed from the actions of the thing itself! whereof it is the conce(tion, Now when the action is (resent! the conce(tion it (roduceth is called 7EN7E! and the thing by whose action the same is (roduced is called the :.?E'T of sense, 9, .y our se#eral organs we ha#e se#eral conce(tions of se#eral 5ualities in the ob%ects- for by sight we ha#e a conce(tion or image com(osed of colour or figure! which is all the notice and +nowledge the ob%ect im(arteth to us of its nature by the eye, .y hearing we ha#e a conce(tion called sound! which is all the +nowledge we ha#e of the 5uality of the ob%ect from the ear, /nd so the rest of the senses also are conce(tions of se#eral 5ualities! or natures of their ob%ects, 4, .ecause the image in #ision consisting in colour and sha(e is the +nowledge we ha#e of the 5ualities of the ob%ect of that sense- it is no hard matter for a man to fall into this o(inion! that the same colour and sha(e are the #ery 5ualities themsel#esand for the same cause! that sound and noise are the 5ualities of the bell! or of the air, /nd this o(inion hath been so long recei#ed! that the contrary must needs a((ear a great (arado3and yet the introduction of s(ecies #isible and intelligible 1which is necessary for the maintenance of that o(inion2 (assing to and fro from the ob%ect! is worse than any (arado3! as being a (lain im(ossibility, 4 shall therefore endea#our to ma+e (lain these four (oints0 112 That the sub%ect wherein colour and image are inherent! is not the ob%ect or thing seen, 182 That that is nothing without us really which we call an image or colour, 192 That the said image or colour is but an a((arition unto us of that motion! agitation! or alteration! which the ob%ect wor+eth in the brain or s(irits! or some internal substance of the head, 142 That as in conce(tion by #ision! so also in the conce(tions that arise from other senses! the sub%ect of their inherence is not the ob%ect! but the sentient,
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<, E#ery man hath so much e3(erience as to ha#e seen the sun and other #isible ob%ects by re?ection in the water and in glasses! and this alone is sufficient for this conclusion0 that colour and image may be there where the thing seen is not, .ut because it may be said that notwithstanding the image in the water be not in the ob%ect! but a thing merely (hantastical! yet there may be colour really in the thing itself- 4 will urge further this e3(erience0 that di#ers times men see directly the same ob%ect double! as two candles for one! which may ha((en by distem(er! or otherwise without distem(er if a man will! the organs being either in their right tem(er! or e5ually distem(ered, The colours and figures in two such images of the same thing cannot be inherent both therein! because the thing seen cannot be in two (laces0 one of these images thereof is not inherent in the ob%ect, .ut seeing the organs of sight are then in e5ual tem(er or e5ual distem(er! the one of them is no more inherent than the other! and conse5uently neither of them both are in the ob%ect- which is the first (ro(osition mentioned in the (recedent section, 6, 7econdly! that the image of any thing seen by re?ection in glass or water or the li+e! is not any thing in or behind the glass! or in or under the water! e#ery man may (ro#e to himselfwhich is the second (ro(osition, =, *or the third! we are to consider first! that u(on e#ery great agitation or concussion of the brain! as it ha((eneth from a stro+e! es(ecially if the stro+e be u(on the eye! whereby the o(tic ner#e suffereth any great #iolence! there a((eareth before the eyes a certain light! which light is nothing without! but an a((arition only! all that is real being the concussion or motion of the (arts of that ner#e, *rom which e3(erience we may conclude! that a((arition of light without! is really nothing but motion within, 4f therefore from lucid bodies there can be deri#ed motion! so as to affect the o(tic ner#e in such manner as is (ro(er thereunto! there will follow an image of light somewhere in that line by which the motion was last deri#ed unto the eye- that is to say! in the ob%ect! if we loo+ directly on it! and in the glass or water! when we loo+ u(on it in the line of re?ection! which in effect is the third (ro(osition! namely! That image and colour is but an a((arition unto us of that motion! agitation! or alteration! which the ob%ect wor+eth in the brain! or s(irits! or some internal substance in the head, >, .ut that from all lucid! shining and illuminated bodies! there is a motion (roduced to the eye! and! through the eye! to the o(tic ner#e! and so into the brain! by which that a((arition of light or colour is effected! is not hard to (ro#e, /nd first! it is e#ident that the fire! the only lucid body here on earth! wor+eth by motion e5ually e#ery way- insomuch as the motion thereof sto((ed or inclosed! it is (resently e3tinguished! and no more fire, /nd farther! that that motion! whereby the fire wor+eth! is dilatation! and contraction of itself alternately! commonly called scintillation or glowing! is manifest also by e3(erience, *rom such motion in the fire must needs arise a re%ection or casting from itself of that (art of the medium which
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is contiguous to it! whereby that (art also re%ecteth the ne3t! and so successi#ely one (art beateth bac+ the other to the #ery eye- and in the same manner the e3terior (art of the eye 1the laws of refraction still obser#ed2 (resseth the interior, Now the interior coat of the eye is nothing else but a (iece of the o(tic ner#e! and therefore the motion is still continued thereby into the brain! and by resistance or reaction of the brain! is also a rebound in the o(tic ner#e again! which we not concei#ing as motion or rebound from within! thin+ it is without! and call it light- as hath been already shewed by the e3(erience of a stro+e, e ha#e no reason to doubt! that the fountain of light! the sun! wor+eth any other wise than the fire! at least in this matter! and thus all #ision hath its original from such motion as is here described, *or where there is no light! there is no sight- and therefore colour also must be the same thing with light! as being the effect of lucid bodies0 their difference being only this! that when the light cometh directly from the fountain to the eye! or indirectly by reflection from clean and (olite bodies! and such as ha#e no (articular motion internal to alter it! we call it light, .ut when it cometh to the eyes by reflection from une#en! rough! and coarse bodies! or such as are affected with internal motion of their own! that may alter it! then we call it colour- colour and light differing only in this! that the one is (ure! the other a (erturbed light, .y that which hath been said! not only the truth of the third (ro(osition! but also the whole manner of (roducing light and colour! is a((arent, @, /s colour is not inherent in the ob%ect! but an effect thereof u(on us! caused by such motion in the ob%ect! as hath been described0 so neither is sound in the thing we hear! but in oursel#es, :ne manifest sign thereof is0 that as a man may see! so also he may hear double or treble! by multi(lication of echoes! which echoes are sounds as well as the original- and not being in one and the same (lace! cannot be inherent in the body that ma+eth them, Nothing can ma+e any thing in itself0 the cla((er hath not sound in it! but motion! and ma+eth motion in the internal (arts of the bell so the bell hath motion! and not sound, That im(arteth motion to the air- and the air hath motion! but not sound, The air im(arteth motion by the ear and ner#es to the brain- and the brain hath motion but not sound, *rom the brain it reboundeth bac+ into the ner#es outward! and thence it becometh an a((arition without! which we call sound, /nd to (roceed to the rest of the senses! it is a((arent enough! that the smell and taste of the same thing! are not the same to e#ery man! and therefore are not in the thing smelt or tasted! but in the men, 7o li+ewise the heat we feel from the fire is manifestly in us! and is 5uite different from the heat that is in the fire, *or our heat is (leasure or (ain! according as it is e3treme or moderate- but in the coal there is no such thing, .y this the fourth and last of the (ro(ositions is (ro#ed 1#iA,2 That as in conce(tion by #ision! so also in the conce(tions that arise from other senses! the sub%ect of their inherence is not the ob%ect! but the sentient, 10, /nd from thence also it followeth! that whatsoe#er accidents or 5ualities our senses ma+e us thin+ there be in the
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world! they are not there! but are seemings and a((aritions only, The things that really are in the world without us! are those motions by which these seemings are caused, /nd this is the great dece(tion of sense! which also is by sense to be corrected, *or as sense telleth me! when 4 see directly! that the colour seemeth to be in the ob%ect- so also sense telleth me! when 4 see by reflection! that colour is not in the ob%ect, 'ha(ter 9 :f 4magination and the Binds Thereof 1, /s standing water (ut into motion by the stro+e of a stone! or blast of wind! doth not (resently gi#e o#er mo#ing as soon as the wind ceaseth! or the stone settleth0 so neither doth the effect cease which the ob%ect hath wrought u(on the brain! so soon as e#er by turning aside of the organ the ob%ect ceaseth to wor+- that is to say! though the sense be (ast! the image or conce(tion remaineth- but more obscurely while we are awa+e! because some ob%ect or other continually (lieth and soliciteth our eyes! and ears! +ee(ing the mind in a stronger motion! whereby the wea+er doth not easily a((ear, /nd this obscure conce(tion is that we call PH/NT/76 or 4$/"4N/T4:N0 imagination being 1to define it2 conce(tion remaining! and by little and little decaying from and after the act of sense, 8, .ut when (resent sense is not! as in 7LEEP! there the images remaining after sense 1when there be any2 as in dreams! are not obscure! but strong and clear! as in sense itself, The reason, i7! because that which obscured and made the conce(tions wea+! namely sense! and (resent o(eration of the ob%ects! is remo#ed, *or slee( is the (ri#ation of the act of sense! 1the (ower remaining2 and dreams are the imaginations of them that slee(, 9, The causes of )RE/$7 1if they be natural2 are the actions or #iolence of the inward (arts of a man u(on his brain! by which the (assages of sense! by slee( benumbed! are restored to their motion, The signs by which this a((eareth to be so! are the differences of dreams (roceeding from the different accidents of man&s body, :ld men being commonly less healthful and less free from inward (ains! are thereby more sub%ect to dreams! es(ecially such dreams as be (ainful0 as dreams of lust! or dreams of anger! according as the heart! or other (arts within! wor+ more or less u(on the brain! by more or less heat, 7o also the descent of different sorts of (hlegm ma+eth one to dream of different tastes of meats or drin+s, /nd 4 belie#e there is a reci(rocation of motion from the brain to the #ital (arts! and bac+ from the #ital (arts to the brain- whereby not only imagination begetteth motion in those (arts- but also motion in those (arts begetteth imagination li+e to that by which it was begotten, 4f this be true! and that sad imaginations nourish the s(leen! then we see also a cause! why a strong s(leen reci(rocally causeth fearful dreams, /nd why the effects of lasci#iousness may in a dream (roduce the image of some (erson that hath caused them, 4f it were well obser#ed! whether the image of the (erson in a dream be
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as obedient to the accidental heat of him that dreameth! as wa+ing his heat is to the (erson! and if so! then is such motion reci(rocal, /nother sign that dreams are caused by the action of the inward (arts! is the disorder and casual conse5uence of one conce(tion or image to another0 for when we are wa+ing! the antecedent thought or conce(tion introduceth! and is cause of the conse5uent! as the water followeth a man&s finger u(on a dry and le#el table, .ut in dreams there is commonly no coherence 1and when there is! it is by chance2! which must (roceed from this! that the brain in dreams is not restored to its motion in e#ery (art ali+e- whereby it cometh to (ass! that our thoughts a((ear li+e the stars between the flying clouds! not in the order which a man would choose to obser#e them in! but as the uncertain flight of bro+en clouds (ermit, 4, /s when the water! or any li5uid thing mo#ed at once by di#ers mo#ements! recei#eth one motion com(ounded of them all- so also the brain or s(irits therein! ha#ing been stirred by di#ers ob%ects! com(oseth an imagination of di#ers conce(tions that a((eared, singly to the sense, /s for e3am(le! the sense sheweth us at one time the figure of a mountain! and at another time the colour of gold- but the imagination afterwards hath them both at once in a golden mountain, *rom the same cause it is! there a((ear unto us castles in the air! chimeras! and other monsters which are not in rerum natura! but ha#e been concei#ed by the sense in (ieces at se#eral times, /nd this com(osition is that which we commonly call *4'T4:N of the mind, <, There is yet another +ind of, imagination! which for clearness contendeth with sense! as well as a dream- and that is! when the action of sense hath been long or #ehement0 and the e3(erience thereof is more fre5uent in the sense of seeing! than the rest, /n e3am(le whereof is! the image remaining before the eye after a steadfast loo+ing u(on the sun, /lso! those little images that a((ear before the eyes in the dar+ 1whereof 4 thin+ e#ery man hath e3(erience! but they most of all! that are timorous or su(erstitious2 are e3am(les of the same, /nd these! for distinction sa+e! may be called PH/NT/7$7, 6, .y the senses 1which are numbered according to the organs to be fi#e2 we ta+e notice 1as hath been said already2 of the ob%ects without us- and that notice is our conce(tion thereof0 but we ta+e notice also some way or other of our conce(tions, *or when the conce(tion of the same thing cometh again! we ta+e notice that it is again- that is to say! that we ha#e had the same conce(tion before- which is as much as to imagine a thing (ast- which is im(ossible to sense! which is only of things (resent, This therefore may be accounted a si3th sense! but internal! not e3ternal! as the rest! and is commonly called RE$E$.R/N'E, =, *or the manner by which we ta+e notice of a conce(tion (ast! we are to remember! that in the definition of imagination! it is said to be a conce(tion by little and little decaying! or growing more obscure, /n obscure conce(tion is that which re(resenteth the whole ob%ect together! but none of the smaller (arts by themsel#es- and as more or fewer (arts be re(resented! so is the conce(tion or re(resentation said to be more or less
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clear, 7eeing then the conce(tion! which when it was first (roduced by sense! was clear! and re(resented the (arts of the ob%ect distinctly- and when it cometh again is obscure! we find missing somewhat that we e3(ected- by which we %udge it (ast and decayed, *or e3am(le! a man that is (resent in a foreign city! seeth not only whole streets! but can also distinguish (articular houses! and (arts of houses- de(arted thence! he cannot distinguish them so (articularly in his mind as he did! some house or turning esca(ing him- yet is this to remember the citywhen afterwards there esca(eth him more (articulars! this is also to remember! but not so well, 4n (rocess of time! the image of the city returneth! but as of a mass of building only! which is almost to ha#e forgotten it, 7eeing then remembrance is more or less! as we find more or less obscurity! why may not we well thin+ remembrance to be nothing else but the missing of (arts! which e#ery man e3(ecteth should succeed after they ha#e a conce(tion of the wholeC To see at great distance of (lace! and to remember at great distance of time! is to ha#e li+e conce(tions of the thing0 for there wanteth distinction of (arts in both- the one conce(tion being wea+ by o(eration at distance! the other by decay, >, /nd from this that hath been said! there followeth! that a man can ne#er +now he dreameth- he may dream he doubteth! whether it be a )RE/$ or no0 but the clearness of the imagination re(resenteth e#ery thing with as many (arts as doth sense itself! and conse5uently! he can ta+e notice of nothing but as (resentwhereas to thin+ he dreameth! is to thin+ those his conce(tions (ast! that is to say! obscurer than they were in the sense0 so that he must thin+ them both as clear! and not as clear as sensewhich is im(ossible, @, *rom the same ground it (roceedeth! that men wonder not in their dreams at (laces and (ersons! as they would do wa+ing0 for wa+ing! a man would thin+ it strange to be in a (lace wherein he ne#er was before! and remember nothing of how he came there, .ut in a dream! there cometh little of that +ind into consideration, The clearness of conce(tion in a dream! ta+eth away distrust! unless the strangeness be e3cessi#e! as to thin+ himself fallen from on high without hurt! and then most commonly he awa+eth, 10, Nor is it im(ossible for a man to be so far decei#ed! as when his dream is (ast! to thin+ it real0 for if he dream of such things as are ordinarily in his mind!, and in such order as he useth to do wa+ing! and withal that he laid him down to slee( in the (lace where he findeth himself when he awa+eth 1all which may ha((en2 4 +now no Britirion or mar+ by which he can discern whether it were a dream or not! and do therefore the less wonder to hear a man sometimes to tell his dream for a truth! or to ta+e it for a #ision, 'ha(ter 4 :f the 7e#eral Binds of )iscursion of the $ind 1, The succession of conce(tions in the mind! their series or conse5uence of one after another! may be casual and incoherent!
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as in dreams for the most (art- and it may be orderly! as when the former thought introduceth the latter- and this is discourse of the mind, .ut because the word discourse is commonly ta+en for the coherence and conse5uence of words! 4 will 1to a#oid e5ui#ocation2 call it )47'DR74:N, 8, The cause of the coherence or conse5uence of one conce(tion to another! is their first coherence! or conse5uence at that time when they were (roduced by sense, /s for e3am(le0 from 7t, /ndrew the mind runneth to 7t, Peter! because their names are read together- from 7t, Peter to a stone! for the same cause- from stone to foundation! because we see them togetherand for the same cause! from foundation to church! from church to (eo(le! and from (eo(le to tumult, /nd according to this e3am(le! the mind may run almost from any thing to any thing, .ut as to the sense the conce(tion of cause and effect succeed one another, so may they after sense in the imagination, /nd for the most (art they do so, The cause whereof is the a((etite of them! who! ha#ing a conce(tion of the end! ha#e ne3t unto it a conce(tion of the ne3t means to that end, /s when a man! from the thought of honour to which he hath an a((etite! cometh to the thought of wisdom! which is the ne3t means thereto- and from thence to the thought of study! which is the ne3t means to wisdom! etc, 9, To omit that +ind of discursion by which we (roceed from any thing to any thing! there are of the other +ind di#ers sorts, /s first in the senses0 there are certain coherences of conce(tions! which we may call R/N"4N", E3am(les whereof are0 a man&s casting his eye u(on the ground! to loo+ about for some small thing lost- the hounds casting about at a fault in huntingand the ranging of s(aniels, /nd herein we ta+e a beginning arbitrarily, 4, /nother sort of discursion is! when the a((etite gi#eth a man his beginning! as in the e3am(le before adduced0 where honour! to which a man hath a((etite! ma+eth him to thin+ u(on the ne3t means of attaining it! and that again of the ne3t! ;c, /nd this the Latins call sagacitas! 7/"/'4T6! and we may call it hunting or tracing! as dogs trace the beast by the smell! and men hunt them by their footste(s- or as men hunt after riches! (lace! or +nowledge, <, There is yet another +ind of discursion beginning with a((etite to reco#er something lost! (roceeding from the (resent bac+ward! from the thought of the (lace where we miss it! to the thought of the (lace from whence we came last- and from the thought of that! to the thought of a (lace before! till we ha#e in our mind some (lace! wherein we had the thing we miss0 and this is called RE$4N47'EN'E, 6, The remembrance of the succession of one thing to another! that is! of what was antecedent! and what conse5uent! and what concomitant! is called an EEPER4$ENT- whether the same be made by us #oluntarily! as when a man (utteth any thing into the fire! to see what effect the fire will (roduce u(on it- or not made by us! as when we remember a fair morning after a red e#ening, To ha#e had many e3(eriments! is that we call EEPER4EN'E! which is nothing else but remembrance of what antecedents ha#e been followed with what conse5uents,
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=, No man can ha#e in his mind a conce(tion of the future! for the future is not yet, .ut of our conce(tions of the (ast! we ma+e a future- or rather! call (ast! future relati#ely, Thus after a man hath been accustomed to see li+e antecedents followed by li+e conse5uents! whensoe#er he seeth the li+e come to (ass to any thing he had seen before! he loo+s there should follow it the same that followed then, /s for e3am(le0 because a man hath often seen offences followed by (unishment! when he seeth an offence in (resent! he thin+eth (unishment to be conse5uent thereto, .ut conse5uent unto that which is (resent! men call future, /nd thus we ma+e remembrance to be (re#ision or con%ecture of things to come! or EEPE'T/T4:N or PRE7D$PT4:N of the future, >, 4n the same manner! if a man seeth in (resent that which he hath seen before! he thin+s that that which was antecedent to what he saw before! is also antecedent to that he (resently seeth, /s for e3am(le0 he that hath seen the ashes remain after the fire! and now again seeth ashes! concludeth again there hath been fire, /nd this is called ':N?E'TDRE of the (ast! or (resum(tion of fact, @, hen a man hath so often obser#ed li+e antecedents to be followed by li+e conse5uents! that whensoe#er he seeth the antecedent! he loo+eth again for the conse5uent- or when he seeth the conse5uent! he ma+eth account there hath been the li+e antecedent- then he calleth both the antecedent and the conse5uent! 74"N7 one of another! as clouds are a sign of rain to come! and rain of clouds (ast, 10, This ta+ing of signs from e3(erience! is that wherein men do ordinarily thin+! the difference stands between man and man in wisdom! by which they commonly understand a man&s whole ability or (ower cogniti#e, .ut this is an error- for these signs are but con%ectural- and according as they ha#e often or seldom failed! so their assurance is more or less- but ne#er full and e#identfor though a man hath always seen the day and night to follow one another hitherto- yet can he not thence conclude they shall do so! or that they ha#e done so eternally, E3(erience concludeth nothing uni#ersally, 4f the signs hit twenty times for once missing! a man may lay a wager of twenty to one of the e#ent- but may not conclude it for a truth, .ut by this it is (lain! that they shall con%ecture best! that ha#e most e3(erience0 because they ha#e most signs to con%ecture by- which is the reason that old men are more (rudent! that is! con%ecture better! caeteris (aribus! than young, *or! being older! they remember more- and e3(erience is but remembrance, /nd men of 5uic+ imagination! caeteris (aribus! are more (rudent than those whose imaginations are slow0 for they obser#e more in less time, /nd PRD)EN'E is nothing else but con%ecture from e3(erience! or ta+ing signs of e3(erience warily! that is! that the e3(eriments from which one ta+eth such signs be all remembered- for else the cases are not ali+e! that seem so, 11, /s in con%ectural things concerning (ast and future! it is (rudence to conclude from e3(erience! what is li+ely to come to (ass! or to ha#e (assed already- so is it an error to conclude from it! that is so or so called, That is to say! we cannot from e3(erience conclude! that any thing is to be called %ust or
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un%ust! true or false! nor any (ro(osition uni#ersal whatsoe#er! e3ce(t it be from remembrance of the use of names im(osed arbitrarily by men, *or e3am(le0 to ha#e heard a sentence gi#en 1in the li+e case the li+e sentence a thousand times2 is not enough to conclude that the sentence is %ust 1though most men ha#e no other means to conclude by2- but it is necessary! for the drawing of such conclusion! to trace and find out! by many e3(eriences! what men do mean by calling things %ust and un%ust! and the li+e, *arther! there is another ca#eat to be ta+en in concluding by e3(erience! from the tenth section of the second cha(ter,! that is! that we conclude not such things to be without! that are within us, 'ha(ter < :f Names! Reasoning! and )iscourse of the Tongue 1, 7eeing the succession of conce(tions in the mind are caused 1as hath been said before2 by the succession they had one to another when they were (roduced by the senses- and that there is no conce(tion that hath not been (roduced immediately before or after innumerable others! by the innumerable acts of sense- it must needs follow! that one conce(tion followeth not another! according to our election! and the need we ha#e of them! but as it chanceth us to hear or see such things as shall bring them to our mind, The e3(erience we ha#e hereof! is in such brute beasts! which! ha#ing the (ro#idence to hide the remains and su(erfluity of their meat! do ne#ertheless want the remembrance of the (lace where they hid it! and thereby ma+e no benefit thereof in their hunger, .ut man! who in this (oint beginneth to ad#ance himself abo#e the nature of beasts! hath obser#ed and remembered the cause of this defect! and to amend the same! hath imagined and de#ised to set u( a #isible or other sensible mar+! the which when he seeth again! may bring to his mind the thought he had when he set it u(, / $/RB therefore is a sensible ob%ect which a man erecteth #oluntarily to himself! to the end to remember thereby somewhat (ast! when the same is ob%ected to his sense again, /s men that ha#e (assed by a roc+ at sea! set u( some mar+! whereby to remember their former danger! and a#oid it, 8, 4n the number of these mar+s! are those human #oices 1which we call the names or a((ellations of things2 sensible to the ear! by which we recall into our mind some conce(tions of the things to which we gi#e those names or a((ellations, /s the a((ellation white bringeth to remembrance the 5uality of such ob%ects as (roduce that colour or conce(tion in us, / N/$E or /PPELL/T4:N therefore is the #oice of a man! arbitrarily im(osed! for a mar+ to bring to his mind some conce(tion concerning the thing on which it is im(osed, 9, Things named! are either the ob%ects themsel#es! as manor the conce(tion itself that we ha#e of man! as sha(e or motionor some (ri#ation! which is when we concei#e that there is something which we concei#e! not in him, /s when we concei#e he is not %ust! not finite! we gi#e him the name of un%ust and infinite! which signify (ri#ation or defect either in the thing
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named! or in us that gi#e the name, /nd to the (ri#ations themsel#es we gi#e the names in%ustice and infiniteness, 7o that here be two sorts of names0 one of things! in which we concei#e something! or of the conce(tions themsel#es! which are called P:74T4FE- the other of things wherein we concei#e (ri#ation or defect! and those names are called PR4F/T4FE, 4, .y the ad#antage of names it is that we are ca(able of science! which beasts! for want of them! are not- nor man! without the use of them0 for as a beast misseth not one or two out of her many young ones! for want of those names of order! one! two! three! ;c,! which we call number- so neither would a man! without re(eating orally! or mentally! the words of number! +now how many (ieces of money or other things lie before him, <, 7eeing there be many conce(tions of one and the same thing! and for e#ery se#eral conce(tion we gi#e it a se#eral name- it followeth that for one and the same thing! we ha#e many names or attributes- as to the same man we gi#e the a((ellations of %ust! #aliant! ;c,! for di#ers #irtues! and of strong! comely! ;c,! for di#ers 5ualities of the body, /nd again! because from di#ers things we recei#e li+e conce(tions! many things must needs ha#e the same a((ellation, /s to all things we see! we gi#e the same name of #isible- and to all things we see mo#ed! we gi#e the a((ellation of mo#eable, /nd those names we gi#e to many! are called DN4FER7/L to them all- as the name man to e#ery (articular of man+ind0 such a((ellations as we gi#e to one only thing! are called indi#idual! or 74N"DL/R- as 7ocrates! and other (ro(er names- or! by circumlocution! as0 he that writ the 4liad! for Homer, 6, This uni#ersality of one name to many things! hath been the cause that men thin+ that the things themsel#es are uni#ersal, /nd do seriously contend! that besides Peter and ?ohn! and all the rest of the men that are! ha#e been! or shall be in the world! there is yet somewhat else that we call man! 1#iA,2 man in general! decei#ing themsel#es by ta+ing the uni#ersal! or general a((ellation! for the thing it signifieth, *or if one should desire the (ainter to ma+e him the (icture of a man! which is as much as to say! of a man in general- he meaneth no more! but that the (ainter shall choose what man he (leaseth to draw! which must needs be some of them that are! ha#e been! or may be! none of which are uni#ersal, .ut when he would ha#e him to draw the (icture of the +ing! or any (articular (erson! he limiteth the (ainter to that one (erson himself chooseth, 4t is (lain therefore! that there is nothing uni#ersal but names- which are therefore also called indefinite- because we limit them not oursel#es! but lea#e them to be a((lied by the hearer0 whereas a singular name is limited or restrained to one of the many things it signifieth- as when we say! this man! (ointing to him! or gi#ing him his (ro(er name! or by some such other way, =, The a((ellations that be uni#ersal! and common to many things! are not always gi#en to all the (articulars! 1as they ought to be2 for li+e conce(tions and considerations in them allwhich is the cause that many of them are not of constant signification! but bring into our minds other thoughts than those for which they were ordained, /nd these are called EGD4F:'/L, /s
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for e3am(le! the word faith sometimes signifieth the same with belief- sometimes it signifieth (articularly that belief which ma+eth a 'hristian- and sometimes it signifieth the +ee(ing of a (romise, /lso all meta(hors are 1by (rofession2 e5ui#ocal, /nd there is scarce any word that is not made e5ui#ocal by di#ers conte3tures of s(eech! or by di#ersity of (ronunciation and gesture, >, This e5ui#ocation of names ma+eth it difficult to reco#er those conce(tions for which the name was ordained- and that not only in the language of other men! wherein we are to consider the drift! and occasion! and conte3ture of the s(eech! as well as the words themsel#es- but also in our own discourse! which being deri#ed from the custom and common use of s(eech! re(resenteth not unto us our own conce(tions, 4t is therefore a great ability in a man! out of the words! conte3ture! and other circumstances of language! to deli#er himself from e5ui#ocation! and to find out the true meaning of what is said0 and this is it we call DN)ER7T/N)4N", @, :f two a((ellations! by the hel( of this little #erb is! or something e5ui#alent! we ma+e an /**4R$/T4:N or NE"/T4:N! either of which in the 7chools we call also a (ro(osition! and consisteth of two a((ellations %oined together by the said #erb is0 as for e3am(le! this is a (ro(osition0 man is a li#ing creature- or this0 man is not righteous- whereof the former is called an affirmation! because the a((ellation li#ing creature is (ositi#e- the latter a negation! because not righteous is (ri#ati#e, 10, 4n e#ery (ro(osition! be it affirmati#e or negati#e! the latter a((ellation either com(rehendeth the former! as in this (ro(osition! charity is a #irtue! the name of #irtue com(rehendeth the name of charity 1and many other #irtues besides2! and then is the (ro(osition said to be TRDE or TRDTH0 for! truth! and a true (ro(osition! is all one, :r else the latter a((ellation com(rehendeth not the former- as in this (ro(osition! e#ery man is %ust! the name of %ust com(rehendeth not e#ery man- for un%ust is the name of the far greater (art of men, /nd then the (ro(osition is said to be */L7E! or falsity0 falsity and a false (ro(osition being the same thing, 11, 4n what manner of two (ro(ositions! whether both affirmati#e! or one affirmati#e! the other negati#e! is made a 76ll:"47$! 4 forbear to write, /ll this that hath been said of names or (ro(ositions! though necessary! is but dry discourse0 and this (lace is not for the whole art of logic! which if 4 enter further into! 4 ought to (ursue0 besides! it is not needful- for there be few men which ha#e not so much natural logic! as thereby to discern well enough! whether any conclusion 4 shall hereafter ma+e! in this discourse! be well or ill collected0 only thus much 4 say in this (lace! that ma+ing of syllogisms is that we call R/T4:'4N/T4:N or reasoning, 18, Now when a man reasoneth from (rinci(les that are found indubitable by e3(erience! all dece(tions of sense and e5ui#ocation of words a#oided! the conclusion he ma+eth is said to be according to right reason- but when from his conclusion a man may! by good ratiocination! deri#e that which is
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contradictory to any e#ident truth whatsoe#er! then is he said to ha#e concluded against reason0 and such a conclusion is called absurdity, 19, /s the in#ention of names hath been necessary for the drawing of men out of ignorance! by calling to their remembrance the necessary coherence of one conce(tion to another- so also hath it on the other side (reci(itated men into error0 insomuch! that whereas by the benefit of words and ratiocination they e3ceed brute beasts in +nowledge- by the incommodities that accom(any the same they e3ceed them also in errors, *or true and false are things not incident to beasts! because they adhere to (ro(ositions and language- nor ha#e they ratiocination! whereby to multi(ly one untruth by another,, as men ha#e, 14, 4t is the nature almost of e#ery cor(oreal thing! being often mo#ed in one and the same manner! to recei#e continually a greater and greater easiness and a(titude to the same motioninsomuch as in time the same becometh so habitual! that to beget it! there needs no more than to begin it, The (assions of man! as they are the beginning of all his #oluntary motions! so are they the beginning of s(eech! which is the motion of his tongue, /nd men desiring to shew others the +nowledge! o(inions! conce(tions! and (assions which are within themsel#es! and to that end, ha#ing in#ented language! ha#e by that means transferred all that discursion of their mind mentioned in the former cha(ter! by the motion of their tongues! into discourse of words- and ratio! now! is but oratio! for the most (art! wherein custom hath so great a (ower! that the mind suggesteth only the first word! the rest follow habitually! and are not followed by the mind, /s it is with beggars! when they say their (aternoster! (utting together such words! and in such manner! as in their education they ha#e learned from their nurses! from their com(anions! or from their teachers! ha#ing no images or conce(tions in their minds answering to the words they s(ea+, /nd as they ha#e learned themsel#es! so they teach (osterity, Now! if we consider the (ower of those dece(tions of sense! mentioned cha(ter 11 section 10! and also how unconstantly names ha#e been settled! and how sub%ect they are to e5ui#ocation! and how di#ersified by (assion! 1scarce two men agreeing what is to be called good! and what e#il- what liberality! what (rodigality- what #alour! what temerity2 and how sub%ect men are to (aralogism or fallacy in reasoning! 4 may in a manner conclude! that it is im(ossible to rectify so many errors of any one man! as must needs (roceed from those causes! without beginning anew from the #ery first grounds of all our +nowledge! sense- and! instead of boo+s! reading o#er orderly one&s own conce(tions0 in which meaning 4 ta+e nosce tei(sum for a (rece(t worthy the re(utation it hath gotten, 'ha(ter 6 :f a Bnowledge! :(inion and Relief 1, There is a story somewhere! of one that (retended to ha#e been miraculously cured of blindness! wherewith he was born! by 7t, /lban or other 7t,! at the town of 7t, /lban&s- and that the
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)u+e of "loucester being there! to be satisfied of the truth of the miracle! as+ed the man! hat colour is thisC who! by answering! 4t is green! disco#ered himself! and was (unished for a counterfeit0 for though by his sight newly recei#ed he might distinguish between green! and red! and all other colours! as well as any that should interrogate him! yet he could not (ossibly +now at first sight! which of them was called green! or red! or by other name, .y this we may understand! there be two sorts of +nowledge! whereof the one is nothing else but sense! or +nowledge original 1as 4 ha#e said at the beginning of the second cha(ter2! and remembrance of the same- the other is called science or +nowledge of the truth of (ro(ositions! and how things are called! and is deri#ed from understanding, .oth of these sorts are but e3(erience- the former being the e3(erience of the effects of things that wor+ u(on us from without- and the latter the e3(erience men ha#e of the (ro(er use of names in language, /nd all e3(erience being 1as 4 ha#e said2 but remembrance! all +nowledge is remembrance0 and of the former! the register we +ee( in boo+s! is called history, but the registers of the latter are called the sciences, 8, There are two things necessarily im(lied in this word +nowledge- the one is truth! the other e#idence- for what is not true! can ne#er be +nown, *or let a man say he +noweth a thing ne#er so well! if the same shall afterwards a((ear to be false! he is dri#en to a confession! that it was not +nowledge! but o(inion, Li+ewise! if the truth be not e#ident! though a man holdeth it! yet is his +nowledge of it no more than theirs that hold the contrary, *or if truth were enough to ma+e it +nowledge! all truths were +nown0 which is not so, 9, hat truth is! hath been defined in the (recedent cha(terwhat e#idence is! 4 now set down, /nd it is the concomitance of a man&s conce(tion with the words that signify such conce(tion in the act of ratiocination, *or when a man reasoneth with his li(s only! to which the mind suggesteth only the beginning! and followeth not the words of his mouth with the conce(tions of his mind! out of a custom of so s(ea+ing- though he begin his ratiocination with true (ro(ositions! and (roceed with (erfect syllogisms! and thereby ma+e always true conclusions- yet are not his conclusions e#ident to him! for want of the concomitance of conce(tion with his words, *or if the words alone were sufficient! a (arrot might be taught as well to +now a truth! as to s(ea+ it, E#idence is to truth! as the sa( is to the tree! which so far as it cree(eth along with the body and branches! +ee(eth them ali#e- when it forsa+eth them! they die, *or this e#idence! which is meaning with our words! is the life of truthwithout it truth is nothing worth, 4, Bnowledge! therefore! which we call 7'4EN'E! 4 define to be e#idence of truth! from some beginning or (rinci(le of sense, *or the truth of a (ro(osition is ne#er e#ident! until we concei#e the meaning of the words or terms whereof it consisteth! which are always conce(tions of the mind- nor can we remember those conce(tions! without the thing that (roduced the same by our senses, The first (rinci(le of +nowledge therefore is! that e ha#e such and such conce(tions- the second! that we ha#e thus
1<

and thus named the things whereof they are conce(tions- the third is! that we ha#e %oined those names in such manner! as to ma+e true (ro(ositions- the fourth and last is! that we ha#e %oined those (ro(ositions in such manner as they be concluding, /nd by these four ste(s the conclusion is +nown and e#ident! and the truth of the conclusion said to be +nown, /nd of these two +inds of +nowledge! whereof the former is e3(erience of fact! and the latter e#idence of truth0 as the former! if it be great! is called (rudence! so the latter! if it be much! hath usually been called! both by ancient and modern writers! 7/P4EN'E or wisdom0 and of this latter! man only is ca(able- of the former! brute beasts also (artici(ate, <, / (ro(osition is said to be su((osed! when! being not e#ident! it is ne#ertheless admitted for a time! to the end! that %oining to it other (ro(ositions! we may conclude something- and so (roceed from conclusion to conclusion! for a trail whether the same will lead us into any absurd or im(ossible conclusion- which if it do! then we +now such su((osition to ha#e been false, 6, .ut if running through many conclusions! we come to none that are absurd! then we thin+ the su((osition (robable- li+ewise we thin+ (robable whatsoe#er (ro(osition we admit for truth by error of reasoning! or from trusting to other men, /nd all such (ro(ositions as are admitted by trust or error! we are not said to +now! but thin+ them to be true0 and the admittance of them is called :P4N4:N, =, /nd (articularly! when the o(inion is admitted out of trust to other men! they are said to belie#e it- and their admittance of it is called .EL4E*! and sometimes faith, >, 4t is either science or o(inion which we commonly mean by the word conscience0 for men say that such and such a thing is true u(on! or in their consciences- which they ne#er do! when they thin+ it doubtful- and therefore they +now! or thin+ they +now it to be true, .ut men! when they say things u(on their conscience! are not therefore (resumed certainly to +now the truth of what they say, 4t remaineth then! that that word is used by them that ha#e an o(inion! not only of the truth of the thing! but also of their +nowledge of it, 7o that conscience! as men commonly use the word! signifieth an o(inion! not so much of the truth of the (ro(osition! as of their own +nowledge of it! to which the truth of the (ro(osition is conse5uent, ':N7'4EN'E therefore 4 define to be o(inion of e#idence, @, .elief! which is the admitting of (ro(ositions u(on trust! in many cases is no less free from doubt! than (erfect and manifest +nowledge, *or as there is nothing whereof there is not some cause- so! when there is doubt! there must be some cause thereof concei#ed, Now there be many things which we recei#e from re(ort of others! of which it is im(ossible to imagine any cause of doubt0 for what can be o((osed against the consent of all men! in things they can +now! and ha#e no cause to re(ort otherwise than they are 1such as is a great (art of our histories2! unless a man would say that all the world had cons(ired to decei#e him, /nd thus much of sense! imagination! discursion! ratiocination! and +nowledge! which are the acts of our (ower cogniti#e! or conce(ti#e, That (ower of the mind which we call moti#e!
