456

THE FILMS OF FRITZ LANG

this phone cali is withheld from us for most of the film. Thus the phone cali ínter rupting the love scene between Garrett and Susan near the opening of the film (the second scene after the credits) is matched by the phone cali which interrupts the signing of Garrett's pardon in the film's final scene. This last cali actually comes in the middle of a question from a repórter about Garrett's relationship with Susan. Once again Lang withholds the actual contení of the cali, but the context and thc reaction of the governor - remanding Garrett back to his cell, and declaring 'Thenwill be no pardon' - make it clear the cali has conveyed Susan's information trun Garrett confessed to committing the murder. There is no mystery here. One thinks of the phone cali in You Onfy Live Once which superseded the law, interrupted Joan's suicide, announced Eddie's escape from electrocution and accomplished trubringing together of separated lovers. Systematically this phone cali has the oppo site effect in this film. A pardon rather than a suicide is stopped in midcourse, an execution reinstated, and one lover informs on another. The law, not desire tri umphs. The last shot of the film shows Garrett's still characteristically inexpressivr face as he looks at the unsigned pardon off screen, resting on the governor's desk. The newspaper photographers take more pictures, their fiashbulbs again cleariii) 1 , the screen of any image with their burst of light, before Garrett is led off and 11 ufilm ends. The door closing behind him is the last image appearing in Lang's hi:.i American film.

18 The Gírele Gloses on the Last Mabuse
Return to the Scene of the Crime Home is where you go when you run out of places. Mae Doyle in the Fritz Lang/Alfred Hayes' versión of Clash by Night

One cannot approach Lang's return to Germany without a sense of the uncanny in Germán terms das unheimlich - that profoundly unsettling feeling that in the midst of the supposedly familiar (or 'homelike' to give a literal translation of das heimliche) something profoundly unfamiliar has arisen, not from the foreign and alien, but from the deepest reaches of both memory and forgetfulness. Freud points out that repetition in itself evokes a sense of das unheimlich,1 and Lang's return to his former homeland recycles material from his earlier film-making career during the Weimar period for two new films. Yet this return to Germany from exile also yields a profound sense of the untimeliness of history, the knowledge that nothing can ever truly be repeated, and that in repetition lies not so much the promise of rebirth as the harbinger of death. Repetition involves a profound mourning for the passage of time.

the glistening web convincing the searching soldiers that no-one has passed into the cave recently. lespite (rom I he harsh hlack and whitc worlds of his .111 . with the lovers' refuge immediately invaded when Berger eats the fruit consecrated to the goddess. architects and engineers. as well as the Arabian novéis of Karl May. the line beíoi e he explains that he is about to shoot the scene of Ulysses' first glimpse of his hoinr land on his return?4 Por Lang. at the List moment. was shot parlly on location in India.458 THE FILMS OF FRITZ L A N i . In 1965 Lang explained his decisión to Peter HOH danovich by saying. as Maria did in the catacombs under the city of Metrópolis.ilni'ny. Once again Lang appears to shadow the career of Jean Reium who also shot his first film after his Hollywood career. responding to Seetha's prayers to the image of Shiva. 'You should make a picture you started. As if Lang were directly attacking the overexposed. undergone the break up of his marriage with Harbou. Lang does créate an untimely style of film-making and even attempts a work of resurrection one that goes further back than his own silent films to realms of myth and magic. penétrate into ever more ancient layers of the city and palace ofEschnapur. of course. But while in debt to a long tradition of European Orientalist fantasies (wilh . witnessed the rise of the Nazis and survived exil<-.1 sremiii^. whose images. representatives of the enlightened arts of the West. or rather goddesses.6 However. away those years of both triumph and trauma? This two-part film.IIIK and Renoir the more recent innovation of colour photography formed a córner stone of this desire to recapture the visuality of the earlier cinema in a modem form. a world war and a Hollywood career.'3 Was Lang aware lio was echoing one of his last lines as 'Fritz Lang' in Godard's Contempt. Before he collapses. are enclosed in caves. such as Jean-Lúe Godard and Jean Marie Straub. myopia. than Lang's and Renoir's. as the supernatural héroes Siegfried and Brunhild descend into the world of treacherous human civilisation. in these films his protagonists seek refuge within cavernous realms of magic and concealment. semi-abstract plot and characters would inspire the most advanced film-makers of the 60s. discovering a realm of magic and divine power. Lang's films also revive a tradition of Germán Orientalist si In 11 films. Lang lets the nationalist super-heroes he had created in the 20s rest in their tombs. Lang's own Hará Kiri and Die Spinnen. retín n i n ^ to an onlmoded dnmi. especially to the visual language forged in t lia I era and a form of imagistic rather than psychological narrative. but they remain ambiguous forces. weaves a web over the entrance to the cave in which Seetha and her Germán lover hide from the Maharajah's troops. both in Hollywood and West Germany. Magic and the divine return to the screen in Lang's Indian films. present colourful worUs ni ihe p. produced and shol in Japan. The River. In the ycais between. undoubtedly gave Lang a circular sense of completion. and Seetha loses the goddess's favour when Berger accidentally witnesses her secret ritual dance before the huge image of the goddess in the lower levéis of the city. including: Joe May's original Das indische Grabmal and sequences of his / )ic Herrín der Welt. the grant ing of a long delayed promise. but Lang persists in seeing mythical forces as ultimately dangerous and inimical to humans.i kind of fate'. because of the difficulty of treating a mythical subject in sound cinema. and his lover Seetha nearly perishing in the desert from thirst and heat as they try to escape from Eschnapur. as I tried to show. All of Lang's exolic films of the 50s. the Germán architect. serves as camouflage for a murder. The bitter attacks on Lang's I n d i n n f i l m s l>y Wesl ( l e í man reviewers (in spile ni their popularity and conimerii. All these films express a debt to the silent cinema in wliii h the directors began their careers. But this is a realm of other gods and powers than those found in the Odenwald or the volcanic moimtains of Iceland. Berger fires his automatic into an overpowering sun which burns out the screen. Josef von Sternberg's Anatahan. sinister and misleading. prnvide . In the Indian films.\ one could hardly imagine films more different. As in Dr. while making full use of the devices of visual spectacle each director had peí fected in different ways. The cavernous depths ofEschnapur contain images of living death in the leper colony imprisoned there.1 slyle oí epic f i l m makinj. but. THE C I R C L E GLOSES 459 Lang himself spoke of his return as 'like a circle that was beginning to cióse .illnnpl In icvivc . in this case a fakir performing the traditional rope trick. The Tiger ofEschnapur ends with its hero Berger. Whether or uní Lang's account is completely acórrate (even in his remake. But if a certain innocence radiales from the film's folk-tale plot. Die Nibelungen chronicles the decay and betrayal of a mythical world. a magical performance. in India . the return from exile began under the spell of ihr recovery of something lost. partíy. since Lang's control of colour photography (particularly the ways the colours and hues of costumes relate to the colour valúes in the various decors) represents a truly modern aspect of film-making.ill the richness of imagery and dubious ideology that that entails) Lang's Indian tilim relate even more strongly to the contemporary late films of Sternberg and Reuní i Like Anatahan and The River. Lang was referring specirk. ili. wipiny. May announced that he himself would take over the film. Germán critics compared the films to Die Nibelungen. as well as ihr German-Indian films of Franz Osten (Shiraz and A Throw o/Dice) from the Lile 20s.il had perished w i l h K r i e m l i i l t l . the Gambler. The goddess may offer benevolence and protection.althoi iy. quite in contrast to the epic mythical imagery of Siegfried's battle with Fafner the dragón. The most magical moment in these films occurs when a spider. only Harbou is crcdiinl with the original story).ist whose exotic locations. This salvation accomplished by the smallest of the goddess's creatures endows the film with a gentle fairy-tale quality. The mythical figures that emerge here are frankly sensuous mother goddesses. Rancho NotOTÍOU$t Moonflttt¡ and '¡'he Tiger ofEschnapur and The Indian Tomb. a work that Lang refused to remake when Brauner suggested it after the Indian films. or visions of India more contras! ing. nonetheless the gods. drenched in history and legend. blinding light which dominated his last Hollywood films. drawn from the Orientalism oí such Germán painters as Ludwig Deutsch and Rudolph Ernst. he claimed.il siinessl ileí rieil t l i n n as anachronisms. remain jealous and vengeful when betrayed. The Tiger ofEschnapur and The Indian Tomb atteinpl to establish an alternative film-making style to the classical Hollywood narralive forms. reversing an episode of youthful impotence that occurred before he had attainnl fame and power.mil l l i r N i l i r l i m p Sin li ¡ i i t u ¡sin shows (remendón» . The non-realistic. sculpted or painted. which can either betray or redeem. Mabuse.2 It is only when envisioning the ending of a life or a career that such ti pattern could be recognised or such a fate accepted.illv tp the offer from West Germán producer Artur Brauner to make a new film based on Das indische Grabmal scripted by Thea von Harbou and directed by Joe May in 1921. Lang had experienced world-wide fame. finishing a film begun decades earlier.5 But on a more profound level. the experience of regaining a project taken away from 11 i i n. Was he now beginning over again.. Lang created an India of his imagination. . As in the Asian film of another 50s refugee from ilir Hollywood studio system. Lang claimed that the earlier script was a collaboration between Harbou ¡nul himself (one of their first) and that Lang had been slated to direct it. The Tiger ofEschnapur and The Iridian Tomb. and characters face mortal danger when they lose their way in this labyrinth. But in the case oí I.

