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My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1

INSTRUCTIONS Review the key information presented in this unit. If you dont remember the language, vocabulary or phrases listed, go back and review the unit. You can use these structures to talk about past habits or states.

'Used to' and 'Would'


Used to Use used to for past habits or states.

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE

+ ?

used to

I used to love superheroes. (state) I used to color on walls as a kid. (habit)

didnt use to

She didnt use to like playing with dolls. (state) My mom didnt use to get mad at me. (habit)

Did (subject) use to ...?

Did she use to live close to other kids? (state) Did you use to dress up as Superman? (habit)

Would Use would for past habits, not states.

+ ?

would wouldnt Would (subject)...?

I would dress in superhero costumes. (habit) I wouldnt dress up as Superman. (habit) Would you get in trouble? (habit)

Review it in Language Structure: Review Talking About the Past with Used to and Would

You can use the following structures to talk about events that happened in the past. Past Simple Verb + ed verb + ed verb ending in - e: + d verb ending in a consonant + y: y + ied one-syllable verb, ends in 1 vowel + 1 consonant (except w or y) finish like carry stop plan finished liked carried stopped planned

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE

My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1


Common Irregular Past Tense Verbs Verb be can draw feel go have leave meet speak take write Simple Past was / were could drew felt went had left met spoke took wrote Verb become do eat get grow keep make send spend teach buy Simple Past became did ate got grew kept made sent spent taught bought

Questions and Short Answers with the Past Simple Questions Did I / he / she / it / we / you / they practice speaking Spanish? Answers Yes, No, I / he / she / it / we / you / they Answers Simple Verb do? go? Subject I They Past Tense walked on the beach. went last week. did. didnt = did not.

Information Questions with the Past Simple Who / What / When What When did did did Subject I / he / she / it / we / you / they you they

Review it in Language Structure: Review Past Simple and Present Perfect

My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1


Present Perfect
Present Perfect

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE

+
(-

Positive been to Paris.

Ive / Youre / Were / Theyve (ve = have) Hes / Shes / Its (s = has) Negative havent (= have not) hasnt (= has not)

I / You / We / They He / She / It

been to Paris.

Questions and Short Answers in the Present Perfect

? Questions
Have Has I / we / you / they she / he / it (ever) (ever) been to Ro? been to Ro?

you were born now *In questions, ever is used to ask about any time in your whole life, up to now. Answers

Yes,

I / we / you / they he / she / it

have. has.

No,

I / we / you / they he / she / it

havent. hasnt.

Spelling Past Participles verb + ed verb ends in -e: + d verb ends in constant + y: y + ied one syllable verb, ends in 1 vowel + 1 consonant two syllable verb, ends in 1 vowel + 1 consonant
Review it in Language Structure: Review Past Simple and Present Perfect

start like carry stop drop travel

started liked carried stopped dropped travelled

My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1


Irregular Past Participles Verb be become begin break bring buy catch come do drink drive eat feel find get give go grow have hurt know learn leave lie lend lose Past Simple was / were became began broke brought bought caught came did drank drove ate felt found got gave went grew had hurt knew learned / learnt left lay lent lost Past Participle been become begun broken brought bought caught come done drunk driven eaten felt found gotten given gone / been grown had hurt known learned / learnt left lain lent lost

My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1


make meet pay put read run say see sell send set up shine sing sit sleep speak spend steal swim take teach tell think understand wake wear win write made met paid put read ran said saw sold sent set up shone sang sat slept spoke spent stole swam took taught told thought understood woke wore won wrote made met paid put read run said seen sold sent set up shone sung sat slept spoken spent stolen swum taken taught told thought understood woken worn won written

Review it in Language Structure: Review Past Simple and Present Perfect

My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1


Past Simple vs. Present Perfect USEFUL PHRASES

We use the past simple to talk about actions that began and finished in the past: I bought a bike yesterday. I worked at a restaurant when I was a teenager. We use the present perfect to talk about actions and situations that... Began and finished in the (recent) past but affect the present: Im going to go visit Suzanne. Shes (just) moved to a new apartment. Continue from the past until now: Ive worked at this company for 5 years. Ive talked to her today. (Its still today) I talked to her this morning. (Its now afternoon) We usually use a definitive time expression (last night, two weeks ago) with the past simple to talk about completed actions at a specific time in the past. We use yet / still / already with present perfect to talk about things that have happened (or not happened) up to now: Have you graduated from college yet? He still hasnt found a new job. She has already been to Europe. We use How long? / for / since with present perfect / present perfect continuous to talk about situations or actions that started in the past and are continuing now: Ive lived / been living in this city for 12 years.
Review it in Language Structure: Review Past Simple and Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous


Questions Have Has I / you / we / they been + verb + ing? he / she / it

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE
Short answers Yes, No, Yes, No, I / you / we / they he / she / it have. havent. has. hasnt.

Have you been sleeping well? Has she been going to the gym lately? Questions with question words What have you been doing? How long have you been cleaning? Whos been helping you?
Review it in Language Structure: Review Present Perfect vs. Present Perfect Continuous

No, I havent. Im tired all the time. Yes, she has. She looks great! Answers Ive been cleaning all day. Four about 3 hours. / Since 9 a.m. My daughter has.

My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1


Present Perfect Continuous vs. Present Perfect Simple LANGUAGE STRUCTURE

Differences Between Present Perfect Continuous and Present Perfect Simple*: Present Perfect Continuous recent action that occurred numerous times Present Perfect Simple stative verbs recent action that occurred 1 time * With many verbs there is no difference in meaning between present perfect continuous and present perfect simple.
Review it in Language Structure: Review Present Perfect vs. Present Perfect Continuous

Past Continuous
Positive I / He / She You / We / They Questions Was Were I / he / she you / we / they eating? was were eating. Negative I / He / She

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE

wasnt (was not) werent (were not)

You / We / They I / he / she was. you / we / they were.

eating.

Short Answers Yes, No, I / he / she wasnt. you / we / they werent.

Review it in Language Structure: Review of Continuous and Perfect Verbs

My Class Notes Level 6 | Unit 1


Continuous and Perfect Forms
We use continuous forms to talk about temporary events over a period of time. Im working at the office on Main Street right now.

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE

to focus on the action/situation and to emphasize We were preparing the presentation all morning. how long. to show a situation is changing/developing Stative verbs (like, seem, think, have) are not normally used in the continuous. When these verbs are used in the continuous they suggest a temporary activity. We use perfect forms to talk about an action which happened before another action. By the time my boss offered me a bonus, I had already made the decision to leave the company. He is getting closer to a solution every day. Im thinking about applying for the position. (considering)

for actions/states that began earlier and continue Ive worked in my current position since 2005. to a later time. Ive worked in my current position for 3 years. to talk about the result of an earlier action. Ive finally finished the report I started yesterday.

With the perfect forms, the exact time that something happened is not important. We often combine the continuous and perfect forms: We had been researching the market.
Review it in Language Structure: Review of Continuous and Perfect Verbs

You can use these expressions to connect your ideas when you tell a story.

Telling a Story
That reminds me / The funniest thing I A few years ago / Last year, when I Every day / Usually... But one day / Then suddenly

USEFUL PHRASES

But some days later / You'll never guess what happened next!... In the end / Eventually Ever since then / The point is
Review it in Useful Phrases: Telling a Story