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differeth from the (ower moti#e of the body, for the (ower moti#e of the body is that by which it mo#eth other bodies! which we call strength0 but the (ower moti#e of the mind! is that by which the mind gi#eth animal motion to that body wherein it e3isteththe acts hereof are our affections and (assions! of which 4 am now to s(ea+, 'ha(ter = :f )elight and Pain- "ood and E#il 1, 4n the eighth section of the second cha(ter is shewed! how conce(tions or a((aritions are nothing really! but motion in some internal substance of the head- which motion not sto((ing there! but (roceeding to the heart! of necessity must there either hel( or hinder that motion which is called #ital- when it hel(eth! it is called )EL4"HT! contentment! or (leasure! which is nothing really but motion about the heart! as conce(tion is nothing but motion within the head- and the ob%ects that cause it are called (leasant or delightful! or by some name e5ui#alent- the Latins ha#e %ucunda! a %u#ando! from hel(ing- and the same delight! with reference to the ob%ect! is called L:FE0 but when such motion wea+eneth or hindereth the #ital motion! then it is called P/4Nand in relation to that which causeth it! H/TRE)! which the Latin e3(resseth sometimes by odium! and sometimes by taedium, 8, This motion! in which consisteth (leasure or (ain! is also a solicitation or (ro#ocation either to draw near to the thing that (leaseth! or to retire from the thing that dis(leaseth, /nd this solicitation is the endea#our or internal beginning of animal motion! which when the ob%ect delighteth! is called /PPET4TE- when it dis(leaseth! it is called /FER74:N! in res(ect of the dis(leasure (resent- but in res(ect of the dis(leasure e3(ected! *E/R, 7o that (leasure! lo#e! and a((etite! which is also called desire! are di#ers names for di#ers considerations of the same thing, 9, E#ery man! for his own (art! calleth that which (leaseth! and is delightful to himself! "::)- and that EF4L which dis(leaseth him0 insomuch that while e#ery man differeth from other in constitution! they differ also one from another concerning the common distinction of good and e#il, Nor is there any such thing as agathon a(lo3! that is to say! sim(ly good, *or e#en the goodness which we attribute to "od /lmighty! is his goodness to us, /nd as we call good and e#il the things that (lease and dis(lease- so call we goodness and badness! the 5ualities or (owers whereby they do it, /nd the signs of that goodness are called by the Latins in one word PDL'HR4TD):! and the signs of e#il! TDRP4TD):- to which we ha#e no words (recisely answerable, 4, /s all conce(tions we ha#e immediately by the sense! are delight! or (ain! or a((etite! or fear- so are also the imaginations after sense, .ut as they are wea+er imaginations! so are they also wea+er (leasures! or wea+er (ain, <, /s a((etite is the beginning of animal motion toward something which (leaseth us- so is the attaining thereof! the EN)
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of that motion! which we also call the sco(e! and aim! and final cause of the same0 and when we attain that end! the delight we ha#e thereby is called *RD4T4:N0 so that bonum and finis are different games! but for different considerations of the same thing, 6, /nd of ends! some are called (ro(in5ui! that is! near at hand- others remoti! farther off, .ut when the ends that be nearer attaining! be com(ared with those that be farther off! they are not called ends! but means! and the way to those, .ut for an utmost end! in which the ancient (hiloso(hers ha#e (laced felicity! and ha#e dis(uted much concerning the way thereto! there is no such thing in this world! nor way to it! more than to Dto(ia0 for while we li#e! we ha#e desires! and desire (resu((oseth a farther end, Those things which (lease us! as the way or means to a farther end! we call PR:*4T/.LE- and the fruition of them! D7E- and those things that (rofit not! F/4N, =, 7eeing all delight is a((etite! and a((etite (resu((oseth a farther end! there can be no contentment but in (roceeding0 and therefore we are not to mar#el! when we see! that as men attain to more riches! honours! or other (ower- so their a((etite continually groweth more and more- and when they are come to the utmost degree of one +ind of (ower! they (ursue some other! as long as in any +ind they thin+ themsel#es behind any other, :f those therefore that ha#e attained to the highest degree of honour and riches! some ha#e affected mastery in some art- as Nero in music and (oetry! 'ommodus in the art of a gladiator, /nd such as affect not some such thing! must find di#ersion and recreation of their thoughts in the contention either of (lay! or business, /nd men %ustly com(lain as of a great grief! that they +now not what to do, *EL4'4T6! therefore 1by which we mean continual delight2! consisteth not in ha#ing (ros(ered! but in (ros(ering, >, There are few things in this world! but either ha#e a mi3ture of good and e#il! or there is a chain of them so necessarily lin+ed together! that the one cannot be ta+en without the other! as for e3am(le0 the (leasures of sin! and the bitterness of (unishment! are inse(arable- as are also labour and honour! for the most (art, Now when in the whole chain! the greater (art is good! the whole is called good- and when the e#il o#erHweigheth! the whole is called e#il, @, There are two sorts of (leasure! whereof the one seemeth to affect the cor(oreal organ of sense! and that 4 call 7EN7D/Lthe greatest whereof is that! by which we are in#ited to gi#e continuance to our s(ecies- and the ne3t! by which a man is in#ited to meat! for the (reser#ation of his indi#idual (erson, The other sort of delight is not (articular to any (art of the body! and is called the delight of the mind! and is that which we call ?:6, Li+ewise of (ains! some affect the body! and are therefore called the (ains of the! body, and some not! and those are called "riE*, 'ha(ter > :f the Pleasures of the 7enses- :f Honour
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1, Ha#ing in the first section of the (recedent cha(ter (resu((osed that motion and agitation of the brain which we call conce(tion! to be continued to the heart! and there to be called (assion- 4 ha#e thereby obliged myself! as far forth as 4 can! to search out and declare! from what conce(tion (roceedeth e#ery one of those (assions which we commonly ta+e notice of, *or the things that (lease and dis(lease! are innumerable! and wor+ innumerable ways- but men ha#e ta+en notice of the (assions they ha#e from them in a #ery few! which also are many of them without name, 8, /nd first! we are to consider that of conce(tions there are three sorts! whereof one is of that which is (resent! which is sense- another! of that which is (ast! which is remembranceand the third! of that which is future! which we call e3(ectation0 all which ha#e been manifestly declared in the second and the third cha(ter, /nd e#ery of these conce(tions is (leasure (resent, /nd first for the (leasures of the body which affect the sense of touch and taste! as far forth as they be organical! their conce(tion is sense- so also is the (leasure of all e3onerations of nature- all which (assions 4 ha#e before named sensual (leasures- and their contraries! sensual (ains- to which also may be added the (leasures and dis(leasures of odours! if any of them shall be found organical! which for the most (art they are not! as a((eareth by this e3(erience which e#ery man hath! that the same smells! when they seem to (roceed from others! dis(lease! though they (roceed from oursel#es- but when we thin+ they (roceed from oursel#es! they dis(lease not! though they come from others0 the dis(leasure therefore! in these is a conce(tion of hurt thereby as being unwholesome! and is therefore a conce(tion of e#il to come! and not (resent, 'oncerning the delight of hearing! it is di#erse! and the organ itself not affected thereby, 7im(le sounds (lease by continuance and e5uality! as the sound of a bell or lute0 insomuch that it seemeth an e5uality continued by the (ercussion of the ob%ect u(on the ear! is (leasure- the contrary is called harshness0 such as is grating! and some other sounds! which do not always affect the body! but only sometimes! and that with a +ind of horror beginning at the teeth, Harmony! or many sounds together agreeing! (lease by the same reason as unison! which is the sound of e5ual strings e5ually stretched, 7ounds that differ in any height! (lease by ine5uality and e5uality alternate! that is to say! the higher note stri+eth twice! for one stro+e of the other! whereby they stri+e together e#ery second time- as is well (ro#ed by "alileo! in the first dialogue concerning local motions! where he also sheweth! that two sounds differing a fifth! delight the ear by an e5uality of stri+ing after two ine5ualities- for the higher note stri+eth the ear thrice! while the other stri+eth but twice, 4n the li+e manner he sheweth! wherein consisteth the (leasure of concord! and the dis(leasure of discord! in other differences of notes, There is yet another (leasure and dis(leasure of sounds! which consisteth in conse5uence of one note after another! di#ersified both by accent and measure0 whereof that which (leaseth is called air, .ut for what reason
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succession in one tone and measure is more air than another! 4 confess 4 +now not- but 4 con%ecture the reason to be! for that some of them may imitate and re#i#e some (assion which otherwise we ta+e no notice of! and the other not- for no air (leaseth but for a time! no more doth imitation, /lso the (leasures of the eye consist in a certain e5uality of colour0 for light! the most glorious of all colours! is made by e5ual o(eration of the ob%ect- whereas colour is 1(erturbed! that is to say2 une5ual light! as hath been said cha(, 44! sect, >, /nd therefore colours! the more e5uality is in them! the more res(lendent they are, /nd as harmony is a (leasure to the ear! which consisteth of di#ers sounds- so (erha(s may some mi3ture of di#ers colours be harmony to the eye! more than another mi3ture, There is yet another delight by the ear! which ha((eneth only to men of s+ill in music! which is of another nature! and not 1as these2 conce(tion of the (resent! but re%oicing in their own s+ill- of which nature are the (assions of which 4 am to s(ea+ ne3t, 9, 'once(tion of the future is but a su((osition of the same! (roceeding from remembrance of what is Past- and we so far concei#e that anything will be hereafter! as we +now there is something at the (resent that hath (ower to (roduce it, /nd that anything hath (ower now to (roduce another thing hereafter! we cannot concei#e! but by remembrance that it hath (roduced the li+e heretofore, herefore all conce(tion of future! is conce(tion of (ower able to (roduce something- whosoe#er therefore e3(ecteth (leasure to come! must concei#e withal some (ower in himself by which the same may be attained, /nd because the (assions whereof 4 am to s(ea+ ne3t! consist in conce(tion of the future! that is to say! in conce(tion of (ower (ast! and the act to come- before 4 go any farther! 4 must in the ne3t (lace s(ea+ somewhat concerning this (ower, 4, .y this (ower 4 mean the same with the faculties of body and mind! mentioned in the first cha(ter! that is to say! of the body! nutriti#e! generati#e! moti#e- and of the mind! +nowledge, /nd besides those! such farther (owers! as by them are ac5uired 1#iA,2 riches! (lace of authority! friendshi( or fa#our! and good fortune- which last is really nothing else but the fa#our of "od /lmighty, The contraries of these are im(otences! infirmities! or defects of the said (owers res(ecti#ely, /nd because the (ower of one man resisteth and hindereth the effects of the (ower of another (ower sim(ly is no more! but the e3cess of the (ower of one abo#e that of another, *or e5ual (owers o((osed! destroy one another- and such their o((osition is called contention, <, The signs by which we +now our own (ower are those actions which (roceed from the same- and the signs by which other men +now it! are such actions! gesture! countenance and s(eech! as usually such (owers (roduce0 and the ac+nowledgment of (ower is called H:N:DR- and to honour a man 1inwardly in the mind2 is to concei#e or ac+nowledge! that that man hath the odds or e3cess of (ower abo#e him that contendeth or com(areth himself, /nd H:N:DR/.LE are those signs for which one man ac+nowledgeth (ower or e3cess abo#e his concurrent in another, /s for e3am(le0 HH .eauty of (erson! consisting in a li#ely as(ect of the countenance! and other signs of natural heat! are honourable!
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being signs (recedent of (ower generati#e! and much issue- as also! general re(utation amongst those of the other se3! because signs conse5uent of the same, HH /nd actions (roceeding from strength of body and o(en force! are honourable! as signs conse5uent of (ower moti#e! such as are #ictory in battle or duel- et a a#oir tue son homme, HH /lso to ad#enture u(on great e3(loits and danger! as being a sign conse5uent of o(inion of our own strength0 and that o(inion a sign of the strength itself, HH /nd to teach or (ersuade are honourable! because they be signs of +nowledge, HH /nd riches are honourable- as signs of the (ower that ac5uired them, HH /nd gifts! costs! and magnificence of houses! a((arel! and the li+e! are honourable! as signs of riches, HH /nd nobility is honourable by reflection! as signs of (ower in the ancestors, HH /nd authority! because a sign of strength! wisdom! fa#our or riches by which it is attained, HH /nd good fortune or casual (ros(erity is honourable! because a sign of the fa#our of "od! to whom is to be ascribed all that cometh to us by fortune! no less than that we attain unto us by industry, /nd the contraries! or defects! of these signs are dishonourable- and according to the signs of honour and dishonour! so we estimate and ma+e the #alue or :RTH of a man, *or so much worth is e#ery thing! as a man will gi#e for the use of all it can do, 6, The signs of honour are those by which we (ercei#e that one man ac+nowledgeth the (ower and worth of another, 7uch as these0HTo (raise- to magnify- to bless! or call ha((y- to (ray or su((licate to- to than+- to offer unto or (resent- to obey- to hear+en to with attention- to s(ea+ to with consideration- to a((roach unto in decent manner! to +ee( distance from- to gi#e the way to! and the li+e- which are the honour the inferior gi#eth to the su(erior, .ut the signs of honour from the su(erior to the inferior! are such as these0 to (raise or (refer him before his concurrentto hear him more willingly- to s(ea+ to him more familiarly- to admit him nearer, to em(loy him rather, to as+ his ad#ice ratherto li+e his o(inions- and to gi#e him any gift rather than money! or if money! so much as may not im(ly his need of a little0 for need of little is greater (o#erty than need of much, /nd this is enough for e3am(les of the signs of honour and of (ower, =, Re#erence is the conce(tion we ha#e concerning another! that he hath a (ower to do unto us both good and hurt! but not the will to do us hurt, >, 4n the (leasure men ha#e! or dis(leasure from the signs of honour or dishonour done unto them! consisteth the nature of the (assions in (articular! whereof we are to s(ea+ in the ne3t cha(ter, 'ha(ter @ :f the Passions of the $ind 1, "L:R6! or internal gloriation or trium(h of the mind! is that (assion which (roceedeth from the imagination or conce(tion of our own (ower! abo#e the (ower of him that contendeth with us,
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The signs whereof! besides those in the countenance! and other gestures of the body which cannot be described! are! ostentation in words! and insolency in actions- and this (assion! by them whom it dis(leaseth! is called (ride0 by them whom it (leaseth! it is termed a %ust #aluation of himself, This imagination of our (ower and worth! may be an assured and certain e3(erience of our own actions! and then is that glorying %ust and well grounded! and begetteth an o(inion of increasing the same by other actions to follow- in which consisteth the a((etite which we call /7P4R4N"! or (roceeding from one degree of (ower to another, The same (assion may (roceed not from any conscience of our own actions! but from fame and trust of others! whereby one may thin+ well of himself! and yet be decei#ed- and this is */L7E "L:R6! and the as(iring conse5uent thereto (rocureth illHsuccess, *arther! the fiction 1which also is imagination2 of actions done by oursel#es! which ne#er were done! is glorying- but because it begetteth no a((etite nor endea#our to any further attem(t! it is merely #ain and un(rofitable- as when a man imagineth himself to do the actions whereof he readeth in some romant! or to be li+e unto some other man whose acts he admireth, /nd this is called F/4N "L:R60 and is e3em(lified in the fable by the fly sitting on the a3letree! and saying to himself! hat a dust do 4 raiseI The e3(ression of #ain glory is that we call a wish! which some of the 7choolmen! mista+ing for some a((etite distinct from all the rest! ha#e called #elleity! ma+ing a new word! as they made a new (assion which was not before, 7igns of #ain glory in the gesture! are imitation of others! counterfeiting attention to things they understand not! affectation of fashions! ca(tation of honour from their dreams! and other little stories of themsel#es! from their country! from their names! and the li+e, 8, The (assion contrary to glory! (roceeding from a((rehension of our own infirmity! is called HD$4L4T6 by those by whom it is a((ro#ed- by the rest! )E?E'T4:N and (oorness- which conce(tion may be well or ill grounded, 4f well! it (roduceth fear to attem(t any thing rashly- if ill! it may be called #ain fear! as the contrary is #ain glory! and consisteth in fear of the (ower! without any other sign of the act to follow! as children fear to go in the dar+! u(on imagination of s(irits! and fear all strangers as enemies, This is the (assion which utterly cows a man! that he neither dare s(ea+ (ublicly! nor e3(ect good success in any action, 9, 4t ha((eneth sometimes! that he that hath a good o(inion of himself! and u(on good ground! may ne#ertheless! by reason of the forwardness which that (assion begetteth! disco#er in himself some defect or infirmity! the remembrance whereof de%ecteth himand this (assion is called 7H/$E! by which being cooled and chec+ed in his forwardness! he is more wary for the time to come, This (assion! as it is a sign of infirmity! which is dishonourso also it is a sign of +nowledge! which is honour, The sign of it is blushing! which ha((eneth less in men conscious of their own defects! because they less betrary the infirmities they ac+nowledge, 4, ':DR/"E! in a large signification! is the absence of fear in the (resence of any e#il whatsoe#er- but in a stricter and
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more common meaning! it is contem(t of wounds and death! when they o((ose a man in the way to his end, <, /N"ER 1or sudden courage2 is nothing but the a((etite or desire of o#ercoming (resent o((osition, 4t hath been commonly defined to be grief (roceeding from an o(inion of contem(t- which is confuted by the often e3(erience we ha#e of being mo#ed to anger by things inanimate and without sense! and conse5uently inca(able of contemning us, 6, REFEN"E*DLNE77 is that (assion which ariseth from an e3(ectation or imagination of ma+ing him that hath hurt us! to find his own action hurtful to himself! and to ac+nowledge the same- and this is the height of re#enge, *or though it be not hard! by returning e#il for e#il! to ma+e one&s ad#ersary dis(leased with his own fact- yet to ma+e him ac+nowledge the same! is so difficult! that many a man had rather die than do it, Re#enge aimeth not at the death! but at the ca(ti#ity and sub%ection of an enemy- which was well e3(ressed in the e3clamation of Tiberius 'aesar! concerning one! that! to frustrate his re#enge! had +illed himself in (rison0 Hath he esca(ed meC To +ill is the aim of them that hate! to rid themsel#es of fear- re#enge aimeth at trium(h! which o#er the dead is not, =, REPENT/N'E is the (assion that (roceedeth from o(inion or +nowledge that the action they ha#e done is out of the way to the end they would attain, The effect whereof is! to (ursue that way no longer- but! by consideration of the end! to direct themsel#es into a better, The first motion therefore in this (assion is grief, .ut the e3(ectation or conce(tion of returning again into the way! is %oy, /nd conse5uently! the (assion of re(entance is com(ounded and allayed of both! but the (redominant is %oy! else were the whole grief- which cannot be, *or as much as he that (roceedeth towards the end! concei#eth good! he (roceedeth with a((etite, /nd a((etite is %oy! as hath been said! cha(, F44! sect, 9, >, H:PE is e3(ectation of good to come! as fear is the e3(ectation of e#il0 but when there be causes! some that ma+e us e3(ect good! and some that ma+e us e3(ect e#il! alternately wor+ing in our minds0 if the causes that ma+e us e3(ect good! be greater than those that ma+e us e3(ect e#il! the whole (assion is ho(e- if contrarily! the whole is fear, /bsolute (ri#ation of ho(e is )E7P/4R! a degree whereof is )4**4)EN'E, @, TRD7T is a (assion (roceeding from belief of him from whom we e3(ect or ho(e for good! so free from doubt that u(on the same we (ursue no other way, /nd distrust! or diffidence! is doubt that ma+eth him endea#our to (ro#ide himself by other means, /nd that this is the meaning of the words trust and distrust! is manifest from this! that a man ne#er (ro#ideth himself by a second way! but when he mistrusteth that the first will not hold, 10, P4ty is imagination or fiction of future calamity to oursel#es! (roceeding from the sense of another man&s (resent calamity- but when it lighteth on such as we thin+ ha#e not deser#ed the same! the com(assion is the greater! because then there a((eareth the more (robability that the same may ha((en to us, *or the e#il that ha((eneth to an innocent man! may ha((en to
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e#ery man, .ut when we see a man suffer for great crimes! which we cannot easily thin+ will fall u(on oursel#es! the (ity is the less, /nd therefore men are a(t to (ity those whom they lo#e0 for! whom they lo#e! they thin+ worthy of good! and therefore not worthy of calamity, Thence also it is! that men (ity the #ices of some they ne#er saw before- and therefore e#ery (ro(er man finds (ity amongst women! when he goeth to the gallows, The contrary of (ity is H/R)NE77 of heart! (roceeding either from slowness of imagination! or from e3treme great o(inion of their own e3em(tion of the li+e calamity! or from hatred of all! or most men, 11, 4N)4"N/T4:N is that grief which consisteth in the conce(tion of good success ha((ening to them whom they thin+ unworthy thereof, 7eeing therefore men thin+ all those unworthy whom they hate! they thin+ them not only unworthy of the good fortune they ha#e! but also of their own #irtues, /nd of all the (assions of the mind! these two! indignation and (ity! are most easily raised and increased by elo5uence- for the aggra#ation of the calamity! and e3tenuation of the fault! augmenteth (ity, /nd the e3tenuation of the worth of the (erson! together with the magnifying of his success 1which are the (arts of an orator2! are able to turn these two (assions into fury, 18, E$DL/T4:N is grief arising from seeing one&s self e3ceeded or e3celled by his concurrent! together with ho(e to e5ual or e3ceed him in time to come! by his own ability, .ut! ENF6 is the same grief %oined with (leasure concei#ed in the imagination of some ill fortune that may befall him, 19, There is a (assion which hath no name! but the sign of it is that distortion of the countenance we call L/D"HTER! which is always %oy! but what %oy! what we thin+! and wherein we trium(h when we laugh! hath not hitherto been declared by any, That it consisteth in wit! or! as they call it! in the %est! this e3(erience confuteth0 for men laugh at mischances and indecencies! therein there lieth no wit or %est at all, /nd forasmuch as the same thing is no more ridiculous when it groweth stale or usual! whatsoe#er it be that mo#eth laughter! it must be new and une3(ected, $en laugh often 1es(ecially such as are greedy of a((lause from e#ery thing they do well2 at their own actions (erformed ne#er so little beyond their own e3(ectationas also at their own %ests0 and in this case it is manifest! that the (assion of laughter (roceedeth from a sudden conce(tion of some ability in himself that laugheth, /lso men laugh at the infirmities of others! by com(arison of which their own abilities are set off and illustrated, /lso men laugh at %ests! the wit whereof always consisteth in the elegant disco#ering and con#eying to our minds some absurdity or another, /nd in this case also the (assion of laughter (roceedeth from the sudden imagination of our own odds and eminence- for what is else the recommending oursel#es to our own good o(inion! by com(arison with another man&s infirmities or absurdityC *or when a %est is bro+en u(on oursel#es! or friends of whose dishonour we (artici(ate! we ne#er laugh thereat, 4 may therefore conclude! that the (assion of laughter is nothing else but a sudden glory arising from sudden conce(tion of some eminency in oursel#es! by com(arison with the infirmities of others! or with our own
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formerly0 for men laugh at the follies of themsel#es (ast! when they come suddenly to remembrance! e3ce(t they bring with them any (resent dishonour, 4t is no wonder therefore that men ta+e it heinously to be laughed at or derided! that is! trium(hed o#er, Laughter without offence! must be at absurdities and infirmities abstracted from (ersons! and where all the com(any may laugh together, *or laughing to one&s self (utteth all the rest to a %ealousy and e3amination of themsel#es- besides! it is #ain glory! and an argument of little worth! to thin+ the infirmities of another sufficient matter for his trium(h, 14, The (assion o((osite hereunto! whose signs are another distortion of the face with tears! called EEP4N"! is the sudden falling out with oursel#es! or sudden conce(tion of defect- and therefore children wee( often- for seeing they thin+ e#ery thing ought to be gi#en unto them which they desire! of necessity e#ery re(ulse must be a sudden chec+ of their e3(ectation! and (uts them in mind of their too much wea+ness to ma+e themsel#es masters of all they loo+ for, *or the same cause women are more a(t to wee( than men! as being not only more accustomed to ha#e their wills! but also to measure their (ower by the (ower and lo#e of others that (rotect them, $en are a(t to wee( that (rosecute re#enge! when the re#enge is suddenly sto((ed or frustrated by the re(entance of the ad#ersary- and such are the tears of reconciliation, /lso (ityful men are sub%ect to this (assion u(on the beholding of those men they (ity! and suddenly remember they cannot hel(, :ther wee(ing in men (roceedeth for the most (art from the same cause it (roceedeth from in women and children, 1<, The a((etite which men call LD7T! and the fruition that a((ertaineth thereunto! is a sensual (leasure! but not only thatthere is in it also a delight of the mind0 for it consisteth of two a((etites together! to (lease! and to be (leased- and the delight men ta+e in delighting! is not sensual! but a (leasure or %oy of the mind! consisting in the imagination of the (ower they ha#e so much to (lease, .ut this name lust is used where it is condemned0 otherwise it is called by the general word lo#e- for the (assion is one and the same indefinite desire of the different se3! as natural as hunger, 16, :f lo#e! by which is understood the %oy a man ta+eth in the fruition of any (resent good! hath been already s(o+en in the first section of the se#enth cha(ter! under which is contained the lo#e men bear to one another! or (leasure they ta+e in one another&s com(any- and by which men are said to be sociable by nature, .ut there is another +ind of L:FE! which the "ree+s call Eros! and is that which we mean! when we say0 that man or woman is in lo#e, *or as much as this (assion cannot be without di#ersity of se3! it cannot be denied but that it (artici(ateth of that indefinite lo#e mentioned in the former section, .ut there is a great difference between the desire of a man indefinite! and the same desire limited ad hanc- and this is that lo#e which is the great theme of (oets, .ut notwithstanding their (raises! it must be defined by the word need- for it is a conce(tion of the need a man hath of that one (erson desired, The cause of this (assion is not always! nor for the most (art!
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beauty! or other 5uality! in the belo#ed! unless there be withal ho(e in the (erson that lo#eth0 which may be gathered from this0 that in great difference of (ersons! the greater ha#e often fallen in lo#e with the meaner- but not contrary, /nd from hence it is! that for the most (art they ha#e much better fortune in lo#e! whose ho(es are built u(on something in their (erson! than those that trust to their e3(ressions and ser#ice- and they that care less! than they that care more- which not (ercei#ing many men cast away their ser#ices! as one arrow after another- till in the end together with their ho(es they lose their wits, 1=, There is yet another (assion sometimes called lo#e! but more (ro(erly good will or 'H/R4T6, There can be no greater argument to a man of his own (ower! than to find himself able! not only to accom(lish his own desires! but also to assist other men in theirs0 and this is that conce(tion wherein consisteth charity, 4n which! first! is contained that natural affection of (arents to their children! which the "ree+s call 7torgi! as also that affection wherewith men see+ to assist those that adhere unto them, .ut the affection wherewith men many times bestow their benefits on strangers! is not to be called charity! but either contract! whereby they see+ to (urchase friendshi(- or fear! which ma+eth them to (urchase (eace, The o(inion of Plato concerning honourable lo#e! deli#ered 1according to his custom! in the (erson of 7ocrates2 in the dialogue intituled 'on#i#ium! is this0 that a man full and (regnant with wisdom! or other #irtue! naturally see+eth out some beautiful (erson! of age and ca(acity to concei#e! in whom he may! without sensual res(ects! engender and (roduce the li+e, /nd this is the idea of the then noted lo#e of 7ocrates wise and continent! to /lcibiades young and beautiful- in which lo#e! is not sought the honour! but issue of his +nowledge- contrary to common lo#e! to which though issue sometimes follow! yet men see+ not that! but to (lease! and to be (leased, 4t should therefore be this charity! or desire to assist and ad#ance others, .ut why then should the wise see+ the ignorant! or be more charitable to the beautiful than to othersC There is something in it sa#ouring of the use of that time0 in which matter though 7ocrates be ac+nowledged for continent! yet continent men ha#e the (assion they contain! as much or more than they that satiate the a((etite- which ma+eth me sus(ect this (latonic lo#e for merely sensual- but with an honourable (retence for the old to haunt the com(any of the young and beautiful, 1>, *orasmuch as all +nowledge beginneth from e3(erience! therefore also new e3(erience is the beginning of new +nowledge! and the increase of e3(erience the beginning of the increase of +nowledge- whatsoe#er therefore ha((eneth new to a man! gi#eth him ho(e and matter of +nowing somewhat that he +new not before, /nd this ho(e and e3(ectation of future +nowledge from anything that ha((eneth new and strange! is that (assion which we commonly call /)$4R/T4:N- and the same considered as a((etite! is called curiosity! which is a((etite of +nowledge, /s in the discerning faculties! man lea#eth all community with beasts at the faculty of im(osing names- so also doth he surmount their nature at this (assion of curiosity, *or when a beast seeth anything new or strange to him- he considereth it so far only as to discern
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whether it be li+ely to ser#e his turn! or hurt him! and accordingly a((roacheth nearer it! or flieth from it- whereas man! who in most e#ents remembereth in what manner they were caused and begun! loo+eth for the cause and beginning of e#erything that ariseth new unto him, /nd from this (assion of admiration and curiosity! ha#e arisen not only the in#ention of names! but also the su((osition of such causes of all things as they thought might (roduce them, /nd from this beginning is deri#ed all (hiloso(hy0 as astronomy from the admiration of the course of hea#en- natural (hiloso(hy from the strange effects of the elements and other bodies, /nd from the degrees of curiosity (roceed also the degrees of +nowledge among men- for to a man in the chase of riches or authority! 1which in res(ect of +nowledge are but sensuality2 it is a di#ersion of little (leasure to consider! whether it be the motion of the sun or the earth that ma+eth the day! or to enter into other contem(lation of any strange accident! than whether it conduce or not to the end he (ursueth, .ecause curiosity is delight! therefore also all no#elty is so! but es(ecially that no#elty from which a man concei#eth an o(inion true or false of bettering his own estate, *or in such case they stand affected with the ho(e that all gamesters ha#e while the cards are shuffling, 1@, )i#ers other (assions there be! but they want nameswhereof some ne#ertheless ha#e been by most men obser#ed, *or e3am(le0 from what (assion (roceedeth it! that men ta+e (leasure to behold from the shore the danger of them that are at sea in a tem(est! or in fight! or from a safe castle to behold two armies charge one another in the fieldC 4t is certainly in the whole sum %oy! else men would ne#er floc+ to such a s(ectacle, Ne#ertheless there is in it both %oy and grief, *or as there is no#elty and remembrance of own security (resent! which is delight- so is there also (ity! which is grief, .ut the delight is so far (redominant! that men usually are content in such a case to be s(ectators of the misery of their friends, 80, $/"N/N4$4T6 is no more than glory! of which 4 ha#e s(o+en in the first section- but glory well grounded u(on certain e3(erience of (ower sufficient to attain his end in o(en manner, /nd PD74LL/N4$4T6 is the doubt of that- whatsoe#er therefore is a sign of #ain glory! the same is also a sign of (usillanimity, for sufficient (ower ma+eth glory a s(ur to one&s end, To be (leased or dis(leased with fame true or false! is a sign of the same! because he that relieth u(on fame! hath not his success in his own (ower, Li+ewise art and fallacy are signs of (usillanimity! because they de(end not u(on our own (ower! but the ignorance of others, /lso (roneness to anger! because it argueth difficulty of (roceeding, /lso ostentation of ancestors! because all men are more inclined to ma+e shew of their own (ower when they ha#e it! than of another&s, To be at enmity and contention with inferiors! is a sign of the same! because it (roceedeth from want of (ower to end the war, To laugh at others! because it is affectation of glory from other men&s infirmities! and not from any ability of their own, /lso irresolution! which (roceedeth from want of (ower enough to contemn the little differences that ma+e deliberations hard,
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81, The com(arison of the life of man to a race! though it holdeth not in e#ery (oint! yet it holdeth so well for this our (ur(ose that we may thereby both see and remember almost all the (assions before mentioned, .ut this race we must su((ose to ha#e no other goal! nor no other garland! but being foremost, /nd in it0 To endea#our is a((etite, To be remiss is sensuality, To consider them behind is glory, To consider them before is humility, To lose ground with loo+ing bac+ #ain glory, To be holden! hatred, To turn bac+! re(entance, To be in breath! ho(e, To be weary des(air, To endea#our to o#erta+e the ne3t! emulation, To su((lant or o#erthrow! en#y, To resol#e to brea+ through a sto( foreseen courage, To brea+ through a sudden sto( anger, To brea+ through with ease! magnanimity, To lose ground by little hindrances! (usillanimity, To fall on the sudden is dis(osition to wee(, To see another fall! dis(osition to laugh, To see one outHgone whom we would not is (ity, To see one outHgo we would not! is indignation, To hold fast by another is to lo#e, To carry him on that so holdeth! is charity, To hurt one&sHself for haste is shame, 'ontinually to be outHgone is misery, 'ontinually to outHgo the ne3t before is felicity, /nd to forsa+e the course is to die, 'ha(ter 10 :f the )ifference .etween $en 4n These )iscerning *aculty and the 'ause 1, Ha#ing shewed in the (recedent cha(ters! that the imagination of men (roceedeth from the action of e3ternal ob%ects u(on the brain! or some internal substance of the head- and that the (assions (roceed from the alteration there made! and continued to the heart0 it is conse5uent in the ne3t (lace 1seeing the di#ersity of degree in +nowledge in di#ers men! to be greater than may be ascribed to the di#ers tem(er of the brain2 to declare what other causes may (roduce such odds! and e3cess of ca(acity! as we daily obser#e in one man abo#e another, /nd for that difference which ariseth from sic+ness! and such accidental distem(er! 4 omit the same! as im(ertinent to this (lace! and consider it only in such as ha#e their health! and organs well dis(osed, 4f the difference were in the natural tem(er of the brain! 4 can imagine no reason why the same should not a((ear first and most of all in the senses! which being e5ual both in the wise and less wise! infer an e5ual tem(er in the common organ 1namely the brain2 of all the senses,
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8, .ut we see by e3(erience! that %oy and grief (roceed not in all men from the same causes! and that men differ, much in constitution of body! whereby! that which hel(eth and furthereth #ital constitution in one! and is therefore delightful! hindereth and crosseth it in another! and causeth grief, The difference therefore of wits hath its original from the different (assions! and from the ends to which their a((etite leadeth them, 9, /nd first! those men whose ends are some sensual delightand generally are addicted to ease! food! onerations and e3onerations of the body! must of necessity thereby be the less delighted with those imaginations that conduce not to those ends! such as are imaginations of honour and glory! which! as 4 ha#e said before! ha#e res(ect to the future0 for sensuality consisteth in the (leasure of the senses! which (lease only for the (resent! and ta+eth away the inclination to obser#e such things as conduce to honour- and conse5uently ma+eth men less curious! and less ambitious! whereby they less consider the way either to +nowledge or to other (ower- in which two consisteth all the e3cellency of (ower cogniti#e, /nd this is it which men call )DLNE77- and (roceedeth from the a((etite of sensual or bodily delight, /nd it may well be con%ectured! that such (assion hath its beginning from a grossness and difficulty of the motion of the s(irits about the heart, 4, The contrary hereunto! is that 5uic+ ranging of mind described cha(, 4F! sect, 9! which is %oined with curiosity of com(aring the things that come into his mind one with another, 4n which com(arison! a man delighteth himself either with finding une3(ected similitude in things! otherwise much unli+e! in which men (lace the e3cellency of */N'60 and from thence (roceed those grateful similies! meta(hors! and other tro(es! by which both (oets and orators ha#e it in their (ower to ma+e things (lease or dis(lease! and shew well or ill to others! as they li+e themsel#es- or else in discerning suddenly dissimilitude in things that otherwise a((ear the same, /nd this #irtue of the mind is that by which men attain to e3act and (erfect +nowledge0 and the (leasure thereof consisteth in continual instruction! and in distinction of (ersons! (laces! and seasons- it is commonly termed by the name of ?D)"$ENT0 for! to %udge is nothing else! but to distinguish or discern- and both fancy and %udgment are commonly com(rehended under the name of wit! which seemeth a tenuity and agility of s(irits! contrary to that resti#eness of the s(irits su((osed in those that are dull, <, There is another defect of the mind! which men call LEF4T6! which betrayeth also mobility in the s(irits! but in e3cess, /n e3am(le whereof is in them that in the midst of any serious discourse! ha#e their minds di#erted to e#ery little %est or witty obser#ation- which ma+eth them de(art from their discourse by (arenthesis! and from that (arenthesis by another! till at length they either lose themsel#es! or ma+e their narration li+e a dream! or some studied nonsense, The (assion from which this (roceedeth! is curiosity! but with too much e5uality and indifferency0 for when all things ma+e e5ual im(ression and delight! they e5ually throng to be e3(ressed, 6, The #irtue o((osite to this defect is "ra#ity! or
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steadiness- in which the end being the great and masterHdelight! directeth and +ee(eth in the way thereto all other thoughts, =, The e3tremity of dulness is that natural folly which may be called 7T:L4)4T60 but the e3treme of le#ity! though it be a natural folly distinct from the other! and ob#ious to e#ery man&s obser#ation! yet it hath no name, >, There is a fault of the mind called by the "ree+s /mathia! which is 4N):'4.4L4T6! or difficulty of being taught- the which must needs arise from a false o(inion that they +now already the truth of that which is called in 5uestion, *or certainly men are not otherwise so une5ual in ca(acity as the e#idence is une5ual of what is taught by the mathematicians! and what is commonly discoursed of in other boo+s0 and therefore if the minds of men were all of white (a(er! they would almost e5ually be dis(osed to ac+nowledge whatsoe#er should be in right method! and right ratiocination deli#ered unto them, .ut when men ha#e once ac5uiesced in untrue o(inions! and registered them as authentical records in their minds- it is no less im(ossible to s(ea+ intelligibly to such men! than to write legibly u(on a (a(er already scribbled o#er, The immediate cause therefore of indocibility! is (re%udice- and of (re%udice! false o(inion of our own +nowledge, @, /nother! and a (rinci(al defect of the mind! is that which men call $/)NE77! which a((eareth to be nothing else but some imagination of such (redominance abo#e all the rest! that we ha#e no (assion but from it, /nd this conce(tion is nothing else but e3cessi#e #ain glory! or #ain de%ection- as is most (robable by these e3am(les following! which (roceed in a((earance! e#ery one of them! from some (ride! or some de%ection of mind, /s first we ha#e had the e3am(le of one that (reached in 'hea(side from a cart there! instead of a (ul(it! that he himself was 'hrist! which was s(iritual (ride or madness, e ha#e had di#ers e3am(les also of learned madness! in which men ha#e manifestly been distracted u(on any occasion that hath (ut them in remembrance of their own ability, /mongst the learned madmen may be numbered 14 thin+2 also those that determine of the time of the world&s end! and other such (oints of (ro(hecy, /nd the gallant madness of )on Gui3ote is nothing else but an e3(ression of such height of #ain glory as reading of romants may (roduce in (usillanimous men, /lso rage and madness of lo#e! are but great indications of them in whose brains are (redominant the contem(ts of their enemies! or their mistresses, /nd the (ride ta+en in form and beha#iour! hath made di#ers men run mad! and to be so accounted! under the name of fantastic, 10, /nd as these are the e3am(les of e3tremities! so also are there e3am(les too many of the degrees! which may therefore be well accounted follies, /s it is a degree of the first! for a man! without certain e#idence! to thin+ himself ins(ired! or to ha#e any other effect in himself of "od&s holy s(irit than other godly men ha#e, :f the second! for a man continually to s(ea+ his mind in a cento of other men&s "ree+ or Latin sentences, :f the third! much of the (resent gallantry in lo#e and duel, :f rage! a degree is malice- and of fantastic madness! affectation, 11, /s the former e3am(les e3hibit to us madness! and the
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degrees thereof! (roceeding from the e3cess of selfHo(inion- so also there be other e3am(les of madness! and the degrees thereof! (roceeding from too much #ain fear and de%ection0 as in those melancholy men that ha#e imagined themsel#es brittle as glass! or ha#e had some other li+e imagination- and degrees hereof are all those e3orbitant and causeless fears! which we commonly obser#e in melancholy (ersons, 'ha(ter 11 hat 4maginations and Passions $en Ha#e! at the Names of Things 7u(ernatural 1, Hitherto of the +nowledge of things natural! and of the (assions that arise naturally from them, Now forasmuch as we gi#e names not only to things natural! but also to su(ernatural- and by all names we ought to ha#e some meaning and conce(tion0 it followeth in the ne3t (lace! to consider what thoughts and imaginations of the mind we ha#e! when we ta+e into our mouths the most blessed name of ":)! and the names of those #irtues we attribute unto him- as also! what image cometh into the mind at hearing the name of s(irit! or the name of angel! good or bad, 8, *orasmuch as "od /lmighty, is incom(rehensible! it followeth that we can ha#e no conce(tion or image of the )eityand conse5uently all his attributes signify our inability and defect of (ower to concei#e any thing concerning his nature! and not any conce(tion of the same! e3ce(ting only this0 that there is a "od, *or the effects we ac+nowledge naturally! do necessarily include a (ower of their (roducing! before they were (roduced- and that (ower (resu((oseth something e3istent that hath such (ower- and the thing so e3isting with (ower to (roduce! if it were not eternal! must needs ha#e been (roduced by somewhat before it- and that again by something else before that0 till we come to an eternal! that is to say! to the first (ower of all (owers! and first cause of all causes, /nd this is it which all men call by the name of ":)0 im(lying eternity! incom(rehensibility! and omni(otency, /nd thus all men that will consider! may naturally +now that "od is! though not what he ise#en as a man though born blind! though it be not (ossible for him to ha#e any imagination what +ind of thing is fire- yet he cannot but +now that something there is that men call fire! because it warmeth him, 9, /nd whereas we attribute to "od /lmighty! seeing! hearing! s(ea+ing! +nowing! lo#ing! and the li+e- by which names we understand something in the men to whom we attribute them! we understand nothing by them in the nature of "od, *or! as it is well reasoned0 7hall not "od that made the eye! seeC and the ear! hearC so is it also! if we say0 shall "od that made the eye! not see without the eyeC and that made the ear! not hear without the, earC or that made the brain! not +now without the brainC or that made the heart! not lo#e without the heartC The attributes therefore gi#en unto the )eity! are such as signify either our inca(acity! or our re#erence- our inca(acity! when we say0 incom(rehensible and infinite0 our re#erence! when we gi#e him
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those names! which amongst us are the names of those things we most magnify and commend! as omni(otent! omniscient! %ust! merciful! ;c, /nd when "od /lmighty gi#eth those names to himself in the 7cri(tures! it is but anthro(o(athos! that is to say! by descending to our manner of s(ea+ing0 without which we are not ca(able of understanding him, 4, .y the name of s(irit we understand a body natural! but of such subtilty that it wor+eth not on the senses- but that filleth u( the (lace which the image of a #isible body might fill u(, :ur conce(tion therefore of s(irit consisteth of figure without colour- and in figure is understood dimension0 and conse5uently! to concei#e a s(irit! is to concei#e something that hath dimension, .ut s(irits su(ernatural commonly signify some substance without dimension- which two words do flatly contradict one another, /nd therefore when we attribute the name of s(irit unto "od! we attribute it! not as a name of anything we concei#e! no more than when we ascribe unto him sense and understandingbut as a signification of our re#erence! who desire to abstract from him all cor(oreal grossness, <, 'oncerning other s(irits! which some men call s(irits incor(oreal! and some cor(oreal! it is not (ossible! by natural means only! to come to +nowledge of so much! as that there are such things, e who are 'hristians ac+nowledge that there be angels good and e#il- and that they are s(irits! and that the soul of man is a s(irit- and that these s(irits are immortal, .ut! to +now it! that is to say! to ha#e natural e#idence of the same0 it is im(ossible, *or all e#idence is conce(tion! as it is said cha(, F4! sect, 9- and all conce(tion is imagination and (roceedeth from sense0 cha(, 444! sect, 4, /nd s(irits we su((ose to be those substances which wor+ not u(on the sense! and therefore not conce(tible, .ut though the 7cri(ture ac+nowledge s(irits! yet doth it nowhere say! that they are incor(oreal! meaning thereby! without dimensions and 5uantity- nor! 4 thin+! is that word incor(oreal at all in the .ible- but it is said of the s(irit! that it abideth in men- sometime that it dwelleth in them! sometimes that it cometh on them! that it descendeth! and cometh and goeth- and that s(irits are angels! that is to say messengers0 all which words do consignify locality- and locality is dimension- and whatsoe#er hath dimension! is body! be it ne#er so subtile, To me therefore it seemeth! that the 7cri(ture fa#oureth them more! who hold angels and s(irits for cor(oreal! than them that hold the contrary, /nd it is a (lain contradiction in natural discourse! to say of the soul of man! that it is tota in toto! and0 tota in 5ualibet (arte cor(oris! grounded neither u(on reason nor re#elation- but (roceeding from the ignorance of what those things are which are called s(ectra! images that a((ear in the dar+ to children! and such as ha#e strong fears! and other strong imaginations! as hath been said cha(, 444! sect, <! where 4 call them (hantasms, *or ta+ing them to be things really without us! li+e bodies! and seeing them to come and #anish so strangely as they do! unli+e to bodies- what could they call them else! but incor(oreal bodiesC which is not a name! but an absurdity of s(eech, 6, 4t is true! that the heathens! and all nations of the
