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Q1. Why do you think the negative sentiments against the globalization are still prevailing?

Try to find out at least five major reasons.

During the past three decades, remarkable internationalization of the world economy has taken place. This process has become known as globalization. Globalization can be defined as "The increasing integration of national economies into expanding international markets". Globalization is not simply a trend or fad but is, rather, an international system. It is the system that has replaced the old Cold War system, and, like that Cold War System, globalization has its own rules and logic that today directly or indirectly influence the politics, environment, geopolitics and economics of virtually every country in the world. We can also define globalization as the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Though often advertized as representing the height of economic rationality, globalization has also been portrayed as having a very dark side. Critics repeatedly point out that the contemporary form of globalization, driven by economic power, clearly promotes the domination of Western culture and corporations; puts jobs and communities at risk in the rich countries and exploits cheap labor in the poorer countries; increases threats to the environment; and undermines the foundations of democracy and social stability by subjecting national political institutions to forces of economic change beyond their control. Each of these negative aspects associated with globalization is discussed in detail below:

Labor Exploitation
With increasing globalization the competition has also peaked up. In order to cut down costs, many firms in developed nations have outsourced their manufacturing and labor-based jobs to Third-World countries like India and China, where the cost of labor is low. The most prominent among these have been jobs in the customer service field as many developing nations have a large English-speaking population - ready to work at one-fifth of what someone in developed world may call 'low-pay'. This has caused a lot of resentment among the people of developed countries, and companies have been accused of taking their jobs away. There are various schools of thought who argue that globalization has led to an increase in activities such as child labor and slavery. In countries with little or no accountability, corporations employing children can work smoothly by bribing the officials, which may result in an increase in illegal activities.

Impact on health
The increasing trend of globalization has made many cities turn into the garbage-dumps where all the industrial waste is accumulated and pollution levels are sky-high. Fast food chains like McDonalds and KFC are spreading fast in the developing world. People are consuming more junk food which has an adverse impact on their health. Apart from the health concerns, there is something else that globalization has been criticized for, and it is the accusation that it has opened floodgates for restaurants which are insensitive to the religious beliefs of the host nation. For example, a lawsuit had to be filed against McDonalds in India, after it was accused of serving beef in their burgers. When the first-known case of AIDS came up in America, only few would have traced its origin to Sub-Saharan Africa. Globalization bought people from various

countries together, and this is perhaps the reason that a virus from a jungle was transported to almost every country in the world.

Increase in gap between rich and poor

One of the important affect of globalization is the increasing gap between rich and poor. On one hand the rich are getting richer whereas on other hand the poor are struggling for a square meal. Ideally, globalization should have resulted in creation of wealth and prosperity, but corporate greed and corrupt government has ensured that money is not distributed equally. As a result this inequality is even increasing with time.

Environmental degradation
Environmental degradation is an issue which has been debated fiercely in various international meetings, and it has to be accepted that globalization is one of the most important factors that has provoked the situation. The amount of raw materials needed to run industries and factories is taking a charge on the natural reserves of planet earth, and pollution has severely impacted the quality of air that we need so very much for our survival.

Threat to humanity
Globalization is also criticized as the boosting agents for unethical practices in business. Globalization may have unconsciously helped terrorists and criminals. At the heart of globalization is an idea that humans, materials, food etc. be allowed to travel freely across borders, but 9/11 was a horrible reminder that people with evil intentions can use it as an opportunity and cause damage. It is not only the developed nations that are complaining about its

negative effects, people in developing nations - where most of the industries have been set up, have their own set of reasons against globalization. They are also affected by this impact of globalization. The combined effects of these various factors are creating a negative impression regarding the globalization. Though globalization has become a necessary evil, still few people or countries are against it. It is to understand that in the modern world one cant isolate oneself from the world and survive in solitude. Thus, we have no any alternative for the globalization. Only way left is to accept it and try to mitigate the negativity of globalization by considering various factors that are adding negativity to it.

2. Find out the examples of any three Global brands of any product or service that have

differentiated their product on the basis of national or regional culture. Briefly explain each example that you have found out.
A few years ago, globalization was the new paradigm in international business, however from a branding perspective it has lost its initial efficiency giving the fact that consumers do not seem to feel a connection anymore with the standardized products of global corporations, catered to them in mass marketing communication programs. With their centralized decision making, most companies simply stopped having a connection with the new global marketplace and neglected its emergence. Hence, the influence of local characteristics arose, and with that a new term that encapsulates the global and the local glocal. Glocalization encourages companies to think global, act local, and they could do so by using the global brand, while localizing certain elements of that brand in order to suit a particular country.

Below are the examples of few global brands that has made adjustments along with the local markets: McDonald has become a popular name in the world of food lovers. Mc D has revolutionized the eating behavior of individual from America to this part of the world. McDonalds, a globalization stereotype, has adapted its global marketing to different regions or countries. For instance, the fast-food chain has beer in its product range in Germany, wine in France, mutton pies in Australia and Mc Spaghetti in Philippines. Also, it provides Maharaja Mac and Veggie Mc Nuggets which is made of lamb or chicken; the Mc Lobster in Canada and, in Japan, the Ebi Filit-O, a kind of shrimp burger, Teriyaki Burger in Japan / Malaysia, Burger served with rice in Indonesia / Philippines, Samurai Pork Burger in Thailand, Mc Laks (grilled salmon) in Norway and Mc Huero (poached hamburger) in Uruguay. Fanta is a well known brand in the beverages industry. In order to cope up with the globalization Fanta offers country-specific flavors. In Romania Fanta Shokata is available based on the socata, a traditional cordial made from elder flower. In China consumers enjoy green apple Fanta, while Portugal and Spain have watermelon Fanta. The taste and preference of customers vary from place to place. Considering this fact Fanta changed its flavor as per the need of local customers. This will help Fanta to go global along with considering the local taste and preferences. Facebook approached the e-market with a one-size-fits-all strategy, but now is facing the realities of cultural difference. In the US the country of origin having lots of friends is culturally acceptable and even encouraged. In Japan however, having more than 50 friends indicates that you are superficial. Therefore, Facebook has lost its lead market position in Japan

due to the fact that it did not understand and encapsulate culture into its mass strategy. Mixi is the social networking brand most Japanese people use; it doesn't tell others how many friends you have, it doesn't have a like button and accounts do not display public walls. It meets the cultural requirements. Nevertheless, Facebook plans a defensive strategy and has now set up a team in Japan, considering how to respond to the digital cultural challenges. This example shows that a glocal strategy may be necessary even in the digital environment. These are the examples of various multi-national companies and their products that have faced numerous challenges due to globalization and in order to overcome such challenges they have adapted the defensive strategy to retain their market. As we have seen, even the major brands that used to represent a standard for globalization, like McDonalds and Coca - Cola, acknowledged the changes and tailored their products, so that they would not lose market share. Glocal marketing attempts to fill the gap between local culture, preference and the globalization of marketing activities, and tries to re-establish the connection between global brands and different cultures. In the end people want both global and local brands brands that make them feel part of a broader international community, but also brands that root them in their home culture, respect and represent their tastes. Hence, a glocal strategy seems to be the answer.