n leí. a tomb from whose funereal rictmess and imprisoning luxury the characters spend most of the film attempting to escape. and make the time that had elapsed between them part of the new plot. Mabuse. The Testament ofDr. . nearly all of them less than two minutes in duration and most of them less than a minute. This breathless opening not only conveys a sense of fast-breaking action as we see televisión repórter Peter Barter shot in his car in the first minute and a half. In llie openings of Dr. Buried. As beautiful as the Indian films are with their colour. but also embeds this opening murder into a network of prophecy. Having completed the film the earlier realisation of which was interrupted. as llie investigative repórter ni Lang's late-Hollywood films collides wllli lii. the persis tence of his criminal legacy would brood over a trilogy that embraced the histor y < >l Germany in the twentieth century. whether the literal crypt of the Mohunes in Moonfleet in which young John Mohune encounters the rotting skeleton of his ancestor.ul¡uns. takes on the appearance of an act of mourii ing. Mabi4se. Baum) exerts power. the Gambler and Spies. The first twelve or so minutes of The Thousand Eyes consist of a dozen short scenes. Lang kills this figure off in the film's first minutes. Lang returns to the terrain of modernity. as Crary points out.ir. which Vern denounces to Altar as a morgue and a graveyard metaphors that a few minutes later. Jonathan Crary's insightful treatment of Lang's Mabuse series locales the thematic core of the films in the way 'these films compellingly chart the mobile characteristics of various perceptual technologies and apparatuses of power'. whn h. as Crary puts it. televisión. sackcloth and ashes. 'Look. 'tactics of simulation. but one whose treachery and corrupt foundations cannot be glossed over.1 senes oí inlerloikiiigtlieflsand assassinations. a tape recorder with all of its recordings missing. which switch rapidly from location to location. With the coming of sound cinema. añil its movement into the postwar economic miracle? The spectre of Mabuse. In this film the return of the dead became the premise of the plol. that he has the 'hottest news story of the year'. In turning down the remakes Lang declared that he did not wish to repeat himself. He claimed in interviews that his first reaction to doing another Mabuse film was. or clliptioilly thion^h . Lang's attempt at reviving a visual style which kept faith with the silent Weimar cinema recaptured a magical world.12 In contrast to Lang's late-Hollywood films. or the tales of lost fame and elegance that Vern evokes from Altar Keane as he probes her memories at Chuck a Luck ranch. the leper cave in the Indian films. finishing off a series. so smoothly does he resume the style of editing and sound links that characterised his last Germán films.s lonn l. than the amplification. and a televisión set with its picture tube smashed. minimal sets.'8 Or 'I already killed that son-of-a-bitch!'9 But the previous Mabuse film had demonstrated that being dead and being unable to influence events are two different things. graceful and sensual actors' movement and lush lighting . Why not make a film which markeil Germany's survival of both the Third Reich and defeat in World War II. does not primarily serve as the tool of an investigative repórter. each of them ending with a sound link which propels us into the next scene. recording and broadcast of his voice. the Gambler.7 his West Germán films refer back to his Weimar films. paranoia-generating system of the unseen master criminal and grand enunciator.is |iisl I olí I his si. with its stark black and wliiie. Mabuse. but completion: bring ing an interrupted process to an end. opulent settings and luxurious costumes oí the Indian films. añil having turned down the offer to remake another one of his mythical or legendary Weimar films (Brauner suggested both Die Nibelungen and Der mude Tod). in spite of temporal ellipsis or spatial distance. The exploration of Barter's ransacked apartment by Pólice Commissioner Kras only reveáis his notebook labeled 'Televisión Journal' with all its papers ripped out. the return of the past reveáis the uncanny presence of death in life. for me the son-of-a-bitch is dead. investigation and suspicion.il his lelephone. less through a control of visión. establishing. elegance of costume and decor. liming all llie .11 The culmination of these systems of perceptual control and ¡Ilusión comes in The Thousand Eyes of Dr. 'the cathode ray tube becomes a dominant component of the Mabuse system'. Lang has snatched the technology of observation and exposure from the hands of the repórter and returned it to the pervasive.m. Lang demónstrales the cinema's ability to portray the complexities of crime and detection within a modern metrópolis and an interlocking landscape of information (and dis-information). But the nature of this network of interlocking crimes and the fear they inspire has changed since the silent films which first established Lang's imagery of the modern environment as the topography of terror. immobilization and suggestion'.hi. Mabuse in particular. Mabuse in which. recording and telecommunication in which auditory experience is primary'. As in the earlier Mabuse films. Lang agreed to complete his Mabuse series with a third film. Kach sequence founil ¡Is i v n l i e e i l h e i MI M.islinn ihenie oí llie hiten upie<l messagc. Lang returns to the harsh look of his late-Hollywooil. The fílm's firsl siene shows llie nuirilcí.i¡. But Lang's characters never recover a lost paradise for long. en roiile lo ¿i televisión stuilio luí his news broadiíist. not through repetition. employs 'an array of spectacular techniques of dazzlement.c r. The first moments of The Thousand Eyes ofDr. low budget films. next decided to undertake a different sort of resurrection. Lang moved brciillik'. whether through his attempts to mesmerise von Wenk with glimmering glasses and crystals. are rendered literal. •Ultimately in all these films the past emerges in terms of loss: the scars on Jeremy Fox's shoulder from the teeth of watchdogs set on him in his youth.10 Dr. to quote Crary. As in all of Lang's resurrections. thus keeping him off the air. allowing Lang to acknowledge explicitly the difference between the eras of the films. The Thousand Eyes ofDr. The Testa ment ofDr. and lousy process shots. I he theme of the exposé immediately opens llie lilin. Mabuse unwind as if Lang had never left Germany. or I l. Instead of Barter delivering his exposé (presumably concerning the return of the Mabuse gang). ni repórter l'etei It. Compared to the glorious colours. in which the terrified John Mohune recognises the embodiment of his mother's nightmarish tales of her childhood.ilmse . resurrecting a montage style which he had been forced to tame in his Hollywood films.ilion m. Mabuse (or his heir Dr. Mabuse had marked the transition from the Germany of the infla! ion era to a Germany on the verge of Nazi takeover. but are finally revealed to be torribs. after the final shoot-out. Lan¡. a young woman repórter takes his place before the camera and announces his death (like Ed Mobley delivering Amos Kyne's obituaryon the air immediately following his death).they remain a portrayal of an enclosed world. the new form of publicity and exposé. although the shadows and highlighls achieved here are ridiiT. as well as the transformation Lan^ and cinema had made from silence to sound. These apparently escapis? films seek out hidden or subterranean worlds which promise protection and riches. or to fascínate a theatre audience with optical illusions.460 THE FILMS OF FRITZ LANG THE CIRCLE GLOSES 461 contemporary exposés.ssly ihiouj'Ji llie synihroniseil unfolding of A murder and heist. or the Chuck a Luck ranch in Rancho Notorious. Mabuse's hypnotic power was embodied in his gaze and his control over the visual experience of others.

only a smashed televisión set. Rramm from The Testament of Dr.< nvn. as the 'doctor' issues furlhoi orders to the murderer. The essential question of Lang's master criminal films: 'Who is behind all this?' is no longer explicitly articulated.13 the opening crimes cannot be attributed to an identifiable enunciator-figure.' I . He gives his unease a ñame: 'Mabuse'. Mabuse's various devices of surveülance. Cornelius's declaration. our own curiosity and frustration are voiced by the chauffeur of the black car who k-IU the murderer (again echoing lines from Testmncnt). accenting the deja vu quality of this recycled and resurrected plot. only an off screen voice is heard. The tradicional image of mortality in Lang here also signáis t lio deadline of modern information broadcasting.an evil plan . but to a steel needle embedded in his skull . shoulders it. Mabuse no. finally locating and zooming in on a small markn sliu l< ni llir ('. i i k r i un l l i r •. Lang cuts to the roster of the homicide bureau including the ñame of Commissioner Rras. reading 'Dr. He responds to Kras's scepticism by removing his dark glasses and revealing his white. foreshadowing his elimination before it occurs. bul rospoiuls. the report of Barter's death is broadcast. will yield no fingerprints. Without his eyes.using this new technology to stress the contemporary setting of the film. ihioiigh whii'h (lio camera moves. Lang returns to the scientific processes of pólice investigation so lovingly detailed in his last films before the war. a ñame completely unfamiliar to the other members of the department. Lang recycles his antinomy of visión and blindness.in repórter substitutes for him. The cut from the lab technician takes us to a roving shot of Barter's ransacked apartment.inl lo know whal tho lellnw ivally looks like. The scene links the earlier detailing of pólice procedure in the late-German films with the recurring scenes of crime locations in the late-Hollywood films. but compared to the over-exposed frames of the Hollywood films. As if to compénsate for this exclusión of l. his testament. yet Lang has already brought us to the homicide bureau. Cornelius claims. Kras scoffs as Cornelius in a strained accumulation of metaphors describes the darkness that enwraps him ('It is impossible to suppress the viscous black magic that pérmeates. as Lang cuts from Kras's phrase ('a long steel needle rammed in his head') to a close-up of this needle seen through a magnifying glass. an official declares. with the cause of death described as a heart attack. 37'. cued by Lang's free-roaming. which he describes as if it were unfolding before him: 'There are two cars I see in particular stopping for a light. the camera moving among the scattered objects until Kras's hand enters the frame and defines this somewhat sinister prowling image as a pólice investigation..sive m . Kras assures the assistant dusting it. Mabuse. In the following close-up. no murder has taken place. A phone cali immediately confirms Cornelius's prescience as a pólice official calis to inform Kras that an autopsy has revealed Barter's death was not due to a heart attack.a murder. as Cornelius had predicted.ingí uls d n o l l v lo ( oí nrlius in l l i r niidsl oí \oiwri sation. pupil-less eyes. being examined by a pólice technician. Lang cuts from the meeting to the single dirrct image of Mabuse this film provides. calamity for one . the camera now framing the man within the black car who will kill Barter. 'I feel like Tve already gone through this case'. Barter slumps onto his steering wheel. Lang introduces a meeting at pólice headquarters (directly recalling the crisis meetings in M) with a report on this needle and the futuristic gun which fired it into Barter's skull. This sinister vehicle moves into the foreground and eclipses the white car. I lio drivor shuddrrs. In the following shot.15 A topographical high angle shot shows the traffic begin to move except for Barter's immobilised car. he sees far better than many. 'I M i l i w. As the camera pulís back we realise he is speaking to Kras about his visions. The next cut — back to the hitman in the car reporting the success oí the assassination over a phone to someone he addresses as 'Doctor' .ils s l i l l i l. a shot oían overgrown graveyard.II Icr's .il identity. The theme of anticipation and prolepsis turns into literal prophecy in the next few shots. From a close-up of this expectant assassin drumming his fingers on the case that holds his weapon. the startling visual equivalen! of his hyperbolic language. The following cut takes us to the man who is receiving the assassin's report. and following another shot of the clock (now readínj four). His visions. Throughout the film. and shoots Barter. 'murder!' triggers the cut to the assassin in the black car.murder!' Providing the film's first strong sound link. The official explains who Mabuse was (giving a compressed synopsis of the first two films in the series). associative editing. The mise-en-scéne of the film's opening shot formally anticipates Barter's murder. Mabuse. As Lang shows this unimpres. the camera tilts down to reveal a clubfoot. as the meeting reveáis. They seem to wandér astray in a fiurry of associations. and no fragmentary inscription remains on the window panes (as in Testament) . No face is revcaled. Cornelius declares. heir to Lohmann. Reproducing the staging of the murder at the traffic light oí Dr. and mentions Mabuse's legacy. saying he 'can't explain things like this'.round. But. or millionaire Travers' prívate rocket-launching company . four o'clock marking the time for Barter's broadcast.iboul llir diro lato oí othrrs who hnve sharrd his curiosity.mn I >i M. Mabuse. The camera pulís back from a médium shot of Barter in his white sedan to reveal a black sedan creeping in from off screen right. In a further development of the dispersión that Nicole Brenez noted in The Testament ofDr.. Lang seeds references to cutting-edge technology . let alone answered.u i.14 The cut is proleptic. wr honr I he. The bulb of a pólice camera flashes. all this updating only increases the film's senses of untimeliness.462 THE F I L M S OF F R I T Z LANG THE CIRCLE GLOSES 463 announcing to the camera his authorship of tríese crimes.immediak-ly undercuts this broadcast (mis)information. as he removes his futuristic rifle from its case.this experimental rifle. we see only a closely framed shot of a micro phone and broadcasting apparatus with hands resting upon it. foggy as a graveyard in the night under a dark cloud'). In The Thousand Eyes of Dr. I see two men. llial he would like lo ser llir doctor in person. the protagonist of this film. its effect is weak. official iu voico-over say llnit oldl i m r t limin. Lang then cuts to a traffic cop waving cars on. The woni. In the conversation between Kras and Cornelius about his visions. which. as this close-up introduces the televisión studio.ilnisc Van nevor dio'. The olf'u ¡al iloscribos H. Cautioned . emerge as sudden piercings of this obscurity. As we then cut back to the car carrying the assassin. like the anticipatory composition of the previous scene. huí unlike the portrait shots of Mabuse or Haghi pictured at their control desks as I hoy receive the reports of their henchmen. Kras remarks that all they have is a long steel needle (clearly lost within a haystack of non-evidence). Lang's sound links now embed the opening murder into the process of investigation. but even the blotter from his desk (the repository of vestigial messages still possible to decode in Spies) has been taken. the grand enunciator remains hidden or at least camouflaged. Lang then cuts to a close-up of a clock reading one minute to four. as Commissioner Kras receives a phone cali from the psychic Cornelius who claims lo have a visión of an impending murder. But Kras claims that nothing will be found here. but the immediate link makes it seem that Cornelius is reacting to the driver's curiosity. Not only are the records of Barter's investigation missing. I his doctor.