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world! ha#e ac+nowledged that there are s(irits! which for the most (art they hold to be incor(oreal- whereby it may be thought that a man by natural reason! may arri#e! without the +nowledge of 7cri(ture! to the +nowledge of this- that s(irits are, .ut the erroneous collection thereof by the heathens may (roceed! as 4 ha#e said before! from ignorance of the causes of ghosts and (hantasms! and such other a((aritions, /nd from thence had the "recians their number of gods! their number of daemons good and bad- and for e#ery man his genius- which is not the ac+nowledging of this truth0 that s(irits are- but a false o(inion concerning the force of imagination, =, /nd seeing the +nowledge we ha#e of s(irits! is not natural +nowledge! but faith from su(ernatural re#elation! gi#en to the holy writers of 7cri(ture- it followeth that of ins(iration also! which is the o(eration of s(irits in us! the +nowledge we ha#e must all (roceed from 7cri(ture, The signs there set down of ins(iration! are miracles! when they be great! and manifestly abo#e the (ower of men to do by im(osture, /s for e3am(le0 the ins(iration of Elias was +nown by the miraculous burning of his sacrifice, .ut the signs to distinguish whether a s(irit be good or e#il! are the same by which we distinguish whether a man or a tree be good or e#il0 namely actions and fruit, *or there be lying s(irits wherewith men are ins(ired sometimes! as well as with s(irits of truth, /nd we are commanded in 7cri(ture! to %udge of the s(irits by their doctrine! and not of the doctrine by the s(irits, *or miracles! our 7a#iour hath forbidden us to rule our faith by them! $att, 84! 84, /nd 7aint Paul saith! "al, 1! >0 Though an angel from hea#en (reach unto you otherwise! ;c, let him be accursed, here it is (lain! that we are not to %udge whether the doctrine be true or no! by the angel- but whether the angel saith true or no! by the doctrine, 7o li+ewise! 4 ?oh, cha(, 4 #ers, 10 .elie#e not e#ery s(irit0 for false (ro(hets are gone out into the world- #erse 80 Hereby shall ye +now the s(irit of "od0 e#ery s(irit that confesseth that ?esus 'hrist is come in the flesh! is of "od- #erse 90 /nd e#ery s(irit that confesseth not that ?esus 'hrist is come in the flesh! is not of "od- and this is the s(irit of /ntichrist- #erse 1<0 hosoe#er confesseth that ?esus is the 7on of "od! in him dwelleth "od! and he in "od, The +nowledge therefore we ha#e of good and e#il ins(iration! cometh not by #ision of an angel that may teach it! nor by a miracle that may seem to confirm it- but by conformity of doctrine with this article and fundamental (oint of 'hristian faith! which also 7aint Paul saith 1 'or, 9! 11! is the sole foundation0 that ?esus 'hrist is come in the flesh, >, .ut if ins(iration be discerned by this (oint- and this (oint be ac+nowledged and belie#ed u(on the authority of the 7cri(tures0 how 1may some men as+2 +now we that the 7cri(ture deser#eth so great authority! which must be no less than that of the li#ely #oice of "odC that is! how we +now the 7cri(tures to be the word of "odC /nd first! it is manifest0 that if by +nowledge we understand science infallible and natural! such as is defined in the F4 cha(, 4 sect,! (roceeding from sense- we cannot be said to +now it! because it (roceedeth from the conce(tions engendered by sense, /nd if we understand +nowledge
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as su(ernatural! we cannot +now it but by ins(iration- and of that ins(iration we cannot %udge! but by the doctrine, 4t followeth therefore! that we ha#e not any way! natural or su(ernatural! that +nowledge thereof which can (ro(erly be called infallible science and e#idence, 4t remaineth! that the +nowledge we ha#e that the 7cri(tures are the word of "od! is only faith, *or whatsoe#er is e#ident either by natural reason! or by re#elation su(ernatural! is not called faith- else should not faith cease! no more than charity! when we are in hea#en- which is contrary to the doctrine of 7cri(ture, /nd! we are not said to belie#e! but to +now those things which are e#ident, @, 7eeing then the ac+nowledgment of the 7cri(tures to be the word of "od! is not e#idence! but faith- and faith! cha(, F4! sect, =! consisteth in the trust we ha#e in other men0 it a((eareth (lainly that the men so trusted! are the holy men of "od&s church succeeding one another from the time of those that saw the wondrous wor+s of "od /lmighty in the flesh- nor doth this im(ly that "od is not the wor+er and efficient cause of faith! or that faith is begotten in man without the s(irit of "od- for all those good o(inions which we admit and belie#e! though they (roceed from hearing! and hearing from teaching! both which are natural! yet they are the wor+ of "od, *or all the wor+s of nature are his! and they are attributed to the 7(irit of "od, /s for e3am(le E3od, 8>! 90 Thou shalt s(ea+ unto all cunning men! whom 4 ha#e filled with the s(irit of wisdom! that they ma+e /aron&s garments for his consecration! that he may ser#e me in the (riest&s office, The faith therefore wherewith we belie#e! is the wor+ of the 7(irit of "od! in that sense! by which the 7(irit of "od gi#eth to one man wisdom and cunning in wor+manshi( more than to another- and by which he effecteth also in other (oints (ertaining to our ordinary life! that one man belie#eth that! which u(on the same grounds another doth not- and one man re#erenceth the o(inion! and obeyeth the commands of his su(eriors! and others not, 10, /nd seeing our faith! that the 7cri(tures are the word of "od! began from the confidence and trust we re(ose in the churchthere can be no doubt but that their inter(retation of the same 7cri(tures! when any doubt or contro#ersy shall arise! by which this fundamental (oint! that ?esus 'hrist is come in the flesh! is not called in 5uestion! is safer for any man to trust to! than his own! whether reasoning! or s(irit- that is to say his own o(inion, 11, Now concerning man&s affections to "odward! they are not the same always that are described in the cha(ter concerning (assions, *or there! to lo#e is to be delighted with the image or conce(tion of the thing lo#ed- but "od is unconcei#able- to lo#e "od therefore! in the 7cri(ture! is to obey his commandments! and to lo#e one another, /lso to trust "od is different from our trusting one another, *or when a man trusteth a man! cha(, 4E! sect, @! he layeth aside his own endea#our- but if we do so in our trust to "od /lmighty! we disobey him- and how shall we trust to him we disobeyC To trust to "od /lmighty therefore is to refer to his good (leasure all that is abo#e our own (ower to effect, /nd this is all one with ac+nowledging one only "od- which is the
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first commandment, /nd to trust in 'hrist is no more! but to ac+nowledge him for "od- which is the fundamental article of our 'hristian faith, /nd conse5uently to trust! rely! or! as some e3(ress it! to cast and roll oursel#es on 'hrist! is the same thing with the fundamental (oint of faith! namely! that ?esus 'hrist is the son of the li#ing "od, 18, To honour "od internally in the heart! is the same thing with that we ordinarily call honour amongst men0 for it is nothing but the ac+nowledging of his (ower- and the signs thereof the same with the signs of the honour due to our su(eriors! mentioned cha(, F444! sect, 6 1#iA,20 to (raise! to magnify! to bless him! to (ray to him! to than+ him! to gi#e oblations and sacrifice to him! to gi#e attention to his word! to s(ea+ to him in (rayer with consideration! to come into his (resence with humble gesture! and in decent manner! and to adorn his worshi( with magnificence and cost, /nd these are natural signs of our honouring him internally, /nd therefore the contrary hereof0 to neglect (rayer! to s(ea+ to him e3tem(ore! to come to church slo#enly! to adorn the (lace of his worshi( less than our own houses! to ta+e u( his name in e#ery idle discourse! are manifest signs of contem(t of the )i#ine $a%esty, There be other signs which are arbitrary- as! to be unco#ered 1as we be here2 to (ut off the shoes! as $oses at the fiery bush! and some other of that +ind- which in their own nature are indifferent! till to a#oid indecency and discord! it be otherwise determined by common consent, 'ha(ter 18 How by )eliberation *rom Passions Proceed $en&s /ctions 1, 4t hath been declared already! how e3ternal ob%ects cause conce(tions! and conce(tions a((etite and fear! which are the first un(ercei#ed beginnings of our actions0 for either the action immediately followeth the first a((etite! as when we do any thing u(on a sudden- or else to our first a((etite there succeedeth some conce(tion of e#il to ha((en unto us by such actions! which is fear! and withholdeth us from (roceeding, /nd to that fear may succeed a new a((etite! and to that a((etite another fear! alternately! till the action be either done! or some accident come between! to ma+e it im(ossible- and so this alternate a((etite and fear ceaseth, This alternate succession of a((etite and fear! during all the time the action is in our (ower to do! or not to do! is that we call )EL4.ER/T4:N- which name hath been gi#en it for that (art of the definition wherein it is said that it lasteth so long! as the action whereof we deliberate! is in our (ower- for so long we ha#e liberty to do or not to do0 and deliberation signifieth the ta+ing away of our own liberty, 8, )eliberation therefore re5uireth in the action deliberated two conditions0 one! that it be future- the other! that there be ho(e of doing it! or (ossibility of not doing it, *or a((etite and fear are e3(ectations of the future- and there is no
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e3(ectation of good without ho(e- nor of e#il without (ossibility, :f necessaries therefore there is no deliberation, 4n deliberation the last a((etite! as also the last fear! is called 4LL 1#iA,2 the last a((etite will to do- the last fear will not to do! or will to omit, 4t is all one therefore to say will and last will0 for though a man e3(ress his (resent inclination and a((etite concerning the dis(osing of his goods! by word or writing- yet shall it not be accounted his will! because he hath liberty still to dis(ose of them otherwise- but when death ta+eth away that liberty! then it is his will, 9, F:LDNT/R6 actions and omissions are such as ha#e beginning in the will- all other are 4NF:LDNT/R6 or $4EE), Foluntary such as a man doth u(on a((etite or fear, in#oluntary such as he doth by necessity of nature! as when he is (ushed! or falleth! and thereby doth good or hurt to another- mi3ed! such as (artici(ate of both- as when a man is carried to (rison he is (ulled on against his will! and yet goeth u(right #oluntary! for fear of being trailed along the ground0 insomuch that in going to (rison! going is #oluntary, to the (rison! in#oluntary, The e3am(le of him that throweth his goods out of a shi( into the sea! to sa#e his (erson! is of an action altogether #oluntary, for! there is nothing there in#oluntary! but the hardness of the choice! which is not his action! but the action of the winds- what he himself doth! is no more against his will! than to fly from danger is against the will of him that seeth no other means to (reser#e himself, 4, Foluntary also are the actions that (roceed from sudden anger! or other sudden a((etite! in such men as can discern of good and e#il- for in them the time (recedent is to be %udged deliberation, *or then also he deliberateth in what cases it is good to stri+e! deride! or do any other action (roceeding from anger or other such sudden (assion, <, /((etite! fear! ho(e! and the rest of the (assions are not called #oluntary- for they (roceed not from! but are the willand the will is not #oluntary, *or a man can no more say he will will! than he will will will! and so ma+e an infinite re(etition of the word will- which is absurd! and insignificant, 6, *orasmuch as will to do is a((etite! and will to omit! fear- the causes of a((etite and of fear are the causes also of our will, .ut the (ro(ounding of benefits and of harms! that is to say! of reward and (unishment! is the cause of our a((etite and of our fears! and therefore also of our wills! so far forth as we belie#e that such rewards and benefits! as are (ro(ounded! shall arri#e unto us, /nd conse5uently! our wills follow our o(inions! as our actions follow our wills, 4n which sense they say truly and (ro(erly that say the world is go#erned by o(inion, =, hen the wills of many concur to some one and the same action! or effect! this concourse of their wills is called ':N7ENT- by which we must not understand one will of many men! for e#ery man hath his se#eral will- but many wills to the (roducing of one effect, .ut when the wills of two di#ers men (roduce such actions as are reci(rocally resistances one to the other! this is called ':NTENT4:N0 and being u(on the (ersons of one another! ./TTLE- whereas actions (roceeding from consent are
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mutual /4), >, hen many wills are in#ol#ed or included in the will of one or more consenting! 1which how it may be! shall be hereafter declared2 then is that in#ol#ing of many wills in one or more called DN4:N, @, 4n deliberations interru(ted! as they may be by di#ersion to other business! or by slee(! the last a((etite of such (art of the deliberation is called 4NTENT4:N! or (ur(ose, 'ha(ter 19 How by Language $en or+ D(on Each :ther&s $inds

1, Ha#ing s(o+en of the (owers and acts of the mind! both cogniti#e and moti#e! considered in e#ery man by himself! without relation to others- it will fall fitly into this cha(ter! to s(ea+ of the effects of the same (owers one u(on another- which effects are also the signs! by which one ta+eth notice of what another concei#eth and intendeth, :f these signs! some are such as cannot easily be counterfeited- as actions and gestures! es(ecially if they be sudden- whereof 4 ha#e mentioned some for e3am(le sa+e in the ninth cha(ter! at the se#eral (assions whereof they are signs- others there are that may be counterfeited0 and those are words or s(eech- of the use and effect whereof 4 am to s(ea+ in this (lace, 8, The first use of language! is the e3(ression of our conce(tions! that is! the begetting in another the same conce(tions that we ha#e in oursel#es- and this is called TE/'H4N"- wherein if the conce(tions of him that teacheth continually accom(any his words! beginning at something from e3(erience! then it begetteth the li+e e#idence in the hearer that understandeth them! and ma+eth him +now something! which he is therefore said to LE/RN, .ut if there be not such e#idence! then such teaching is called PER7D/74:N! and begetteth no more in the hearer! than what is in the s(ea+er! bare o(inion, /nd the signs of two o(inions contradictory one to another! namely& affirmation and negation of the same thing! is called a ':NTR:FER76- but both affirmations! or both negations! ':N7ENT in o(inion, 9, The infallible sign of teaching e3actly! and without error! is this0 that no man hath e#er taught the contrary- not that few! how few soe#er! if any, *or commonly truth is on the side of the few! rather than of the multitude- but when in o(inions and 5uestions considered and discussed by many! it ha((eneth that not any one of the men that so discuss them differ from another! then it may be %ustly inferred! they +now what they teach! and that otherwise they do not, /nd this a((eareth most manifestly to them that ha#e considered the di#ers sub%ects wherein men ha#e e3ercised their (ens! and the di#ers ways in which they ha#e (roceeded- together with the di#ersity of the success thereof, *or those men who ha#e ta+en in hand to consider nothing else but the com(arison of magnitudes! numbers! times! and motions! and their (ro(ortions one to another! ha#e thereby been the authors of all those e3cellences! wherein we differ from
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such sa#age (eo(le as are now the inhabitants of di#ers (laces in /merica- and as ha#e been the inhabitants heretofore of those countries where at this day arts and sciences do most flourish, *or from the studies of these men hath (roceeded! whatsoe#er cometh to us for ornament by na#igation- and whatsoe#er we ha#e beneficial to human society by the di#ision! distinction! and (ortraying of the face of the earth- whatsoe#er also we ha#e by the account of times! and foresight of the course of hea#enwhatsoe#er by measuring distances! (lanes! and solids of all sorts- and whatsoe#er either elegant or defensible in building0 all which su((osed away! what do we differ from the wildest of the 4ndiansC 6et to this day was it ne#er heard of! that there was any contro#ersy concerning any conclusion in this sub%ectthe science whereof hath ne#ertheless been continually am(lified and enriched with conclusions of most difficult and (rofound s(eculation, The reason whereof is a((arent to e#ery man that loo+eth into their writings- for they (roceed from most low and humble (rinci(les! e#ident e#en to the meanest ca(acity- going on slowly! and with most scru(ulous ratiocination 1#iA,2 from the im(osition of names they infer the truth of their first (ro(ositions- and from two of the first! a third- and from any two of the three a fourth- and so on! according to the ste(s of science! mentioned cha(, F4! sect, 4, :n the other side! those men who ha#e written concerning the faculties! (assions! and manners of men! that is to say! of moral (hiloso(hy! or of (olicy! go#ernment! and laws! whereof there be infinite #olumes ha#e been so far from remo#ing doubt and contro#ersy in the 5uestions they ha#e handled! that they ha#e #ery much multi(lied the same- nor doth any man at this day so much as (retend to +now more than hath been deli#ered two thousand years ago by /ristotle, /nd yet e#ery man thin+s that in this sub%ect he +noweth as much as any other- su((osing there needeth thereunto no study but that it accrueth to them by natural wit- though they (lay! or em(loy their mind otherwise in the (urchase of wealth or (lace, The reason whereof is no other! than that in their writings and discourses they ta+e for (rinci(les those o(inions which are already #ulgarly recei#ed! whether true or false- being for the most (art false, There is therefore a great deal of difference between teaching and (ersuading- the signs of this being contro#ersy- the sign of the former! no contro#ersy 4, There be two sorts of men that be commonly called learned0 one is that sort that (roceedeth e#idently from humble (rinci(les! as is described in the last section- and these men are called mathematics- the other are they that ta+e u( ma3ims from their education! and from the authority of men! or of custom! and ta+e the habitual discourse of the tongue for ratiocination- and these are called dogmatics, Now seeing in the last section! those we call mathematics are absol#ed of the crime of breeding contro#ersy- and they that (retend not to learning cannot be accused- the fault lieth altogether in the dogmatics! that is to say! those that are im(erfectly learned! and with (assion (ress to ha#e their o(inions (ass e#erywhere for truth! without any e#ident demonstration either from e3(erience! or from (laces of 7cri(ture of uncontro#erted inter(retation,
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<, The e3(ression of those conce(tions which cause in us the e3(ectation of good while we deliberate! as also of those which cause our e3(ectation of e#il! is that which we call ':DN7ELL4N", /nd as in the internal deliberation of the mind concerning what we oursel#es are to do! or not to do! the conse5uences of the action are our counsellors! by alternate succession in the mindso in the counsel which a man ta+eth from other men! the counsellors alternately do ma+e a((ear the conse5uences of the action! and do not any of them deliberate! but furnish amongst them all him that is counselled! with arguments whereu(on to deliberate within himself, 6, /nother use of s(eech is the e3(ression of a((etite! intention! and will- as the a((etite of +nowledge by interrogation- a((etite to ha#e a thing done by another! as re5uest! (rayer! (etition- e3(ressions of our (ur(ose or intention! as PR:$47E! which is the affirmation or negation of some action to be done in the future- THRE/TEN4N"! which is the (romise of e#il- and ':$$/N)4N"! which is that s(eech by which we signify to another our a((etite or desire to ha#e any thing done! or left undone! for reason contained in the will itself0 for it is not (ro(erly said! 7ic #olo! sic %ubeo! without that other clause! 7tet (ro ratione #oluntas0 and when the command is a sufficient reason to mo#e us to the action! then is that command called a L/ , =, /nother use of s(eech is 4N7T4"/T4:N and /PPE/7iN"! by which we increase or diminish one another&s (assions- it is the same thing with (ersuasion0 the difference not being real, *or the begetting of o(inion and (assion is the same act- but whereas in (ersuasion we aim at getting o(inion from (assion- here! the end is! to raise (assion from o(inion, /nd as in raising an o(inion, from (assion! any (remises are good enough to infer the desired conclusion- so! in raising (assion from o(inion! it is no matter whether the o(inion be true or false! or the narration historical or fabulous, *or not truth! but image! ma+eth (assionand a tragedy affecteth no less than a murder if well acted, >, Though words be the signs we ha#e of one another&s o(inions and intentions0 because the e5ui#ocation of them is so fre5uent! according to the di#ersity of conte3ture! and of the com(any wherewith they go 1which the (resence of him that s(ea+eth! our sight of his actions! and con%ecture of his intentions! must hel( to discharge us of20 it must be e3treme hard to find out the o(inions and meanings of those men that are gone from us long ago! and ha#e left us no other signification thereof but their boo+s- which cannot (ossibly be understood without history enough to disco#er those aforementioned circumstances! and also without great (rudence to obser#e them, @, hen it ha((eneth that a man signifieth unto us two contradictory o(inions whereof the one is clearly and directly signified! and the other either drawn from that by conse5uence! or not +nown to be contradictory to it- then 1when he is not (resent to e3(licate himself better2 we are to ta+e the former of his o(inions- for that is clearly signified to be his! and directly! whereas the other might (roceed from error in the deduction! or ignorance of the re(ugnancy, The li+e also is to be
9@

held in two contradictory e3(ressions of a man&s intention and will! for the same reason, 10, *orasmuch as whosoe#er s(ea+eth to another! intendeth thereby to ma+e him understand what he saith- if he s(ea+ unto him! either in a language which he that heareth understandeth not! or use any word in other sense than he belie#eth is the sense of him that heareth- he intendeth also to ma+e him not understand what he saith- which is a contradiction of himself, 4t is therefore always to be su((osed! that he which intendeth not to decei#e! alloweth the (ri#ate inter(retation of his s(eech to him to whom it is addressed, 11, 7ilence in them that thin+ it will be so ta+en! is a sign of consent- for so little labour being re5uired to say No! it is to be (resumed! that in this case he that saith it not! consenteth, 'ha(ter 14 :f the Estate and Right of Nature 4n the (recedent cha(ters hath been set forth the whole nature of man! consisting in the (owers natural of his body and mind! and may all be com(rehended in these four0 strength of body! e3(erience! reason! and (assion, 8, 4n this cha(ter it will be e3(edient to consider in what estate of security this our nature hath (laced us! and what (robability it hath left us of continuing and (reser#ing oursel#es against the #iolence of one another, /nd first! if we consider how little odds there is of strength or +nowledge between men of mature age! and with how great facility he that is the wea+er in strength or in wit! or in both! may utterly destroy the (ower of the stronger- since there needeth but little force to the ta+ing away of a man&s life- we may conclude that men considered in mere nature! ought to admit amongst themsel#es e5uality- and that he that claimeth no more! may be esteemed moderate, 9, :n the other side! considering the great difference there is in men! from the di#ersity of their (assions! how some are #ainly glorious! and ho(e for (recedency and su(eriority abo#e their fellows! not only when they are e5ual in (ower! but also when they are inferior- we must needs ac+nowledge that it must necessarily follow! that those men who are moderate! and loo+ for no more but e5uality of nature! shall be obno3ious to the force of others! that will attem(t to subdue them, /nd from hence shall (roceed a general diffidence in man+ind! and mutual fear one of another, 4, *arther! since men by natural (assion are di#ers ways offensi#e one to another! e#ery man thin+ing well of himself! and hating to see the same in others! they must needs (ro#o+e one another by words! and other signs of contem(t and hatred! which are incident to all com(arison0 till at last they must determine the (reHeminence by strength and force of body, <, $oreo#er! considering that many men &s a((etites carry them to one and the same end- which end sometimes can neither be
40

en%oyed in common! nor di#ided! it followeth that the stronger must en%oy it alone! and that it be decided by battle who is the stronger, /nd thus the greatest (art of men! u(on no assurance of odds! do ne#ertheless! through #anity! or com(arison! or a((etite! (ro#o+e the rest! that otherwise would be contented with e5uality, 6, /nd forasmuch as necessity of nature ma+eth men to will and desire bonum sibi! that which is good for themsel#es! and to a#oid that which is hurtful- but most of all that terrible enemy of nature! death! from whom we e3(ect both the loss of all (ower! and also the greatest of bodily (ains in the losing- it is not against reason that a man doth all he can to (reser#e his own body and limbs! both from death and (ain, /nd that which is not against reason! men call R4"HT! or %us! or blameless liberty of using our own natural (ower and ability, 4t is therefore a right of nature0 that e#ery man may (reser#e his own life and limbs! with all the (ower he hath, =, /nd because where a man hath right to the end! and the end cannot be attained without the means! that is! without such things as are necessary to the end! it is conse5uent that it is not against reason! and therefore right for a man! to use all means and do whatsoe#er action is necessary for the (reser#ation of his body, >, /lso e#ery! man by right of nature is %udge himself of the necessity of the means! and of the greatness of the danger, *or if it be against reason! that 4 be %udge of mine own danger myself! then it is reason! that another man be %udge thereof, .ut the same reason that ma+eth another man %udge of those things that concern me! ma+eth me also %udge of that that concerneth him, /nd therefore 4 ha#e reason to %udge of his sentence! whether it be for my benefit! or not, @, /s a man&s %udgment! in right of nature! is to be em(loyed for his own benefit! so also the strength! +nowledge! and art of e#ery man is then rightly em(loyed! when he useth it for himselfelse must not a man ha#e right to (reser#e himself, 10, E#ery man by nature hath right to all things! that is to say! to do whatsoe#er he listeth to whom he listeth! to (ossess! use! and en%oy all things he will and can, *or seeing all things he willeth! must therefore be good unto him in his own %udgment! because he willeth them- and may tend to his (reser#ation some time or other- or he may %udge so! and we ha#e made him %udge thereof! sect, >0 it followeth that all things may rightly also be done by him, /nd for this cause it is rightly said0 Natura dedit omnia omnibus! that Nature hath gi#en all things to all men- insomuch! that %us and utile! right and (rofit! is the same thing, .ut that right of all men to all things! is in effect no better than if no man had right to any thing, *or there is little use and benefit of the right a man hath! when another as strong! or stronger than himself! hath right to the same, 11, 7eeing then to the offensi#eness of man&s nature one to another! there is added a right of e#ery man to e#ery thing! whereby one man in#adeth with right! and another with right resisteth- and men li#e thereby in (er(etual diffidence! and study how to (reoccu(ate each other- the estate of men in this
41

natural liberty is the estate of war, *or /R is nothing else but that time wherein the will and intention of contending by force is either by words or actions sufficiently declared- and the time which is not war is PE/'E, 18, The estate of hostility and war being such! as thereby nature itself is destroyed! and men +ill one another 1as we +now also that it is! both by the e3(erience of sa#age nations that li#e at this day! and by the histories of our ancestors! the old inhabitants of "ermany and other now ci#il countries! where we find the (eo(le few and short li#ed! and without the ornaments and comforts of life! which by (eace and society are usually in#ented and (rocured20 he therefore that desireth to li#e in such an estate! as is the estate of liberty and right of all to all! contradicteth himself, *or e#ery man by natural necessity desireth his own good! to which this estate is contrary! wherein we su((ose contention between men by nature e5ual! and able to destroy one another, 19, 7eeing this right of (rotecting oursel#es by our own discretion and force! (roceedeth from danger! and that danger from the e5uality between men&s forces0 much more reason is there! that a man (re#ent such e5uality before the danger cometh! and before there be necessity of battle, / man therefore that hath another man in his (ower to rule or go#ern! to do good to! or harm! hath right! by the ad#antage of this his (resent (ower! to ta+e caution at his (leasure! for his security against that other in the time to come, He therefore that hath already subdued his ad#ersary! or gotten into his (ower any other that either by infancy! or wea+ness! is unable to resist him! by right of nature may ta+e the best caution! that such infant! or such feeble and subdued (erson can gi#e him! of being ruled and go#erned by him for the time to come, *or seeing we intend always our own safety and (reser#ation! we manifestly contradict that our intention! if we willingly dismiss such a one! and suffer him at once to gather strength and be our enemy, :ut of which may also be collected! that irresistible might in the state of nature is right, 14, .ut since it is su((osed from the e5uality of strength and other natural faculties of men! that no man is of might sufficient! to assure himself for any long time! of (reser#ing himself thereby! whilst he remaineth in the state of hostility and war- reason therefore dictateth to e#ery man for his own good! to see+ after (eace! as far forth as there is ho(e to attain the same- and to strengthen himself with all the hel( he can (rocure! for his own defence against those! from whom such (eace cannot be obtained- and to do all those things which necessarily conduce thereunto, 'ha(ter 1< :f the )i#esting Natural Right by "ift and 'o#enant 1, hat it is we call the law of nature! is not agreed u(on! by those that ha#e hitherto written, *or the most (art! such writers as ha#e occasion to affirm! that anything is against the law of nature! do allege no more than this! that it is against
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the consent of all nations! or the wisest and most ci#il nations, .ut it is not agreed u(on! who shall %udge which nations are the wisest, :thers ma+e that against the law of nature! which is contrary to the consent of all man+ind- which definition cannot be allowed! because then no man could offend against the law of nature- for the nature of e#ery man is contained under the nature of man+ind, .ut forasmuch as all men! carried away by the #iolence of their (assion! and by e#il customs! do those things which are commonly said to be against the law of nature- it is not the consent of (assion! or consent in some error gotten by custom! that ma+es the law of nature, Reason is no less of the nature of man than (assion! and is the same in all men! because all men agree in the will to be directed and go#erned in the way to that which they desire to attain! namely their own good! which is the wor+ of reason, There can therefore be no other law of nature than reason! nor no other (rece(ts of N/TDR/L L/ ! than those which declare unto us the ways of (eace! where the same may be obtained! and of defence where it may not, 8, :ne (rece(t of the law of nature therefore is this! that e#ery man di#est himself of the right he hath to all things by nature, *or when di#ers men ha#e right not only to all things else! but to one another&s (ersons! if they use the same! there ariseth thereby in#asion on the one (art! and resistance on the other! which is war- and therefore contrary to the law of nature! the sun whereof consisteth in ma+ing (eace, 9, hen a man di#esteth and (utteth from himself his right! he either sim(ly relin5uisheth it! or transferreth the same to another man, To REL4NGD47H it! is by sufficient signs to declare! that it is his will no more to do that action! which of right he might ha#e done before, To TR/N7*ER right to another! is by sufficient signs to declare to that other acce(ting thereof! that it is his will not to resist! or hinder him! according to that right he had thereto before he transferred it, *or seeing that by nature e#ery man hath right to e#ery thing! it is im(ossible for a man to transfer unto another any right that he had not before, /nd therefore all that a man doth in transferring of right! is no more but a declaring of the will! to suffer him! to whom he hath so transferred his right! to ma+e benefit of the same! without molestation, /s for e3am(le! when a man gi#eth his land or goods to another! he ta+eth from himself the right to enter into! and ma+e use of the said land or goods! or otherwise to hinder him of the use of what he hath gi#en, 4, 4n transferring of right! two things therefore are re5uired0 one on the (art of him that transferreth- which is! a sufficient signification of his will therein0 the other! on the (art of him to whom it is transferred- which is! a sufficient signification of his acce(tation thereof, Either of these failing! the right remaineth where it was- nor is it to be su((osed! that he which gi#eth his right to one that acce(teth it not! doth thereby sim(ly relin5uish it! and transfer it to whomsoe#er will recei#e it- inasmuch as the cause of the transferring the same to one! rather than to another! is in that one! rather than in the rest, <, hen there a((ear no other signs that a man hath
49

relin5uished! or transferred his right! but only words- it beho#eth that the same be done in words! that signify the (resent time! or the time (ast! and not only the time to come, *or he that saith of the time to come! as for e3am(le! toHmorrow0 4 will gi#e! declareth e#idently! that he hath not yet gi#en, The right therefore remaineth in him toHday! and so continues till he ha#e gi#en actually, .ut he that saith0 4 gi#e! (resently! or ha#e gi#en to another any thing! to ha#e and en%oy the same toHmorrow! or any other time future! hath now actually transferred the said right! which otherwise he should ha#e had at the time that the other is to en%oy it, 6, .ut because words alone are not a sufficient declaration of the mind! as hath been shewn cha(, E444! sect, > words s(o+en de futuro! when the will of him that s(ea+eth them may be gathered by other signs! may be ta+en #ery often as if they were meant de (raesenti, *or when it a((eareth that he that gi#eth would ha#e his word so understood! by him to whom he gi#eth! as if he did actually transfer his right! then he must needs be understood to will all that is necessary to the same, =, hen a man transferreth any right of his to another! without consideration of reci(rocal benefit! (ast! (resent! or to come- this is called *REE "4*T, /nd in free gift no other words can be binding! but those which are de (raesenti! or de (raeterito0 for being de futuro only! they transfer nothing! nor can they be understood! as if they (roceeded from the will of the gi#er- because being a free gift! it carrieth with it no obligation greater than that which is enforced by the words, *or he that (romiseth to gi#e! without any other consideration but his own affection! so long as he hath not gi#en! deliberateth still! according as the causes of his affections continue or diminish- and he that deliberateth hath not yet willed! because the will is the last act of his deliberation, He that (romiseth therefore! is not thereby a donor! but doson- which name was gi#en to that /ntiochus! that (romised often! but seldom ga#e, >, hen a man transferreth his right! u(on consideration of reci(rocal benefit! this is not free gift! but mutual donationand is called ':NTR/'T, /nd in all contracts! either both (arties (resently (erform! and (ut each other into a certainty and assurance of en%oying what they contract for0 as when men buy or sell! or barter- or one (arty (erformeth (resently! and the other (romiseth! as when one selleth u(on trust- or else neither (arty (erformeth (resently! but trust one another, /nd it is im(ossible there should be any +ind of contract besides these three, *or either both the contractors trust! or neither- or else one trusteth! and the other not, @, 4n all contracts where there is trust! the (romise of him that is trusted! is called a ':FEN/NT, /nd this! though it be a (romise! and of the time to come! yet doth it transfer the right! when that time cometh! no less than an actual donation, *or it is a manifest sign! that he which did (erform! understood it was the will of him that was trusted! to (erform also, Promises therefore! u(on consideration of reci(rocal benefit! are co#enants and signs of the will! or last act of deliberation! whereby the liberty of (erforming! or not (erforming! is ta+en
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away! and conse5uently are obligatory, *or where liberty ceaseth! there beginneth obligation, 10, Ne#ertheless! in contracts that consist of such mutual trust! as that nothing be by either (arty (erformed for the (resent! when the contract is between such as are not com(ellable! he that (erformeth first! considering the dis(osition of men to ta+e ad#antage of e#ery thing for their benefit! doth but betray himself thereby to the co#etousness! or other (assion of him with whom he contracteth, /nd therefore such co#enants are of none effect, *or there is no reason why the one should (erform first! if the other be li+ely not to (erform afterward, /nd whether he be li+ely or not! he that doubteth! shall be %udge himself 1as hath been said cha(, E4F! sect, >2! as long as they remain in the estate and liberty of nature, .ut when there shall be such (ower coerci#e o#er both the (arties! as shall de(ri#e them of their (ri#ate %udgments in this (oint- then may such co#enants be effectual- seeing he that (erformeth first shall ha#e no reasonable cause to doubt of the (erformance of the other! that may be com(elled thereunto, 11, /nd forasmuch as in all co#enants! and contracts! and donations! the acce(tance of him to whom the right is transferred! is necessary to the essence of those co#enants! donations! ;c,! it is, im(ossible to ma+e a co#enant or donation to any! that by nature! or absence! are unable! or if able! do not actually declare their acce(tation of the same, *irst of all therefore it is im(ossible for any man to ma+e a co#enant with "od /lmighty! farther than it hath (leased him to declare who shall recei#e and acce(t of the said co#enant in his name, /lso it is, im(ossible to ma+e co#enant with those li#ing creatures! of whose wills we ha#e no sufficient sign! for want of common language, 18, / co#enant to do any action at a certain time and (lace! is then dissol#ed by the co#enanter! when that time cometh! either by the (erformance! or by the #iolation, *or a co#enant is #oid that is once im(ossible, .ut a co#enant not to do! without time limited! which is as much as to say! a co#enant ne#er to do! is dissol#ed by the co#enanter then only! when he #iolateth it! or dieth, /nd generally all co#enants are dischargeable by the co#enantee! to whose benefit! and by whose right! he that ma+eth the co#enant is obliged, This right therefore of the co#enantee relin5uished! is a release of the co#enant, /nd uni#ersally! for the same reason! all obligations are determinable at the will of the obliger, 19, 4t is a 5uestion often mo#ed! whether such co#enants oblige! as are e3torted from men by fear, /s for e3am(le0 whether! if a man for fear of death! ha#e (romised to gi#e a thief an hundred (ounds the ne3t day! and not disco#er him! whether such co#enant be obligatory or not, /nd though in some cases such co#enant may be #oid! yet it is not therefore #oid! because e3torted by fear, *or there a((eareth no reason! why that which we do u(on fear! should be less firm than that which we do for co#etousness, *or both the one and the other ma+eth the action #oluntary, /nd if no co#enant should be good! that (roceedeth from fear of death! no conditions of (eace between
4<

enemies! nor any laws could be of force- which are all consented to from that fear, *or who would lose the liberty that nature hath gi#en him! of go#erning himself by his own will and (ower! if they feared not death in the retaining of itC hat (risoner in war might be trusted to see+ his ransom! and ought not rather to be +illed! if he were not tied by the grant of his life! to (erform his (romiseC .ut after the introduction of (olicy and laws! the case may alter- for if by the law the (erformance of such a co#enant be forbidden! then he that (romiseth anything to a thief! not only may! but must refuse to (erform it, .ut if the law forbid not the (erformance! but lea#e it to the will of the (romiser! then is the (erformance still lawful0 and the co#enant of things lawful is obligatory! e#en towards a thief, 14, He that gi#eth! (romiseth! or co#enanteth to one! and after gi#eth! (romiseth! or co#enanteth the same to another! ma+eth #oid the latter act, *or it is im(ossible for a man to transfer that right which he himself hath not- and that right he hath not! which he himself hath before transferred, 1<, /n :/TH is a clause anne3ed to a (romise! containing a renunciation of "od&s mercy! by him that (romiseth! in case he (erform not as far as is lawful and (ossible for him to do, /nd this a((eareth by the words which ma+e the essence of the oath 1#iA,2 so hel( me "od, 7o also was it amongst the heathen, /nd the form of the Romans was! Thou ?u(iter +ill him that brea+eth! as 4 +ill this beast, The intention therefore of an oath being to (ro#o+e #engeance u(on the brea+ers of co#enants- it is to no (ur(ose to swear by men! be they ne#er so great! because their (unishment by di#ers accidents may be a#oided! whether they will! or no- but "od&s (unishment not, Though it were a custom of many nations! to swear by the life of their (rinces- yet those (rinces being ambitious of di#ine honour! gi#e sufficient testimony! that they belie#ed! nothing ought to be sworn by! but the )eity, 16, /nd seeing men cannot be afraid of the (ower they belie#e not! and an oath is to no (ur(ose! without fear of him they swear by- it is necessary that he that sweareth! do it in that form which himself admitteth in his own religion! and not in that form which he useth! that (utteth him to the oath, *or though all men may +now by nature! that there is an /lmighty (ower! ne#ertheless they belie#e not! that they swear by him! in any other form or name! than what their own 1which they thin+ the true2 religion teacheth them, 1=, /nd by the definition of an oath! it a((eareth that it addeth not a greater obligation to (erform the co#enant sworn! than the co#enant carrieth in itself! but it (utteth a man into a greater danger! and of greater (unishment, 1>, 'o#enants and oaths are de #oluntariis! that is! de (ossibilibus, Nor can the co#enantee understand the co#enanter to (romise im(ossibles- for they fall not under deliberation0 and conse5uently 1by cha(, E444! sect, 10! which ma+eth the co#enantee inter(reter2! no co#enant is understood to bind further! than to our best endea#our! either in (erformance of the thing (romised! or in something e5ui#alent, 'ha(ter 16
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7ome of the Laws of Nature 1, 4t is a common saying that nature ma+eth nothing in #ain, /nd it is most certain! that as the truth of a conclusion! is no more but the truth of the (remises that ma+e it- so the force of the command! or law of nature! is no more than the force of the reasons inducing thereunto, Therefore the law of nature mentioned in the former cha(ter! sect, 8! namely! That e#ery man should di#est himself of the right! ;c, were utterly #ain! and of none effect! if this also were not a law of the same Nature! That e#ery man is obliged to stand to! and (erform! those co#enants which he ma+eth, *or what benefit is it to a man! that any thing be (romised! or gi#en unto him! if he that gi#eth! or (romiseth! (erformeth not! or retaineth still the right of ta+ing bac+ what he hath gi#enC 8, The breach or #iolation of co#enant! is that which men call 4N?DR6! consisting in some action or omission! which is therefore called DN?D7T, *or it is action or omission! without %us! or right- which was transferred or relin5uished before, There is a great similitude between that we call in%ury! or in%ustice in the actions and con#ersations of men in the world! and that which is called absurd in the arguments and dis(utations of the 7chools, *or as he! that is dri#en to contradict an assertion by him before maintained! is said to be reduced to an absurdity- so he that through (assion doth! or omitteth that which before by co#enant he (romised not to do! or not to omit! is said to commit in%ustice, /nd there is in e#ery breach of co#enant a contradiction (ro(erly so called- for he that co#enanteth! willeth to do! or omit! in the time to come- and he that doth any action! willeth it in that (resent! which is (art of the future time! contained in the co#enant0 and therefore he that #iolateth a co#enant! willeth the doing and the not doing of the same thing! at the same time- which is a (lain contradiction, /nd so in%ury is an absurdity of con#ersation! as absurdity is a +ind of in%ustice in dis(utation, 9, 4n all #iolation of co#enant! 1to whomsoe#er accrueth the damage2 the in%ury is done only to him to whom the co#enant was made, *or e3am(le! if a man co#enant to obey his master! and the master command him to gi#e money to a third! which he (romiseth to do! and doth not- though this be to the damage of the third! yet the in%ury is done to the master only, *or he could #iolate no co#enant with him! with whom none was made! and therefore doth him no in%ury0 for in%ury consisteth in #iolation of co#enant! by the definition thereof, 4, The names of %ust! un%ust! %ustice! in%ustice! are e5ui#ocal! and signify di#ersely, *or %ustice and in%ustice! when they be attributed to actions! signify the same thing with no in%ury! and in%ury- and denominate the action %ust! or un%ust! but not the man so- for they denominate him guilty! or not guilty, .ut when %ustice and in%ustice are attributed to men! they signify (roneness and affection! and inclination of nature! that is to say! (assions of the mind a(t to (roduce %ust and un%ust actions, 7o that when a man is said to be %ust! or un%ust!
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not the action! but the (assion! and a(titude to do such action is considered, /nd therefore a %ust man may ha#e committed an un%ust act- and an un%ust man may ha#e done %ustly not only one! but most of his actions, *or there is an oderunt (eccare in the un%ust! as well as in the %ust! but from different causes- for the un%ust man who abstaineth from in%uries for fear of (unishment! declareth (lainly that the %ustice of his actions de(endeth u(on ci#il constitution! from whence (unishments (roceed- which would otherwise in the estate of nature be un%ust! according to the fountain from whence they s(ring, This distinction therefore of %ustice! and in%ustice! ought to be remembered0 that when in%ustice is ta+en for guilt! the action is un%ust! but not therefore the man- and when %ustice is ta+en for guiltlessness! the actions are %ust! and yet not always the man, Li+ewise when %ustice and in%ustice are ta+en for habits of the mind! the man may be %ust! or un%ust! and yet not all his actions so, <, 'oncerning, the %ustice of actions! the same is usually di#ided into two +inds! whereof men call the one commutati#e! and the other distributi#e- and are said to consist! the one in (ro(ortion arithmetical! the other in geometrical0 and commutati#e %ustice! they (lace in (ermutation! as buying! selling! and barter, distributi#e! in gi#ing to e#ery man according to their deserts, hich distinction is not well made! inasmuch as in%ury! which is the in%ustice of action! consisteth not in the ine5uality of things changed! or distributed! but in the ine5uality that men 1contrary to nature and reason2 assume unto themsel#es abo#e their fellows- of which ine5uality shall be s(o+en hereafter, /nd for commutati#e %ustice (laced in buying and selling! though the thing bought be une5ual to the (rice gi#en for it- yet forasmuch as both the buyer and the seller are made %udges of the #alue! and are thereby both satisfied0 there can be no in%ury done on either side! neither (arty ha#ing trusted! or co#enanted with the other, /nd for distributi#e %ustice! which consisteth in the distribution of our own benefits- seeing a thing is therefore said to be our own! because we may dis(ose of it at our own (leasure0 it can be no in%ury to any man! though our liberality be further e3tended towards another! than towards him- unless we be thereto obliged by co#enant0 and then the in%ustice consisteth in the #iolation of that co#enant! and not in the ine5uality of distribution, 6, 4t ha((eneth many times that a man benefitteth or contributeth to the (ower of another! without any co#enant! but only u(on confidence and trust of obtaining the grace and fa#our of that other! whereby he may (rocure a greater! or no less benefit or assistance to himself, *or by necessity of nature e#ery man doth in all his #oluntary actions intend some good unto himself, 4n this case it is a law of nature! That no man suffer him! that thus trusteth to his charity! or good affection towards him! to be in the worse estate for his trusting, *or if he shall so do! men will not dare to confer mutually to each other&s defence! nor (ut themsel#es into each other&s mercy u(on any terms whatsoe#er, but rather abide the utmost and worst e#ent of hostility, by which general diffidence! men will not only be
4>

enforced to war! but also afraid to come so much within the danger of one another! as to ma+e any o#erture of (eace, .ut this is to be understood of those only! that confer their benefits 1as 4 ha#e said2 u(on trust only! and not for trium(h or ostentation, *or as when they do it u(on trust! the end they aimed at! namely to be well used! is the reward- so also when they do it for ostentation! they ha#e the reward in themsel#es, =, .ut seeing in this case there (asseth no co#enant! the breach of this law of nature is not to be called in%ury- it hath another name 1#iA,2 4N"R/R4TD)E, >, 4t is also a law of nature! That e#ery man do hel( and endea#our to accommodate each other! as far as may be without danger of their (ersons! and loss of their means! to maintain and defend themsel#es, *or seeing the causes of war and desolation (roceed from those (assions! by which we stri#e to accommodate oursel#es! and to lea#e others as far as we can behind us0 it followeth that that (assion by which we stri#e mutually to accommodate each other! must be the cause of (eace, /nd this (assion is that charity defined cha(, 4E! sect, 1=, @, /nd in this (rece(t of nature, is included and com(rehended also this! That a man forgi#e and (ardon him that hath done him wrong! u(on his re(entance! and caution for the future, *or P/R):N is (eace granted to him! that 1ha#ing (ro#o+ed to war2 demandeth it, 4t is not therefore charity! but fear! when a man gi#eth (eace to him that re(enteth not! nor gi#eth caution for maintaining thereof in the time to come, *or he that re(enteth not! remaineth with the affection of an enemy- as also doth he that refuseth to gi#e caution! and conse5uently is (resumed not to see+ after (eace! but ad#antage, /nd therefore to forgi#e him is not commanded in this law of nature! nor is charity! but may sometimes be (rudence, :therwise! not to (ardon u(on re(entance and caution! considering men cannot abstain from (ro#o+ing one another! is ne#er to gi#e (eace- and that is against the general definition of the law of nature, 10, /nd seeing the law of nature commandeth (ardon when there is re(entance! and caution for the future- it followeth that the same law ordaineth! That no re#enge be ta+en u(on the consideration only of the offence (ast! but of the benefit to come- that is to say! that all re#enge ought to tend to amendment! either of the (erson offending! or of others! by the e3am(le of his (unishment- which is sufficiently a((arent! in that the law of nature commandeth (ardon! where the future time is secured, The same is also a((arent by this0 that re#enge when it considereth the offence (ast! is nothing else but (resent trium(h and glory! and directeth to no end- for end im(lieth some future good- and what is directed to no end! is therefore un(rofitable- and conse5uently the trium(h of re#enge! is #ain glory0 and whatsoe#er is #ain! is against reason- and to hurt one another without reason! is contrary to that! which by su((osition is e#ery man&s benefit! namely (eace- and what is contrary to (eace! is contrary to the law of nature, 11, /nd because all signs which we shew to one another of hatred and contem(t! (ro#o+e in the highest degree to 5uarrel and battle 1inasmuch as life itself! with the condition of enduring
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scorn! is not esteemed worth the en%oying! much less (eace2- it must necessarily be im(lied as a law of nature! That no man re(roach! re#ile! deride! or any otherwise declare his hatred! contem(t! or disesteem of any other, .ut this law is #ery little (ractised, *or what is more ordinary than re(roaches of those that are rich! towards them that are notC or of those that sit in (lace of %udicature! towards those that are accused at the barC although to grie#e them in that manner! be no (art of the (unishment for their crime! nor contained in their office- but use hath (re#ailed! that what was lawful in the lord towards the ser#ant whom he maintaineth! is also (ractised as lawful in the more mighty towards the less- though they contribute nothing towards their maintenance, 18, 4t is also a law of nature! That men allow commerce and traffic indifferently to one another, *or he that alloweth that to one man! which he denieth to another! declareth his hatred to him! to whom he denieth- and to declare hatred is war, /nd u(on this title was grounded the great war between the /thenians and the Pelo(onnesians, *or would the /thenians ha#e condescended to suffer the $egareans! their neighbours! to traffic in their (orts and mar+ets! that war had not begun, 19, /nd this also is a law of nature! That all messengers of (eace! and such as are em(loyed to (rocure and maintain amity between man and man! may safely come and go, *or seeing (eace is the general law of nature! the means thereto! such as are these men! must in the same law be com(rehended, 'ha(ter 1= :ther Laws of Nature 1, The 5uestion! which is the better man! is determinable only in the estate of go#ernment and (olicy! though it be mista+en for a 5uestion of nature! not only by ignorant men! that thin+ one man&s blood better than another&s by nature- but also by him! whose o(inions are at this day! and in these (arts of greater authority than any other human writings 1/ristotle2, *or he (utteth so much difference between the (owers of men by nature! that he doubteth not to set down! as the ground of all his (olitics! that some men are by nature worthy to go#ern! and others by nature ought to ser#e, hich foundation hath not only wea+ened the whole frame of his (olitics! but hath also gi#en men colour and (retences! whereby to disturb and hinder the (eace of one another, *or though there were such a difference of nature! that master and ser#ant were not by consent of men! but by inherent #irtue- yet who hath that eminency of #irtue! abo#e others! and who is so stu(id as not to go#ern himself! shall ne#er be agreed u(on amongst men- who do e#ery one naturally thin+ himself as able! at the least! to go#ern another! as another to go#ern him, /nd when there was any contention between the finer and the coarser wits! 1as there hath been often in times of sedition and ci#il war2 for the most (art these latter carried away the #ictory and as long as men arrogate to themsel#es more honour than they gi#e to others! it cannot be
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imagined how they can (ossibly li#e in (eace0 and conse5uently we are to su((ose! that for (eace sa+e! nature hath ordained this law! That e#ery man ac+nowledge other for his e5ual, /nd the breach of this law! is that we call PR4)E, 8, /s it was necessary that a man should not retain his right to e#ery thing! so also was it! that he should retain his right to some things0 to his own body 1for e3am(le2 the right of defending! whereof he could not transfer, to the use of fire! water! free air! and (lace to li#e in! and to all things necessary for life, Nor doth the law of nature command any di#esting of other rights! than of those only which cannot be retained without the loss of (eace, 7eeing then many rights are retained! when we enter into (eace one with another! reason and the law of nature dictateth! hatsoe#er right any man re5uireth to retain! he allow e#ery other man to retain the same, *or he that doth not so! alloweth not the e5uality mentioned in the former section, *or there is no ac+nowledgement of the e5uality of worth! without attribution of the e5uality of benefit and res(ect, /nd this allowance of ae5ualia ae5ualibus! is the same thing with the allowing of (ro(ortionalia (ro(ortionalibus, *or when a man alloweth to e#ery man ali+e! the allowance he ma+eth will be in the same (ro(ortion! in which are the numbers of men to whom they are made, /nd this is it men mean by distributi#e %ustice! and is (ro(erly termed EGD4T6, The breach of this law is that which the "ree+s call Pleo#eAia! which is commonly rendered co#etousness! but seemeth to be more (recisely e3(ressed by the word EN'R:/'H4N", 9, 4f there (ass no other co#enant! the law of nature is! That such things as cannot be di#ided! be used in common! (ro(ortionably to the numbers of them that are to use the same! or without limitation when the 5uantity thereof sufficeth, *or first su((osing the thing to be used in common not sufficient for them that are to use it without limitation! if a few shall ma+e more use thereof than the rest! that e5uality is not obser#ed! which is re5uired in the second section, /nd this is to be understood! as all the rest of the laws of nature! without any other co#enant antecedent- for a man may ha#e gi#en away his right of common! and so the case be altered, 4, 4n those things which neither can be di#ided! nor used in common! the rule of nature must needs be one of these0 lot! or alternate use- for besides these two ways! there can no other e5uality be imagined, /nd for alternate use! he that beginneth hath the ad#antage- and to reduce that ad#antage to e5uality! there is no other way but lot0 in things! therefore! indi#isible and incommunicable! it is the law of nature! That the use be alternate! or the ad#antage gi#en away by lot- because there is no other way of e5uality&, and e5uality is the law of nature, <, There be two sorts of lots0 one arbitrary! made by men! and commonly +nown by the names of lot! chance! haAard! and the li+e- and there is natural lot! such as is (rimogeniture! which is no more but the chance! or lot of being first born- which! it seemeth! they considered! that call inheritance by the name of cleronomia! which signifieth distribution by lot, 7econdly! (rima occu(atio! first seiAing or finding of a thing! whereof no man
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made use before! which for the most (art also is merely chance, 6, /lthough men agree u(on these laws of nature! and endea#our to obser#e the same- yet considering the (assions of men! that ma+e it difficult to understand by what actions! and circumstances of actions! those laws are bro+en- there must needs arise many great contro#ersies about the inter(retation thereof! by which the (eace must needs be dissol#ed! and men return again to their former estate of hostility, *or the ta+ing away of which contro#ersies! it is necessary that there be some common arbitrator and %udge! to whose sentence both the (arties to the contro#ersy ought to stand, /nd therefore it is a law of nature! That in e#ery contro#ersy! the (arties thereto ought mutually to agree u(on an arbitrator! whom they both trust- and mutually to co#enant to stand to the sentence he shall gi#e therein, *or where e#ery man is his own %udge! there (ro(erly is no %udge at all- as where e#ery man car#eth out his own right! it hath the same effect! as if there were no right at all- and where is no %udge! there is no end of contro#ersy! and therefore the right of hostility remaineth, =, /N /R.4TR/T:R therefore or %udge is he that is trusted by the (arties to any contro#ersy! to determine the same by the declaration of his own %udgment therein, :ut of which followeth0 first! that the %udge ought not to be concerned in the contro#ersy he endeth- for in that case he is (arty! and ought by the same reason to be %udged by another- secondly! that he ma+eth no co#enant with either of the (arties! to (ronounce sentence for the one! more than for the other, Nor doth he co#enant so much! as that his sentence shall be %ust- for that were to ma+e the (arties %udges of the sentence! whereby the contro#ersy would remain still undecided, Ne#ertheless for the trust re(osed in him! and for the e5uality which the law of nature re5uireth him to consider in the (arties! he #iolateth that law! if for fa#our! or hatred to either (arty! he gi#e other sentence than he thin+eth right, /nd thirdly! that no man ought to ma+e himself %udge in any contro#ersy between others! unless they consent and agree thereto, >, 4t is also of the law of nature! That no man obtrude or (ress his ad#ice or counsel to any man that declareth himself unwilling to hear the same, *or seeing a man ta+eth counsel concerning what is good or hurt of himself only! and not of his counsellor- and that counsel is a #oluntary action! and therefore tendeth also to the good of the counsellor0 there may often be %ust cause to sus(ect the counsellor, /nd though there be none! yet seeing counsel unwilling heard is a needless offence to him that is not willing to hear it! and offences tend all to the breach of (eace0 it is therefore against the law of nature to obtrude it, @, / man that shall see these laws of nature set down and inferred with so many words! and so much ado! may thin+ there is yet much more difficulty and subtlety re5uired to ac+nowledge and do according to the said laws in e#ery sudden occasion! when a man hath but a little time to consider, /nd while we consider man in most (assions! as of anger! ambition! co#etousness! #ain glory! and the li+e that tend to the e3cluding of natural
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e5uality! it is true- but without these (assions! there is an easy rule to +now u(on a sudden! whether the action 4 be to do! be against the law of nature or not0 and it is but this! That a man imagine himself in the (lace of the (arty with whom he hath to do! and reci(rocally him in his- which is no more but a changing 1as it were2 of the scales, *or e#ery man&s (assion weigheth hea#y in his own scale! but not in the scale of his neighbour, /nd this rule is #ery well +nown and e3(ressed by this old dictate! Guod tibi fieri non #is! alteri ne feceris, 10, These laws of nature! the sum whereof consisteth in forbidding us to be our own %udges! and our own car#ers! and in commanding us to accommodate one another- in case they should be obser#ed by some! and not by others! would ma+e the obser#ers but a (rey to them that should neglect them- lea#ing the good! both without defence against the wic+ed! and also with a charge to assist them0 which is against the sco(e of the said laws! that are made only for the (rotection and defence of them that +ee( them, Reason therefore! and the law of nature o#er and abo#e all these (articular laws! doth dictate this law in general! That those (articular laws be so far obser#ed! as they sub%ect us not to any incommodity! that in our own %udgments may arise! by the neglect thereof in those towards whom we obser#e them- and conse5uently re5uireth no more but the desire and constant intention to endea#our and be ready to obser#e them! unless there be cause to the contrary in other men&s refusal to obser#e them towards us, The force therefore of the law of nature is not in foro e3terno! till there be security for men to obey it- but is always in foro interno! wherein the action of obedience being unsafe! the will and readiness to (erform is ta+en for the (erformance, 11, /mongst the laws of nature! customs and (rescri(tions are not numbered, *or whatsoe#er action is against reason! though it be reiterated ne#er so often! or that there be ne#er so many (recedents thereof! is still against reason! and therefore not a law of nature! but contrary to it, .ut consent and co#enant may so alter the cases! which in the law of nature may be (ut! by changing the circumstances! that that which was reason before! may afterwards be against it- and yet is reason still the law, *or though e#ery man be bound to allow e5uality to another, yet if that other shall see cause to renounce the same! and ma+e himself inferior! then! if from thenceforth he consider him as, inferior! he brea+eth not thereby that law of nature that commandeth to allow e5uality, 4n sum! a man&s own consent may abridge him of the liberty which the law of nature lea#eth him! but custom not- nor can either of them abrogate either these! or any other law of nature, 18, /nd forasmuch as law 1to s(ea+ (ro(erly2 is a command! and these dictates! as they (roceed from nature! are not commands- they are not therefore called laws in res(ect of nature! but in res(ect of the author of nature! "od /lmighty, 19, /nd seeing the laws of nature concern the conscience! not he only brea+eth them that doth any action contrary! but also he whose action is conformable to them! in case he thin+ it contrary, *or though the action chance to be right! yet in his
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%udgment he des(iseth the law, 14, E#ery man by natural (assion! calleth that good which (leaseth him for the (resent! or so far forth as he can foreseeand in li+e manner that which dis(leaseth him e#il, /nd therefore he that foreseeth the whole way to his (reser#ation 1which is the end that e#ery one by nature aimeth at2 must also call it good! and the contrary e#il, /nd this is that good and e#il! which not e#ery man in (assion calleth so! but all men by reason, /nd therefore the fulfilling of all these laws is good in reason- and the brea+ing of them e#il, /nd so also the habit! or dis(osition! or intention to fulfil them good- and the neglect of them e#il, /nd from hence cometh that distinction of malum (aenae! and malum cul(ae- for malum (aenae is any (ain or molestation of mind whatsoe#er- but malum cul(ae is that action which is contrary to reason and the law of nature- as also the habit of doing according to these and other laws of nature that tend to our (reser#ation! is that we call F4RTDE- and the habit of doing the contrary! F4'E, /s for e3am(le! %ustice is that habit by which we stand to co#enants! in%ustice the contrary #ice- e5uity that habit by which we allow e5uality of nature! arrogance the contrary #ice- gratitude the habit whereby we re5uite the benefit and trust of others! ingratitude the contrary #ice- tem(erance the habit by which we abstain from all things that tend to our destruction! intem(erance the contrary #ice- (rudence! the same with #irtue in general, /s for the common o(inion! that #irtue consisteth in mediocrity! and #ice in e3tremes! 4 see no ground for it! nor can find any such mediocrity, 'ourage may be #irtue! when the daring is e3treme! if the cause be good- and e3treme fear no #ice when the danger is e3treme, To gi#e a man more than his due! is no in%ustice! though it be to gi#e him less- and in gifts it is not the sum that ma+eth liberality! but the reason, /nd so in all other #irtues and #ices, 4 +now that this doctrine of mediocrity is /ristotle&s! but his o(inions concerning #irtue and #ice! are no other than those which were recei#ed then! and are still by the generality of men unstudied- and therefore not #ery li+ely to be accurate, 1<, The sum of #irtue is to be sociable with them that will be sociable! and formidable to them that will not, /nd the same is the sum of the law of nature- for in being sociable! the law of nature ta+eth (lace by the way of (eace and society- and to be formidable! is the law of nature in war! where to be feared is a (rotection a man hath from his own (ower- and as the former consisteth in actions of e5uity and %ustice! the latter consisteth in actions of honour, /nd e5uity! %ustice! and honour! contain all #irtues whatsoe#er, 'ha(ter 1> / 'onfirmation of the 7ame :ut of The ord of "od

1, The laws mentioned in the former cha(ters! as they are called the laws of nature! for that they are the dictates of natural reason- and also moral laws! because they concern men&s manners and con#ersation one towards another- so are they also
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di#ine laws in res(ect of the author thereof! "od /lmighty- and ought therefore to agree! or at least! not to be re(ugnant to the word of "od re#ealed in Holy 7cri(ture, 4n this cha(ter therefore 4 shall (roduce such (laces of 7cri(ture as a((ear to be most consonant to the said laws, 8, /nd first the word of "od seemeth to (lace the di#ine law in reason- by all such te3ts as ascribe the same to the heart and understanding- as Psalm 40! >0 Thy law is in my heart, Heb, >! 100 /fter those days! saith the Lord! 4 will (ut my laws in their mind- and Heb, 10! 16! the same, Psalm 9=! 91! s(ea+ing of the righteous man! he saith! The law of "od is in his heart, Psalm 1@! =! >0 The law of "od is (erfect! con#erting the soul, 4t gi#eth wisdom to the sim(le! and light unto the eyes, ?er, 91! 990 4 will (ut my law in their inward (arts! and write it in their hearts, /nd ?ohn 4! the lawgi#er himself! "od /lmighty! is called by the name of Logos! which is also called0 #erse 4! The light of men0 and #erse @! The light which lighteth e#ery man! which cometh into the world0 all which are descri(tions of natural reason, 9, /nd that the law di#ine! for so much as is moral! are those (rece(ts that tend to (eace! seemeth to be much confirmed by such (laces of 7cri(ture as these0 Rom, 9! 1=! righteousness which is the fulfilling of the law! is called the way of (eace, /nd Psalm ><! 100 Righteousness and (eace shall +iss each other, /nd $atth, <! @0 .lessed are the (eacema+ers, /nd Heb, =! 8! $elchisedec +ing of 7alem is inter(reted +ing of righteousness! and +ing of (eace, /nd! #erse 81! our 7a#iour 'hrist is said to be a (riest for e#er after the order of $elchisedec- out of which may be inferred0 that the doctrine of our 7a#iour 'hrist anne3eth the fulfilling of the law to (eace, 4, That the law of nature is unalterable! is intimated by this! that the (riesthood of $elchisedec is e#erlasting- and by the words of our 7a#iour! $atth, <! 1>0 Hea#en and earth shall (ass away! but one %ot or tittle of the law shall not (ass till all things be fulfilled, <, That men ought to stand to their co#enants! is taught Psalm 1<! where the 5uestion being as+ed! #erse 1! Lord who shall dwell in thy tabernacle! ;c,! it is answered! #erse 4! He that sweareth to his own hindrance! and yet changeth not, /nd that men ought to be grateful! where no co#enant (asseth! )eut, 8<! 40 Thou shalt not muAAle the :3 that treadeth out the corn! which 7t, Paul 11 'or, @! @2 inter(reteth not of o3en! but of men, 6, That men content themsel#es with e5uality! as it is the foundation of natural law! so also is it of the second table of the di#ine law! $atth, 88! 9@! 4o0 Thou shalt lo#e thy neighbour as thyself, :n these two laws de(end the whole law and the (ro(hets- which is not so to be understood! as that a man should study so much his neighbour&s (rofit as his own! or that he should di#ide his goods amongst his neighbours- but that he should esteem his neighbour worthy all rights and (ri#ileges that he himself en%oyeth- and attribute unto him! whatsoe#er he loo+eth should be attributed unto himself- which is no more but that he should be humble! mee+! and contented with e5uality, =, /nd that in distributing of right amongst e5uals! that
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distribution is to be made according to the (ro(ortions of the numbers! which is the gi#ing of ae5ualia ae5ualibus! and (ro(ortionalia (ro(ortionalibus- we ha#e Numb, 86! <9! <4! the commandment of "od to $oses0 Thous shalt di#ide the land according to the number of names- to many thou shalt gi#e more! to few thou shalt gi#e less! to e#ery one according to his number, That decision by lot is a means of (eace! Pro#, 1>! 1>0 The lot causeth contention to cease! and ma+eth (artition among the mighty, >, That the accommodation and forgi#eness of one another! which ha#e before been (ut for laws of nature! are also law di#ine! there is no 5uestion, *or they are the essence of charity! which is the sco(e of the whole law, That we ought not to re(roach! or re(rehend each other! is the doctrine of our 7a#iour! $atth, =! 10 ?udge not! that ye be not %udged- 1#erse 920 hy seest thou the mote that is in thy brother&s eye! and seest not the beam that is in thine own eyeC /lso the law that forbiddeth us to (ress our counsel u(on others further than they admit! is a di#ine law, *or after our charity and desire to rectify one another is re%ected! to (ress it further! is to re(rehend him! and condemn him! which is forbidden in the te3t last recited- as also Rom, 14! 18! 190 E#ery one of us shall gi#e account of himself to "od, Let us not therefore %udge one another any more! but use your %udgment rather in this! that no man (ut an occasion to fall! or a stumbling bloc+ before his brother, @, *urther! the rule of men concerning the law of nature! Guod tibi fieri non #is! alteri ne feceris! is confirmed by the li+e! $atth, =! 180 hatsoe#er therefore you would ha#e men do unto you! that do you unto them0 for this is the law and the (ro(hets, /nd Rom, 8! 10 4n that thou %udgest another! thou condemnest thyself! ;c, 10, 4t is also manifest by the 7cri(tures! that these laws concern only the tribunal of our conscience- and that the actions contrary to them! shall be no farther (unished by "od /lmighty! than as they (roceed from negligence and contem(t, /nd first! that these laws are made to the conscience! a((eareth! $atth, <! 800 *or 4 say unto you! e3ce(t your righteousness e3ceed the righteousness of the 7cribes and Pharisees! ye shall not enter into the +ingdom of hea#en, Now the Pharisees were the most e3act amongst the ?ews in the e3ternal (erformance- they therefore must want the sincerity of conscience- else could not our 7a#iour ha#e re5uired a greater righteousness than, theirs, *or the same reason our 7a#iour 'hrist saith0 The (ublican de(arted from the tem(le %ustified! rather than the Pharisee, /nd 'hrist saith0 His yo+e is easy! and his burthen light- which (roceeded from this! that 'hrist re5uired no more than our best endea#our, /nd Rom, 14! 890 He that doubteth! is condemned! if he eat, /nd in innumerable (laces both in the :ld and New Testament! "od /lmighty declareth! that he ta+eth the will for the deed! both in good and e#il actions, .y all which it (lainly a((ears! that the di#ine law is dictated to the conscience, :n the other side it is no less (lain0 that how many and how heinous actions soe#er a man commit through infirmity! he shall ne#ertheless! whensoe#er he shall condemn the same in his own conscience! be freed from the
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(unishments that to such actions otherwise belong, *or! /t what time soe#er a sinner doth re(ent him of his sins from the bottom of his heart! 4 will (ut all his ini5uities out of my remembrance! saith the Lord, 11, 'oncerning re#enge which by the law of nature ought not to aim! as 4 ha#e said cha(ter EF4! section 10! at (resent delight! but at future (rofit! there is some difficulty made! as if the same accorded not with the law di#ine! by such as ob%ect the continuance of (unishment after the day of %udgment! when there shall be no (lace! neither for amendment! nor for e3am(le, This ob%ection had been of some force! if such (unishment had been ordained after all sins were (ast- but considering the (unishment was instituted before sin! it ser#eth to the benefit of man+ind! because it +ee(eth men in (eaceable and #irtuous con#ersation by the terror- and therefore such re#enge was directed to the future only, 18, *inally! there is no law of natural reason! that can be against the law di#ine- for "od /lmighty hath gi#en reason, to a man to be a light unto him, /nd 4 ho(e it is no, im(iety to thin+! that "od /lmighty will re5uire a strict account thereof! at the day of %udgment! as of the instructions which we were to follow in our (eregrination here- notwithstanding the o((osition and affronts of su(ernaturalists nowHaHdays! to rational and moral con#ersation, 'ha(ter 1@ :f the Necessity and )efinition of a .ody Politic 1, 4n cha(, E44! sect, 16! it hath been shewed! that the o(inions men ha#e of the rewards and (unishments which are to follow their actions! are the causes that ma+e and go#ern the will to those actions, 4n this estate of man therefore! wherein all men are e5ual! and e#ery man allowed to be his own %udge! the fears they ha#e one of another are e5ual! and e#ery man&s ho(es consist in his own sleight and strength- and conse5uently when any man by his natural (assion! is (ro#o+ed to brea+ these laws of nature! there is no security in any other man of his own defence but antici(ation, /nd for this cause! e#ery man&s right 1howsoe#er he be inclined to (eace2 of doing whatsoe#er seemeth good in his own eyes! remaineth with him still! as the necessary means of his (reser#ation, /nd therefore till there be security amongst men for the, +ee(ing of the law of nature one towards another! men are still in the estate of war! and nothing is unlawful to any man that tendeth to his own safety or commodityand this safety and commodity consisteth in the mutual aid and hel( of one another! whereby also followeth the mutual fear of one another, 8, 4t is a (ro#erbial saying! inter arma silent leges, There is little therefore to be said concerning the laws that men are to obser#e one towards another in time of war! wherein e#ery man&s being and wellHbeing is the rule of his actions, 6et thus much the law of nature commandeth in war0 that men satiate not the cruelty of their (resent (assions! whereby in their own
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conscience they foresee no benefit to come, *or that betrayeth not a necessity! but a dis(osition of the mind to war! which is against the law of nature, /nd in old time we read that ra(ine was a trade of life! wherein ne#ertheless many of them that used it! did not only s(are the li#es of those they in#aded! but left them also such things! as were necessary to (reser#e that life which they had gi#en them- as namely their o3en and instruments for tillage! though they carried away all their other cattle and substance, /nd as the ra(ine itself was warranted in the law of nature! by the want of security otherwise to maintain themsel#esso the e3ercise of cruelty was forbidden by the same law of nature! unless fear suggested anything to the contrary, *or nothing but fear can %ustify the ta+ing away of another&s life, /nd because fear can hardly be made manifest! but by some action dishonourable! that betrayeth the conscience of one&s own wea+ness- all men in whom the (assion of courage or magnanimity ha#e been (redominated! ha#e abstained from cruelty- insomuch that though there be in war no law! the breach whereof is in%ury! yet there are those laws! the breach whereof is dishonour, 4n one word! therefore! the only law of actions in war is honour- and the right of war (ro#idence, 9, /nd seeing mutual aid is necessary for defence! as mutual fear is necessary for (eace- we are to consider how great aids are re5uired for such defence! and for the causing of such mutual fear! as men may not easily ad#enture on one another, /nd first it is e#ident0 that the mutual aid of two or three men is of #ery little security- for the odds on the other side! of a man or two! gi#eth sufficient encouragement to an assault, /nd therefore before men ha#e sufficient security in the hel( of one another! their number must be so great! that the odds of a few which the enemy may ha#e! be no certain and sensible ad#antage, 4, /nd su((osing how great a number soe#er of men assembled together for their mutual defence! yet shall not the effect follow! unless they all direct their actions to one and the same end- which direction to one and the same end is that which! cha(, E44! sect, =! is called consent, This consent 1or concord2 amongst so many men! though it may be made by the fear of a (resent in#ader! or by the ho(e of a (resent con5uest! or bootyand endure as long as that action endureth- ne#ertheless! by the di#ersity of %udgments and (assions in so many men contending naturally for honour and ad#antage one abo#e another0 it is im(ossible! not only that their consent to aid each other against an enemy! but also that the (eace should last between themsel#es! without some mutual and common fear to rule them, <, .ut contrary hereunto may be ob%ected! the e3(erience we ha#e of certain li#ing creatures irrational! that ne#ertheless continually li#e in such good order and go#ernment! for their common benefit! and are so free from sedition and war amongst themsel#es! that for (eace! (rofit! and defence! nothing more can be imaginable, /nd the e3(erience we ha#e in this! is in that little creature the bee! which is therefore rec+oned amongst animalia (olitica, hy therefore may not men! that foresee the benefit of concord! continually maintain the same without com(ulsion! as well as theyC To which 4 answer! that amongst
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other li#ing creatures! there is no 5uestion of (recedence in their own s(ecies! nor strife about honour or ac+nowledgment of one another&s wisdom! as there is amongst men- from whence arise en#y and hatred of one towards another! and from thence sedition and war, 7econdly! those li#ing creatures aim e#ery one at (eace and food common to them all- men aim at dominion! su(eriority! and (ri#ate wealth! which are distinct in e#ery man! and breed contention, Thirdly! those li#ing creatures that are without reason! ha#e not learning enough to es(y! or to thin+ they es(y! any defect in the go#ernment- and therefore are contented therewith- but in a multitude of men! there are always some that thin+ themsel#es wiser than the rest! and stri#e to alter what they thin+, amiss- and di#ers of them stri#e to alter di#ers ways- and that causeth war, *ourthly! they want s(eech! and are therefore unable to instigate one another to faction! which men want not, *ifthly! they ha#e no conce(tion of right and wrong! but only of (leasure and (ain! and therefore also no censure of one another! nor of their commander! as long as they are themsel#es at ease- whereas men that ma+e themsel#es %udges of right and wrong! are then least at 5uiet! when they are most at ease, Lastly! natural concord! such as is amongst those creatures! is the wor+ of "od by the way of nature- but concord amongst men is artificial! and by way of co#enant, /nd therefore no wonder if such irrational creatures! as go#ern themsel#es in multitude! do it much more firmly than man+ind! that do it by arbitrary institution, 6, 4t remaineth therefore still that consent 1by which 4 understand the concurrence of many men&s wills to one action2 is not sufficient security for their common (eace! without the erection of some common (ower! by the fear whereof they may be com(elled both to +ee( the (eace amongst themsel#es! and to %oin their strengths together! against a common enemy, /nd that this may be done! there is no way imaginable! but only union- which is defined cha(, E44! sect, > to be the in#ol#ing or including the wills of many in the will of one man! or in the will of the greatest (art of any one number of men! that is to say! in the will of one man! or of one ':DN'4L- for a council is nothing else but an assembly of men deliberating concerning something common to them all, =, The ma+ing of union consisteth in this! that e#ery man by co#enant oblige himself to some one and the same man! or to some one and the same council! by them all named and determined! to do those actions! which the said man or council shall command them to do- and to do no action which he or they shall forbid! or command them not to do, /nd farther,, in case it be a council whose commands they co#enant to obey! that then also they co#enant! that e#ery man shall hold that for the command of the whole council! which is the command of the greater (art of those men! whereof such council consisteth, /nd though the will of man! being not #oluntary! but the beginning of #oluntary actions! is not sub%ect to deliberation and co#enant- yet when a man co#enanteth to sub%ect his will to the command of another! he obligeth himself to this! that he resign his strength and means to him! whom he co#enanteth to obey- and hereby! he that is to
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command may by the use of all their means and strength! be able by the terror thereof! to frame the will of them all to unity and concord amongst themsel#es, >, This union so made! is that which men call nowHaHdays a .:)6 P:L4T4' or ci#il society- and the "ree+s call it (olis! that is to say! a! city, which may be defined to be a multitude of men! united as one (erson by a common (ower! for their common (eace! defence! and benefit, @, /nd as this union into a city or body (olitic! is instituted with common (ower o#er all the (articular (ersons! or members thereof! to the common good of them all- so also may there be amongst a multitude of those members! instituted a subordinate union of certain men! for certain common actions to be done by those men for some common benefit of theirs! or of the whole city- as for subordinate go#ernment! for counsel! for trade! and the li+e, /nd these subordinate bodies (olitic are usually called ':RP:R/T4:N7- and their (ower such o#er the (articulars of their own society! as the whole city whereof they are members ha#e allowed them, 10, 4n all cities or bodies (olitic not subordinate! but inde(endent! that one man or one council! to whom the (articular members ha#e gi#en that common (ower! is called their 7:FERE4"N! and his (ower the so#ereign (ower, which consisteth in the (ower and the strength that e#ery of the members ha#e transferred to him from themsel#es! by co#enant, /nd because it is im(ossible for any man really to transfer his own strength to another! or for that other to recei#e it- it is to be understood0 that to transfer a man&s (ower and strength! is no more but to lay by or relin5uish his own right of resisting him to whom he so transferreth it, /nd e#ery member of the body (olitic! is called a 7D.?E'T! 1#iA,2 to the so#ereign, 11, The cause in general which mo#eth a man to become sub%ect to another! is 1as 4 ha#e said already2 the fear of not otherwise (reser#ing himself! and a man may sub%ect himself! to him that in#adeth! or may in#ade him for fear of him- or men may %oin amongst themsel#es to sub%ect themsel#es to such as they shall agree u(on for fear of others, /nd when many men sub%ect themsel#es the former way! there ariseth thence a body (olitic! as it were naturally- from whence (roceedeth dominion! (aternal! and des(otic and when they sub%ect themsel#es the other way! by mutual agreement amongst many! the body (olitic they ma+e! is for the most (art called a commonwealth in distinction from the former! though the name be the general name for them both and 4 shall s(ea+ in the first (lace of commonwealths! and afterward of bodies (olitic! (atrimonial and des(otical, Part 44 )e 'or(ore Politico 'ha(ter 80 :f the Re5uisites to the 'onstitution of a 'ommonwealth