his prediction of the murder can be so accurate only because. and he speculates that Mabuse's record has been disposed of by his accomplices.that is the head of the gang . The 'evil plan' he claims to have foreseen is his own. Both his visions and his blindness are fake. situations he has set up in order to gain power over characters by seeming to predict their fates. A l .n Ihe pivolal role H u í i l " figure of Mabusc or 1l. < > i unsolved murders and thefts. the two interests are s«. his tricks do not even employ the powers of hypnosis (although at the end it is claimed he had Marión Ménil under an hypnotic spell). Lang will make connections that are only apparent on a second viewing of the film. another pólice meeting. However.n..iy i.h¡ l'laye. seems mainly to continué the motif of not being able to see. the chief speculates that a record of Mabuse's case must exist somewhere. • threads of the opening scenes around this location. li-. becoming one of Lang's most devious enunciator figures .IM seen at the Hotel Luxor. with Cornelius's invocation of his blindness and the darkness which surrounds him.. who monitor llie message closely as it announces. and informs them of his location in a suite at the I lotcl Luxor. Cornelius claims the gift of prophecy and clairvoyance. i l < . puré and simple. But litis the only one who remembers Mabuse or these events. In the foUowing shot the pólice note that before his death Barter was I. Kramm by Mabuse's gang. pulís toget hi-r 111. While Cornelius's astrological trappings and seances recall the occult powers of the earlier Mabuse. The next scene. But if the wish is partly fulfilled. durarler ¡'ivinj-. The ñame Mabuse. Taylor'. as he speaks to the millionaire Travers. to the binders in the possession of the clubfooted man who calis himself Mabuse). Throughout this extended opening sequence Lang used his earlier technique of links between scenes vía sounds and images which appear to complete or comment on each other. shown in close-up.but simply a dispensable operative). However. or from the pólice official wondering where Mabuse's files are. by the end of the film we realise that Cornelius actually heads the gang as the avatar of Mabuse.liii/iuil 'liilllli (or. now dwells in oblivion. l'mm i l n point on it is clear that flit. the visionary is still standing and embracing Nothing! And the echo in the charnel-house cries for the last time Nothing! The Night Watches of Bonaventura17 murder as an exact duplícate of the killing of Dr.16 Wlu-n asked whether his rocket programme is a private firm or a branch of the American government Taylor/Travers announces it doesn't matter.ir vvhal we are to make of this. «i |>in|>:. ¡ircliileclurc. vv. only we do not realise it. intertwined.s [onathan Rosenbaum describes (he wires vis¡bly nianipulatitlU l l n '. he is its instigator. all revolvinj'. crimes. Rather than resurrecting the visionary tradition of the Weimar films. in a sense the chauffeur's wish has been granted by this cut to Cornelius. Travers) at his hotel room in the midst of a business deal.-. The radio signal is received by men travelling in a van. Ls it simply A failure of ¡Ilusión ism. (lonielins's ryrs. But Lang also withholds knowledge from the audience or actually misleads them (the man with the clubfoot will be revealed not to be Mabuse .an author posing as a reader.Luxor lorms (he u-nlre of lilis web of releretur. But in a later scene. . . memories and conspirarles. Cornelius recycles the motif as a farce. 1 1 1 i l i i . Continuing the sound links.464 THE F I L M S OF F R I T Z LANG THE C I R C L E GLOSES Recycled Vision. For instance. 1 . l l i e s l n l l e i l .'a. sightless oyes anises a shudder. . Lang cuts immediately to a close-up of oíd worn binders bearing Mabuse's ñame and case number as the chief's speculation continúes on the soundtrack. it is also partly denied: in Cornelius we only see Mabuse's disguise. However. This omniscient joining of scenes separated in space and time flaunts Lang's control of narration. in fact. 'This is Dr. especially Sandor Weltmann's fakir-like illusions. the camera then tiltin| down to reveal again the clubfoot we associate with 'the doctor' from the carite scene.laKes «. second sight. Total Exposure Drüben auf dem Grabe steht noch der Geisterseher und umarmt Nichts! Und der Widerhall in Gebeinhause ruft zum lezten Male Nichts- 465 On the grave beyond. Lang cuts back to the men in the van receiving Mabuse's ordcrs to watch Taylor's every move. i l l v ii i 1 . u u I i . displaying an ability to reveal a greater depth of knowledge than the characters' (cutting from the woman journalist who reports Barter's 'heart attack' to Barter's actual assassin. the cut from the chauffeur saying he would like to see what the doctor looks like to the psychic Cornelius. Lang cuts to Taylor (or as he is later called. clearly show the edges of white contact lenses. as a detective details a sen. They are all stage-managed illusions.s. even more risible.. arouiul ihc Hotel Luxor. Mabuse speaking' and informs theffl of the arrival of the American 'Henry B. his true face will only be revealed at the film's climax. The camera follows a hand which opens up and arranges the microphone and apparatus for broadcast.'.i¡'. Feigned Blindness.il < m /'/. which Lohmann could still recall and lócate in the pólice archives. l n i l i . Most characteristically. The initial image of Cornelius doffing his dark glasses and exposing his white.l ¡n l!"' • • . n l i n l i l m s .

ill:.nl Travers and Ménil now face the problem. Picking up the pistol from the floor.rii. he responds to the man's looming threat and Marion's command. fake props (Marion's gun which fired only blanks) and pre-scripted dialogue. Thus we are repeatedly cued to see the clubfoot as the one identilyiii) 1 . unaware of the total design until the end of the film. explained by ibis iliiv s i l i i a i K n i I mi even sliows lilis hlli'.iv. her altempl al s u i í i d c ) ¡. destroying our earlier assumptions but not supplying new ones. Now. Lang seems to return to the opening of a film when the same assassin fired the same rifle. probably you saw 111011 in a film'. she says. Berg. followed by a real one. ( 1 1 n Interpol operative masquerading as an insurance salesman) confronts him and l i l i him. out of her hand.is il revivified by the kiss in the previous shot. Further. Besides. i l i .logicallyjealoushusbandshehasbeenfleeinghas tracedher to the I lotel l. Jordán?) who has planned this scene of a fake murder. agrees to help. Mabuse and IHT iny-icnnm behaviour (lies. had approached Travers. All of Lang's master criminal films involve a play with disguise and illusion w 11 i I > generales metaphors of stage-managing and. We realise we have been witnessing a charade. Lang cuts from this close-up kiss to the body of the clubfooted man in Ihe a m h i i lance. She assures him he saved her Ufe.uxoi i l " first shot of her husband entering her room framcs his now familiar i luhioc. Mabuse? Dr. This is one of several nodal points in this devious film where Lang suddenly overloads the scene with contradictory cues. I referred earlier to Travers bursting into the room to protect Marión from her knife-wielding 'husband'. Wc cut lo lluother side of the ambulance interior and see Barter's assassin. I laughed when I saw them. This is the shortest of all of Lang's resurrections. he says. then kuoi I I the gun. 'those white contact lenses. knowing his growing al léction for Marión whom he rescued from a suicide attempt. ultimately.i \\ assume that this terrified woman is married lo Dr. Now we hear there is another 'doctor' (the real Dr. the slimy manager of the Hotel Luxor. As we are processing this new information. The clubfooted man. blindly following mr.. Berg tells Travers he can help him increase his knowledge of this mysterious woman. a lwo-way mirror. recalling again the alibi for the assassination of Barter which opened the film. reprised from The Woman in the Wiiiiliw. an action which hardly seems to phase Marión. the clubfoot. n l si m i» Marión. while appearing lo be an i i n l m a r v m i m n m M. Mabuse. his disguise Ic. with Lang himself as the agent of n a u a i Throughout The Thousand Eyes ofDr. his models being B-movies. a scene staged. but makes us feel more lost than ever. If this latest avatar of Mabuse recycles the earlier master crimina I's ¡ n. Jordán. Dr. i tean identity and aspires to his position of grand enunciator.srs Travrrs l i .466 THE F I L M S OF F R I T Z LANG THE C I R C L E GLOSES é<7 tiger Berger bravely battles in The Tiger of Eschnapur)?™ But Lang reveáis that OH nelius's fakery is diegetic when the seemingly comic character of Mistelzwcii. was still alive. had asked if she would marry him if she were free. presumably for her own protection. Who has given the assassin orders to kill this man? The staging of this false murder. Berg takes Tr. something to be desired. but a complex arranging of spectatorship. the one who gave the orders. pulling the sheet olí liimself'. After this seeming madman threatens Marión with a knife. Suddenly he stirs. . transparent from l l i i s room. our informant is suddenly killed. not only involves role-playing. but alive. which allows .nvrs i n l o (he room which adjoins Marion's and reveáis behind a dosel «loor vvli. Travers bursls i n l n the room.1 • l< u v i « . covered with a sheet. Dr. 'jnsl like (lio Doctor said it would. The man we thought was dead. This outright surreal image is realistically-motivated by a plot device involving surveillance and voyeurism. the ultímate control of the I i 1111 ¡ • i with the narrator and author.w l u l o Marion's prívate lile. as she kissrs 11 i 111 passionately. Travrr:. has now been removed from the film. After Marión Ménil tells Travers that the sadistic a ñ i l \ i i i i . of howto dispose of the dead body without causing a scandal. we realise. When < • i nelius's exclamation of 'murder!' over the phone to Kras seems to literally 11 ir. Marión comforts Travers who is slimncd l > y having killed a man. . Marion's physuim.il lif i . dcloi nn'il Ion! l i i i m p l i n g mi l l i i . a l l m v i i i r . as he fires and we hear the off screen scream of the clubfoolecl man. and now is really dead. I ti u i Lang has demonstrated over and over again. Mabuse characters are framed w i l h i n pl-a devised by others without the characters being aware of their own manipulat ion i these unseen forces. we assumed (because he said so) that he was the doctor. I am. Tlir dead man will be taken out with the doctor claiminghe is the still-living v i i l i i u ni a heart attack. H » > M I The device even has a speaker.1 'technical device'. Mabuse. since he enters the room by smashing through a large mirror. with which she tries to defend herself. the cut expressing cause and effecl. Lang is visualising Cornelius/Mabui command over the plot as an apparent control of the editing of the film i t s r l l . Mabuse falls dc. si^n have of Dr. and also of his putting her under surveillance. Left alone in the hotel.< the assassin's action through a direct cut. is not dead. and whom Jordán and the others were pretending was still alive. it worked. li » acters with his own manipulation of the film viewer. A few scenes earlier.<'. but by whom and for whom? The one visual sign we had of Mabuse's identity. Jordán told Travers he would later announce that the man eventually died of a heart attack. that is. film directing. really is alive. 'Well. but certainly an emblematic one in its mise-en-abíme of reversáis and contradictions. . she adds.l< iidlii cues. exclamation becoming a command. bringing the ambulance from his clinic to the holcl.' But then his off screen look becomes starlled. 'Shoot him!' The clubfooted Dr. luturistic rifle at his shoulder. The metaphor here is literal. But Lang parallels the fates of these blindly manipuláis I .