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4, That (art of this treatise which is already (ast! hath been wholly s(ent! in the consideration of the natural (ower! and the natural estate of man- namely of his cognition and (assions in the first ele#en cha(ters- and how from thence (roceed his actions in the twelfth- how men +now one another&s minds in the thirteenth- in what estate men&s (assions set them in the fourteenth- what estate they are directed unto by the dictates of reason! that is to say! what be the (rinci(al articles of the law of nature! in the fifteenth! si3teenth! se#enteenth! eighteenth! and lastly how a multitude of (ersons natural are united by co#enants into one (erson ci#il or body (olitic, 4n this (art therefore shall be considered! the nature of a body (olitic! and the laws thereof! otherwise called ci#il laws, /nd whereas it hath been said in the last cha(ter! and last section of the former (art! that there be two ways of erecting a body (oliticone by arbitrary institution of many men assembled together! which is li+e a creation out of nothing by human wit- the other by com(ulsion! which is as it were a generation thereof out of natural force- 4 shall first s(ea+ of such erection of a body (olitic! as (roceedeth from the assembly and consent of a multitude, 8, Ha#ing in this (lace to consider a multitude of men about to unite themsel#es into a body (olitic! for their security! both against one another! and against common enemies- and that by co#enants! the +nowledge of what co#enants! they must needs ma+e! de(endeth on the +nowledge of the (ersons! and the +nowledge of their end, *irst! for their (ersons they are many! and 1as yet2 not one- nor can any action done in a multitude of (eo(le met together! be attributed to the multitude! or truly called the action of the multitude! unless e#ery man&s hand! and e#ery man&s will! 1not so much as one e3ce(ted2 ha#e concurred thereto, *or multitude! though in their (ersons they run together! yet they concur not always in their designs, *or e#en at that time when men are in tumult! though they agree a number of them to one mischief! and a number of them to another- yet! in the whole! they are amongst themsel#es in the state of hostility! and not of (eace- li+e the seditious ?ews besieged in ?erusalem! that could %oin against their enemies! and yet fight amongst themsel#eswhensoe#er therefore any man saith! that a number of men hath done any act0 it is to be understood! that e#ery (articular man in that number hath consented thereunto! and not the greatest (art only, 7econdly! though thus assembled with intention to unite themsel#es! they are yet in that estate in which e#ery man hath right to e#erything! and conse5uently! as hath been said! cha(, E4F! sect, 10! in an estate of en%oying nothing0 and therefore meum and tuum hath no (lace amongst them, 9, The first thing therefore they are to do! is e3(ressly e#ery man to consent to something by which they may come nearer to their ends- which can be nothing else imaginable but this0 that they allow the wills of the ma%or (art of their whole number! or the wills of the ma%or (art of some certain number of men by them determined and named- or lastly the will of some one man! to in#ol#e and be ta+en for the wills of e#ery man, /nd this done they are united! and a body (olitic, /nd if the ma%or (art
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of their whole number be su((osed to in#ol#e the wills of all the (articulars! then are they said to be a )E$:'R/'6! that is to say a go#ernment wherein the whole number! or so many of them as (lease! being assembled together! are the so#ereign! and e#ery (articular man a sub%ect, 4f the ma%or (art of a certain number of men named or distinguished from the rest! be su((osed to in#ol#e the wills of e#ery one of the (articulars! then are they said to be an :L4"/R'H6! or /R47T:'R/'6- which two words signify the same thing! together with the di#ers (assions of those that use them- for when the men that be in that office (lease! they are called an aristocracy! otherwise an oligarchy- wherein those! the ma%or (art of which declare the wills of the whole multitude! being assembled! are the so#ereign! and e#ery man se#erally a sub%ect, Lastly if their consent be such! that the will of one man! whom they name! shall stand for the wills of them all! then is their go#ernment or union called a $:N/R'H6- and that one man the so#ereign! and e#ery of the rest a sub%ect, 4, /nd those se#eral sorts of unions! go#ernments! and sub%ections of man&s will! may be understood to be made! either absolutely! that is to say! for all future time! or for a time limited only, .ut forasmuch as we s(ea+ here of a body (olitic! instituted for the (er(etual benefit and defence of them that ma+e it- which therefore men desire should last for e#er! 4 will omit to s(ea+ of those that be tem(orary! and consider those that be for e#er, <, The end for which one man gi#eth u(! and relin5uisheth to another! or others! the right of (rotecting and defending himself by his own (ower! is the security which he e3(ecteth thereby! of (rotection and defence from those to whom he doth so relin5uish it, /nd a man may then account himself in the estate of security! when he can foresee no #iolence to be done unto him! from which the doer may not be deterred by the (ower of that so#ereign! to whom they ha#e e#ery one sub%ected themsel#es- and without that security there is no reason for a man to de(ri#e himself of his own ad#antages! and ma+e himself a (rey to others, /nd therefore when there is not such a so#ereign (ower erected! as may afford this security- it is to be understood that e#ery man&s right of doing whatsoe#er seemeth good in his own eyes! remaineth still with him, /nd contrariwise! where any sub%ect hath right by his own %udgment and discretion! to ma+e use of his force- it is to be understood that e#ery man hath the li+e! and conse5uently that there is no commonwealth at all established, How far therefore in the ma+ing of a commonwealth! a man sub%ecteth his will to the (ower of others! must a((ear from the end! namely security, *or whatsoe#er is necessary to be by co#enant transferred for the attaining thereof! so much is transferred! or else e#ery man is in his natural liberty to secure himself, 6, 'o#enants agreed u(on by e#ery man assembled for the ma+ing of a commonwealth! and (ut in writing without erecting of a (ower of coercion! are no reasonable security for any of them that so co#enant! nor are to be called laws- and lea#e men still in the estate of nature and hostility, *or seeing the wills of most men are go#erned only by fear! and where there is no (ower of coercion! there is no fear- the wills of most men will follow
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their (assions of co#etousness! lust! anger! and the li+e! to the brea+ing of those co#enants! whereby the rest! also! who otherwise would +ee( them! are set at liberty! and ha#e no law but from themsel#es, =, This (ower of coercion! as hath been said cha(, EF! sect, 9! of the former (art! consisteth in the transferring of e#ery man&s right of resistance against him to whom he hath transferred the (ower of coercion, 4t followeth therefore! that no man in any commonwealth whatsoe#er hath right to resist him! or them! on whom they ha#e conferred this (ower coerci#e! or 1as men use to call it2 the sword of %ustice- su((osing the notHresistance (ossible, *or 1Part 4, cha(ter EF! sect, 1>2 co#enants bind but to the utmost of our endea#our, >, /nd forasmuch as they who are amongst themsel#es in security! by the means of this sword of %ustice that +ee(s them all in awe! are ne#ertheless in danger of enemies from withoutif there be not some means found! to unite their strengths and natural forces in the resistance of such enemies! their (eace amongst themsel#es is but in #ain, /nd therefore it is to be understood as a co#enant of e#ery member to contribute their se#eral forces for the defence of the whole- whereby to ma+e one (ower as sufficient! as is (ossible! for their defence, Now seeing that e#ery man hath already transferred the use of his strength to him or them! that ha#e the sword of %ustice- it followeth that the (ower of defence! that is to say the sword of war! be in the same hands wherein is the sword of %ustice0 and conse5uently those two swords are but one! and that inse(arably and essentially anne3ed to the so#ereign (ower, @, $oreo#er seeing to ha#e the right of the sword! is nothing else but to ha#e the use thereof de(ending only on the %udgment and discretion of him or them that ha#e it- it followeth that the (ower of %udicature 1in all contro#ersies! wherein the sword of %ustice is to be used2 and 1in all deliberations concerning war! wherein the use of that sword is re5uired2! the right of resol#ing and determining what is to be done! belong to the same so#ereign, 10, *arther0 considering it is no less! but much more necessary to (re#ent #iolence and ra(ine! than to (unish the same when it is committed- and all #iolence (roceedeth from contro#ersies that arise between men concerning meum and tuum! right and wrong! good and bad! and the li+e! which men use e#ery one to measure by their own %udgments- it belongeth also to the %udgment of the same so#ereign (ower! to set forth and ma+e +nown the common measure by which e#ery man is to +now what is his! and what another&s- what is good! and what bad- and what he ought to do! and what not- and to command the same to be obser#ed, /nd these measures of the actions of the sub%ects are those which men call L/ 7 P:L4T4'! or ci#il, The ma+ing whereof must of right belong to him that hath the (ower of the sword! by which men are com(elled to obser#e them- for otherwise they should be made in #ain, 11, *arthermore0 seeing it is im(ossible that any one man that hath such so#ereign (ower! can be able in (erson to hear and determine all contro#ersies! to be (resent at all deliberations
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concerning common good! and to e3ecute and (erform all those common actions that belong thereunto! whereby there will be necessity of magistrates and ministers of (ublic affairs- it is conse5uent! that the a((ointment! nomination! and limitation of the same! be understood as an inse(arable (art of the same so#ereignty! to which the sum of all %udicature and e3ecution hath been already anne3ed, 18, /nd0 forasmuch as the right to Dse the forces of e#ery (articular member! is transferred from themsel#es! to their so#ereign- a man will easily fall u(on this conclusion of himself0 that to so#ereign (ower 1whatsoe#er it doth2 there belongeth im(unity, 19, The sum of these rights of so#ereignty! namely the absolute use of the sword in (eace and war! the ma+ing and abrogating of laws! su(reme %udicature and decision in all debates %udicial and deliberati#e! the nomination of all magistrates and ministers! with other rights contained in the same! ma+e the so#ereign (ower no less absolute in the commonwealth! than before commonwealth e#ery man was absolute in himself to do! or not to do! what he thought good- which men that ha#e not had the e3(erience of that miserable estate! to which men are reduced by long war! thin+ so hard a condition that they cannot easily ac+nowledge! such co#enants and sub%ection! on their (arts! as are here set down! to ha#e been e#er necessary to their (eace, /nd therefore some ha#e imagined that a commonwealth may be constituted in such manner! as the so#ereign (ower may be so limited! and moderated! as they shall thin+ fit themsel#es, *or e3am(le0 they su((ose a multitude of men to ha#e agreed u(on certain articles 1which they (resently call laws2! declaring how they will be go#erned- and that done to agree farther u(on some man! or number of men to see the same articles (erformed! and (ut in e3ecution, /nd to enable him! or them thereunto! they allot unto them a (ro#ision limited! as of certain lands! ta3es! (enalties! and the li+e! than which 1if misHs(ent2! they shall ha#e no more! without a new consent of the same men that allowed the former, /nd thus they thin+ they ha#e made a commonwealth! in which it is unlawful for any (ri#ate man to ma+e use of his own sword for his security- wherein they decei#e themsel#es, 14, *or first! if to the re#enue! it did necessarily follow that there might be forces raised! and (rocured at the will of him that hath such re#enue- yet since the re#enue is limited! so must also be the forces- but limited forces! against the (ower of an enemy! which we cannot limit! are unsufficient, hensoe#er therefore there ha((eneth an in#asion greater than those forces are able to resist! and there be no other right to le#y more! then is e#ery man! by necessity of nature! allowed to ma+e the best (ro#ision he can for himself- and thus is the (ri#ate sword! and the estate of war again reduced, .ut seeing re#enue! without the right of commanding men! is of not use! neither in (eace! nor war- it is necessary to be su((osed! that he that hath the administration of those articles! which are in the former section su((osed! must ha#e also right to ma+e use of the strengths of (articular men- and what reason soe#er gi#eth him that right o#er any one! gi#eth him the same o#er them all, /nd then is his right
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absolute- for he that hath right to all their forces! hath right to dis(ose of the same, /gain0 su((osing those limited forces and re#enue! either by the necessary! or negligent use of them! to fail- and that for a su((ly! the same multitude be again to be assembled! who shall ha#e (ower to assemble them! that is to com(el them to come togetherC 4f he that demandeth the su((ly hath that right 1#iA,2 the right to com(el them all- then is his so#ereignty absolute0 if not! then is e#ery (articular man at liberty to come or not- to frame a new commonwealth or not- and so the right of the (ri#ate sword returneth, .ut su((ose them willingly and of their own accord assembled! to consider of this su((ly- if now it be still in their choice! whether they shall gi#e it or not! it is also in their choice whether the commonwealth shall stand or not, /nd therefore there lieth not u(on any of them any ci#il obligation that may hinder them from using force! in case they thin+ it tend to their defence, This de#ice therefore of them that will ma+e ci#il laws first! and then a ci#il body afterwards! 1as if (olicy made a body (olitic! and not a body (olitic made (olicy2 is of no effect, 1<, :thers to a#oid the hard condition! as they ta+e it! of absolute sub%ection! 1which in hatred thereto they also call sla#ery2 ha#e de#ised a go#ernment as they thin+ mi3ed of the three sorts of so#ereignty, /s for e3am(le0 they su((ose the (ower of ma+ing laws gi#en to some great assembly democratical! the (ower of %udicature to some other assembly- and the administration of the laws to a third! or to some one man- and this (olicy they call mi3ed monarchy! or mi3ed aristocracy! or mi3ed democracy! according as any of these three sorts do most #isibly (redominate, /nd in this estate of go#ernment they thin+ the use of the (ri#ate sword e3cluded, 16, /nd su((osing it were so0 how were this condition which they call sla#ery eased therebyC *or in this estate they would ha#e no man allowed! either to be his own %udge! or own car#er! or to ma+e any laws unto himself- and as long as these three agree! they are as absolutely sub%ect to them! as is a child to the father! or a sla#e to the master in the state of nature, The ease therefore of this sub%ection! must consist in the disagreement of those! amongst whom they ha#e distributed the rights of so#ereign (ower, .ut the same disagreement is war, The di#ision therefore of the so#ereignty! either wor+eth no effect! to the ta+ing away of sim(le sub%ection! or introduceth warwherein the (ri#ate sword hath (lace again, .ut the truth is! as hath been already shewed in =! >! @! 10! 11! 18 (recedent sections0 the so#ereignty is indi#isible- and that seeming mi3ture of se#eral +inds of go#ernment! not mi3ture of the things themsel#es! but confusion in our understanding! that cannot find out readily to whom we ha#e sub%ected oursel#es, 1=, .ut though the so#ereignty be not mi3ed! but be always either sim(le democracy! or sim(le aristocracy! or (ure monarchyne#ertheless in the administration thereof! all those sorts of go#ernment may ha#e (lace subordinate, *or su((ose the so#ereign (ower be democracy! as it was sometimes in Rome! yet at the same time they may ha#e a council aristocratical! such as was the senate- and at the same time they may ha#e a subordinate monarch!
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such as was their dictator! who had for a time the e3ercise of the whole so#ereignty! and such as are all generals in war, 7o also in a monarchy there may be a council aristocratical of men chosen by the monarch- or democratical of men chosen by the consent 1the monarch (ermitting2 of all the (articular men of the commonwealth, /nd this mi3ture is it that im(oseth- as if it were the mi3ture of so#ereignty, /s if a man should thin+! because the great council of Fenice doth nothing ordinarily but choose magistrates! ministers of state! ca(tains! and go#ernors of towns! ambassadors! counsellors! and the li+e- that therefore their (art of the so#ereignty is only choosing of magistratesand that the ma+ing of war! and (eace! and laws! were not theirs! but the (art of such councillors as they a((ointed theretowhereas it is the (art of these to do it but subordinately! the su(reme authority thereof being in the great council that choose them, 1>, /nd as reason teacheth us! that a man considered out of sub%ection to laws! and out of all co#enants obligatory to others! is free to do! and undo! and deliberate as long as he listeth- e#ery member being obedient to the will of the whole man- that liberty being nothing else but his natural (ower! without which he is no better than an inanimate creature! not able to hel( himself- so also it teacheth us0 that a body (olitic of what +ind soe#er! not sub%ect to another! nor obliged by co#enants! ought to be free! and in all actions to be assisted by the members! e#ery one in their (lace! or at the least not resisted by them, *or otherwise! the (ower of a body (olitic 1the essence whereof is the notHresistance of the members2 is none! nor a body (olitic of any benefit, /nd the same is confirmed by the use of all nations and commonwealths in the world, *or what nation is there or commonwealth wherein that man or council! which is #irtually the whole! hath not absolute (ower o#er e#ery (articular memberC or what nation or commonwealth is there! that hath not (ower and right to constitute a general in their warsC .ut the (ower of a general is absolute- and conse5uently there was absolute (ower in the commonwealth! from whom it was deri#ed, *or no (erson! natural or ci#il! can transfer unto another more (ower than himself hath, 1@, 4n e#ery commonwealth where (articular men are de(ri#ed of their right to (rotect themsel#es! there resideth an absolute so#ereignty! as 4 ha#e already shewed, .ut in what man or in what assembly of men the same is (laced! is not so manifest! as not to need some mar+s whereby it may be discerned, /nd first it is an infallible mar+ of absolute so#ereignty in a man! or in an assembly of men! if there be no right in any other (erson natural or ci#il to (unish that man! or to dissol#e that assembly, *or he that cannot of right be (unished! cannot of right be resistedand he that cannot of right be resisted! hath coerci#e (ower o#er all the rest! and thereby can frame and go#ern their actions at his (leasure- which is absolute so#ereignty, 'ontrariwise he that in a commonwealth is (unishable by any! or that assembly that is dissol#able! is not so#ereign, *or a greater (ower is always re5uired to (unish and dissol#e! than theirs who are (unished or dissol#ed- and that (ower cannot be called so#ereign! than which
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there is a greater, 7econdly! that man or assembly! that by their own right not deri#ed from the (resent right of any other! may ma+e laws! or abrogate them! at his! or their (leasure! ha#e the so#ereignty absolute, *or seeing the laws they ma+e! are su((osed to be made by right! the members of the commonwealth to whom they are made! are obliged to obey them- and conse5uently not to resist the e3ecution of them- which notHresistance ma+eth the (ower absolute of him that ordaineth them, 4t is li+ewise a mar+ of this so#ereignty! to ha#e the right original of a((ointing magistrates! %udges! counsellors! and ministers of state, *or without that (ower no act of so#ereignty! or go#ernment! can be (erformed, Lastly! and generally, whosoe#er by his own authority inde(endent can do any act! which another of the same commonwealth may not! must needs be understood to ha#e the so#ereign (ower, *or by nature men ha#e e5ual right- this ine5uality therefore must (roceed from the (ower of the commonwealth, He therefore that doth any act lawfully by his own authority! which another may not! doth it by the (ower of the commonwealth in himself- which is absolute so#ereignty, 'ha(ter 81 :f the Three 7orts of 'ommonwealth 1, Ha#ing s(o+en in general concerning instituted (olicy in the former cha(ter! 4 come in this to s(ea+ of the sorts thereof in s(ecial! how e#ery one of them is instituted, The first in order of time of these three sorts is democracy! and it must be so of necessity! because an aristocracy and a monarchy! re5uire nomination of (ersons agreed u(on- which agreement in a great multitude of men must consist in the consent of the ma%or (artand where the #otes of the ma%or (art in#ol#e the #otes of the rest! there is actually a democracy, 8, 4n the ma+ing of a democracy! there (asseth no co#enant! between the so#ereign and any sub%ect, *or while the democracy is a ma+ing! there is no so#ereign with whom to contract, *or it cannot be imagined! that the multitude should contract with itself! or with any one man! or number of men! (arcel of itself! to ma+e itself so#ereign- nor that a multitude! considered as one aggregate! can gi#e itself anything which before it had not, 7eeing then that so#ereignty democratical is not conferred by the co#enant of any multitude 1which su((oseth union and so#ereignty already made2! it resteth! that the same be conferred by the (articular co#enants of e#ery se#eral man- that is to say! e#ery man with e#ery man! for and in consideration of the benefit of his own (eace and defence! co#enanteth to stand to and obey! whatsoe#er the ma%or (art of their whole number! or the ma%or (art of such a number of them! as shall be (leased to assemble at a certain time and (lace! shall determine and command, /nd this is that which gi#eth being to a democracy- wherein the so#ereign assembly was called of the "ree+s by the name of )emus 1id est! the (eo(le2! from whence cometh democracy, 7o that where! to the su(reme and inde(endent court! e#ery man may come that will and gi#e his #ote! there the so#ereign is called the (eo(le, 9, :ut
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of this that hath been already said! may readily be drawn0 that whatsoe#er the (eo(le doth to any one (articular member or sub%ect of the commonwealth! the same by him ought not to be styled in%ury, *or first! in%ury 1by the definition! Part 4, cha(, EF4! sect, 82 is breach of co#enant- but co#enants 1as hath been said in the (recedent section2 there (assed none from the (eo(le to any (ri#ate man- and conse5uently it 1#iA, the (eo(le2 can do him no in%ury, 7econdly! how un%ust soe#er the action be! that this so#ereign demus shall do! is done by the will of e#ery (articular man sub%ect to him! who are therefore guilty of the same, 4f therefore they style it in%ury! they but accuse themsel#es, /nd it is against reason for the same man! both to do and com(lain- im(lying this contradiction! that whereas he first ratified the (eo(le&s acts in general! he now disalloweth some of them in (articular, 4t is therefore said truly! #olenti non fit in%uria, Ne#ertheless nothing doth hinder! but that di#ers actions done by the (eo(le! may be un%ust before "od /lmighty! as breaches of some of the laws of nature, 4, /nd when it ha((eneth! that the (eo(le by (lurality of #oices shall decree or command any thing contrary to the law of "od or nature! though the decree and command be the act of e#ery man! not only (resent in the assembly! but also absent from ityet is not the in%ustice of the decree! the in%ustice of e#ery (articular man! but only of those men by whose e3(ress suffrages! the decree or command was (assed, *or a body (olitic! as it is a fictitious body! so are the faculties and will thereof fictitious also, .ut to ma+e a (articular man un%ust! which consisteth of a body and soul natural! there is re5uired a natural and #ery will, <, 4n all democracies! though the right of so#ereignty be in the assembly! which is #irtually the whole body- yet the use thereof is always in one! or a few (articular men, *or in such great assemblies as those must be! whereinto e#ery man may enter at his (leasure! there is no means any ways to deliberate and gi#e counsel what to do! but by long and set orations- whereby to e#ery man there is more or less ho(e gi#en! to incline and sway the assembly to their own ends, 4n a multitude of s(ea+ers therefore! where always! either one is eminent alone! or a few being e5ual amongst themsel#es! are eminent abo#e the rest! that one or few must of necessity sway the whole- insomuch! that a democracy! in effect! is no more than an aristocracy of orators! interru(ted sometimes with the tem(orary monarchy of one orator, 6, /nd seeing a democracy is by institution the beginning both of aristocracy and monarchy! we are to consider ne3t how aristocracy is deri#ed from it, hen the (articular members of the commonwealth growing weary of attendance at (ublic courts! as dwelling far off! or being attenti#e to their (ri#ate businesses! and withal dis(leased with the go#ernment of the (eo(le! assemble themsel#es to ma+e an aristocracy- there is no more re5uired to the ma+ing thereof but (utting to the 5uestion one by one! the names of such men as it shall consist of! and assenting to their election- and by (lurality of #ote! to transfer that (ower which before the (eo(le had! to the number of men so named and chosen, =, /nd from this manner of erecting an aristocracy it is manifest that the few or o(timates! ha#e entered into no
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co#enant! with any of the (articular members of the commonwealth whereof they are so#ereign- and conse5uently cannot do any thing to any (ri#ate man that can be called in%ury to him! howsoe#er their act be wic+ed before /lmighty "od! according to that which hath been said before! section 9, *arther it is im(ossible that the (eo(le! as one body (olitic should co#enant with the aristocracy or o(timates! on whom they intend to transfer their so#ereignty- for no sooner is the aristocracy erected! but the democracy is annihilated! and the co#enants made unto them #oid, >, 4n all aristocracies! the admission of such as are from time to time to ha#e #ote in the so#ereign assembly! de(endeth on the will and decree of the (resent o(timates- for they being the so#ereign! ha#e the nomination 1by the ele#enth section of the former cha(ter2 of all magistrates! ministers! and counsellors of state whatsoe#er! and may therefore choose either to ma+e them electi#e! or hereditary! at their (leasure, @, :ut of the same democracy! the institution of a (olitical monarch (roceedeth in the same manner! as did the institution of the aristocracy 1#iA,2 by a decree of the so#ereign (eo(le! to (ass the so#ereignty to one man named! and a((ro#ed by (lurality of suffrage, /nd if this so#ereignty be truly and indeed transferred! the estate or commonwealth is an absolute monarchy! wherein the monarch is at liberty! to dis(ose as well of the succession! as of the (ossession- and not an electi#e +ingdom, *or su((ose a decree be made! first in this manner0 that such a one shall ha#e the so#ereignty for his life- and that afterward they will choose a new- in this case! the (ower of the (eo(le is dissol#ed! or not, 4f dissol#ed! then after the death of him that is chosen! there is no man bound to stand to the decrees of them that shall! as (ri#ate men! run together to ma+e a new election0 and conse5uently! if there be any man! who by the ad#antage of the reign of him that is dead! hath strength enough to hold the multitude in (eace and obedience! he may lawfully! or rather is by the law of nature obliged so to do, 4f this (ower of the (eo(le were not dissol#ed! at the choosing of their +ing for life- then is the (eo(le so#ereign still! and the +ing a minister thereof only! but so! as to (ut the whole so#ereignty in e3ecution- a great minister! but no otherwise for his time! than a dictator was in Rome, 4n this case! at the death of him that was chosen! they that meet for a new election! ha#e no new! but their old authority for the same, *or they were the so#ereign all the time! as a((eareth by the acts of those electi#e +ings! that ha#e (rocured from the (eo(le! that their children might succeed them, *or it is to be understood! when a man recei#eth any thing from the authority of the (eo(le! he recei#eth it not from the (eo(le his sub%ects! but from the (eo(le his so#ereign, /nd farther! though in the election of a +ing for his life! the (eo(le grant him the e3ercise of their so#ereignty for that timeyet if they see cause! they may recall the same before the time, /s a (rince that conferreth an office for life! may ne#ertheless! u(on sus(icion of abuse thereof! recall it at his (leasureinasmuch as offices that re5uire labour and care! are understood to (ass from him that gi#eth them as onera! burthens to them that ha#e them- the recalling whereof are therefore not in%ury! but
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fa#our, Ne#ertheless! if in ma+ing an electi#e +ing with intention to reser#e the so#ereignty! they reser#e not a (ower at certain +nown and determined times and (laces to assemble themsel#es- the reser#ation of their so#ereignty is of no effect! inasmuch as no man is bound to stand to the decrees and determinations of those that assemble themsel#es without the so#ereign authority, 10, 4n the former section is showed that electi#e +ings! that e3ercise their so#ereignty for a time! which determines with their life! either are sub%ects and not so#ereigns- and that is! when the (eo(le in election of them reser#e unto themsel#es the right of assembling at certain times and (laces limited and made +nown- or else absolute so#ereigns! to dis(ose of the succession at their (leasure- and that is! when the (eo(le in their election hath declared no time nor (lace of their meeting! or ha#e left it to the (ower of the elected +ing to assemble and dissol#e them at such times! as he himself shall thin+ good, There is another +ind of limitation of time! to him that shall be elected to use the so#ereign (ower 1which whether it hath been (ractised anywhere or not! 4 +now not! but it may be imagined! and hath been ob%ected against the rigour of so#ereign (ower2! and it is this0 that the (eo(le transfer their so#ereignty u(on condition, /s for e3am(le0 for so long as he shall obser#e such and such laws! as they then (rescribe him, /nd here as before in elected +ings! the 5uestion is to be made! whether in the electing of such a so#ereign! they reser#ed to themsel#es a right of assembling at times and (laces limited and +nown! or not- if not! then is the so#ereignty of the (eo(le dissol#ed! and they ha#e neither (ower to %udge of the breach of the conditions gi#en him! nor to command any forces for the de(osing of him! whom on that condition they had set u(- but are in the estate of war amongst themsel#es! as they were before they made themsel#es a democracy- and conse5uently0 if he that is elected! by the ad#antage of the (ossession he hath of the (ublic means! be able to com(el them to unity and obedience! he hath not only the right of nature to warrant him! but also the law of nature to oblige him thereunto, .ut if in electing him! they reser#ed to themsel#es a right of assembling! and a((ointed certain times and (laces to that (ur(ose! then are they so#ereign still! and may call their conditional +ing to account! at their (leasure! and de(ri#e him of his go#ernment! if they %udge he deser#e it! either by breach of the condition set him! or otherwise, *or the so#ereign (ower can by no co#enant with a sub%ect! be bound to continue him in the charge he undergoeth by their command! as a burden im(osed not (articularly for his good! but for the good of the so#ereign (eo(le, 11, The contro#ersies that arise concerning the right of the (eo(le! (roceed from the e5ui#ocation of the word, *or the word (eo(le hath a double signification, 4n one sense it signifieth only a number of men! distinguished by the (lace of their habitation- as the (eo(le of England! or the (eo(le of *rancewhich is no more! but the multitude of those (articular (ersons that inhabit those regions! without consideration of any contracts or co#enants amongst them! by which any one of them is obliged to the rest, 4n another sense! it signifieth a (erson
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ci#il! that is to say! either one man! or one council! in the will whereof is included and in#ol#ed the will of e#ery one in (articular- as for e3am(le0 in this latter sense the lower house of (arliament is all the commons! as long as they sit there with authority and right thereto- but after they be dissol#ed! though they remain! they be no more the (eo(le! nor the commons! but only the aggregate! or multitude of the (articular men there sitting- how well soe#er they agree! or concur! in o(inions amongst themsel#es- whereu(on they that do not distinguish between these two significations! do usually attribute such rights to a dissol#ed multitude! as belong only to the (eo(le #irtually contained in the body of the commonwealth or so#ereignty, /nd when a great number of their own authority floc+ together in any nation! they usually gi#e them the name of the whole nation, 4n which sense they say the (eo(le rebelleth! or the (eo(le demandeth! when it is no more than a dissol#ed multitude! of which though any one man may be said to demand or ha#e right to something! yet the hea(! or multitude! cannot he said to demand or ha#e right to any thing, *or where e#ery man hath his right distinct! there is nothing left for the multitude to ha#e right unto- and when the (articulars say0 this is mine! this is thine! and this is his! and ha#e shared all amongst them! there can be nothing whereof the multitude can say0 this is minenor are they one body! as beho#eth them to be! that demand anything under the name of mine or his- and when they say ours! e#ery man is understood to (retend in se#eral! and not the multitude, :n the other side! when the multitude is united into a body (olitic! and thereby are a (eo(le in the other signification! and their wills #irtually in the so#ereign! there the rights and demands of the (articulars do cease- and he or they that ha#e the so#ereign (ower! doth for them all demand and #indicate under the name of his! that which before they called in the (lural! theirs, 18, e ha#e seen how (articular men enter into sub%ection! by transferring their rights- it followeth to consider how such sub%ection may be discharged, /nd first! if he or they ha#e the so#ereign (ower! shall relin5uish the same #oluntarily! there is no doubt but e#ery man is again at liberty! to obey or notli+ewise if he or they retaining the so#ereignty o#er the rest! do ne#ertheless e3em(t some one or more from, their sub%ection! e#ery man so e3em(ted is discharged, *or he or they to whom any man is obliged! hath the (ower to release him, 19, /nd here it is to be understood0 that when he or they that ha#e the so#ereign (ower! gi#e such e3em(tion or (ri#ilege to a sub%ect! as is not se(arable from the so#ereignty! and ne#ertheless directly retain the so#ereign (ower! not +nowing the conse5uence of the (ri#ilege they grant! the (erson or (ersons e3em(ted or (ri#ileged are not thereby released, *or in contradictory significations of the will 1Part 4, cha(, E444! sect, @2! that which is directly signified! is to be understood for the will! before that which is drawn from it by conse5uence, 14, /lso e3ile (er(etual! is a release of sub%ection! forasmuch as being out of the (rotection of the so#ereignty that e3(elled him! he hath no means of subsisting but from himself,
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Now e#ery man may lawfully defend himself! that hath no other defence- else there had been no necessity that any man should enter into #oluntary sub%ection! as they do in commonwealths, 1<, Li+ewise a man is released of his sub%ection by con5uestfor when it cometh to (ass! that the (ower of a commonwealth is o#erthrown! and any (articular man! thereby lying under the sword of his enemy yieldeth himself ca(ti#e! he is thereby bound to ser#e him that ta+eth him! and conse5uently discharged of his obligation to the former, *or no man can ser#e two masters, 16, Lastly! ignorance of the succession dischargeth obedience- for no man can be understood to be obliged to obey he +noweth not whom, 'ha(ter 88 :f the Power of $asters 1, Ha#ing set forth! in the two (receding cha(ters! the nature of a commonwealth instituti#e! by the consent of many men together- 4 come now to s(ea+ of dominion! or a body (olitic by ac5uisition! which is commonly called a (atrimonial +ingdom, .ut before 4 enter thereinto0 it is necessary to ma+e +nown! u(on what title one man may ac5uire right! that is to say! (ro(erty or dominion! o#er the (erson of another, *or when one man hath dominion o#er another! there is a little +ingdom- and to be a +ing by ac5uisition! is nothing else! but to ha#e ac5uired a right or dominion o#er many, 8, 'onsidering men therefore again in the state of nature! without co#enants or sub%ection one to another! as if they were but e#en now all at once created male and female- there be three titles only! by which one man may ha#e right and dominion o#er another- whereof two may ta+e (lace (resently! and those are0 #oluntary offer of sub%ection! and yielding by com(ulsion- the third is to ta+e (lace! u(on the su((osition of children begotten amongst them, 'oncerning the first of these three titles! it is handled before in the two last cha(ters- for from thence cometh the right of so#ereigns o#er their sub%ects in a commonwealth instituti#e, 'oncerning the second title 1which is when a man submitteth to an assailant for fear of death2! thereby accrueth a right of dominion, *or where e#ery man 1as it ha((eneth in this case2 hath right to all things! there needs no more for the ma+ing of the said right effectual! but a co#enant from him that is o#ercome! not to resist him that o#ercometh, /nd thus cometh the #ictor to ha#e a right of absolute dominion o#er the con5uered, .y which there is (resently constituted a little body (olitic! which consisteth of two (ersons! the one so#ereign! which is called the $/7tER! or lord- the other sub%ect! which is called the 7ERF/NT, /nd when a man hath ac5uired right o#er a number of ser#ants so considerable! as they cannot by their neighbours be securely in#aded! this body (olitic is a +ingdom des(otical, 9, /nd it is to be understood0 that when a ser#ant ta+en in the wars! is +e(t bound in natural bonds! as chains! and the li+e! or in (rison- there hath (assed no co#enant from the
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ser#ant to his master- for those natural bonds ha#e no need of strengthening by the #erbal bonds of co#enant- and they shew the ser#ant is not trusted, .ut co#enant 1Part 4, cha(, EF! sect, @2 su((oseth trust, There remaineth therefore in the ser#ant thus +e(t bound! or in (rison! a right of deli#ering himself! if he can! by what means soe#er, This +ind of ser#ant is that which ordinarily and without (assion! is called a 7L/FE, The Romans had no such distinct name! but com(rehended all under the name of ser#us- whereof such as they lo#ed and durst trust! were suffered to go at liberty! and admitted to (laces of office! both near to their (ersons! and in their affairs abroad- the rest were +e(t chained! or otherwise restrained with natural im(ediments to their resistance, /nd as it was amongst the Romans! so it was amongst other nations- the former sort ha#ing no other bond but a su((osed co#enant! without which the master had no reason to trust them- the latter being without co#enant! and no otherwise tied to obedience! but by chains! or other li+e forcible custody, 4, / master therefore is to be su((osed to ha#e no less right o#er those! whose bodies he lea#eth at liberty! than o#er those he +ee(eth in bonds and im(risonment- and hath absolute dominion o#er both- and may say of his ser#ant! that he is his! as he may of any other thing, /nd whatsoe#er the ser#ant had! and might call his! is now the master&s- for he that dis(oseth of the (erson! dis(oseth of all the (erson could dis(ose of- insomuch as though there be meum and tuum amongst ser#ants distinct from one another by the dis(ensation! and for the benefit of their masteryet there is no meum and tuum belonging to any of them against the master himself! whom they are not to resist! but to obey all his commands as law, <, /nd seeing both the ser#ant and all that is committed to him! is the (ro(erty of the master! and e#ery man may dis(ose of his own! and transfer the same at his (leasure! the master may therefore alienate his dominion o#er them!, or gi#e the same! by his last will! to whom he list, 6, /nd if it ha((en! that the master himself by ca(ti#ity or #oluntary sub%ection! become ser#ant to another! then is that other master (aramount- and those ser#ants of him that becometh ser#ant! are no further obliged! than their master (aramount shall thin+ good- forasmuch as he dis(osing of the master subordinate! dis(oseth of all he hath! and conse5uently of his ser#ants- so that the restriction of absolute (ower in masters (roceedeth not from the law of nature! but from the (olitical law of him that is their master su(reme or so#ereign, =, 7er#ants immediate to the su(reme master! are discharged of their ser#itude or sub%ection in the same manner that sub%ects are released of their allegiance in a commonwealth instituti#e, /s first! by release- for he that ca(ti#eth, 1which is done by acce(ting what the ca(ti#e transferreth to him2 setteth again at liberty! by transferring bac+ the same, /nd this +ind of release is called $/ND$4774:N, 7econdly! by e3ile- for that is no more but manumission gi#en to a ser#ant! not in the way of benefit! but (unishment, Thirdly! by new ca(ti#ity! where the ser#ant ha#ing done his endea#our to defend himself! hath thereby (erformed his co#enant to his former master! and for the safety
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of his life! entering into new co#enant with the con5ueror! is bound to do his best endea#our to +ee( that li+ewise, *ourthly! ignorance of who is successor to his deceased master! dischargeth him of obedience- for no co#enant holdeth longer than a man +noweth to whom he is to (erform it, /nd lastly! that ser#ant that is no longer trusted! but committed to his chains and custody! is thereby discharged of the obligation in foro interno! and therefore if he can get loose! may lawfully go his way, >, .ut ser#ants subordinate! though manumitted by their immediate lord! are not thereby discharged of sub%ection to their lord (aramount- for the immediate master hath no (ro(erty in them! ha#ing transferred his right before to another! namely to his own and su(reme master, Nor if the chief lord should manumit his immediate ser#ant! doth he thereby release the ser#ants of their obligation to him that is so manumitted, *or by this manumission! he reco#ereth again the absolute dominion he had o#er them before, *or after a release 1which is the discharge of a co#enant2 the right standeth as it did before the co#enant was made, @, This right of con5uest! as it ma+eth one man master o#er another! so also ma+eth it a man to be master of the irrational creatures, *or if a man in the state of nature! be in hostility with men! and thereby ha#e lawful title to subdue or +ill! according as his own conscience and discretion shall suggest unto him for his safety and benefit- much more may he do the same to beasts- that is to say! sa#e and (reser#e for his own ser#ice! according to his discretion! such as are of nature a(t to obey! and commodious for use- and to +ill and destroy! with (er(etual war! all other! as fierce! and noisome to him, /nd this dominion is therefore of the law of nature! and not of the di#ine law (ositi#e, *or if there had been no such right before the re#ealing of "od&s will in the 7cri(ture! then should no man! to whom the 7cri(ture hath not come! ha#e right to ma+e use of those creatures! either for his food or sustenance, /nd it were a hard condition of man+ind! that a fierce and sa#age beast should with more right +ill a man! than the man a beast, 'ha(ter 89 :f the Power of *athers! and of Patrimonial Bingdom 1, :f three ways by which a man becometh sub%ect to another! mentioned section 8, cha(, ult,! namely #oluntary offer! ca(ti#ity and birth! the former two ha#e been s(o+en of! under the name of sub%ects and ser#ants, 4n the ne3t (lace! we are to set down the third way of sub%ection! under the name of childrenand by what title one man cometh to ha#e (ro(riety in a child! that (roceedeth from the common generation of two! 1#iA,2 of male and female, /nd considering men again dissol#ed from all co#enants one with another! and that 1Part 4, cha(, EF44! sect, 82 e#ery man by the law of nature! hath right or (ro(riety to his own body! the child ought rather to be the (ro(riety of the mother 1of whose body it is (art! till the time of se(aration2 than of the father, *or the understanding therefore of the right
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that a man or woman hath to his or their child! two things are to be considered0 first what title the mother or any other originally hath to a child new born- secondly! how the father! or any other man! (retendeth by the mother, 8, *or the first0 they that ha#e written of this sub%ect ha#e made generation to be a title of dominion o#er (ersons! as well as the consent of the (ersons themsel#es, /nd because generation gi#eth title to two! namely! father and mother! whereas dominion is indi#isible! they therefore ascribe dominion o#er the child to the father only! ob (raestantiam se3us- but they shew not! neither can 4 find out by what coherence! either generation inferreth dominion! or ad#antage of so much strength! which! for the most (art! a man hath more than a woman! should generally and uni#ersally entitle the father to a (ro(riety in the child! and ta+e it away from the mother, 9, The title to dominion o#er a child! (roceedeth not from the generation! but from the (reser#ation of it- and therefore in the estate of nature! the mother in whose (ower it is to sa#e or destroy it! hath right thereto by that (ower! according to that which hath been said Part 4, cha(, E4F! sect, 19, /nd if the mother shall thin+ fit to abandon! or e3(ose her child to death! whatsoe#er man or woman shall find the child so e3(osed! shall ha#e the same right which the mother had before- and for the same reason! namely for the (ower not of generating! but (reser#ing, /nd though the child thus (reser#ed! do in time ac5uire strength! whereby he might (retend e5uality with him or her that hath (reser#ed him! yet shall that (retence be thought unreasonable! both because his strength was the gift of him! against whom he (retendeth- and also because it is to be (resumed! that he which gi#eth sustenance to another! whereby to strengthen him! hath recei#ed a (romise of obedience in consideration thereof, *or else it would be wisdom in men! rather to let their children (erish! while they are infants! than to li#e in their danger or sub%ection! when they are grown, 4, *or the (retences which a man may ha#e to dominion o#er a child by the right of the mother! they be of di#ers +inds, :ne by the absolute sub%ection of the mother0 another! by some (articular co#enant from her! which is less than a co#enant of such sub%ection, .y absolute sub%ection! the master of the mother! hath right to her child! according to section 6! cha(, EE44 whether he be the father thereof! or not, /nd thus the children of the ser#ant are the goods of the master in (er(etuum, <, :f co#enants that amount not to sub%ection between a man and woman! there be some which are made for a time and some for life- and where they are for a time! they are co#enants of cohabitation! or else of co(ulation only, /nd in this latter case! the children (ass by co#enants (articular, /nd thus in the co(ulation of the /maAons with their neighbours! the fathers by co#enant had the male children only! the mothers retaining the females, 6, /nd co#enants of cohabitation are either for society of bed! or for society of all things- if for society of bed only! then is the woman called a ':N'D.4NE, /nd here also the child shall be his or hers! as they shall agree (articularly by
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co#enant- for although for the most (art a concubine is su((osed to yield u( the right of her children to the father! yet doth not concubinate enforce so much, =, .ut if the co#enants of cohabitation be for society of all things! it is necessary that but one of them go#ern and dis(ose of all that is common to them both- without which 1as hath been often said before2 society cannot last, /nd therefore the man! to whom for the most (art the woman yieldeth the go#ernment! hath for the most (art also the sole right and dominion o#er the children, /nd the man is called the HD7./N)! and the woman the 4*E- but because sometimes the go#ernment may belong to the wife only! sometimes also the dominion o#er the children shall be in her only- as in the case of a so#ereign 5ueen! there is no reason that her marriage should ta+e from her the dominion o#er her children, >, 'hildren therefore! whether they be brought u( and (reser#ed by the father! or by the mother! or by whomsoe#er! are in most absolute sub%ection to him or her! that so bringeth them u(! or (reser#eth them, /nd they may alienate them! that is! assign his or her dominion! by selling or gi#ing them in ado(tion or ser#itude to others- or may (awn them for hostages! +ill them for rebellion! or sacrifice them for (eace! by the law of nature! when he or she! in his or her conscience! thin+ it to be necessary, @, The sub%ection of them who institute a commonwealth amongst themsel#es! is no less absolute! than the sub%ection of ser#ants, /nd therein they are in e5ual estate- but the ho(e of those is greater than the ho(e of these, *or he that sub%ecteth himself uncom(elled! thin+eth there is reason he should be better used! than he that doth it u(on com(ulsion- and coming in freely! calleth himself! though in sub%ection! a *REE$/N- whereby it a((eareth! that liberty is not any e3em(tion from sub%ection and obedience to the so#ereign (ower! but a state of better ho(e than theirs! that ha#e been sub%ected by force and con5uest, /nd this was the reason! that the name that signifieth children! in the Latin tongue is liberi! which also signifieth freemen, /nd yet in Rome! nothing at that time was so obno3ious to the (ower of others! as children in the family of their fathers, *or both the state had (ower o#er their life without consent of their fathersand the father might +ill his son by his own authority! without any warrant from the state, *reedom therefore in commonwealths is nothing but the honour of e5uality of fa#our with other sub%ects! and ser#itude the estate of the rest, / freeman therefore may e3(ect em(loyments of honour! rather than a ser#ant, /nd this is all that can be understood by the liberty of the sub%ect, *or in all other senses! liberty is the state of him that is not sub%ect, 10, Now when a father that hath children! hath ser#ants also! the children 1not by the right of the child! but by the natural indulgence of the (arents2 are such freemen, /nd the whole consisting of the father or mother! or both! and of the children! and of the ser#ants! is called a */$4L6- wherein the father or master of the family is so#ereign of the same- and the rest 1both children and ser#ants e5ually2 sub%ects, The same family if it
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grow by multi(lication of children! either by generation or ado(tion- or of ser#ants! either by generation! con5uest! or #oluntary submission! to be so great and numerous! as in (robability it may (rotect itself! then is that family called a P/TR4$:N4/L B4N"):$! or monarchy by ac5uisition- wherein the so#ereignty is in one man! as it is in a monarch made by (olitical institution, 7o that whatsoe#er rights be in the one! the same also be in the other, /nd therefore 4 shall no more s(ea+ of them! as distinct! but as of monarchy in general, 11, Ha#ing shewed by what right the se#eral sorts of commonwealths! democracy! aristocracy! and monarchy! are erectedit followeth to shew by what right they are continued, The right by which they are continued! is called the right of succession to the so#ereign (ower- whereof there is nothing to be said in a democracy! because the so#ereign dieth not! as long as there be sub%ects ali#e- nor in an aristocracy! because it cannot easily fall out! that the o(timates should e#ery one fail at once- and if it should so fall out! there is no 5uestion! but the commonwealth is thereby dissol#ed, 4t is therefore in a monarchy only! that there can ha((en a 5uestion concerning the succession, /nd first0 forasmuch as a monarch! which is absolute so#ereign! hath the dominion in his own right! he may dis(ose thereof at his own will, 4f therefore! by his last will! he shall name his successor! the right (asseth by that will, 18, Nor if the monarch die without any will concerning the succession declared! is it therefore to be (resumed that it was his will! his sub%ects which are to him as his children and ser#ants! should return again to the state of anarchy! that is! to war and hostility- for that were e3(ressly against the law of nature! which commandeth to (rocure (eace! and to maintain the same, 4t is therefore to be con%ectured with reason! that it was his intention to be5ueath them (eace! that is to say! a (ower coerci#e! whereby to +ee( them from sedition amongst themsel#esand rather in the form of monarchy! than any other go#ernmentforasmuch as he! by the e3ercise thereof in his own (erson! hath declared that he a((ro#eth of the same, 19, *urther! it is to be su((osed his intention was! that his own children should be (referred in the succession! 1when nothing to the contrary is e3(ressly declared2 before any other, *or men naturally see+ their own honour! and that consisteth in the honour of their children after them, 14, /gain! seeing e#ery monarch is su((osed to desire to continue the go#ernment in his successors! as long as he may- and that generally men are endued with greater (arts of wisdom and courage! by which all monarchies are +e(t from dissolution! than women are- it is to be (resumed! where no e3(ress will is e3tant to the contrary! he (referreth his male children before the female, Not but that women may go#ern! and ha#e in di#ers ages and (laces go#erned wisely! but are not so a(t thereto in general as men, 1<, .ecause the so#ereign (ower is indi#isible! it cannot be su((osed! that he intended the same should be di#ided! but that it should descend entirely u(on one of them! which is to be (resumed should be the eldest! assigned thereto by the lot of
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nature- because he a((ointed no other lot for the decision thereof, .esides! what difference of ability soe#er there may be amongst the brethren! the odds shall be ad%udged to the elder! because no sub%ect hath authority otherwise to %udge thereof, 16, /nd for want of issue in the (ossessor! the brother shall be the (resumed successor, *or by the %udgment of nature! ne3t in blood is ne3t, in lo#e- and ne3t in lo#e is ne3t to (referment, 1=, /nd as the succession followeth the first monarch! so also it followeth him or her that is in (ossession- and conse5uently! the children of him in (ossession shall be (referred before the children of his father or (redecessor, 'ha(ter 84 The 4ncommodities of 7e#eral 7orts of "o#ernment 'om(ared 1, Ha#ing set forth the nature of a (erson (olitic! and the three sorts thereof! democracy! aristocracy! and monarchy- in this cha(ter shall be declared! the con#eniences! and incon#eniences! that arise from the same! both in general! and of the said se#eral sorts in (articular, /nd first! seeing a body (olitic is erected only for the ruling and go#erning of (articular men! the benefit and damage thereof consisteth in the benefit or damage of being ruled, The benefit is that for which a body (olitic was instituted! namely! the (eace and (reser#ation of e#ery (articular man! than which it is not (ossible there can be a greater! as hath been touched before! Part 4, cha(, E4F! sect, 18, /nd this benefit e3tendeth e5ually both to the so#ereign! and to the sub%ects, *or he or they that ha#e the so#ereign (ower! ha#e but the defence of their (ersons! by the assistance of the (articulars- and e#ery (articular man hath his defence by their union in the so#ereign, /s for other benefits which (ertain not to their safety and sufficiency! but to their well and delightful being! such as are su(erfluous riches! they so belong to the so#ereign! as they must also be in the sub%ectand so to the sub%ect! as they must also be in the so#ereign, *or the riches and treasure of the so#ereign! is the dominion he hath o#er the riches of his sub%ects, 4f therefore the so#ereign (ro#ide not so as that (articular men may ha#e means! both to (reser#e themsel#es! and also to (reser#e the (ublic- the common or so#ereign treasure can be none, /nd on the other side! if it were not for a common and (ublic treasure belonging to the so#ereign (ower! men&s (ri#ate riches would sooner ser#e to (ut them into confusion and war! than to secure or maintain them, 4nsomuch! as the (rofit of the so#ereign and sub%ect goeth always together, That distinction therefore of go#ernment! that there is one go#ernment for the good of him that go#erneth! and another for the good of them that be go#erned- whereof the former is des(otical 1that is lordly2- the other! a go#ernment of freemen! is not right- no more is the o(inion of them that hold it to be no city! which consisteth of a master and his ser#ants, They might as well say! it were no city! that consisted in a father and his own issue! how numerous soe#er they were, *or to a master that hath no children! the ser#ants ha#e in them all those
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res(ects! for which men lo#e their children- for they are his strength and his honour- and his (ower is no greater o#er them! than o#er his children, 8, The incon#enience arising from go#ernment in general to him that go#erneth! consisteth (artly in the continual care and trouble about the business of other men! that are his sub%ectsand (artly! in the danger of his (erson, *or the head always is that (art! not only where the care resideth! but also against which the stro+e of an enemy most commonly is directed, To balance this incommodity! the so#ereignty! together with the necessity of this care and danger! com(rehendeth so much honour! riches! and means whereby to delight the mind! as no (ri#ate man&s wealth can attain unto, The incon#eniences of go#ernment in general to a sub%ect are none at all! if well considered- but in a((earance there be two things that may trouble his mind! or two general grie#ances, The one is loss of liberty- the other the uncertainty of meum and tuum, *or the first! it consisteth in this! that a sub%ect may no more go#ern his own actions according to his own discretion and %udgment! or! 1which is all one2 conscience! as the (resent occasions from time to time shall dictate to him- but must be tied to do according to that will only! which once for all he had long ago laid u(! and in#ol#ed in the wills of the ma%or (art of an assembly! or in the will of some one man, .ut this is really no incon#enience, *or! as it hath been shewed before! it is the only means by which we ha#e any (ossibility of (reser#ing oursel#es- for if e#ery man were allowed this liberty of following his conscience! in such difference of consciences! they would not li#e together in (eace an hour, .ut it a((eareth a great incon#enience to e#ery man in (articular! to be debarred of this liberty! because e#ery one a(art considereth it as in himself! and not as in the rest- by which means! liberty a((eareth in the li+eness of rule and go#ernment o#er others- for where one man is at liberty! and the rest bound! there that one hath go#ernment, hich honour! he that understandeth not so much! demanding by the name sim(ly of liberty! thin+eth it a great grie#ance and in%ury to be denied it, *or the second grie#ance concerning meum and tuum! it is also none! but in a((earance only, 4t consisteth in this! that the so#ereign (ower ta+eth from him that which he used to en%oy! +nowing no other (ro(riety! but use and custom, .ut without such so#ereign (ower! the right of men is not (ro(riety to any thing! but a community- no better than to ha#e no right at all! as hath been shewed Part 4, cha(, E4F! sect, 10, Pro(riety therefore being deri#ed from the so#ereign (ower! is not to be (retended against the same- es(ecially when by it e#ery sub%ect hath his (ro(riety against e#ery other sub%ect! which when so#ereignty ceaseth! he hath not! because in that case they return to war amongst themsel#es, Those le#ies therefore which are made u(on men&s estates! by the so#ereign authority! are no more but the (rice of that (eace and defence which the so#ereignty maintaineth for them, 4f this were not so! no money nor forces for the wars or any other (ublic occasion! could %ustly be le#ied in the world- for neither +ing! nor democracy! nor aristocracy! nor the estates of any land! could do it! if the so#ereignty could not,
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*or in all those cases! it is le#ied by #irtue of the so#ereignty- nay more! by the three estates here! the land of one man may be transferred to another! without crime of him from whom it was ta+en! and without (retence of (ublic benefit- as hath been done, /nd this without in%ury! because done by the so#ereign (ower- for the (ower whereby it is done! is no less than so#ereign! and cannot be greater, Therefore this grie#ance for meum and tuum is not real- unless more be e3acted than is necessary, .ut it seemeth a grie#ance! because to them that either +now not the right of so#ereignty! or to whom that right belongeth! it seemeth an in%ury- and in%ury! how light soe#er the damage! is always grie#ous! as (utting us in mind of our disability to hel( oursel#es- and into en#y of the (ower to do us wrong, 9, Ha#ing s(o+en of the incon#eniences of the sub%ect! by go#ernment in general! let us consider the same in the three se#eral sorts thereof! namely! democracy! aristocracy! and monarchy- whereof the two former are in effect but one, *or 1as 4 ha#e shewed before2 democracy is but the go#ernment of a few orators, The com(arison therefore will be between monarchy and aristocracy- and to omit that the world! as it was created! so also it is go#erned by one "od /lmighty- and that all the ancients ha#e (referred monarchy before other go#ernments! both in o(inion! because they feigned a monarchical go#ernment amongst their gods- and also by their custom! for that in the most ancient times all (eo(le were so go#erned- and that (aternal go#ernment! which is monarchy! was instituted in the beginning from the creation- and that other go#ernments ha#e (roceeded from the dissolution thereof! caused by the rebellious nature of man+ind! and be but (ieces of bro+en monarchies cemented by human wit- 4 will insist only in this com(arison u(on the incon#eniences that may ha((en to the sub%ects! in conse5uence to each of these go#ernments, 4, /nd first it seemeth incon#enient! there should be committed so great a (ower to one man! as that it might be lawful to no other man or men to resist the same- and some thin+ it incon#enient eo nomine! because he hath the (ower, .ut this reason we may not by any means admit! for it ma+eth it incon#enient to be ruled by /lmighty "od! who without 5uestion hath more (ower o#er e#ery man! than can be conferred u(on any monarch, This incon#enience therefore must be deri#ed! not from the (ower! but from the affections and (assions which reign in e#ery one! as well monarch as sub%ect- by which the monarch may be swayed to use that (ower amiss, /nd because an aristocracy consisteth of men! if the (assions of many men be more #iolent when they are assembled together! than the (assions of one man alone! it will follow! that the incon#enience arising from (assion will be greater in an aristocracy! than a monarchy, .ut there is no doubt! when things are debated in great assemblies! but e#ery man deli#ering his o(inion at large! without interru(tion! endea#oureth to ma+e whatsoe#er he is to set forth for good! better- and what he would ha#e a((rehended as e#il! worse! as much as is (ossible- to the end his counsel may ta+e (lace- which counsel also is ne#er without aim at his own
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benefit! or honour0 e#ery man&s end being some good to himself, Now this cannot be done without wor+ing u(on the (assions of the rest, /nd thus the (assions of those that are singly moderate! are altogether #ehement- e#en as a great many coals! though but warm asunder! being (ut together inflame one another, <, /nother incon#enience of monarchy is this0 that the monarch! besides the riches necessary for the defence of the commonwealth! may ta+e so much more from the sub%ects! as may enrich his children! +indred and fa#ourites! to what degree he (leaseth- which though it be indeed an incon#enience! if he should so do- yet is the same both greater in an aristocracy! and also more li+ely to come to (ass- for there not one only! but many ha#e children! +indred! and friends to raise- and in that (oint they are as twenty monarchs for one! and li+ely to set forward one another&s designs mutually! to the o((ression of all the rest, The same also ha((eneth in a democracy! if they all do agree- otherwise they bring in a worse incon#enience! 1#iA,2 sedition, 6, /nother incon#enience of monarchy! is the (ower of dis(ensing with the e3ecution of %ustice- whereby the family and friends of the monarch! may with im(unity! commit outrages u(on the (eo(le! or o((ress them with e3tortion, .ut in aristocracies! not only one! but many ha#e (ower of ta+ing men out of the hands of %ustice- and no man is willing his +indred or friends should be (unished according to their demerits, /nd therefore they understand amongst themsel#es without farther s(ea+ing! as a tacit co#enant0 Hodie mihi! cras tibi, =, /nother incon#enience of monarchy! is the (ower of altering laws- concerning which! it is necessary that such a (ower be! that the laws may be altered! according as men&s manners change! or as the con%uncture of all circumstances within and without the commonwealth shall re5uire- the change of law being then incon#enient! when it (roceedeth from the change! not of the occasion! but of the minds of him or them! by whose authority the laws are made, Now it is manifest enough of itself! that the mind of one man is not so #ariable in that (oint! as are the decrees of an assembly, *or not only they ha#e all their natural changes! but the change of any one man be enough! with elo5uence and re(utation! or by solicitation and faction! to ma+e that law toHday! which another by the #ery same means! shall abrogate toHmorrow, >, Lastly! the greatest incon#enience that can ha((en to a commonwealth! is the a(titude to dissol#e into ci#il war, and to this are monarchies much less sub%ect! than any other go#ernments, *or where the union! or band of a commonwealth! is one man! there is no distraction- whereas in assemblies! those that are of different o(inions! and gi#e different counsel! are a(t to fall out amongst themsel#es! and to cross the designs of commonwealth for one another&s sa+e0 and when they cannot ha#e the honour of ma+ing good their own de#ices! they yet see+ the honour to ma+e the counsels of their ad#ersaries to (ro#e #ain, /nd in this contention! when the o((osite factions ha((en to be anything e5ual in strength! they (resently fall to war, herein necessity teacheth both sides! that an absolute monarch! 1#iA,2 a
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general! is necessary both for their defence against one another! and also for the (eace of each faction within itself, .ut this a(titude to dissolution! is to be understood for an incon#enience in such aristocracies only where the affairs of state are debated in great and numerous assemblies! as they were anciently in /thens! and in Rome- and not in such as do nothing else in great assemblies! but choose magistrates and counsellors! and commit the handling of state affairs to a few- such as is the aristocracy of Fenice at this day, *or these are no more a(t to dissol#e from this occasion! than monarchies! the counsel of state being both in the one and the other ali+e, 'ha(ter 8< That 7ub%ects are not .ound to *ollow Their Pri#ate ?udgments in 'ontro#ersies of Religion 1, Ha#ing showed that in all commonwealths whatsoe#er! the necessity of (eace and go#ernment re5uireth! that there be e3istent some (ower! either in one man! or in one assembly of men! by the name of the (ower so#ereign! to which it is not lawful for any member of the same commonwealth to disobey- there occurreth now a difficulty! which! if it be not remo#ed! ma+eth it unlawful for any man, to (rocure his own (eace and (reser#ation! because it ma+eth it unlawful for a man to (ut himself under the command of such absolute so#ereignty as is re5uired thereto, /nd the difficulty is this0 we ha#e amongst us the ord of "od for the rule of our actions- now if we shall sub%ect oursel#es to men also! obliging oursel#es to do such actions as shall be by them commanded- when the commands of "od and man shall differ! we are to obey "od! rather than man0 and conse5uently the co#enant of general obedience to man is unlawful, 8, This difficulty hath not been of #ery great, anti5uity in the world, There was no such dilemma amongst the ?ews- for their ci#il law! and di#ine law! was one and the same law of $oses0 the inter(reters whereof were the (riests! whose (ower was subordinate to the (ower of the +ing- as was the (owerHof /aron to the (ower of $oses, Nor is it a contro#ersy that was e#er ta+en notice of amongst the "recians! Romans! or other "entilesfor amongst these their se#er/l ci#il laws were the rules whereby not only righteousness and #irtue! but also religion and the e3ternal worshi( of "od! was ordered and a((ro#ed- that being esteemed the true worshi( of "od! which was +ata ta nomima! 1i,e,2 according to the laws ci#il, /lso those 'hristians that dwell under the tem(oral dominion of the bisho( of Rome! are free from this 5uestion- for that they allow unto him 1their so#ereign2 to inter(ret the 7cri(tures! which are the law of "od! as he in his own %udgment shall thin+ right, This difficulty therefore remaineth amongst! and troubleth those 'hristians only! to whom it is allowed to ta+e for the sense of the 7cri(ture that which they ma+e thereof! either by their own (ri#ate inter(retation! or by the inter(retation of such as are not called thereunto by (ublic authority0 they that follow their own
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inter(retation! continually demanding liberty of conscience- and those that follow the inter(retation of others not ordained thereunto by the so#ereign of the commonwealth! re5uiring a (ower in matters of religion either abo#e the (ower ci#il! or at least not de(ending on it, 9, To ta+e away this scru(le of conscience concerning obedience to human laws! amongst those that inter(ret to themsel#es the word of "od in the Holy 7cri(tures- 4 (ro(ound to their consideration! first0 that no human law is intended to oblige the, conscience of a man! but the actions only, *or seeing no man 1but "od alone2 +noweth the heart or conscience of a man! unless it brea+ out into action! either of the tongue! or other (art of the body- the law made thereu(on would be of none effect! because no man is able to discern! but by word or :ther action whether such law be +e(t or bro+en, Nor did the a(ostles themsel#es (retend dominion o#er men&s consciences concerning the faith they (reached! but only (ersuasion and instruction, /nd therefore 7t, Paul saith 8 'or, 1! 84! writing to the 'orinthians! concerning their contro#ersies! that he and the rest of the a(ostles! had no dominion o#er their faith! but were hel(ers of their %oy, 4, /nd for the actions of men which (roceed from their consciences! the regulating of which actions is the only means of (eace- if they might not stand with %ustice! it were im(ossible that %ustice towards "od! and (eace amongst men should stand together in that religion that teacheth us! that %ustice and (eace should +iss each other! and in which we ha#e so many (rece(ts of absolute obedience to human authority&, as $atth, 89! 8! 9! we ha#e this (rece(t0 The 7cribes and Pharisees sit in $oses& seat- all therefore whatsoe#er they bid you obser#e! that obser#e and do, /nd yet were the 7cribes and Pharisees not (riests! but men of tem(oral authority, /gain Lu+e 1 1! 1=0 E#ery +ingdom di#ided against itself shall be desolate- and is not that +ingdom di#ided against itself! where the actions of e#ery one shall be ruled by his (ri#ate o(inion! or conscience- and yet those actions such as gi#e occasion of offence and breach of (eaceC /gain Rom, 19! <! therefore you must be sub%ect! not because of wrath only! but also for conscience sa+e, Titus 9! 10 Put them in remembrance! that they be sub%ect to (rinci(alities and (owers, 1 Peter 8! 9! 19H140 7ubmit yoursel#es unto all manner of ordinance of man! for the Lord&s sa+e! whether it be unto the +ing! as unto the su(erior! or unto go#ernors! as unto them that are sent of him for the (unishment of e#ilHdoers, ?ude! #erse >0 These dreamers also that defile the flesh! and des(ise go#ernment! and s(ea+ e#il of them that are in authority, /nd forasmuch as all sub%ects in commonwealths are in the nature of children and ser#ants! that which is a command to them! is a command to all sub%ects, .ut to these 7t, Paul saith! 'olos, 9! 80! 880 'hildren! obey your (arents in all things- ser#ants! be obedient to your masters according to the flesh! in all things, /nd #erse 890 )o it heartily as to the Lord! These (laces considered! it seemeth strange to me! that any man in a 'hristian commonwealth should ha#e any occasion to deny his obedience to (ublic authority! u(on this ground! that it is better to obey "od
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than man, *or though 7t, Peter and the a(ostles did so answer the council of the ?ews that forbad them to (reach 'hrist! there a((eareth no reason that 'hristians should allege the same against their 'hristian go#ernors! that command to (reach 'hrist, To reconcile this seeming contradiction of sim(le obedience to "od and sim(le obedience to man! we are to consider a 'hristian sub%ect! as under a 'hristian so#ereign! or under an infidel, <, /nd under a 'hristian so#ereign we are to consider! what actions we are forbidden by "od /lmighty to obey them in! and what not, The actions we are forbidden to obey them in! are such only as im(ly a denial of that faith which is necessary to our sal#ation- for otherwise there can be no (retence of disobedience, *or why should a man incur the danger of a tem(oral death! by dis(leasing of his su(erior! if it were not for fear of eternal death hereafterC 4t must therefore be en5uired! what those (ro(ositions and articles they be! the belief whereof our 7a#iour or his a(ostles ha#e declared to be such! as without belie#ing them a man cannot be sa#ed- and then all other (oints that are now contro#erted! and ma+e distinction of sects! Pa(ists! Lutherans! 'al#inists!, /rminians! ;c,! as in old time the li+e made Paulists! /(ollonians! and 'e(hasians! must needs be such! as a man needeth not for the holding thereof deny obedience to his su(eriors, /nd for the (oints of faith necessary to sal#ation! 4 shall call them *DN)/$ENT/L! and e#ery other (oint a 7DPER7TRD'T4:N, 6, /nd without all contro#ersy! there is not any more necessary (oint to be belie#ed for man&s sal#ation than this! that ?esus is the $essiah! that is! the 'hrist- which (ro(osition is e3(licated in sundry sorts! but still the same in effect- as! that he is "od&s anointed- for that is signified by the word 'hrist- that he was the true and lawful +ing of 4srael! the son of )a#id- and 7a#iour of the world! the redeemer of 4srael- the sal#ation of "od- he that should come into the world! the son of "od! and 1which 4 desire by the way to ha#e noted! against the new sect of /rians2! the begotten 7on of "od! /cts 9! 19- Heb, 1! <- <! <0 the only begotten 7on of "od! ?ohn 1! 14! 1>- ?ohn 9! 16! 1>- 1 ?ohn 4! @0 that he was "od! ?ohn 1! 1- ?ohn 80! 8>0 that the fulness of the "odhead dwelt in him bodily, $oreo#er! the Holy :ne! the Holy :ne of "od! the forgi#er of sins! that he is risen from the dead0 these are e3(lications! and (arts of that general article! that ?esus is the 'hrist, This (oint therefore! and all the e3(lications thereof are fundamental- as also all such as be e#idently inferred from thence- as! belief in "od the *ather0 ?ohn 18! 440 He that belie#eth in me! belie#eth not in me! but in him that sent me- 4 ?ohn 8! 890 He that denieth the 7on! hath not the, *ather, belief in "od the Holy "host! of hom 'hrist saith! ?ohn 14! 860 .ut the 'omforter! which is the Holy "host! whom the *ather will send in my name- and ?ohn 1<! 860 .ut when the 'omforter shall come! whom 4 will send unto you from the *ather! e#en the 7(irit of truth0 belief of the 7cri(tures! by which we belie#e those (oints! and of the immortality of the soul! without which we cannot belie#e he is a 7a#iour, =, /nd as these are the fundamental (oints of faith! necessary to sal#ation- so also are they only necessary as matter
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of faith! and only essential to the calling of a 'hristian- as may a((ear by many e#ident (laces of Holy 7cri(ture0 ?ohn <! 9@0 7earch the 7cri(tures! for in them you thin+ to ha#e eternal life! and they are they which testify of me, Now! forasmuch as by the 7cri(ture is meant there the :ld Testament 1the New being then not written2! the belief of that which was written concerning our 7a#iour in the :ld Testament! was sufficient belief for the obtaining of eternal life- but in the :ld Testament! there is nothing re#ealed concerning 'hrist! but that he is the $essiah! and such things as belong to the fundamental (oints thereu(on de(ending- and therefore those fundamental (oints are sufficient to sal#ation! as of faith, /nd ?ohn 6! 8>! 8@0 Then said they unto him! hat shall we do! that we might wor+ the wor+s of "odC ?esus answered and said unto them! This is the wor+ of "od! that ye belie#e in him! whom he hath sent, 7o that the (oint to be belie#ed is! That ?esus 'hrist came forth from "od! and he which belie#eth it! wor+eth the wor+s of "od, ?ohn 11! 86! 8=0 hosoe#er li#eth and belie#eth in me! shall ne#er die, .elie#est thou thisC 7he said unto him! 6ea! Lord! 4 belie#e that thou art the 'hrist! the 7on of "od! which should come into the world, Hence followeth that he that belie#eth this shall ne#er die, ?ohn 80! 910 .ut these things are written! that ye might belie#e! that ?esus is the 'hrist! the 7on of "od- and that belie#ing! ye might ha#e life through his name, .y which a((eareth that this fundamental (oint is all that is re5uired! as of faith to our sal#ation, 1 ?ohn 4! 80 E#ery s(irit that confesseth that ?esus 'hrist is come in the flesh! is of "od0 1 ?ohn <! 10 hosoe#er belie#eth that ?esus is the 'hrist! is born of "od- and #erse 4- ho is it that o#ercometh the world! but he that belie#eth! that ?esus is the 7on of "odC and #erse 190 These things ha#e 4 written unto you that belie#e in the name of the 7on of "od! that ye may +now that ye ha#e eternal life, /cts >! 96! 9=0 The eunuch said! Here is water! what doth let me to be ba(tiAedC /nd Phili( said unto him! 4f thou belie#est with all thy heart! thou mayest, He answered and said! 4 belie#e that ?esus 'hrist is the 7on of "od, This (oint therefore was sufficient for the rece(tion of a man to ba(tism! that is to say to 'hristianity, /nd /cts 16! 900 The +ee(er of the (rison fell down before Paul and 7ilas! and said! 7irs! what shall 4 do to be sa#edC /nd they said! .elie#e in the Lord ?esus 'hrist, /nd the sermon of 7t, Peter! u(on the day of Pentecost! was nothing else but an e3(lication! that ?esus was the 'hrist, /nd when they that heard him! as+ed him! hat shall we doC he said unto them! /cts 8! 9>0 /mend your li#es! and be ba(tiAed e#ery one of you in the name of ?esus 'hrist! for the remission of sins, Rom, 10! @0 4f thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord ?esus! and shalt belie#e in thy heart! that "od raised him u( from the dead! thou shalt be sa#ed, To these (laces may be added0 that wheresoe#er our 7a#iour 'hrist doth a((ro#e the faith of any man! the (ro(osition belie#ed 1if the same be to be collected out of the te3t2 is always some of these fundamental (oints before mentioned! or something e5ui#alent- as the faith of the centurion! $atth, >! >0 7(ea+ the word only! and my ser#ant shall be healed- belie#ing he was omni(otent- the faith of the woman!