embracing the roses lovingly and then collapsing in tears. showering the scene with shards of glass. Lang's camera remains in Marion's room.Travers' position as spectator. It is only after this scene that Travers turns to the manager and denounces 'this appalling spectacle'. after Travers breaks through the mirror and enters the scene and shoots the husband. Even more astounding. will try to maintain against the reality he palholoc.a shot of Marión and her husband framed within a televisión monitor. cutting between her and her husband. polishing the surface.>l»i'. lias bocn i |<l y d(x loi. Travers acts out in this SUMIÓ Ihc fantasy sccnario (lliri:. A messenger arrives with the roses Travers sent her.'. althougll lio i.its reverse angle . Our understanding of this drama therefore remains incomplete without considering the other side of the scene .. however. Traví ri heroismissimplya roledovisod Ibrhim w i l l i i n Mabuso's plot. until Travers bursts through the mirror. But.iii I' . Through the early part of thc scene Lang altérnales between shots filmed from within Marion's room and shols from the other side of the mirror. as Marión puts on her lipstick inches away from him. It is from this room and through this window/mirror that Travers later watches the drama of Marión Ménil's encounter with her clubfooted husband and then enters abruptly into the scene.and whidí boca . or showing Travers watching. Lang's framing of visión gets even more complicated. Before the scene grows violent. As the action turns violent. After Dr. the figure of a man passes in front of it. then an unidentified hand enters the frame and turns the monitor off..i vers the mirror was first installed for a jealous husband who wanted to 'catch h¡s w i I < in the act') plays an important role here with many echoes in Lang's earlier films. and through another 'technical device' — not a two-way mirror this time. I \ Y . In other words. warning Marión that her husband was coming to the Hotel Luxor. running the vacuum cleaner and then. and will be a phony corpsi But is Travers' spectatorship of the little play arranged for him the true 'other side' of this scene. Talk about mise-en-abímel Travers watches this scene believing it is real and that no-one knows he is watching. Lang cuts on the action of the husband falling to another high angle view of his 'death'.I i l . The camera repositions itsell.ovni lii. framed again on the same monitor. as Lang cuts from the window side to the mirror side within Marion's room. one we cannot lócate in any familiar space or location — oxcept recognising i h n l il ¿ippears on televisión. Lang interrupts his pattern of alternation between shots in Marion's room and shots from Travers' room and introduces .\ i l n .1 transparent partition.468 THE FILMS OF F R I T Z LANG THE CIRCLE GLOSES 469 one to hear whatever happens in the next room.ii. but a televisión monitor. Lang reveáis that someone else is also watching it..nrwsnvl in /''»/)') or madness (Mío liallucinations < > l ( !n i'. both erotic and investigative. she ran from Travers' hotel suite back to her own room. the no place and every place of late modernily. from Lang's traditional topographic high angle viewpoint.1 doepcr reality. Explaining he is hardly the sort of man who finds spying charming. In a sonso. We see the monitor sitting above a control panel of dials.IM only . which penetrated through the surface to an emblema I ¡e ivvd. Tho visionary moment. the scene recalls Chris Cross's witnessing of the love s< n n between Kitty and Johnny in Scarlet Street which was similarly framed through . like a theatre curtain drawing back.v h]' lili' M/rr/ 1 ) < .1 .IMV. Jordán called.illy (Ionios. the character for whom the scene has been arranged. incorporating Travers watching unobserved through the gl. Therefore yet another reverse angle to this scene exists. so crucial lo Lang's Weimar films . Lang antici pating through composition a fact not yet revealed (that we are watching a scene staged in order to further involve and compromise Travers and make him suscep I i I > 11 • to Mabuse's manipulation). At first we see the maid cleaning the room. right after the husband wags his finger at Marión and declares. But besides hinting at the fictive and illusory qualily < > l this staged scene.literally from nowhere .iss heightens the theme of voyeurism and surveillance so central to this film. Before we learn that this was a scene staged for his benefit. never'. as Marión enters the room and has the maid help her hook her bra and then pulís on her slip. somewhat contradictorily. a primal scene of jealousy. Lang immediately introduces the voyeuristic aspects of this set-up. Lang cuts to Travers in close-up staring. although the cióse framing does not reveal if anyone is watching. either framing the action through the mirror. framing the room as the husband knocks at her door. I I < . nicely. i Iroil n i flfí i u. Again Lang intercuts his gaze as he watches this presumably private moment of Marión smiling as she reads his note. the lover hears his bclovc > l proclaim her love for him (as Marión confesses to the clubfooted man that as 11 u u 11 as she hates him she loves Travers) and then heroically rescues her from A nnmlo attack. as the husband tells Marión that after 'her theatrical suicide attempt the papers were full of her and her new lover'.n i is (klilious. Framing the scene in this manner emphasises its theatrical quality. He sudes back the covering for the mirror. A . both that he wants the place boarded up and that he will rent the room as an additional apartment. becoming either aisimilflted w i i l i i< • lni. He cuts on this action to Travers likewise opening the door to the closet in the adjoining room containing the two-way mirror. lir I i ros blanks inl» l l » man who is a phony linsband. M M . i > > ! .IV problcnialic in Mío Hollywood films. of course. In The Thousand Eyes however. revealing the scent1 in the next room. Lang shows her rifling through her purse and then opening a closet door. The crol ii dimensión of the obsessed and potentially jealous lover (the manager had tokl 'l'i. Travers indicates.. its ultímate reverse angle? In this game of Chinese boxes. As it fades to black. i .'lií-plicn l l y n i c ¡M //(iif. 'You'll never be free of me. The shot continúes the argument between husband and wife without a glitch.