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which had an issue of blood! $atth, @! 810 4f 4 may but touch the hem of his garment- im(lying! he was the $essiah- the faith re5uired of the blind men! $atth, @! 8>0 .elie#e you that 4 am able to do thisC the faith of the 'anaanitish woman! $atth, 1<! 88! that he was the 7on of )a#id! im(lying the same, /nd so it is in e#ery one of those (laces 1none e3ce(ted2 where our 7a#iour commendeth any man&s faith- which because they are too many to insert here! 4 omit! and refer them to his in5uisition that is not otherwise satisfied, /nd as there is no other faith re5uired! so there was no other (reaching- for the (ro(hets of the :ld Testament (reached no other- and ?ohn the .a(tist (reached only the a((roach of the +ingdom of hea#en! that is to say! of the +ingdom of 'hrist, The same was the commission of the a(ostles! $atth, 10! =0 "o (reach! saying! The +ingdom of hea#en is at hand, /nd Paul (reaching amongst the ?ews! /cts 1>! <! did but testify unto the ?ews! that ?esus was the 'hrist, /nd the heathens too+ notice of 'hristians no otherwise! but by this name that they belie#ed ?esus to be a +ing! crying out! /cts 1=! 60 These are they that ha#e sub#erted the state of the world! and here they are! whom ?ason hath recei#ed, /nd these all do against the decrees of 'aesar! saying! that there is another +ing! one ?esus, /nd this was the sum of the (redictions! the sum of the confessions of them that belie#ed! as well men as de#ils, This was the title of his cross! ?esus of NaAareth! +ing of the ?ewsthis the occasion of the crown of thorns! sce(tre of reed! and a man to carry his cross-, this was the sub%ect of the Hosannasand this the title! by which our 7a#iour! commanding to ta+e another man&s goods! bade them say! The Lord hath need- and by this title he (urged the tem(le of the (rofane mar+et +e(t there, Nor did the a(ostles themsel#es belie#e any more than that ?esus was the $essiah nor understand so much- for they understood the $essiah to be no more than a tem(oral +ing! till after our 7a#iour&s resurrection, *arthermore! this (oint that 'hrist is the $essiah! is (articularly set forth for fundamental by that word! or some other e5ui#alent thereunto in di#ers (laces, D(on the confession of Peter! $atth, 16! 160 Thou art the 'hrist! the son of the li#ing "od! our 7a#iour! #erse 1>! saith! D(on this roc+ will 4 build my 'hurch, This (oint therefore is the whole foundation of 'hrist&s church, Rom, 1<! 80! 7t, Paul saith! 7o 4 enforced myself to (reach the "os(el! not where 'hrist was named! lest 4 should ha#e built u(on another man&s foundation, 4 'or, 9! 10! 7t, Paul when he had re(rehended the 'orinthians for their sects! and curious doctrines and 5uestions! he distinguisheth between fundamental (oints! and su(erstruction- and saith! 4 ha#e laid the foundation! and another buildeth thereu(on- but let e#ery man ta+e heed how he buildeth u(on it, *or other foundation can no man lay than that which is laid! which is ?esus the 'hrist, 'olos, 8! 60 /s you ha#e recei#ed 'hrist ?esus the Lord! so wal+ in him! rooted and builded in him! and stablished in the faith, >, Ha#ing showed this (ro(osition! ?esus is the 'hrist! to be the only fundamental and necessary (oint of faith- 4 shall set down a few (laces more to show that other (oints! though they may be true! are not so necessary to be belie#ed! as that a man may
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not be sa#ed though he belie#e them not, /nd first! if a man could not be sa#ed without assent of the heart to the truth of all contro#ersies! which are now in agitation concerning religion! 4 cannot see how any man li#ing can be sa#ed- so full of subtilty! and curious +nowledge it is! to be so great a di#ine, hy therefore should a man thin+ that our 7a#iour! who $atth, 11! 90! saith! that his yo+e is easy! should re5uire a matter of that difficultyC, or how are little children said to belie#eC $atth, 1>! 6- or how could the good thief be thought sufficiently catechised u(on the crossC or 7t, Paul so (erfect a 'hristian (resently u(on his con#ersionC and though there may be more obedience re5uired in him that hath the fundamental (oints e3(licated u(on him! than in him! that hath recei#ed the same but im(licitly- yet there is no more faith re5uired for sal#ation in one man than in another, *or if it be true! that whosoe#er shall confess with his mouth the Lord ?esus! and belie#e in his heart that "od raised him from the dead! shall be sa#ed- as it is! Rom, 10! @- and that whosoe#er belie#eth that ?esus is the 'hrist! is born of "od- the belief of that (oint is sufficient for the sal#ation of any man whosoe#er he be! forasmuch as concerneth faith, /nd seeing he that belie#eth not! that ?esus s the 'hrist! whatsoe#er he belie#e else! cannot be sa#ed- it followeth that there is no more re5uired to the sal#ation of one man! than of another! in matter of faith, @, /bout these (oints fundamental there is little contro#ersy amongst 'hristians! though otherwise of different sects amongst themsel#es, /nd therefore the contro#ersies of religion! are altogether about (oints unnecessary to sal#ation- whereof some are doctrines raised by human ratiocination! from the (oints fundamental, /s for e3am(le0 such doctrines as concern the manner of the real (resence! wherein are mingled tenets of faith concerning the omni(otency and di#inity of 'hrist! with the tenets of /ristotle and the Peri(atetics concerning substance and accidents! s(ecies! hy(ostasis and the subsistence and migration of accidents from (lace to (lace- words some of them without meaning! and nothing but the canting of "recian so(histers- and these doctrines are condemned e3(ressly 'ol, 8! >! where after 7t, Paul had e3horted them to be rooted and builded in 'hrist! he gi#eth them this further ca#eat0 .eware lest there be any man that s(oil you through (hiloso(hy and #ain deceits! through the traditions of men! according to the rudiments of the world, /nd such are such doctrines! as are raised out of such (laces of the 7cri(tures! as concern not the foundation! by men&s natural reason- as about the concatenation of causes! and the manner of "od&s (redestination- which are also mingled with (hiloso(hy- as if it were (ossible for men that +now not in what manner "od seeth! heareth! or s(ea+eth! to +now ne#ertheless the manner how he intendeth! and (redestinateth, / man therefore ought not to e3amine by reason any (oint! or draw any conse5uence out of 7cri(ture by reason! concerning the nature of "od /lmighty! of which reason is not ca(able, /nd therefore 7t, Paul! Rom, 18! 9! gi#eth a good rule! That no man (resume to understand abo#e that which is meet to understand! but that he understand according to sobriety&, which they do not who (resume out of 7cri(ture! by
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their own inter(retation to raise any doctrine to the understanding! concerning those things which are incom(rehensible, /nd this whole contro#ersy concerning the (redestination of "od! and the freewill of man! is not (eculiar to 'hristian men, *or we ha#e huge #olumes of this sub%ect! under the name of fate and contingency! dis(uted between the E(icureans and the 7toics! and conse5uently it is not matter of faith! but of (hiloso(hy- and so are also all the 5uestions concerning any other (oint! but the foundation before named- and "od recei#eth a man! which (art of the 5uestion soe#er he holdeth, 4t was a contro#ersy in 7t, Paul&s time! whether a 'hristian "entile might eat freely of any thing which the 'hristian ?ews did not- and the ?ew condemned the "entile that he did eat- to whom 7t, Paul saith! Rom, 14! 90 Let not him that eateth not! %udge him that eateth- for "od hath recei#ed him, /nd #erse 6! in the 5uestion concerning the obser#ing of holy days! wherein the "entiles and the ?ews differed! he saith unto them! He that obser#eth the day! obser#eth it to the Lord- and he that obser#eth not the day! obser#eth it not! to the Lord, /nd they who stri#e concerning such 5uestions! and di#ide themsel#es into sects! are not therefore to be accounted Aealous of the faith! their strife being but carnal! which is confirmed by 7t, Paul! 1 'or, 9! 40 hen one saith! 4 am of Paul! and another! 4 am of /(ollos! are ye not carnalC *or they are not 5uestions of faith! but of wit! wherein! carnally! men are inclined to see+ the mastery one of another, *or nothing is truly a (oint of faith! but that ?esus is the 'hrist- as 7t, Paul testifieth! 1 'or, 8! 80 *or 4 esteemed not the +nowledge of any thing amongst you! sa#e ?esus 'hrist! and him crucified, /nd 1 Tim, 6! 80! 810 : Timotheus! +ee( that which is committed unto thee! and a#oid (rofane and #ain babblings! and o((osition of science falsely so called! which while some (rofess! they ha#e erred! concerning the faith, 8 Tim, 8! 160 7tay (rofane and #ain babblings! ;c, Ferse 1=0 :f which sort is Hymenaeus and Philetus! which as concerning the truth! ha#e erred! saying that the resurrection is (ast already, hereby 7t, Paul sheweth that the raising of 5uestions by human ratiocination! though it be from the fundamental (oints themsel#es! is not only not necessary! but most dangerous to the faith of a 'hristian, :ut of all these (laces 4 draw only this conclusion in general! that neither the (oints now in contro#ersy amongst 'hristians of different sects! or in any (oint that e#er shall be in contro#ersy! e3ce(ting only those that are contained in this article! ?esus is the 'hrist! are necessary to sal#ation! as of faith- though as matter of obedience! a man may be bound not to o((ose the same, 10, /lthough to the obtaining of sal#ation! there be re5uired no more! as hath been already declared out of the Holy 7cri(tures! as matter of faith! but the belief of those fundamental articles before set forth- ne#ertheless! there are re5uired other things! as matter of obedience, *or! as it is not enough in tem(oral +ingdoms 1to a#oid the (unishment which +ings may inflict2 to ac+nowledge the right and title of the +ing! without obedience also to his laws- so also it is not enough to ac+nowledge our 7a#iour 'hrist to be the +ing of hea#en! in which
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consisteth 'hristian faith! unless also we endea#our to obey his laws! which are the laws of the +ingdom of hea#en! in which consisteth 'hristian obedience, /nd forasmuch as the laws of the +ingdom of hea#en! are the laws of nature! as hath been shewed Part 4, cha(, EF444! not only faith! but also the obser#ation of the law of nature! which is that for which a man is called %ust or righteous 1in that sense in which %ustice is ta+en not for the absence of all guilt! but for the endea#our! and constant will to do that which is %ust2! not only faith! but this %ustice! which also from the effect thereof! is called re(entance! and sometimes wor+s! is necessary to sal#ation, 7o that faith and %ustice do both concur thereto- and in the se#eral acce(tation of this word %ustification! are (ro(erly said both of them to %ustify- and the want of either of them is (ro(erly said to condemn, *or not only he that resisteth a +ing u(on doubt of his title! but also he that doth it u(on the inordinateness of his (assions! deser#eth (unishment, /nd when faith and wor+s are se(arated! not only the faith is called dead! without wor+s! but also wor+s are called dead wor+s! without faith, /nd therefore 7t, ?ames! cha(, 8! 1=! saith! E#en so the faith! if it ha#e no wor+s! is dead in itselfand #erse 860 *or as the body without the s(irit is dead! e#en so faith without wor+s is dead, /nd 7t, Paul! Heb, 6! 1! calleth wor+s without faith! dead wor+s! where he saith! Not laying again the foundation of re(entance from dead wor+s, /nd by these dead wor+s! is understood not the obedience and %ustice of the inward man! but the o(us :(eratum! or e3ternal action! (roceeding from fear of (unishment! or from #ain glory! and desire to be honoured of men- and these may be se(arated from faith! and conduce no way to a man&s %ustification, /nd for that cause 7t, Paul! Rom, 4! e3cludeth the righteousness of the law! from ha#ing (art in the %ustification of a sinner, *or by the law of $oses! which is a((lied to men&s actions! and re5uireth the absence of guilt! all men li#ing are liable to damnation- and therefore no man is %ustified by wor+s! but by faith only, .ut if wor+s be ta+en for the endea#our to do them! that is! if the will be ta+en for the deed! or internal for e3ternal righteousness! then do wor+s contribute to sal#ation, /nd then ta+eth (lace that of 7t, ?ames! cha(, 8! 840 6e see then! how that of wor+s a man is %ustified! and not of faith only, /nd both of these are %oined to sal#ation! as in 7t, $ar+ 1! 1<0 Re(ent and belie#e the "os(el, /nd Lu+e 1>! 1>! when a certain ruler as+ed our 7a#iour! what he ought to do to inherit eternal life! he (ro(ounded to him the +ee(ing of the commandments- which when the ruler said he had +e(t! he (ro(ounded to him the faith! 7ell all that thou hast! and follow me, /nd ?ohn 9! 960 He that belie#eth in the 7on! hath e#erlasting life, /nd He that obeyeth not the 7on! shall not see life, here he manifestly %oineth obedience and faith together, /nd Rom0 1! 1=0 The %ust shall li#e by faith- not e#ery one! but the %ust, *or also the de#ils belie#e and tremble, .ut though both faith and %ustice 1meaning still by %ustice! not absence of guilt! but the good intentions of the mind! which is called righteousness by "od! that ta+eth the will for the deed2 be both of them said to %ustify! yet are their (arts in the act of %ustification to be distinguished, *or %ustice is said to
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%ustify! not because it absol#eth! but because it denominates him %ust! and setteth him in an estate or ca(acity of sal#ation! whensoe#er he shall ha#e faith, .ut faith is said to %ustify! that is! to absol#e- because by it a %ust man is absol#ed of! and forgi#en his un%ust actions, /nd thus are reconciled the (laces of 7t, Paul and 7t, ?ames! that faith only %ustifieth! and a man is not %ustified by faith only- and shewed how faith and re(entance must concur to sal#ation, 11, These things considered it will easily a((ear0 that under the so#ereign (ower of a 'hristian commonwealth! there is no danger of damnation from sim(le obedience to human laws- for in that the so#ereign alloweth 'hristianity! no man is com(elled to renounce that faith which is enough for his sal#ation- that is to say! the fundamental (oints, /nd for other (oints!, seeing they are not necessary to sal#ation! if we conform our actions to the laws! we do not only what we are allowed! but also what we are commanded! by the law of nature! which is the moral law taught by our 7a#iour himself, /nd it is (art of that obedience which must concur to our sal#ation, 18, /nd though it be true! whatsoe#er a man doth contrary to his conscience! is sin- yet the obedience in these cases! is neither sin! nor against the conscience, *or the conscience being nothing else but a man&s settled %udgment and o(inion! when he hath once transferred his right of %udging to another! that which shall be commanded! is no less his %udgment! than the %udgment of that other, so that in obedience to laws! a man doth still according to his conscience! but not his (ri#ate conscience, /nd whatsoe#er is done contrary to (ri#ate conscience! is then a sin! when the laws ha#e left him to his own liberty! and ne#er else, /nd then whatsoe#er a man doth! not only belie#ing it is ill done! but doubting whether it be ill or not! is done ill- in case he may lawfully omit the doing, 19, /nd as it hath been (ro#ed! that a man must submit his o(inions! in matters of contro#ersy! to the authority of the commonwealth- so also is the same confessed by the (ractice of e#ery one of them that otherwise deny it, *or who is there differing in o(inion from another! and thin+ing himself to be in the right! and the other in the wrong! that would not thin+ it reasonable! if he be of the same o(inion that the whole state alloweth! that the other should submit his o(inion also thereuntoC or that would not be content! if not that one or a few men! yet that all the di#ines of a whole nation! or at least an assembly of all those he li+eth! should ha#e the (ower to determine of all the contro#ersies of religionC or! who is there that would not be content! to submit his o(inions! either to the (o(e! or to a general council! or to a (ro#incial council! or to a (resbytery of his own nationC /nd yet in all these cases he submitteth himself to no greater than human authority, Nor can a man be said to submit himself to Holy 7cri(ture! that doth not submit himself to some or other for the inter(retation thereofor why should there be any church go#ernment at all instituted! if the 7cri(ture itself could do the office of a %udge in contro#ersies of faithC .ut the truth is a((arent! by continual e3(erience! that men see+ not only liberty of conscience! but of
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their actions- nor that only! but a farther liberty of (ersuading others to their o(inions- nor that only for e#ery man desireth! that the so#ereign authority should admit no other o(inions to be maintained but such as he himself holdeth, 14, The difficulty therefore of obeying both "od and man! in a 'hristian commonwealth is none0 all the difficulty resteth in this (oint! whether he that hath recei#ed the faith of 'hrist! ha#ing before sub%ected himself to the authority of an infidel! be discharged of his obedience thereby! or not! in matters of religion, 4n which case it seemeth reasonable to thin+! that since all co#enants of obedience are entered into for the (reser#ation of a man&s life! if a man be content! without resistance to lay down his life! rather than to obey the commands of an infidel- in so hard a case he hath sufficiently discharged himself thereof, *or no co#enant bindeth farther than to endea#our- and if a man cannot assure himself to (erform a %ust duty! when thereby he is assured of (resent death! much less can it be e3(ected that a man should (erform that! for which he belie#eth in his heart he shall be damned eternally, /nd thus much concerning the scru(le of conscience that may arise concerning obedience to human laws! in them that inter(ret the law of "od to themsel#es, 4t remaineth! to remo#e the same scru(le from them that submit their contro#ersies to others! not ordained thereunto by the so#ereign authority, /nd this 4 refer to the cha(ter following, 'ha(ter 86 That 7ub%ects are not bound to follow the ?udgment of any /uthorities in 'ontro#ersies of Religion which is not )e(endent on the 7o#ereign Power 1, 4n the former cha(ter ha#e been remo#ed those difficulties o((osing our obedience to human authority! which arise from misunderstanding of our 7a#iour&s title and laws- in the former whereof! namely his title! consisteth our faith- and in the latter! our %ustice, Now they who differ not amongst themsel#es concerning his title and laws! may ne#ertheless ha#e different o(inions concerning his magistrates! and the authority he hath gi#en them, /nd this is the cause why many 'hristians ha#e denied obedience to their (rinces- (retending that our 7a#iour 'hrist hath not gi#en this magistracy to them! but to others, /s for e3am(le0 some say! to the (o(e uni#ersally- some! to a synod aristocratical- some! to a synod democratical in e#ery se#eral commonwealth- and the magistrates of 'hrist being they by whom he s(ea+eth0 the 5uestion is! whether he s(ea+ unto us by the (o(e! or by con#ocations of bisho(s and ministers! or by them that ha#e the so#ereign (ower in e#ery commonwealth, 8, This contro#ersy was the cause of those two mutinies that ha((ened against $oses in the wilderness, The first by /aron and his sister $iriam! who too+ u(on them to censure $oses! for marrying an Ethio(ian woman, /nd the state of the 5uestion between them and $oses they set forth Numbers 18! 8! in these words0 hat hath the Lord s(o+en but only by $osesC hath he not
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s(o+en also by usC /nd the Lord heard this! ;c,! and (unished the same in $iriam! forgi#ing /aron u(on his re(entance, /nd this is the case of all them that set u( the (riesthood against the so#ereignty, The other was of 'orah! )athan! and /biram! who with two hundred and fifty ca(tains gathered themsel#es together against $oses! and against /aron, The state of their contro#ersy was this0 hether "od were not with the multitude! as well as with $oses! and e#ery man as holy as he, *or! Numb, 16! 9! thus they say! 6ou ta+e too much u(on you! seeing all the congregation is holy!, e#ery one of them! and the Lord is amongst them0 wherefore then lift ye yoursel#es abo#e the congregation of the LordC /nd this is the case of them that set u( their (ri#ate consciences! and unite themsel#es to ta+e the go#ernment of religion out of the hands of him or them! that ha#e the so#ereign (ower of the commonwealth- which how well it (leaseth "od! may a((ear by the hideous (unishment of 'orah and his accom(lices, 9, 4n the go#ernment therefore of $oses! there was no (ower neither ci#il nor s(iritual! that was not deri#ed from him- nor in the state of 4srael under +ings! was there any earthly (ower! by which those +ings were com(ellable to any thing! or any sub%ect allowed to resist them! in any case whatsoe#er, *or though the (ro(hets by e3traordinary calling! did often admonish and threaten them! yet had they no authority o#er them, /nd therefore amongst the ?ews! the (ower s(iritual and tem(oral! was always in the same hand, 4, :ur 7a#iour 'hrist! as he was the rightful +ing of the ?ews in (articular! as well as +ing of the +ingdom of Hea#en! in the ordaining of magistrates- re#i#ed that form of (olicy which was used by $oses, /ccording to the number of the children of ?acob! $oses too+ unto him by the a((ointment of "od! Numb, 1! 4! twel#e men! e#ery one of the chief of their tribe! which were to assist him in the muster of 4srael, /nd these twel#e! #erse 84! are called the (rinces of 4srael! twel#e men! e#ery one for the house of their fathers- which are said also Numb, =! 8! to be heads o#er the houses of their fathers! and (rinces of the tribes! and o#er them that were numbered, /nd these were e#ery one e5ual amongst themsel#es, 4n li+e manner our 7a#iour too+ unto him twel#e a(ostles! to be ne3t unto him in authority- of whom he saith $atth, 1@! 8>! hen the 7on of $an shall sit in the throne of his ma%esty! ye which follow me in the regeneration! shall sit also u(on twel#e thrones! and %udge the twel#e tribes of 4srael, /nd concerning the e5uality of the twel#e a(ostles amongst themsel#es our 7a#iour saith! $atth, 80! 8<0 6e +now that the Lords of the "entiles ha#e domination o#er them! ;c, Ferse 860 .ut it shall not be so amongst you- but whosoe#er will be greatest among you! let him be your ser#ant, /nd $atth, 89! 110 He that is greatest among you! let him be your ser#ant, /nd a little before! #erse >! .e not called Rabbi- for one is your doctor 'hrist- and all ye are brethren, /nd /cts 1! in choosing of $atthias to be an a(ostle! though 7t, Peter used the (art of a (rolocutor! yet did no man ta+e u(on him the authority of election! but referred the same to lot, <, /gain! $oses had the command of "od! Numb, 11! 160 "ather to me se#enty men of the elders of 4srael! whom thou +nowest that
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they are the elders of the (eo(le! and go#ernors o#er them! and bring them into the tabernacle! ;c, /nd $oses did accordingly! #erse 84, /nd these were chosen to hel( $oses in bearing the burthen of the go#ernment! as a((eareth #erse 1= of the same cha(ter, /nd as the twel#e (rinces of the tribes were according to the number of ?acob&s children- so were the se#enty elders according to the number of the (ersons that went down with ?acob into Egy(t, 4n li+e manner our 7a#iour in his +ingdom of Hea#en! the church! out of the whole number of those that belie#ed in him! ordained se#enty (ersons! which (eculiarly were called the se#enty disci(les! to whom he ga#e (ower to (reach the "os(el and ba(tiAe, 6, 4n our 7a#iour&s time therefore! the hierarchy of the church consisted! besides himself that was the head! of twel#e a(ostles! who were e5ual amongst themsel#es! but ordained o#er others! as were the twel#e heads of the tribes- and se#enty, disci(les! who had e#ery one of them (ower to ba(tiAe and teach! and hel( to go#ern the whole floc+, =, /nd whereas in the commonwealth instituted by $oses! there was not only a highH(riest for the (resent! but also a succession and order of (riests- it may be demanded why our 7a#iour 'hrist did not ordain the li+eC To which may be answered! that the highH(riesthood! forasmuch as concerneth the authority thereof! was in the (erson of 'hrist! as he was 'hristHBing, 7o also was it in $oses! /aron ha#ing the ministerial (art only, *or notwithstanding that /aron was the highH(riest! yet the consecration of him belonged to $oses! E3od, 8@! 1, /ll the utensils of sacrifice! and other holy things! were ordered by $oses- and in sum0 the whole Le#itical law was deli#ered by "od by the hand of $oses! who was to /aron a "od! and /aron to him a mouth, /nd for the ministerial (art! there could no high(riest be ordained but himself- for seeing our 7a#iour was himself the sacrifice! who but himself could offer him u(C /nd for the celebration of that sacrifice for e#er after! our 7a#iour anne3ed the (riesthood to those whom he had a((ointed to go#ern in the church, >, /fter the ascension of our 7a#iour! the a(ostles dis(ersed themsel#es for the s(reading of the "os(el- and continually as they con#erted any number of men! in any city or region! to the faith! they chose out such as they thought fittest! to direct them in matter of con#ersation and life! according to 'hrist&s law! and to e3(licate unto them that mystery of 'hrist come in the flesh- that is to say! to unfold unto them at large the office of the $essiah, /nd of those elders some were subordinate to others! according as the a(ostles! who ordained them! thought meet, 7o 7t, Paul ga#e (ower to Titus! to ordain elders in 'rete! and to redress things that were amiss, 7o that Titus was both an elder! and ordained elders! Tit, 1, <0 *or this cause 4 left thee in 'rete! that thou shouldest continue to redress the things that remain! and ordain elders in e#ery city- where the word is +atasteses! that is constitute- whereby it a((eareth that in the a(ostles& times! one elder had authority o#er another! to ordain and rule them, *or 1 Tim, <! 1@! Timothy an elder! is made %udge of accusations against other elders, /nd /cts 14! 89! the
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disci(les are said to ordain elders for all the congregations of the cities they had (reached in- and though the word there be cheirotonesantes! yet it signifieth not election by holding u( of hands! but sim(ly and absolutely ordination, *or the ordinary choosing of magistrates amongst the "recians! which were all either (o(ularly go#erned! or else by oligarchy! being (erformed by holding u( of hands! made that word be ta+en sim(ly for an election or ordination howsoe#er made, /nd thus in the (rimiti#e church! the hierarchy of the church was0 a(ostles- elders that go#erned other elders- and elders that ruled not! but their office was to (reach! to administer the sacraments! to offer u( (rayers and than+sgi#ing in the name of the (eo(le, .ut at that time there a((eared no distinction between the names of bisho( and elder, .ut immediately after the a(ostles& time! the word bisho( was ta+en to signify such an elder as had the go#ernment of elders! and other elders were called by the name of (riests! which signifieth the same that elder doth, /nd thus the go#ernment of bisho(s hath a di#ine (attern in the twel#e rulers! and se#enty elders of 4srael! in the twel#e a(ostles and se#enty disci(les of our 7a#iour- in the ruling elders! and not ruling elders! in the time of the a(ostles, @, /nd thus much of the magistrates o#er 'hrist&s floc+ in the (rimiti#e church- for the office of a minister! or ministress! was to be sub%ect to the floc+! and to ser#e them in those things which a((ertain to their tem(oral business, The ne3t thing to be considered is the authority which our 7a#iour ga#e to them! either o#er those whom they had con#erted! or those whom they were about to con#ert, /nd for these latter! which as yet were without the church! the authority which our 7a#iour ga#e to his a(ostles was no more but this0 to (reach unto them that ?esus was the 'hrist! to e3(licate the same in all (oints that concern the +ingdom of hea#en! and to (ersuade men to embrace our 7a#iour&s doctrine! but by no means to com(el any man to be sub%ect to them, *or seeing the laws of the +ingdom of hea#en! as hath been showed! Part 4, cha(, EF444! sect, 10! are dictated to the conscience only! which is not sub%ect to, com(ulsion and constraint- it was not congruent to the style of the Bing of Hea#en to constrain men to submit their actions to him! but to ad#ise them only- nor for him that (rofesseth the sum of his law to be lo#e! to e3tort any duty from us with fear of tem(oral (unishment, /nd therefore as the mighty men in the world! that hold others in sub%ection by force! are called in 7cri(ture by the name of hunters- so our 7a#iour calleth those whom he a((ointed to draw the world unto him! by subduing their affections! fishers- and therefore he saith to Peter and /ndrew! $atth, 4! 1@0 *ollow me! and 4 will ma+e ye fishers of men, /nd Lu+e 10! 90 .ehold! saith 'hrist! 4 send ye forth as lambs amongst wol#es, /nd it were to no end to gi#e them the right of com(elling! without strengthening the same with greater (ower than of lambs amongst wol#es, $oreo#er! $atth, 10! where our 7a#iour gi#eth a commission to his twel#e a(ostles to go forth and con#ert the nations to the faith! he gi#eth them no authority of coercion and (unishment! but only saith! #erse 140 hosoe#er shall not recei#e you! nor hear your words! when ye de(art out of
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that house! or that city! sha+e off the dust of your feet, Truly 4 say unto you! it shall be easier for the land of 7odom and "omorrah in the day of %udgment! than for that city, hereby it is manifest! that all that the a(ostles could do by their authority! was no more than to renounce communion with them! and lea#e their (unishment to "od /lmighty! in the day of %udgment, Li+ewise the com(arisons of the +ingdom of hea#en to the seed! $atth, 19! 9! and to the lea#en! $atth, 19! 99! doth intimate unto us that the increase thereof ought to (roceed from internal o(eration of "od&s word (reached! and not from any law or com(ulsion of them that (reach it, $oreo#er our 7a#iour himself saith! ?ohn 8>! 96! that his +ingdom is not of this world- and conse5uently his magistrates deri#e not from him any authority of (unishing men in this world, /nd therefore also! $atth, 86! <8! after 7t, Peter had drawn his sword in his defence! our 7a#iour saith! Put u( thy sword into his (lace, *or all that ta+e the sword shall (erish by the sword, /nd! #erse <4! How then shall the 7cri(tures be fulfilled! which say! that it must be soC showing out of the 7cri(tures! that the +ingdom of 'hrist was not to be defended by the sword, 10, .ut concerning the authority of the a(ostles or bisho(s o#er those who were already con#erted and within the church! there be that thin+ it greater than o#er them without, *or some ha#e said 1.ellarmin, Lib, de Rom, Pont, ca(, 8@20 Though the law of 'hrist de(ri#e no (rince of his dominion! and Paul did rightly a((eal to 'aesar! whilst +ings were infidels and out of the church- yet when they became 'hristians! and of their own accord underwent the laws of the gos(el! (resently as shee( to a she(herd! and as members to the head! they became sub%ect to the (relate of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, hich! whether it be true or not! is to be considered by that light which we ha#e from the Holy 7cri(ture! concerning the (ower of our 7a#iour and his a(ostles! o#er such as they had con#erted, .ut our 7a#iour! as he imitated the commonwealth of the ?ews in his magistrates! the twel#e and the se#enty- so did he also in the censure of the church! which was e3communication- but amongst the ?ews! the church did (ut the e3communicated (ersons from the congregation! which they might do by their (ower tem(oral- but our 7a#iour and his a(ostles! who too+ u(on them no such (ower! could not forbid the e3communicated (erson to enter into any (lace and congregation! into which he was (ermitted to enter by the (rince! or so#ereign of the (lace- for that had been to de(ri#e the so#ereign of his authority, and therefore the e3communication of a (erson sub%ect to an earthly (ower! was but a declaration of the church! which did e3communicate! that the (erson so e3communicated was to be re(uted still as an infidel! but not to be dri#en by their authority out of any com(any he might otherwise lawfully come into, /nd this is it our 7a#iour saith! $atth, 1>! 1=0 4f he refuseth to hear the church! let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a (ublican, 7o that the whole effect of e3communicating a 'hristian (rince! is no more than he or they that so e3communicate him! de(art! and banish themsel#es out of his dominion, Nor can they thereu(on discharge any of his sub%ects of their obedience to him- for that were to de(ri#e him
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of his dominion! which they may not do- for being out of the church! it is confessed by them that ma+e this ob%ection! and (ro#ed in the former section! that our 7a#iour ga#e no authority to his a(ostles to be %udges o#er them, /nd therefore in no case can the so#ereign (ower of a commonwealth be sub%ect to any authority ecclesiastical! besides that of 'hrist himself, /nd though he be informed concerning the +ingdom of hea#en! and sub%ect himself thereto at the (ersuasions of (ersons ecclesiastical! yet is not he thereby sub%ect to their go#ernment and rule, *or if it were by their authority he too+ that yo+e u(on him! and not by their (ersuasion! then by the same authority he might cast it off- but this is unlawful, *or if all the churches in the world should renounce the 'hristian faith! yet is not this sufficient authority for any of the members to do the same, 4t is manifest therefore that they who ha#e so#ereign (ower! are immediate rulers of the church under 'hrist! and all others but subordinate to them, 4f that were not! but +ings should command one thing u(on (ain of death! and (riests another u(on (ain of damnation! it would be im(ossible that (eace and religion should stand together, 11, /nd therefore there is no %ust cause for any man to withdraw his obedience from the so#ereign state! u(on (retence that 'hrist hath ordained any state ecclesiastical abo#e it, /nd though +ings ta+e not u(on them the ministerial (riesthood 1as they might if it (leased them2 yet are they not so merely laic! as not to ha#e sacerdotal %urisdiction, To conclude this cha(ter0 since "od s(ea+eth not in these days to any man by his (ri#ate inter(retation of the 7cri(tures! nor by the inter(retation of any (ower! abo#e! or not de(ending on the so#ereign (ower of e#ery commonwealth- it remaineth that he s(ea+eth by his #iceHgods! or lieutenants here on earth! that is to say! by so#ereign +ings! or such as ha#e so#ereign authority as well as they, 'ha(ter 8= :f the 'auses of Rebellion 1, Hitherto of the causes why! and the manner how! men ha#e made commonwealths, 4n this cha(ter 4 shall show briefly! by what causes! and in what manner! they be again destroyed- not meaning to say anything concerning the dissolution of a commonwealth from foreign in#asions! which is as it were the #iolent death thereof! 4 shall s(ea+ only of sedition! which is also the death of the commonwealth! but li+e to that which ha((eneth to a man from sic+ness and distem(er, To dis(ose men to sedition three things concur, The first is discontent- for as long as a man thin+eth himself well! and that the (resent go#ernment standeth not in his way to hinder his (roceeding from well to better- it is im(ossible for him to desire the change thereof, The second is (retence of right- for though a man be discontent! yet if in his own o(inion there be no %ust cause of stirring against! or resisting the go#ernment established! nor any (retence to %ustify his resistance! and to (rocure aid! he will ne#er show it, The
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third is ho(e of success- for it were madness to attem(t without ho(e! when to fail is to die the death of a traitor, ithout these three0 discontent! (retence! and ho(e! there can be no rebellion- and when the same are all together! there wanteth nothing thereto! but a man of credit to set u( the standard! and to blow the trum(et, 8, /nd as for discontent! it is of two sorts0 for it consisteth either in bodily (ain (resent or e3(ected! or else in trouble of the mind 1which is the general di#ision of (leasure and (ain! Part 4, cha(, F44! sect, @2, The (resence of bodily (ain dis(oseth not to sedition- the fear of it doth, /s for e3am(le0 when a great multitude! or hea( of (eo(le! ha#e concurred to a crime worthy of death! they %oin together! and ta+e arms to defend themsel#es for fear thereof, 7o also the fear of want! or in (resent want the fear of arrests and im(risonment! dis(ose to sedition, /nd therefore great e3actions! though the right thereof be ac+nowledged! ha#e caused great seditions, /s in the time of Henry F44, the seditions of the 'ornish men that refused to (ay a subsidy! and! under the conduct of the Lord /udley! ga#e the Bing battle u(on .lac+heath- and that of the northern (eo(le! who in the same +ing&s time! for demanding a subsidy granted in (arliament! murdered the Earl of Northumberland in his house, 9, Thirdly! the other sort of discontent which troubleth the mind of them who otherwise li#e at ease! without fear of want! or danger of #iolence! ariseth only from a sense of their want of that (ower! and that honour and testimony thereof! which they thin+ is due unto them, *or all %oy and grief of mind consisting 1as hath been said! Part 4, cha(, 4E! sect, 812 in a contention for (recedence to them with whom they com(are themsel#es- such men must needs ta+e it ill! and be grie#ed with the state! as find themsel#es (ost(oned to those in honour! whom they thin+ they e3cel in #irtue and ability to go#ern, /nd this is it for which they thin+ themsel#es regarded but as sla#es, Now seeing freedom cannot stand together with sub%ection! liberty in a commonwealth is nothing but go#ernment and rule! which because it cannot be di#ided! men must e3(ect in common- and that can be no where but in the (o(ular state! or democracy, /nd /ristotle saith well 1lib, 6! ca(, 8 of his Politics2! The ground or intention of a democracy! is liberty- which he confirmeth in these words0 *or men ordinarily say this0 that no man can (arta+e of liberty! but only in a (o(ular commonwealth, hosoe#er therefore in a monarchical estate! where the so#ereign (ower is absolutely in one man! claimeth liberty! claimeth 1if the hardest construction should be made thereof2 either to ha#e the so#ereignty in his turn! or to be colleague with him that hath it! or to ha#e the monarchy changed into a democracy, .ut if the same be construed 1with (ardon of that uns+ilful e3(ression2 according to the intention of him that claimeth! then doth he thereby claim no more but this! that the so#ereign should ta+e notice of his ability and deser#ing! and (ut him into em(loyment and (lace of subordinate go#ernment! rather than others that deser#e less, /nd as one claimeth! so doth another! e#ery man esteeming his own desert greatest, /mongst all those that (retend to! or are