but in its origin and history . Walter Benjamín. but the terms he uses to refer to Mabuse . In its place. i l i o n .un of modernity since Lang's earliesl films. Therefore his video surveillance simply úpgrades or fulfils the original Nazi intentions (remember that televisión was more completely developed and put into operation in Berlin under the Third Reich than in any other country before the end of World War II).ipply as well to Hitler. Rather.19 But it is not primarily in terms of television's supplanting of cinema I luí Lang introduces the new technology here.ang's elaim.\t esi/aping. The Site of Remembering and Forgetting in Late Modernity In its buildings. this other side reveáis only another observer. u n í l l i . Every scene possesses another side. or as Mistelzweig puts it. Two spies dancing with each other: he spies on Travers. mankind is preparing to outlive culture. you can't just switch off either. Only much later does Lang reveal the nature and source of these video images that suddenly pop up in the middle of scenes. The mesh oí'visual observation has simply beCOme finer. he claims. Dr. who is herself revealed to be a spy for Commissioner Kras (as Mistelzweig is later revealed to be an Interpol agent). 'There was a curse on this place from the start'. Marión explains in Ihe lilm's lm. I le h. i l control room:'Irom lien 1 lir watches every room in the luilcl. The next cut brings us IXK k into the primary diegesis without missing a beat.'a nuulman or a genius' . an incident Cornelius revealed to him on their first meeting. 'That's something no-one could know. and make them easier to spy on. due to some electronic interference.. As Travers receives an important message from his business assistant.470 THE F I L M S OF F R I T Z LANG THE C I R C L E G L O S E S 471 appear in this film in the parody of Dr. with hardly . Jordan/Cornelius/Mabuse received from the hotel managers the original Gestapo plans for this hotel panopticon. the centre of both Lang's and Mabuse's plot lies in the Hotel Luxor itself. 'But I was alone'.1 further elaboration of the culture offfUrvSÜlflllCSihal has characterised the leí i . Lang's duplicitous narration again in full operation.is ¡ntcndcd as a l l i l l e r figure. (lien lie j'lays his míe as dairvoyant. 'he had great power. without offering any clue to its function or location.. Mabuse comes from this sense of a science-fiction story already come true. The hotel. was constructed as a place to gather all the foreign diplomats under one roof. ballroom. The Hotel Luxor. yet baffling.illo I u i every room of the Hotel Luxor (as well as the corridors. such as the cut Travers received on his finger from a broken glass. i l l'lic 'It'sluint'iil of Dr. somewhere. threatens to rupture the whole diegesis. a building with a history. Cornelius's phony visions and seances. threatening exposure and blackmail. We were actually watching our protagonista on televisión.ivlereiices in '/'/.' Thus Cornelius's pretended visions not only predict events he himself has planned. entirely outside the diegesis? Lang only threatens such modernist.an almost magical means of surveillance. Lang presents a world saturated with observation. nearly comic.. the televisión cameras insi. developing the sense of over-exposure from his last Hollywood films. 'Experience and Poverty'20 Mistelzweig locates the fate of the Luxor in its original construction (its cornerstone laid in May 1944) under the Third Reich. simply be the viewpoint of another audience. the transition from the film médium to the regime of electronii imagery. he speaks of himself as Mabuse's heir. Could these images. The revelation of t h i s added frame is bizarre. The low visual resolution of the shot registers immediately. 'they see and hear everything'. When (Jornelius reveáis himself to Travers in the hotel's control room in the film's penulI uñate scene. but reveal details of one's life no-one else could have witnessed.' While Lang's last film does offer a grim accbunt of the triumph of televisión. as Marión reacts to Traver»' sudden absorption in business matters with a line which (at least in its English vci sion) seems to pun on the bizarre visual transformation we just witnessed: 'Yon ser. narrative self-reflexivity. heard everything. as if we were suddenly watching a poorly duped print. The camera pulís back. its horoscope. but instead of moving away from the couple and revealing more of the bal I room. the camera dollies in on the monitor. Mistelzweig explains at one point that buildings have horoscopes and fates just as people do. with a plan for all mankind' coulil . the frame of a televisión monitor comes into view and a control panel below it. certainly mysterious. Mahuse was a prescient protest against (he Thii'il U e i i l i .ilxisc vv.' As Crary claims. Mu. Mistelzweig explains. a world without secrets. the image on the monitor dissolves for a moment into horizontal bantls. since it remains unexplained. Part of the untimely feeling of The Thousand Eyes of Dr. and bars) . this new médium fulfils a long-standing technological fantasy in Lang's cinema. as a piece of panoptic architecture and as a place in time.<• Tliinimintl /i')'»1* <>/ />'"• . watching Lang's fil«i on televisión.and puzzling over . we learn. this seamless. lí l. As Marión later explains to Travers. the moment of the laying of their cornerstone marking the moment of their bírth and the setting of their fate. subject to technological scrutiny by faceless functionaries.m. In his first films Lang had already glimpsed the total exposure of the terrain of modernity. But Lang withholds this explanation until long after we have been seeing . rather than marking the eclipse of an older mode of representation by a newer one. swallowing the frame. nuist partly be seen as a relrospeí hvc r \ a ^ > c i .these intrusive video images. we wonder.i\. creating a new level of narration that. From this perspective as well.il scenes. Televisión in The ThousandEyes ofDr. a theme he had broached already in his last Hollywood films. as the lovers are trapped in Muluise's « ' i i i i . i l i . The startling impact of this sudden eruption of the televisión image on the film viewer comes largely from its unexplained nature. i l M. it was conceived as part of the Nazi system. while she spies on him! Lang cuts from the blonde delivering her report on Mistelzweig to Kras in the hotel bar back to the ballroom with a shot of Travers and Marión in the foreground as they discuss the possibility of her getting a divorce from her tyrannical husband.its heritage. Mabuse simply realises the role Lang had envisioned for it in his science-fiction scenarios already visualised in Metrópolis and even Spiders . Although their dialogue continúes. is honeycombed with suryeillance video cameras which convey televisión images to a secret control room. The secret of the Hotel Luxor lies not only in the thousand video eyes seeded through its ceilings and walls. strangely anachronistic in its futuristic wonder at technology already in place.crn everything. pictures and stories. transition from one médium to another could reflect the grand transformation in media and technology ilicn occurring. The first of these images intervenes in a sequence already filled with traditional means of surveillance: Mistelzweig dances cióse to Travers and Ménil with a busty blonde. Travers marvelled. if need be. but instead of penetrating to a depth of truth and revelation. whether incriminating or minor. But the hotel did not simply come into being under the Nazis.

u x i i r 's l i i i l d c n oonlrol morir. The total shape of Lang's career is once again clarified by his last Germán film.472 THE FILMS OF F R I T Z L A N G THE C I R C L E GLOSES 473 Mabuse to the survival of Nazi ambitions in postwar Germany cannot be denied. at the nadir of Lang's Hollywood career. A few years after World War II. The entire world explodes with Homeric laughter.ivr struck Lang. I find Lang's allusive and indirect invocatíon of the Nazis in The Thousand Eyes ofDr. involving an American businessman in Europe mistaken for the liaison of a neo-Nazi group because he is unwittingly wearing a necktie selected as a signal by the group. it is embedded in the structure of things. It does not matter any more if Mabuse is alive or dead.. and a central love affair. never disavowed this background. Bul . and more abstract and technological . Lang's buildings act as devices . between House by the River and An American Guerrilla in the Philippines. In a sigh of relief. The complete amnesia displayed about Mabuse by pólice and others obviously stands in on one level for a Germán desire to forget the Third Reich. and facilítate their observation as much as to provide shelter. would be guaranteed by the punch-line discovery that the voice of Hitler.machines . Mabuse shows many inadequacies: poor performances. 'Here Speaks L B 2'. As grand machines . alternatively. The terror re-emerges only as a farce and the world rejoices as a nightmare that threatened to become recurring is dispelled. Mabuse more powerful than most of his overtly anti-Nazi films of the Hollywood era for this very reason. The American businessman is persuaded to help agents of the United Nations track down the source of these broadcasts. and even his forays into art cinema. caught in images and locales. But inadequacy of representation in this case refers to more than simply the gulf between high art and low art that film criticism. to combine popular genres with artistic ambitions. so often finds itself contemplating. bul ihc possibility of resuscitating Mnbnsc or I litler through I lio technology of imit. llu.24 Rather than inert structures.let alone tluentire world's . '. in a burst of lauglilcr. Lang filed a story outline with the Screen Writers' Guild. Lang envisioned this sketch as a comedy adventure film. But with this last film the trajectory of the whole series becomes clear. For all its ability to crystallise and sum up many of Lang's themes. The legend of Hitler is destroyed. no-one can deny that.joy and relief were premature. having survived the war and preparing a comeback. the experience of modernity is less represented than allegorised. Within the conventional adventure topoi of popular genres like the detective story. The erotics of voyeurism and the lust for knowledge gained through visual surveillance are more effective than literal hypnosis in creating enthralled spectators. l l n 1 l . i i n l i i •. the comic tone he wished to bring to this search through the often nightmarish and constantly surreal landscape of postwar Europe.istiuii.I Icniplí. condemned for being the popular entertainer he always wanted to be.23 The Hotel Luxor exemplifies and gathers together Lang's grasp of the terrain of modernity and his specifically architectural approach to allegory. entitled 'The Story of L B 2' or. but because his methods have become absorbed into the structure of the all-pervasive technological system of modernity. as much as in the predictable plots. unfolding emblems in their manifold spatial structures. As Adorno stated. The group is raising funds for the return of Hitler and it announces the signs by which its agents can be recognised through broadcasts over short-wave radio delivered in a voice which purports to be the voice of Hitler himself. Insome ways The Thousand Eyesof I>r.Lang's ultímate Destiny-machines . they decided to exploit this desperate desire for the return of Hitler.I K . Experts listen to the broadcasts and clearly identify the voice of the Führer. Mabuse retells 'The Story of I. seemingly from beyond the grave.uvly IHTH 1 treated in terms of the postwar processíng of the Nazi trauma in Germany. But these admitted inadequacies cannot diminish the more dominant control and precisión of imagery.'21 In this sketch Lang tries loi once to tell the story of an unsuccessful resurrection as an outright comedy. with its expcrience of the Hollywood blacklist and the congealing of the Cold War musí h. Mabuse's scenes can now be staged in intimate hotel rooms. like many Germán emigres.these buildings always contain secrets. designed to channel their movement. ihc M .between signifier and signified. Thus Lang at both ends of his career (and indeed throughout his Hollywood period) was accused of creating kitsch rather than art. Lang proposes a visión of Germán history which sees continuity rather than rupture and which refuses to either memorialise or forget the past. not simply because his legacy can créate any number of avatars. but references to current events render that thesis untenable. a gap ." Allhough l. In addition. unlike styles of realism or naturalism. Lang began within the genre of 'sensation films'. stretches of uninspired story-telling.in. particularly any criticism which takes the idea of an author seriously. Like Mabuse's technology. the broadcasts are simply a con game carried out by a Hungarian vaudevillian and his Germán accomplice who made livings before the war imitating Hitler.Mili ilis.. allegory always acknowledges an inadequacy of representation. very much in the mode of Hitchcock's later North by Northwest. Mabuse without needing to be rendered visible. H 2'. The entire world gives a sigh of relief. and the spectators no longer need hypnosis to become fascinated and manipulable.ang's f i l m luis r. Lang believes the world can forget its recent trauma.regulating the behaviour of those within.s icsnlls. but rather sought ways to exploit the immediacy of the mass médium of film at the same time as refining its visual langüage. On the one hand. Lang ends his treatment for the film with the statement: 'The world learns the identity of the self-proclaimeil Führer. At first they believe the broadcasts are simply a montage patched together from recordings of Hitler's earlier speeches. Surprised at the willingness of Germans to dónate to this hopeless cause. But Lang's .ilion and hroadcíist no longer ends in hiuj'Jik-i. Mabuse's will-to-power becomes at every stage less overtly theatrical and melodramatic (albeit always involved in the staging of scenes and the creation of spectators). The decade of the 50s. Ultimately it is revealed that rather than a neo-Fascist resurgence. as the possible return oían all-too-famil iar cycle. architecture for Lang primarily expresses structures of domination. One might object that Lang's cops and robbers story remains an inadequate médium for describing the Nazi legacy.more invisible. The Nazi past pervades The Thousand Eyes ofDr. there are the secrets built into the structures which provide the source of their power: Mabuse's secret counterfeiting plañí. editing and genre logic that also characterise Lang's final film. next to a film like M. Thus Lang returns for this last film to the lócale that defined the detective story for Kracauer as an allegory of modern experience. For Lang. The Thousand Eyes ofDr. modes of behaviour and types of objects. is nothing more than a simple swindle. the soporific qualities of which contrast sharply with its prototype in the truly sensual love affair between Tremaine and Sonja in Spies. powerful because it lacks a spectacular presence.if not an abyss . the modern hotel.u h i ñ e rooms of which Freder knows nothing and which his lalher slrives lo kcrp ioiucaled Ironi hini in Metrópolis. the Nazi experience defines the limits of representation. less personal. As Frieda Grafe claims.oí llu 1 goddess lienealli Hschnapur ¡rilo which I V i r r i \ \ . the spy centre concealed w í l h i n llaghi's hmik. the main commodity the Weimar cinema offered for export..