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ambitious of such honour! a few only can be ser#ed! unless it be in a democracy- the rest therefore must be discontent, /nd so much of the first thing that dis(oseth to rebellion! namely! discontent! consisting in fear and ambition, 4, The second thing that dis(oseth to rebellion! is (retence of right, /nd that is when men ha#e an o(inion! or (retend to ha#e an o(inion0 that in certain cases they may lawfully resist him or them that ha#e the so#ereign (ower! or de(ri#e him or them of the means to e3ecute the same, :f which (retences there be si3 s(ecial cases, :ne is! when the command is against their conscience! and they belie#e it is unlawful for a sub%ect at the command of the so#ereign (ower to do any action! which he thin+eth in his own conscience not lawful for him to do! or to omit any action! which he thin+eth not lawful for him to omit, /nother is! when the command is against the laws! and they thin+ the so#ereign (ower in such sort obliged to his own laws! as the sub%ect is- and that when he (erformeth not his duty! they may resist his (ower, / third is! when they recei#e commands from some man or men! and a su(ersedeas to the same from others! and thin+ the authority is e5ual! as if the so#ereign (ower were di#ided, / fourth is! when they are commanded to contribute their (ersons or money to the (ublic ser#ice! and thin+ they ha#e a (ro(riety in the same distinct from the dominion of the so#ereign (ower- and that therefore they are not bound to contribute their goods and (ersons! no more than e#ery man shall of himself thin+ fit, / fifth! when the commands seem hurtful to the (eo(le- and they thin+! e#ery one of them! that the o(inion and sense of the (eo(le is the same with the o(inion of himself! and those that consent with him- calling by the name of (eo(le! any multitude of his own faction, The si3th is! when the commands are grie#ousand they account him that commandeth grie#ous things! a tyrantand tyrannicide! that is! the +illing of a tyrant! not only lawful! but also laudable, <, /ll these o(inions are maintained in the boo+s of the dogmatics! and di#ers of them taught in (ublic chairs! and ne#ertheless are most incom(atible with (eace and go#ernment! and contradictory to the necessary and demonstrable rules of the same, /nd for the first! namely! that a man may lawfully do or omit any thing against his conscience! and from whence arise all seditions concerning religion and ecclesiastical go#ernment! it hath been (lainly declared in the two last cha(ters! that such o(inion is erroneous, *or those two cha(ters ha#e been wholly s(ent! to (ro#e! that 'hristian religion not only forbiddeth not! but also commandeth! that in e#ery commonwealth! e#ery sub%ect should in all things to the uttermost of his (ower obey the commands of him or them that is the so#ereign thereof- and that a man in so obeying! doth according to his conscience and %udgment! as ha#ing de(osited his %udgment in all contro#ersies in the hands of the so#ereign (ower- and that this error (roceedeth from the ignorance of what and by whom "od /lmighty s(ea+eth, 6, /s for the second o(inion which is0 that the so#ereign is in such sort obliged to his own laws! as the sub%ect is- the contrary thereof hath been showed! Part 44, cha(, EE sections =H18! by which it a((eareth that the so#ereign (ower is not to be
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resisted- that it carrieth the sword both of war and %usticethat it hath the right of deciding all contro#ersies! both %udicial and deliberati#e- that it hath the ma+ing of all the laws ci#il- that it a((ointeth magistrates and (ublic ministers! and that it im(lieth a uni#ersal im(unity, How can he or they be said to be sub%ect to the laws which they may abrogate at their (leasure! or brea+ without fear of (unishmentC /nd this error seemeth to (roceed from this! that men ordinarily understand not aright! what is meant by this word law! confounding law and co#enant! as if they signified the same thing, .ut law im(lieth a command- co#enant is but a (romise, /nd not e#ery command is a law! but only 1Part 4, cha(, E444! sect, 62 when the command is the reason we ha#e of doing the action commanded, /nd then only is the reason of our actions in the command! when the omitting is therefore hurtful! because the action was commanded! not because it was hurtful of itself- and doing contrary to a command! were not at all hurtful! if there were not a right in him that commandeth to (unish him that so doth, He or they that ha#e all (unishments in their own dis(osing! cannot be so commanded! as to recei#e hurt for disobeying! and conse5uently no command can be a law unto them, 4t is an error therefore to thin+0 that the (ower which is #irtually the whole (ower of the commonwealth! and which in whomsoe#er it resideth! is usually called su(reme or so#ereign! can be sub%ect to any law but that of "od /lmighty, =, The third, o(inion0 that the so#ereign (ower may be di#ided! is no less an error than the former! as hath been (ro#ed! Part 44, cha(, EE! sect, 1<, /nd if there were a commonwealth! wherein the rights of so#ereignty were di#ided! we must confess with .odin! Lib, 44, cha(, 4, )e Re(ublica! that they are not rightly to be called commonwealths! but the corru(tion of commonwealths, *or if one (art should ha#e (ower to ma+e the laws for all! they would by their laws! at their (leasure! forbid others to ma+e (eace or war! to le#y ta3es! or to yield fealty and homage without their lea#e- and they that had the right to ma+e (eace and war! and command the militia! would forbid the ma+ing of other laws! than what themsel#es li+ed, /nd though monarchies stand long! wherein the right of so#ereignty hath seemed so di#ided! because monarchy of itself is a durable +ind of go#ernment- yet monarchs ha#e been thereby di#ers times thrust out of their (ossession, .ut the truth is! that the right of so#ereignty is such! as he or they that ha#e it! cannot! though they would! gi#e away any (art thereof! and retain the rest, /s for e3am(le0 if we should su((ose the (eo(le of Rome to ha#e had the absolute so#ereignty of the Roman state! and to ha#e chosen them a council by the name of the senate! and that to this senate they had gi#en the su(reme (ower of ma+ing laws! reser#ing ne#ertheless to themsel#es! in direct and e3(ress terms! the whole right and title of the so#ereignty 1which may easily ha((en amongst them that see not the inse(arable conne3ion between the so#ereign (ower and the (ower of ma+ing laws2! 4 say! this grant of the (eo(le to the senate is of no effect! and the (ower of ma+ing laws is in the (eo(le sill, *or the senate understanding it to be the will and intention of the (eo(le! to retain the so#ereignty! ought not to ta+e that for granted! which was
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contradictory thereto! and (assed by error, *or! Part 4, cha(, E444! sect, @! in contradictory (romises! that which is directly (romised! is (referred before that which is o((osite thereunto by conse5uence- because the conse5uence of a thing is not always obser#ed! as is the thing itself, The error concerning mi3ed go#ernment hath (roceeded from want of understanding of what is meant by this word body (olitic! and how it signifieth not the concord! but the union of many men, /nd though in the charters of subordinate cor(orations! a cor(oration be declared to be one (erson in law! yet the same hath not been ta+en notice of in the body of a commonwealth or city! nor ha#e any of those innumerable writers of (olitics obser#ed any such union, >, The fourth o(inion 1#iA,20 that sub%ects ha#e their meum! tuum! and suum! in (ro(erty! not only by #irtue of the so#ereign (ower o#er them all! distinct from one another! but also against the so#ereign himself! by which they would (retend to contribute nothing to the (ublic! but what they (lease! hath been already confuted! by (ro#ing the absoluteness of the so#ereignty- and more (articularly! Part 44, cha(, EE4F! sect, 8- and ariseth from this0 that they understand not ordinarily! that before the institution of so#ereign (ower meum and tuum im(lied no (ro(riety! but a community! where e#ery man had right to e#ery thing! and was in state of war with e#ery man, @, The fifth o(inion0 that the (eo(le is a distinct body from him or them that ha#e the so#ereignty o#er them! is an error already confuted! Part 44, cha(, EE4! sect, 11! where it is showed! that when men say0 the (eo(le rebelleth! it is to be understood of those (articular (ersons only! and not of the whole nation, /nd when the (eo(le claimeth any thing otherwise than by the #oice of the so#ereign (ower! it is not the claim of the (eo(le! but only of those (articular men! that claim in their own (ersons- and this error ariseth from the e5ui#ocation of the word (eo(le, 10, Lastly! for the o(inion! that tyrannicide is lawful! meaning by a tyrant any man in whom resideth the right of so#ereignty! it is no less false and (ernicious to human society! than fre5uent in the writings of those moral (hiloso(hers! 7eneca and others! so greatly esteemed amongst us, *or when a man hath the right of so#ereignty! he cannot %ustly be (unished! as hath been often showed already! and therefore much less de(osed! or (ut to death, /nd howsoe#er he might deser#e (unishment! yet (unishment is un%ust without %udgment (receding! and %udgment un%ust without (ower of %udicature! which a sub%ect hath not o#er his so#ereign, .ut this doctrine (roceedeth from the 7chools of "reece! and from those that writ in the Roman state! in which not only the name of a tyrant! but of a +ing! was hateful, 11, .esides discontent! to the dis(osing of a man to rebellion! and (retence! there is re5uired! in the third (lace! ho(e of success! which consisteth in four (oints0 1, That the discontented ha#e mutual intelligence- 8, that they ha#e sufficient number- 9, that they ha#e arms- 4, that they agree u(on a head, *or these four must concur to the ma+ing of one body of rebellion! in which intelligence is the life! number the limbs! arms the strength! and a head the unity! by which they are
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directed to one and the same action, 18, The authors of rebellion! that is! the men that breed these dis(ositions to rebel in others! of necessity must ha#e in them these three 5ualities0 1, To be discontented themsel#es- 8, to be men of mean %udgment and ca(acity- and 9, to be elo5uent men or good orators, /nd as for their discontent! from whence it may (roceed! hath been already declared, /nd for the second and third! 4 am to show now! first! how they may stand together- for it seemeth a contradiction! to (lace small %udgment and great elo5uence! or! as they call it! (owerful s(ea+ing! in the same man0 and then in what manner they both concur to dis(ose other men to sedition, 19, 4t was noted by 7allust! that in 'atiline 1who was author of the greatest sedition that e#er was in Rome2 there was Elo5uentiae satis! sa(ientiae (arum- elo5uence sufficient! but little wisdom, /nd (erha(s this was said of 'atiline! as he was 'atiline0 but it was true of him as an author of sedition, *or the con%unction of these two 5ualities made him not 'atiline! but seditious, /nd that it may be understood! how want of wisdom! and store of elo5uence! may stand together! we are to consider! what it is we call wisdom! and what elo5uence, /nd therefore 4 shall here again remember some things that ha#e been said already! Part 4, cha(, F! F4, 4t is manifest that wisdom consisteth in +nowledge, Now of +nowledge there are two +inds- whereof the one is the remembrance of such things! as we ha#e concei#ed by our senses! and of the order in which they follow one another, /nd this +nowledge is called e3(erience- and the wisdom that (roceedeth from it! is that ability to con%ecture by the (resent! of what is (ast! and to come! which men call (rudence, This being so! it is manifest (resently! that the author of sedition! whosoe#er he be! must not be (rudent, *or if he consider and ta+e his e3(eriences aright! concerning the success which they ha#e had! who ha#e been the mo#ers and authors of sedition! either in this or any other state! he shall find that of one man that hath thereby ad#anced himself to honour! twenty ha#e come to a re(roachful end, The other +ind of +nowledge is the remembrance of the names or a((ellations of things! and how e#ery thing is called! which is! in matters of common con#ersation! a remembrance of (acts and co#enants of men made amongst themsel#es! concerning how to be understood of one another, /nd this +ind of +nowledge is generally called science! and the conclusions thereof truth, .ut when men remember not how things are named! by general agreement! but either mista+e and misname things! or name them aright by chance! they are not said to ha#e science! but o(inion- and the conclusions thence (roceeding are uncertain! and for the most (art erroneous, Now that science in (articular from which (roceed the true and e#ident conclusions of what is right and wrong! and what is good and hurtful to the being and wellHbeing of man+ind! the Latins call sa(ientia! and we by the general name of wisdom, *or generally! not he that hath s+ill in geometry! or any other science s(eculati#e! but only he that understandeth what conduceth to the good and go#ernment of the (eo(le! is called a wise man, Now that no author of sedition can be wise in this acce(tation of the word! is sufficiently
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(ro#ed! in that it hath been already demonstrated! that no (retence of sedition can be right or %ust- and therefore the authors of sedition must be ignorant of the right of state! that is to say! unwise, 4t remaineth therefore! that they be such! as name things not according to their true and generally agreedHu(on names- but call right and wrong! good and bad! according to their (assions! or according to the authorities of such as they admire! as /ristotle! 'icero! 7eneca! and others of li+e authority! who ha#e gi#en the names of right and wrong! as their (assions ha#e dictated- or ha#e followed the authority of other men! as we do theirs, 4t is re5uired therefore in an author of sedition! that he thin+ right! that which is wrong- and (rofitable! that which is (ernicious- and conse5uently that there be in him sa(ientiae (arum! little wisdom, 14, Elo5uence is nothing else but the (ower of winning belief of what we say- and to that end we must ha#e aid from the (assions of the hearer, Now to demonstration and teaching of the truth! there are re5uired long deductions! and great attention! which is un(leasant to the hearer- therefore they which see+ not truth! but belief! must ta+e another way! and not only deri#e what they would ha#e to be belie#ed! from somewhat belie#ed already! but also by aggra#ations and e3tenuations ma+e good and bad! right and wrong! a((ear great or less! according as it shall ser#e their turns, /nd such is the (ower of elo5uence! as many times a man is made to belie#e thereby! that he sensibly feeleth smart and damage! when he feeleth none! and to enter into rage and indignation! without any other cause! than what is in the words and (assion of the s(ea+er, This considered! together with the business that he hath to do! who is the author of rebellion! 1#iA,2 to ma+e men belie#e that their rebellion is %ust! their discontents grounded u(on great in%uries! and their ho(es greatthere needeth no more to (ro#e! there can be no author of rebellion! that is not an elo5uent and (owerful s(ea+er! and withal 1as hath been said before2 a man of little wisdom, *or the faculty of s(ea+ing (owerfully! consisteth in a habit gotten of (utting together (assionate words! and a((lying them to the (resent (assions of the hearer, 1<, 7eeing then elo5uence and want of discretion concur to the stirring of rebellion! it may be demanded! what (art each of these acteth thereinC The daughters of Pelias! +ing of Thessaly! desiring to restore their old decre(it father to the #igour of his youth! by the counsel of $edea cho((ed him in (ieces! and set him a boiling with 4 +now not what herbs in a cauldron! but could not ma+e him re#i#e again, 7o when elo5uence and want of %udgment go together! want of %udgment! Li+e the daughters of Pelias! consenteth! through elo5uence! which is as the witchcraft of $edea! to cut the commonwealth in (ieces! u(on (retence or ho(e of reformation! which when things are in combustion! they are not able to effect, 'ha(ter 8> :f the )uty of Them That Ha#e 7o#ereign Power

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1, Ha#ing hitherto set forth how a body (olitic is made! and how it may be destroyed! this (lace re5uireth to say something concerning the (reser#ation of the same, Not (ur(osing to enter into the (articulars of the art of go#ernment! but to sum u( the general heads! wherein such art is to be em(loyed! and in which consisteth the duty of him or them that ha#e the so#ereign (ower, *or the duty of a so#ereign consisteth in the good go#ernment of the (eo(le- and although the acts of so#ereign (ower be no in%uries to the sub%ects who ha#e consented to the same by their im(licit wills! yet when they tend to the hurt of the (eo(le in general! they be breaches of the law of nature! and of the di#ine Law- and conse5uently! the contrary acts are the duties of so#ereigns! and re5uired at their hands to the utmost of their endea#our! by "od /lmighty! under the (ain of eternal death, /nd as the art and duty of so#ereigns consist in the same acts! so also doth their (rofit, *or the end of art is (rofit- and go#erning to the (rofit of the sub%ects! is go#erning to the (rofit of the so#ereign! as hath been showed Part 44, cha(ter EE4F! section 1, /nd these three0 1, the law o#er them that ha#e so#ereign (ower- 8, their duty- 9, their (rofit0 are one and the same thing contained in this sentence! 7alus (o(uli su(rema le3by which must be understood! not the mere (reser#ation of their li#es! but generally their benefit and good, 7o that this is the general law for so#ereigns0 that they (rocure! to the uttermost of their endea#our! the good of the (eo(le, 8, /nd forasmuch as eternal is better than tem(oral good! it is e#ident! that they who are in so#ereign authority! are by the law of nature obliged to further the establishing of all such doctrines and rules! and the commanding of all such actions! as in their conscience they belie#e to be the true way thereunto, *or unless they do so! it cannot be said truly! that they ha#e done the uttermost of their endea#our, 9, *or the tem(oral good of (eo(le! it consisteth in four (oints0 1, $ultitude, 8, 'ommodity of li#ing, 9, Peace amongst oursel#es, 4, )efence against foreign (ower, 'oncerning multitude! it is the duty of them that are in so#ereign authority! to increase the (eo(le! in as much as they are go#ernors of man+ind under "od /lmighty! who ha#ing created but one man! and one woman! declared that it was his will they should be multi(lied and increased afterwards, /nd seeing this is to be done by ordinances concerning co(ulation0 they are by the law of nature bound to ma+e such ordinances concerning the same! as may tend to the increase of man+ind, /nd hence it cometh! that in them who ha#e so#ereign authority0 not to forbid such co(ulations as are against the use of nature- not to forbid the (romiscuous use of women- not to forbid one woman to ha#e many husbands- not to forbid marriages within certain degrees of +indred and affinity0 are against the Law of nature, *or though it be not e#ident! that a (ri#ate man li#ing under the law of natural reason only! doth brea+ the same! by doing any of these things aforesaid- yet it is manifestly a((arent! that being so (re%udicial as they are to the im(ro#ement of man+ind! that not to forbid the same! is against the law of natural reason! in him that hath ta+en into his hands any (ortion of man+ind to im(ro#e,
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4, The commodity of li#ing consisteth in liberty and wealth, .y Liberty 4 mean! that there be no (rohibition without necessity of any thing to any man! which was lawful to him in the law of nature- that is to say! that there be no restraint of natural liberty! but what is necessary for the good of the commonwealthand that wellHmeaning men may not fall into the danger of laws! as into snares! before they be aware, 4t a((ertaineth also to this liberty! that a man may ha#e commodious (assage from (lace to (lace! and not be im(risoned or confined with the difficulty of ways! and want of means for trans(ortation of things necessary, /nd for the wealth of (eo(le! it consisteth in three things0 the well ordering of trade! (rocuring of labour! and forbidding the su(erfluous consuming of food and a((arel, /ll those therefore that are in so#ereign authority! and ha#e ta+en u(on them the go#ernment of (eo(le! are bound by the law of nature to ma+e ordinances consisting in the (oints aforenamed- as being contrary to the law of nature! unnecessarily! either for one&s own fancy! to enthral! or tie men so! as they cannot mo#e without danger- or to suffer them whose maintenance is our benefit! to want anything necessary for them! by our negligence, <, *or maintaining of (eace at home! there be so many things necessarily to be considered! and ta+en order in! as there be se#eral causes concurring to sedition, /nd first! it is necessary to set out to e#ery sub%ect his (ro(riety! and distinct lands and goods! u(on which he may e3ercise and ha#e the benefit of his own industry! and without which men would fall out amongst themsel#es! as did the herdsmen of /braham and Lot! e#ery man encroaching and usur(ing as much of the common benefit as he can! which tendeth to 5uarrel and sedition, 7econdly! to di#ide the burthens! and charge of the commonwealth (ro(ortionably, Now there is a (ro(ortionably to e#ery man&s ability! and there is a (ro(ortionably to his benefit by commonwealth0 and this latter is it! which is according to the law of nature, *or the burdens of the commonwealth being the (rice that we (ay for the benefit thereof! they ought to be measured thereby, /nd there is no reason! when two men e5ually en%oying! by the benefit of the commonwealth! their (eace and liberty! to use their industry to get their li#ings! whereof one s(areth! and layeth u( somewhat! the other s(endeth all he gets! why they should not e5ually contribute to the common charge, That seemeth therefore to be the most e5ual way of di#iding the burden of (ublic charge! when e#ery man shall contribute according to what he s(endeth! and not according to what he gets- and this is then done! when men (ay the commonwealth&s (art in the (ayments they ma+e for their own (ro#ision, /nd this seemeth not only most e5ual! but also least sensible! and least to trouble the mind of them that (ay it, *or there is nothing so aggra#ateth the grief of (arting with money! to the (ublic! as to thin+ they are o#errated! and that their neighbours whom they en#y! do thereu(on insult o#er them- and this dis(oseth them to resistance! and 1after that such resistance hath (roduced a mischief2 to rebellion, 6, /nother thing necessary for the maintaining of (eace! is the due e3ecution of %ustice- which consisteth (rinci(ally in the right (erformance of their duties! on the (arts of those! who are
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the magistrates ordained for the same by and under the authority of the so#ereign (ower- which being (ri#ate men in res(ect of the so#ereign! and conse5uently such as may ha#e (ri#ate ends! whereby they may be corru(ted by gifts! or intercession of friends! ought to be +e(t in awe! by a higher (ower! lest (eo(le! grie#ed by their in%ustice! should ta+e u(on them to ma+e their own re#enges! to the disturbance of the common (eace- which can by no way be a#oided in the (rinci(al and immediate magistrates! without the %udicature of the so#ereign himself! or some e3traordinary (ower delegated by him, 4t is therefore necessary! that there be a (ower e3traordinary! as there shall be occasion from time to time! for the syndication of %udges and other magistrates! that shall abuse their authority! to the wrong and discontent of the (eo(le- and a free and o(en way for the (resenting of grie#ances to him or them that ha#e the so#ereign, authority, =, .esides those considerations by which are (re#ented the discontents that arise from o((ression! there ought to be some means for the +ee(ing under of those! that are dis(osed to rebellion by ambition- which consist (rinci(ally in the constancy of him that hath the so#ereign (ower! who ought therefore constantly to grace and encourage such! as being able to ser#e the commonwealth! do ne#ertheless contain themsel#es within the bounds of modesty! without re(ining at the authority of such as are em(loyed! and without aggra#ating the errors! which 1as men2 they may commit- es(ecially when they suffer not in their own (articular, and constantly to show dis(leasure and disli+e of the contrary, /nd not only so! but also to ordain se#ere (unishments! for such as shall by re(rehension of (ublic actions! affect (o(ularity and a((lause amongst the multitude! by which they may be enabled to ha#e a faction in the commonwealth at their de#otion, >, /nother thing necessary! is the rooting out from the consciences of men all those o(inions which seem to %ustify! and gi#e (retence of right to rebellious actions- such as are0 the o(inion! that a man can do nothing lawfully against his (ri#ate conscience- that they who ha#e the so#ereignty! are sub%ect to the ci#il laws- that there is any authority of sub%ects! whose negati#e may hinder the affirmati#e of the so#ereign (ower- that any sub%ect hath a (ro(riety distinct from the dominion of the commonwealth- that there is a body of the (eo(le without him or them that ha#e the so#ereign (ower- and that any lawful so#ereign may be resisted under the name of a tyrant- which o(inions are they! which! Part 44, cha(, EEF44! sect, <H10! ha#e been declared to dis(ose men to rebellion, /nd because o(inions which are gotten by education! and in length of time are made habitual! cannot be ta+en away by force! and u(on the sudden0 they must therefore be ta+en away also! by time and education, /nd seeing the said o(inions ha#e (roceeded from (ri#ate and (ublic teaching! and those teachers ha#e recei#ed them from grounds and (rinci(les! which they ha#e learned in the Dni#ersities! from the doctrine of /ristotle! and others 1who ha#e deli#ered nothing concerning morality and (olicy demonstrati#ely- but being (assionately addicted to (o(ular go#ernment! ha#e insinuated
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their o(inions! by elo5uent so(histry20 there is no doubt! if the true doctrine concerning the law of nature! and the (ro(erties of a body (olitic! and the nature of law in general! were (ers(icuously set down! and taught in the Dni#ersities! but that young men! who come thither #oid of (re%udice! and whose minds are yet as white (a(er! ca(able of any instruction! would more easily recei#e the same! and afterward teach it to the (eo(le! both in boo+s and otherwise! than now they do the contrary, @, The last thing contained in that su(reme law! salus (o(uli! is their defence- and consisteth (artly in the obedience and unity of the sub%ects! of which hath been already s(o+en! and in which consisteth the means of le#ying soldiers! and of ha#ing money! arms! shi(s! and fortified (laces in readiness of defenceand (artly! in the a#oiding of unnecessary wars, *or such commonwealths! or such monarchs! as affect war for itself! that is to say! out of ambition! or of #ainHglory! or that ma+e account to re#enge e#ery little in%ury! or disgrace done by their neighbours! if they ruin not themsel#es! their fortune must be better than they ha#e reason to e3(ect, 'ha(ter 8@ :f the Nature and Binds of Laws 1, Thus far concerning the Nature of $an! and the constitution and (ro(erties of a .ody Politic, There remaineth only for the last cha(ter! to s(ea+ of the nature and sorts of law, /nd first it is manifest! that all laws are declarations of the mind! concerning some action future to be done! or omitted, /nd all declarations and e3(ressions of the mind concerning future actions and omissions! are either (romissi#e! as 4 will do! or not do- or (ro#isi#e! as for e3am(le! 4f this be done or not done! this will follow- or im(erati#e! as )o this! or do it not, 4n the first sort of these e3(ressions! consisteth the nature of a co#enant- in the second! consisteth counsel- in the third! command, 8, 4t is e#ident! when a man doth! or forbeareth to do any action! if he be mo#ed thereto by this only consideration! that the same is good or e#il in itself- and that there be no reason why the will or (leasure of another should be of any weight in his deliberation! that then neither to do nor omit the action deliberated! is any breach of law, /nd conse5uently! whatsoe#er is a law to a man! res(ecteth the will of another! and the declaration thereof, .ut a co#enant is the declaration of a man&s own will, /nd therefore a law and a co#enant differ- and though they be both obligatory! and a law obligeth no otherwise than by #irtue of some co#enant made by him who is sub%ect thereunto! yet they oblige by se#eral sorts of (romises, *or a co#enant obligeth by (romise of an action! or omission! es(ecially named and limited- but a law bindeth by a (romise of obedience in general! whereby the action to be done! or left undone! is referred to the determination of him! to whom the co#enant is made, 7o that the difference between a co#enant and a law! standeth thus0 in sim(le co#enants the action to be done! or not done! is first limited
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and made +nown! and then followeth the (romise to do or not dobut in a law! the obligation to do or not to do! (recedeth! and the declaration what is to be done! or not done! followeth after, 9, /nd from this may be deduced! that which to some may seem a (arado30 that the command of him! whose command is a law in one thing! is a law in e#ery thing, *or seeing a man is obliged to obedience before what he is to do be +nown! he is obliged to obey in general! that is to say! in e#ery thing, 4, That the counsel of a man is no law to him that is counselled! and that he who alloweth another to gi#e him counsel! doth not thereby oblige himself to follow the same! is manifest enough- and yet men usually call counselling by the name of go#erning- not that they are not able to distinguish between them! but because they en#y many times those men that are called to counsel! and are therefore angry with them that are counselled, .ut if to counsellors there should be gi#en a right to ha#e their counsel followed! then are they no more counsellors! but masters of them whom they counsel- and their counsels no more counsels! but laws, *or the difference between a law and a counsel being no more but this! that in counsel the e3(ression is! )o! because it is best- in a law! )o! because 4 ha#e right to com(el you- or )o! because 4 say! do0 when counsel which should gi#e the reason of the action it ad#iseth to! becometh the reason thereof itself! it is no more counsel! but a law, <, The names le3! and %us! that is to say! law and right! are often confounded- and yet scarce are there any two words of more contrary signification, *or right is that liberty which law lea#eth us- and laws those restraints by which we agree mutually to abridge one another&s liberty, Law and right therefore are no less different than restraint and liberty! which are contraryand whatsoe#er a man doth that li#eth in a commonwealth! %ure! he doth it %ure ci#ili! %ure naturae! and %ure di#ino, *or whatsoe#er is against any of these laws! cannot be said to be %ure, *or the ci#il law cannot ma+e that to be done %ure! which is against the law di#ine! or of nature, /nd therefore whatsoe#er any sub%ect doth! if it be not contrary to the ci#il law! and whatsoe#er a so#ereign doth! if it be not against the law of nature! he doth it %ure di#ino! by di#ine right, .ut to say! lege di#ina! by di#ine law! is another thing, *or the laws of "od and nature allowing greater liberty than is allowed by the law ci#il 1for subordinate laws do still bind more than the su(erior laws! the essence of law being not to loose! but to bind20 a man may be commanded that by a law ci#il! which is not commanded by the law of nature! nor by the law di#ine, 7o that of things done lege! that is to say! by command of the law! there is some (lace for a distinction between lege di#ina and lege ci#ili, /s when a man gi#eth an alms! or hel(eth him that is in need! he doth it not lege ci#ili! but lege di#ina! by the di#ine law! the (rece(t whereof is charity, .ut of things that are done %ure! nothing can be said done %ure di#ino! that is not also %ure ci#ili! unless it be done by them that ha#ing so#ereign (ower! are not sub%ect to the ci#il law, 6, The differences of laws are according to the differences!
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either of the authors and lawma+ers! or of the (romulgation! or of those that are sub%ect to them, *rom the difference of the authors! or lawma+ers! cometh the di#ision of law into di#ine! natural! and ci#il, *rom the difference of (romulgation! (roceedeth the di#ision of laws into written and unwritten, /nd from the difference of the (ersons to whom the law a((ertaineth! it (roceedeth! that some laws are called sim(ly laws! and some (enal, /s for e3am(le0 thou shalt not steal! is sim(ly a law- but this0 he that stealeth an o3! shall restore fourHfold! is a (enal! or as others call it! a %udicial law, Now in those laws! which are sim(ly laws! the commandment is addressed to e#ery manbut in (enal laws the commandment is addressed to the magistrate! who is only guilty of the breach of it! when the (enalties ordained are not inflicted- to the rest a((ertaineth nothing! but to ta+e notice of their danger, =, /s for the first di#ision of law into di#ine! natural! and ci#il! the first two branches are one and the same law, *or the law of nature! which is also the moral law! is the law of the author of nature! "od /lmighty- and the law of "od! taught by our 7a#iour 'hrist! is the moral law, *or the sum of "od&s law is0 Thou shalt lo#e "od abo#e all! and thy neighbour as thyself- and the same is the sum of the law of nature! as hath been showed! Part 4 cha(, EF444, /nd although the doctrine of our 7a#iour be of three (arts moral! theological! and ecclesiastical- the former (art only! which is the moral! is of the nature of a law uni#ersal- the latter (art is a branch of the law ci#il- and the theological which containeth those articles concerning the di#inity and +ingdom of our 7a#iour! without which there is no sal#ation! is not deli#ered in the nature of laws! but of counsel and direction! how to a#oid the (unishment! which by the #iolation of the moral law! men are sub%ect to, *or it is not infidelity that condemneth 1though it be faith that sa#eth2! but the breach of the law and commandments of "od! written first in man&s heart! and afterwards in tables! and deli#ered to the ?ews by the hands of $oses, >, 4n the state of nature! where e#ery man is his own %udge! and differeth from other concerning the names and a((ellations of things! and from those differences arise 5uarrels! and breach of (eace- it was necessary there should be a common measure of all things that might fall in contro#ersy- as for e3am(le0 of what is to be called right! what good! what #irtue! what much! what little! what meum and tuum! what a (ound! what a 5uart! ;c, *or in these things (ri#ate %udgments may differ! and beget contro#ersy, This common measure! some say! is right reason0 with whom 4 should consent! if there were any such thing to be found or +nown in rerum natura, .ut commonly they that call for right reason to decide any contro#ersy! do mean their own, .ut this is certain! seeing right reason is not e3istent! the reason of some man! or men! must su((ly the (lace thereof- and that man! or men! is he or they! that ha#e the so#ereign (ower! as hath been already (ro#ed- and conse5uently the ci#il laws are to all sub%ects the measures of their actions! whereby to determine! whether they be right or wrong! (rofitable or un(rofitable! #irtuous or #icious- and by them the use and definition of all
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names not agreed u(on! and tending to contro#ersy! shall be established, /s for e3am(le! u(on the occasion of some strange and deformed birth! it shall not be decided by /ristotle! or the (hiloso(hers! whether the same be a man or no! but by the laws, The ci#il law containeth in it the ecclesiastical! as a (art thereof! (roceeding from the (ower of ecclesiastical go#ernment! gi#en by our 7a#iour to all 'hristian so#ereigns! as his immediate #icars! as hath been said Part 44, cha(, EEF4! sect, 10, @, .ut seeing it hath been said! that all laws are either natural or ci#il- it may be demanded! to which of these shall be referred that law! which is called martial law! and by the Romans disci(lina militarisC /nd it may seem to be the same with the law of nature- because the laws by which a multitude of soldiers are go#erned in an army! are not consent! but continually changing with the occasion- and that is still a law! which is reason for the (resent! and reason is the law of nature, 4t is ne#ertheless true that martial law is! ci#il law, because an army is a body (olitic! the whole (ower whereof is in the "eneral! and the laws thereof made by him- and though they still follow and change as reason re5uireth! yet it is not! as the reason of e#ery (ri#ate man 1as in the law of nature2! but as the reason of the "eneral re5uireth, 10, hen he! or they! in whom is the so#ereign (ower of a commonwealth! are to ordain laws for the go#ernment and good order of the (eo(le! it is not (ossible they should com(rehend all cases of contro#ersy that may fall out! nor (erha(s any considerable di#ersity of them- but as time shall instruct them by the rising of new occasions! so are also laws from time to time to be ordained0 and in such cases where no s(ecial law is made! the law of nature +ee(eth its (lace! and the magistrates ought to gi#e sentence according thereunto! that is to say! according to natural reason, The constitutions therefore of the so#ereign (ower! by which the liberty of nature is abridged! are written! because there is no other way to ta+e notice of themwhereas the laws of nature are su((osed to be written in men&s hearts, ritten laws therefore are the constitutions of a commonwealth e3(ressed- and unwritten! are the laws of natural reason, 'ustom of itself ma+eth no law, Ne#ertheless when a sentence hath been once gi#en! by them that %udge by their natural reason- whether the same be right or wrong! it may attain to the #igour of a law- not because the li+e sentence hath of custom been gi#en in the li+e case- but because the so#ereign (ower is su((osed tacitly to ha#e a((ro#ed such sentence for right- and thereby it cometh to be a law! and numbered amongst the written laws of the commonwealth, *or if custom were sufficient to introduce a law! then it would be in the (ower of e#ery one that is de(uted to hear a cause! to ma+e his errors laws, 4n li+e manner! those laws that go under the title of res(onsa (rudentum! that is to say! the o(inions of lawyers! are not therefore laws! because res(onsa (rudentum! but because they are admitted by the so#ereign, /nd from this may be collected! that when there is a case of (ri#ate contract between the so#ereign and the sub%ect! a (recedent against reason shall not
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(re%udice the cause of the so#ereign- no (recedent being made a law! but u(on su((osition that the same was reasonable from the beginning, /nd thus much concerning the Elements and general grounds of Laws Natural and Politic, /s for the law of nations! it is the same with the law of nature, *or that which is the law of nature between man and man! before the constitution of commonwealth! is the law of nations between so#ereign and so#ereign! after,

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