as he describes his already foiled plan of world domination to Travers ('with your rockets I could have controlled the universe and sent it into chaos: I could have pushed the proverbial button . calling out his various ñames . Jordán into the hotel and then into the elevator. I ain nol dome. Lang is fascinated by passageways. He is talking about you. transitory spaces. seems to proceed directly to the lobby. But Mistelzweig finds their flaw: an elevator car which leaves one floor.lorrain o! modernity . but Lang ivlused to particípate. But when he emerges from the control room and gets on the elevator he depends bn the last resort of Haghi in Spies. and would claim as its audience the new populace of the century .uly made two more. has international relevance and truly demarcates an epoch.Dr. This promise may now sound hollow. intending to talk about Baudelaire. a period almost synchronous with Lang's career. and ending with the emergence of televisión as the new dominant médium.before he declares that the escaping man is Dr. which. identifies him. especially those new configurations of space and linio ¡h. Mabuse released in Germany in 1960. pul it/1 said. Thus. The true detective of this film. particularly of what Eric Hobsbawm has termed the 'short twentieth century' lasting from 1914 to 1991. As the new art of a new century. l'. Michel Butor. the intermediary spaces which join up other spaces. Mabuse has sunk bencath the surfaiv nevcr lo rcturn? Hrauner wantcil inore Mabuse films. Jordan/Mabuse demónstrales his visual control . the catacombs. from its establishment as a stable narrative form to its growing acknowledgement. but its door opens on emptiness. Mistelzweig.i lo uvate images adecúate lo tlicm: monlage. the pólice plotting the getaway car's cour.'25 A total of three more Mabuse films were made in West Germany without Lang. the period it covers. role-playing and mutual observation.the masses. Cornelius .ii|i vic u. like all of Lang's Destiny-machines. but also because his films focused on themes of visión and representation. Mabuse. . One can't avoid seeing Lang's development as expressing something of the essence of this history. The ensuing car chase proceeds across the terrain of modernity. this phrase may have lost its original promise of a radically new art form. The dark water of the river swallows Mabuse's car . Mistelzweig. in the elevator mirror. I have succeeded only in talking about myself. Thompson and Staíger as the era of the 'Classical Hollywood Cinema'. the first machine art). It would certainly mean more to say it is Baudelaire who was talking about me. and the curse that broods over the Luxor dwells in its cornerstone with its fatal date. not only the lobby.28 Cinema recorded not only the stories and evcnls of the twentieth century. The elevators with their dials and succession of illuminated numbers (which Mistelzweig counts off as he watches) exemplify the abstraction that characterised Lang's Destiny-machines. the anonymity of his undisguised face. but the term now also takes on a retrospective and historical dimensión. but the function remains the same. Jordán.although the images we see reveal pólice arriving and searching the hotel . lie had once more killed llu 1 son oí . Mistelzweig realises the elevator made a stop on a floor not indicated on the dials. parallels precisely the period marked out by Bordwell. but also its forms of aesthctk's and experience. in both mode of production and film style. Mark Lamphere's forgotten childhood secrets are enshrined in his seventh room and their discovery leads directly to the destruction of his ancestral home. and I cannot stop it. and on the agonistic nature of enunciation in a new médium. Throughout Lang's career. Mistelzweig positions himself to observe both elevator and lobby. there remains an aspect of most of these buildings. a place of meetings. slating Berlin to become a city of ruins. forgotten by the master of Metrópolis. when Nazis ruled and when the tide had turned in the war. false be. works against total control. the revolt within Metrópolis arises from its deepest and most ancient level. Jean-Luc Godard Fritz Lang's career. at least partly. The Death of Cinema. the vast numbers of workers finally granted some time for entertainment and immediately targeted by commercial entreprenéurs. but the corridors and elevators.1 bik'li. Mabuse monitoring the pólice communications over the short-wave radio."No. . In spite of a number of projects Lang proposed after The Thousand Eyes. noting the entrance of Dr. Histoire Extmordinaire26 1 await the death of cinema with optimism. until Mabuse makes a sharp turn off a barricaded bridge and his car plunges into the river below. film was frequently referred to as the 'art form of the twentieth century'. He removes his makeup. this was his last film. fulfilled. the secret floor of Mabuse's command centre where Travers and Marión are held hostage.and I would have!'). As we enter into the twenty-first century (having already clocked cinema's first century). sixteen years after his final film.se on the autobahn. However. M i | i r i imposilion. of the emerging electronic media. He died in 1976 in Hollywood. and noting the contradiction in the numbers illuminated on its control board in the lobby. the conspirators of Eschnapur will be destroyed by their own undermining of the city's foundations. In The Thousand Eyes ofDr.ivc irnnril ilu. from his first scripts for Joe May in 1917 to The Thousand Eyes of Dr. its tastes and fashions. As I aiii). penetrales into the secret of the Luxor by observing the hotel's elevators. Like Emily in Housc by lite Kan. on issues of technology and modernity. flash b.isl motion. film made use of new technology (following in the wake of photography. The public and heterogeneous space of the classical hotel lobby typified for Kracauer the modern terrain of me detective story. ilosi.Lang's recurren! image of temporary oblivion.experiences which often called on I I T M I S I i inrm.27 Although the focus of that epoch-marking book in film studies is specifically American. ironically because it was. erotic encounters. Lang's total career encompasses this central period of film history. the realm of alienated experience. May 1944.kk. Cinema and Death Some may consider that.474 THE FILMS OF F R I T Z LANG T H E C I R C L E GLOSES 475 if these secret centres of power allow the buildings to accomplish their work of subjection.il I li. not only because he made influential films within this period. Mabuse.molí KT. beginning with the stabilisation of feature-film-making with a style based on the dramatic analysis of space through editing. who has been watching I he elevator carefully. the space of meetings and encounters shifts slightly to the hotel bar just off the lobby (with Lang constructing a set which often looks onto the lobby just beyond). Film was the art form of the twentieth century. Standing at the control panels and switching on and off his various cameras whose images appear on a bank of monitors in the background." I le | llnuincrl lias aliv. dissolve.ml and wig. Often this is figured not only in spatial terms but in temporal ones: the space which cannot be controlled contains in some sense the building's own history or even pre-history.

the play between impersonation and modernity to establish a realm of transcendence that the central paradox of Lang's disguise. In lln. allowing us to understand that their dream of total control was necessarily which the city of Metrópolis was founded. especially as his career moved through the rise of Fascism. uncovering its assumptions as well as its fantasies. World into the human realm of history). But instead of opening upon the vistas of eternil y. espe own creation go. to make an audience the twentieth century documents the systematic entrapment of mankind in its own both grasp and reflect upon this experience through a new form of story-telling.ibly ¡mpossibility.Lang rediscovered trio tion of the central role of surveillance in the modern assertion of power. He understood how to use forgetting. Lang himself seems at points to have been subject to this century. but the traces of another possibility shine through in his ability to capmontage structures not only to portray the interlocking conditions of space and ture the eruption of a desire for something else. He creations . As a visual médium. revealing its possibilhumans. and ended only in madness. or Platonic ideas. But I firmly believe that Lang himself understood the importance of letting his mourning. that cinema would provide the image by which the twentieth difficult to awake from. and identification and apprehension.s w. they lay parí I y hopes for the fulfilment of its promise.476 THE F I L M S OF F R I T Z LANG THE C I R C L E GLOSES 477 Fritz Lang's cinema is impregnated with the history of the century in which it physical forces. more fully. As I have indicated. and proposing a contest between a traditional romantic artist and a soulless new that Liliom discovered in the celestial waiting rooms.1 modern proccss in whidí tlu.mankind's thrall to a technological realm as threatening as the frozen likewise understood that the cinema would have to provide the twentieth century and inert Odenwald. and celébrate the mysteries of a new syncretic religión authorship dictated by the cinema opened doors for Lang as a film-maker rather that could reconcile man and technology. while Metrópolis always remains a complex and his grasp. an enchantment any other director. than themselves. Lang always conveyed the limited view of his hubristic charof things. his initial utopian of modernity. Lang understood. outside history. labouring and managerial classes. it could render visible meanings that lay marked with an identity which can be categorised and archived. in fact. Lang was perhaps even problems) and its past (as the equally allegorical image of the way myth descends more aware.i . in Imnlof. But as an author Lang's visionary moments represented sudden piercing insights into the empl mcss embodied in his films. This forgetting is itself a destiny. But the central argument of this reading of his films has been that Lang's their systematic nature.iy lh. i i l n . What is often termed Lang's paranoia could more accurately be . a struggle which he I have used the term Destiny-machine to indícate that Lang's essential visión oí knew was comlemnal to lailure. Vision in Langis like . that terrain was founded on the collapse of such transcen new mechanical and systematically industrial médium of motion pictures. of discovering the limits of his own control and authorship.in^'s aulhorship is not rcdiidblc lo n romanlic. Working methods of allegory and forged an analogy between cinema and traditional within the popular genres of the detective story and the spy thriller. It did more. or prison in terms of ence. . If one finds fascist tendencies in Lang's Weimar work. If I cially during the Weimar period.iv I . Lang's repeated tale of the Lang's films never truly succeed in doing this. would grasp itself.machines are made by films do not simply reflect that history. idealislic framed. Lang as film-maker of time. I use the image of the machine not only to convey occurred. No visión of heaven or bliss was adequate to the modern terrain he porWhen I claim that Lang worked out the agonistic relation of the author in the trayed so well. he claimed. the disenchantment that Max Weber had described to Lang's generation. supplies an allegory for authorship in film.ipparently closed and inescap. of the other side of sight. or the maiden's visión of the presente' oí beyond the grasp of the artist's hand.ilcs ihrough apparenl surLucs lo notion oí gi'iiius. Huí llirsr u i u l n l y i n g slnictuivs are 1 not nieta i m p r i n l oí s o i i c l v . Lang portrayed beneath the surface of everyday experience. his fascination with the realms of experience it opens up. exile. cinema lies. In a systematic society everyone is record the visual world. Lnn^'s crimináis or obsessed painters. Lang's authors. but also their constructedness . This is not to say that visión did not play a role in Lang's cinema. Lang's own Death at her wedding table in Der mude Tod. the all things within an objectified field of visión..111 x r.a u t h o r Ix-ars lluthe slniclures (hal undcrlic thein. and perceive them as powers within conditions as well as its desires. But I adopt the idea of destiny to indícate that the machines become so ities as well as its actualities. Bul than simply providing obstacles. But it is perhaps in the failure of both the efficacy and failures of this system. Lang's bitterness expresses disappointment in his temptation to créate a cinema that could supply this realm of transcendence. But above all. he was too honesi one never doubts his delighted embrace of the possibilities of the new technology of to créate a counter realm of transcendent meaning to balance out the bitter lessons cinema. but to nárrate breathtaking tales of suspense and danger. Die Nibelungen films mark the dea 111 defeat of a grand enunciator as he sees the system he thought he controlled elude song of myth rather than its rebirth. is primarily worked <>ul tions. ll i. on the one hand. War II and its Cold War aftermath. On the contrary. while Lang's view of modernity may be bleak at points. cinema did not simply drama of observation the central modern drama.il pi'ncli.a utopian dream he shared with many of the first generation of narrative film viewed as his understanding of the systematic nature of modernity and his realisamakers. with visions of both its future (as the allegorical mirror of contemporary social Thus while visión has a piercing and revelatory side.v . Therefore the new terms of renew the ancient myths. attempt to control his films as a director so totally was agonistic.illenipl lo provide an image of . whether Freder's visión of the voracious destruction of the workcrs on acters. Although no film-maker was more drawn to magic than Lang. the attempt to control Lang likewise meditated*on the unique visual power of this new médium. Lang's asseiliou oí aulhorship in cinema enacted the drama of its own in terms of being systematic and i n h u m a n . this new médium would always outrun his intenmodernity. médium. on the other. I know of no other director who has key. with the present rather than nostalgia for the past. all are undone by their own creations. the era of late modernity. its powerful humans forget they made them. a fate. I am not dence. Pursuing his belief in the promise of the new médium as a universal language pitiless observation..s i . to its transformation of culture and creation of a new mass audias thoroughly pictured the modern world in terms of prison.world architects allegories remain what Benjamín declared the genre to be: a form that shows <\g after transcendence whilemaster remaining fixed within an immanent oí and novelists. whether flawed allegory rather than an inauguration of a new mythology or cult.uní hislory in llu. his insight into the century in which he worked. from Griffith and Chaplin to Eisenstein and Vertov . but speculate upon it. I would claim. Lang made this metaphors of visión and revelation. were writing a biography I don't think I could make this claim.

if not most. not only for Lang's own treatment of death. although I remember it a bit differently. experiencing again that evanescent beauty which Baudelaire saw as the particular domain of the modern arts. I spent an evening with.\l clernily. Here two coloured balls come bouncing down the stairs to meet her and then. or whited out. Few artists have shown how difficult this work of mourning can be. Closer examination showed it read: 'The dead never leave you.c oí . After acknowledgement must come mourning. chronicling its century of imagery in his Histoire du Cinema. Lang's films do not so much portray the twentieth century as mourn for it. The author's hand here erases as well as writes. but is a personal note of Lang's and. he whispered dramatically. When the girl pushes open the door to the roof it appears magically like a Carden of Earthly Delights. Taking us into a córner he told us he no longer wanted to spend time with anybody but young people.iul midilc'iily introduces a shol liom M: llic cióse up oí llic . a way lo preserve personal immortality with the record for all ctcrnity of nol only onc'.sioi y. If Lang mourned for the twentieth century through his images. My attention was drawn to an obscure line at the bottom of the right column. but as an emblem.n vnij-. Like all of Lang's films this proposed scene combines clichés and originality. At the moment of its invcntion.suddenly finding his life invaded by a wife he hadn't seen for years and thought had divorced him.but it also doesn't describe anything specific in the film. rendering everything available. the painter Claribel Cone. Jean-Luc Go'dard (and in spite of many anecdotes I have read indicating a different personality. llic actual and the liclional lo yield an authentic iin. in some way acknowledging it. and I am treating this bit of Lang's writing not really as evidence. As she dances erotically with them.indeed acknowledgement is to a large degree the main accomplishment of the work of mourning. 'although they do not know it. but still readable? Clearly there are no answers to these questions. i l c . The resonance of this partlyobscured trace with its message expressing terror and perhaps resignation brings me back to another author who created my most indelible image of Lang the author. a clue which might solve the mystery of Lang (it may well have no inherent significance at all).478 THE FILMS OF F R I T Z L A N G THE C I R C L E GLOSES 479 these forces. perhaps. Jean-Luc Godard has mourned for the death of cinema. The line is in Lang's handwriting. first struggling against it and finally. with [he phonograph. Or is it possible that this note does not refer to a film. Lang understood that every image of life includes the spectre of death. the Destiny-machine as eternal repetition. She begins to dance with the bouncing balls. My brief meeting with Lang was in some ways no more intense than an uncanny encounter I had years after his death with words in his handwriting. But Lang's failure to attain transcendence testifies to his refusal to disavow the reality of death. and me warmly. cinema as a historical machine at its best allows us to mourn life and time's passing. she leaves the loft and goes out to the stairwell. One might claim Lang's visión of the twentieth century was one steeped in the work of mourning.obscured. Shy and a bit fearful. dedicated to acknowledging the degree of deadliness the systematic processes of modernity have introduced.nul lorced lo r r i l n . not only in the case of master crimináis who surrounded themselves with the corpses of those they betrayed. He scorned his older friends that were also visiting him. everything repeatable. they are already dead.ij'. but also with his artists who fused acts of creation with acts of murder. Lang would have cut then to her impaled on an iron fence below. as a triumph over dealh. t . then deciding to murder her in order to maintain his new lifestyle . Succinctly in this last prívate movie Lang brought together the visionary scene and the presence of death.but we don't show' on the right. a lili 1 embalmcd . They lead her up the stairway to the roof of the building. an enigma. or how seductive the surrender to melancholia can appear. she unknowingly reaches the edge of the roof and falls. He carries a mark. particularly in the manner it was . but also a process of letting them recede. Lang chronicled the deaths of his grand enunciators. taking off her clothes. In Godard's history the world revealed by the cinema has been swallowed by video and Godard demonstrates the great and ambiguous promise of litis ncw(er) k-chnology. I had prepared a slide of a document reproduced in the wonderful volume on Lang edited by Bernard Eisenschitz and Paolo Bertetto.1" Tlns im. partly because he saw us as members of a new young generation that he felt might transform society. finally.29 A young girl has taken LSD during an orgy in a hippy loft. Mourning is not only a way of remembering the dead. as Noel Burch pointed out. in which he divided the film's opening scenes into the two columns. was it erased. Bosch and Timothy Leary. failed resurrections which. of Lang's films. instead of attaining the transcendence of the Last Judgement. and. If I sense the gesture of Lang's hand in this writing. the worlds of Kafka. like trie prisoners in Kafka's penal colony.' The exact meaning of this phrase in this context will always be a subject for speculation. 'These other people in this room'. But he also showed their creations themselves becoming images of death. Lang received my girlfriend. In i he liisi opisode in which the images and sounds of war and fascism invade ihe si icen mlcí inincJinj. a scene which is obviously the same one described by Lotte Eisner. From his first masterpiece. One could claim that nearly all Lang's films attempt to come to terms with death. as Freud indicated .s appearancc but onc's gestares. how would one define the difference between its role in his life and in his films? And why.Fritz Lang in 1970 in a hotel suite at the Sherry Netherlands in New York when I was twenty years oíd. her fate commented on caustically the next morning by passersby. bounce in front of her. partly because he felt they had made rude comments about my shoulder-length hair and Claribei's clothing. although it is not irrelevant to protagonist Tom Garrett's situation . and Lang's films again and again present characters who are haunted by the death of either loved ones (Der mude Tod). Fritz Lang: La Mise en scene. I also know it is not truly a gesture I can follow back to its source and thereby trace and recover in terms of its true meaning. It doesn't seem to fall into the category of unshown events in the film. Ultimately.»<l. if so. Is it a more general comment? It certainly could apply to many. 'What the audience sees and knows' on the left and 'What happened .ige oí hi. the man I met in 1970 was the man I saw on the screen in Contempt). as well as the devious promise of desire in what he saw as the 60s generation's attempt to transform the world through sensual ecstasy. as if possessed of a will of their own. it remains an invitation to speculation. or victims (House by the River) or both (Scarlet Street). they were also imprinted on him. the cinema was received. enlarged as I projected it on the screen for my class. Lang's films narrated attempts to undo the work of death. the pursuit of which could be endless. but seems to have been partially erased. Miucssion oí gcslurcs . mourning its unfulfilled promises while acknowledging its cruelties and delights. u n í words is worthy of Lang's most terrifying nightmares. but for his role as author. onc's words. Rather than denying death through a simulacrum of life. in one more parable about the fragility of desire and the triumph of death. of overcoming the haunting of the living by the dead. As much as Lang's hand shaped his films. Instead. Lang's notes for Beyond a Reasonable Doubt.1 nrvn v. Der mude Tod. merely demonstrated the presence of death-in-life. already dead\' He described a scene from a film he wanted to make about my generation.

pp. p. Fritz Lang: The Nature ofthe Beast. 1981). The trace which remains invites me not to become losl in infinite speculation. Gerard Gillespie (Austin. I lowcvcr. The one I am describing appears in the recent reconstruction of Mby the Munich Film Museum and Taurus Film.'d'í '/d. Gerard Genette. IL: University of Chicago Press. August 1997. p. vanishes. See also Wayne Booth. 129. at least by implication. Praetice: Selected Essays and Interviews ed. Cinema and thePolitics of Culture (London: BFI. 1978). MA: Harvard University Press. pp. Patrick McGilligan. specifically authorship in the cinema. Michel Foucault. 1999). ready to imprint it on Beckert's back. but he also disappears. in Jenkins (ed. Fritz Lang: The Image and the Loo* (London BFI. l i i i h i . but to return again to Lang's films. NEl Univct'sily <»l Nrln iisl ' l ' i ' . perhaps. But the phrase also holds for me the key to all modern authorship. Bouchard. the act of inscription. trans. Irans. MA: Harvard University Press.¡vi'n in lile film derives priinarily froni MauriceBlanchot's i'ssay 'I litldi'i l i n . trans. Donald Bouchard and Sherry Simón (Ithaca. (he analysis is nol ¡den t i t a I and 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I3 I'I . The dead never leave you. we can see that part of the author's task in erasing is clearing a space for a new inscription. P. Most certainly it refers to the way cinema has provided the imagery of our memories of the war and the holocaust. pp. Jane E.. 152. 1977). trans.). Peter Wollen. 208-9. beginning perhaps with the Nazi attempt to not only elimínate the Jews and other victims. See Jacques \. Counter-Memory. ed.. of course. In Godard's video. 2 Thomas Elsaesser..l 13-38. An important exception is Colín MacCabe's 'The Revenge ofthe Author' in The Eloquence of ¡ the Vulgar: Language. 115. See also Stephen Jenkins. there are also a variety of credit sequences and credit images. but to eradicate even their memory. will destroy living memory. as well as in older prints. I ' ' í í ' ) . pp. Foucault. Aun Smock (Lincoln. and especially the authorship of Fritz Lang. 1961). 'What is an Author?'. 'The Death of the Author'. 49-55.Emblems hand being marked with the fatal letter. Foucault. pp. 'Introduction'. p. although which reaches the opposite conclusión to mine. But if we think of the way that Death in the last moments of Der mude Tod finally vanishes and thereby opens up a space for tlie lovers' reunión. 3 See. 33-42. Lewin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.6 November 1957).p.sol I l o l i l n l i i r .H. vol. 116. 1985). Jacques Rivette who first drew attention to the theme of the hand in Lang in I his review oíBeyond a Reasonable Doubt. Signs and Meaning in the Cinema.480 THE F I L M S OF F R I T Z LANG Notes Preface 1 David Bordwell's Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoríc in the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge. 1997). must sign his own death sentence. p. 'The Hand'. 7 no.p. For the modern author. 4 It was.IM un ludod in 77/c S¡>íicc o¡ Litertitiin'. trans. in TheAleph and Other Stories 1933-1969. 1%7). Fritz Lang in America (London: Studio Vista. anaesthetising our responses to them through their familiarity. Barthes. The Rhetoric ofFiaion (Chicago. 1989).•. p. 1 Die Nachtwachen des Bonaventura/The Night Watches of Bonaventura. but not without a trace. Norman Thomas Di Giovanni (New York: E. Dutton. A Biography (New York: St. Introduction: Standing Outside the Films . even if you erase them. Donald F. and trans. Roland Barthes.|>. the emblematic gesture lies not only in the writing of words but in their partial erasure. 'Traps for the Mind and Eye'. 141-4 (originally published in : i Cahiers du Cinema 7. Oneaccounl ol'lliis isjjivi'n in Peter Bogdanovich. simultaneously preserving the trace of these events for our conscience. in Language. TX: University of Texas Press. Only the hand which erases can write. NY: Cornell University Press. in The Rustle of Language. yet also. Sightand Sound.8 (NS). Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. The same or similar image appear in posters for the film. Lang appears in this writing. 1997). porin ¡. . 1989) would of course be an exception. Every author musí imagine his own death. |>p. this means many things. to watch again these asseí 11 blies of words and images and sounds which are among the most precious records of the twentieth century. Martin's Press. 53. Ibid. Theanalysi. 1998). 'The Hand' in Cahi Hiller (Cambridge.7. Since there are a variety of prints of M in circulation. 2 Jorge Luis Borges. Over the image Godard prints the words: SEÚL LE MAIN QU'EFFACE PEUT ECRIRE. 'Borges and Myself. 1971). I believe it also includes a reference to Sócrates' claim in Plato's Phraedrus that writing. 117. Richard Howard (Berkeley: University of California Press. expanded edition (London: BFI.

Stephen Jenkins. ¡s . 'Double Vu'. pp. As Jonathan Rosenbaum has pointed out to me in conversation. 116.). although he does not draw my conclusión. Cahiers du Cinema. McGivern. 261. Ibid. but since no-one offers that alternative I will stick with Kras. 1995). The Age of Extremes: A History ofthe World. 440. p. 'Lang le constructor'. Legrand. Kaplan) Krass (Sturm. 426. James L. Bertolt Brecht. 405. 1969). 1972). Walter Benjamín. NOTES 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Chapter 18: The Circle Gloses on the Last Mabuse 1 2 3 4 5 Sigmund Freud. 261. Bogdanovich. 146—7. Ibid. 173-85. p. Le montagne des superstitions et autres histoires. 1986). p. Ibid. All filmographies refer to him as Travers. pp. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. in personal conversation. WideAngle. vol. p. exhibition. then stop doing so later on? Presumably sloppiness in dubbing may explain this. the Horror Comics and Dr. but then within a few scenes his ñame is given as Travers. 246-7. no. May-June 1992.inn'su>inmnilson llir. 359. 72-3. McArthur. p. Histpire Extraordinaire. from Cine-journal 1981-86 (Paris: Cahiers du Cinema.p. see p. pp. David Bordwell. Ott). Eisner. 157. 86.ihlc lililí' originally uppcaring in Radio-Cinéma-Télévtstm. 157. Crary.. p. 35. indicating Travers is an alias. U w.201 Mnlicr Il >v/. ilfaut toujours terminer qu'est qu'on a commcmx'. pp.p. p.surnmarlítd in lí. 'Detective Fiction'. trans. pp. 160.p. The ñame of this character is given in filmographies. no. 106. McArthur also makes this point. 390. Fritz Lang in America. 'Experience and Poverty'. Mark Shivas. the millionaire. p. Edison'. p. 65. 1968).m films with their mythological material. McArthur. but clearly revealing Lang's intention . 15-18. 'The Hand'. Leblanc and Devismes. p. 167. Bogdanovich. Positif. xx. 'Dr. Bazin's review of Beyond aRcasonnlilc Hiiiilil. Life lo 'I'hosc Shadows. pp. Siegfried Kracauer. Legrand. nos 412-13.. p. pp. Jean Domarchi. Eric Hobsbawm. in Andrew Sarris (ed. Ibid.504 NOTES McGivern. 1977). p. McGilligan). no. The Night Watches ofSonaventura. pp. 696. 273-4. in The Poetics ofProse. 'The "Uncanny"'. Ibid. The Classical Hollywood Cinema. McArthur. 111. Charles Baudelaire. Bogdanovich. pp. McGilligan attributes this quote to Stephen Jenkins. 'The Purloined Letter'. 3 no. p. trans. pp. p. Fritz Lang: A anide. Serge Daney. except Sturm who calis him by both ñames. p. Hans Prinzler] FritzLang. Richard Howard (London: Jonathan Cape. The reporters identify him as Travers. Four Aspeas o/Film (New York: Brussel and Brussel. p. 261. Fritz Lang in America. 1976). 1984). Wertham' (1954). 4.FritzLanginAmerica. Le Román Policier (Paris: Payot. Leblanc and Devismes. Janet Staiger and Kristin Thompson. p. 183. Journals 1934-1955. Tzvetan Todorov. pp. that made Godard envision Laiig ¡is I lie < l ¡ i n lor ni The Odyssey in Contempt. 271. something not made clear in the English-dubbed versión. For one contemporary account of the concerns over comic books see Robert Warshow 'Paul. variously as Kraus (Bogdanovich. 150. 58-9. 1. for illustrations. pp. in spite of my general faith in Sturm's credits. Eisner. In the English-dubbed versión of this film.v i i p l m'e ¡n < Huirles I ligkini muí |oe(Ireeiiberg (etls). NY: Cornell University Press. 'Symptom. Edgar A. 151. |>. 74.p. angoisse'. Gerard Legrand. Richard Howard (Ithaca. 248. 'Id. 40-1. Fritz Lang. also compares the film to Poe's story. Jonathan Crary. p. in The Immediate Experience (New York: Atheneum. and Kras (Jenkins.is prokiMy I lie Imli. 225. Lotte Eisner. Films/Textes/References. p. p. 11. p. Walter Benjamín. p. p. Poe. McArthur. FriedaGrafe in [Grafe. 'The Hotel Lobby'. Mabuse and Mr. Jonathan Rosenbaum. Philippe Arnaud in his essay 'Beyond a Reasonable Story' in Bernard Eisenschitz and Paolo Bertetto (eds).'L'effacement des traces'. FritzLang. played by Peter Van Eyck. Raymond Bellour. 416. p. p. p. MovingPlaces: A Life at the Movies (Berkeley: University of California Press.' Un imT<>y.219. Jacques Rivette. Lang's treatment is included in Fritz Lang. 'l'lii'<Mlitluiíl \lnv.. 112. 423. 63. FritzLang. 48. p. Sturm. Patrick McGilligan. 74. 13-23.1980. November 1981. pp. quoted in Georges Sturm. See especially the note he quotes without analysing in detail 'suspicion on Spencer' about a scene not shot. Fritz Lang. 735. 208 9. p. J 09. may well be a reference to this connection as one of Lang's prívate hieroglyphs or gags. Peter Bogdanovich. Lang discusses this concern in Bogdanovich.p. Jonathan Rosenbaum. 140. 83-104. pp. 115-16. 211—13.I ' i 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 . 20. Noel Burch. Interviews with Film Directors. p. 1914-1991 (New York: Pantheon. 'Interview with Fritz Lang'. p. Siegfried Kracauer. L B S 21. p. E.p. p.'Aí'niil Si ene.p. and in letters to Lotte Eisner reprinted ¡n Eisner. is first referred to as 'Taylor'. why do his business associates also cali him Taylor. p. Enno Patalas. but if it is an alias. Leblanc and Devismes. p. with additional information on pp. October 1956. in Eisenschitz and Bertetto (eds). 236-8. 39. The licence píate of Mabuse's car during the final chase scene. The writing on this roster actually looks to me more like 'Kros'. p. 390-1) offers a comparison between the two scenes. 65. Eisner (pp. Shivas. Limbacher. p. Aun Kftplail.273.. 'Lang: Fear and Desire'. 65. 47-8. 26-7. 48.\. pp. 1995). 'Patterns of Violence toward Woman in Fritz Lang's While the City Sleeps'.23. Ibid. 55. Michel Butor. 102. Nicole Brenez. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Chapter 17: Whüe the City Sleeps/Beyond a Reasonable Doubt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Friedrich Nietzsche. Peter Bogdanovich. Leblanc and Devismes.Arnaud. Ann Kaplan. this character. in Selected Writings: Volume 2 1927-1934. l. 57. p. 418. September 1999. the only one I had access to.p. The Nature ofthe Beast. 170. p. p. in Poe: Poetry and Tales (New York: Library of America. 20 McGivern. 'Je termine mon film.