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SYNOPSIS MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL FIBER AND FILLER FIELD EPOXY RESIN BASED COMPOSITE

Submitted To DEV BHOOMI INSTITUTE OF TECNOLOGY, DEHRADUN For the approval of degree of Bachelor Of Technology (4 year program) In Mechanical Engineering

UNDER OF SUPERVISION OF: SUPERVISORS NAME: Mr. Sudhir Saini DESIGNATION: Assistant Professor M.E

SUBMITTED BY: STUDENTS NAME: Kamlesh Dumka (10080104018) Rituraj pal (10080104034) Yasha Ahmad (10080104048) Paras Kumar (10080104026) Honey Sharma (61080104034) Akanksha Mahra (10080104048)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEV BHOOMI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CHAKRATA ROAD NAVGAON, MANDUWALA, DEHRADUN PIN CODE : 248007

INTRODUCTION
Composite materials are engineering materials made from two or more constituent materials that remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level while forming a single component. As defined by Agarwal and Broutman, composite means material having two or more distinct constituents or phases. The constituent phases have significantly different physical properties and thus the properties of the composite are noticeably different from the constituent properties. By this joining, the poor capabilities and drawbacks of the individual components disappear. For instance, composites combine a high stiffness and strength with a low weight and their corrosion resistance is often excellent. Composites have worked their way up amongst wood and metal due to their outstanding price performance ratio during a lifetime. A powerful approach in improving this ratio is to minimize the steps required from raw material to end product. Additional economic benefits are the inexpensive raw materials (e.g. when using glass fiber or natural fiber as a constituent) and the little to none required maintenance during service. Composites are now a part of everyday life and have entered nearly all major industrial sectors, including aerospace, ground transport, packaging, sports industry and civil engineering.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL


There can be different classifications of the composites, depending upon the type of materials or structures. Broadly the composite materials can be classified into the following three categories. Geometry Based Classification (a) Fibrous composite: Fibers are very effective in improving the fracture resistance of the matrix since a reinforcement having a long dimension discourages the growth of incipient cracks normal to the reinforcement that might otherwise lead to failure (b) Particulate Composites: The reinforcement in these composites is of particle nature. It may be spherical, cubic, tetragonal, a platelet or of other regular or irregular shape, but it is approximately equi-axed. They enhance the stiffness of the composite to a limited extent Reinforcement Based Classification (a) Fiber Reinforced Composites: Fiber is primary load bearing component in fiber reinforced composites. The fibers can be in the form of long continuous fibers, or they can be discontinuous fibers, particles, whiskers and even weaved sheets. Fibers are usually combined with ductile matrix materials, such as metals and polymers, to make them stiffer, while fibers are added to brittle matrix materials like ceramics to increase toughness (b) Dispersion Reinforced Composites: This makes the material harder and stronger. (c) Particle Reinforced Composites: The particles are used to increase the modulus and decrease the ductility of the matrix. Matrix Based Classification Composites can be classified on the basis of the matrix material used. There are three different groups on the basis of matrix being used: (a) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) (b) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) (c) Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)

CLASSIFICATION OF FIBER
Natural Fibers: Natural fibers have recently attracted the attention of scientists and technologists because of the advantages that these fibers provide over conventional reinforcement materials. These natural fibers are low-cost fibers with low density and high specific properties. These are bio-degradable and nonabrasive unlike other reinforcing fibers. Also, they are readily available and their specific properties are comparable to those of other fibers used for reinforcements. e.g. coconut, flax, linen, jute, cotton, hemp Synthetic fibers: They are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve on naturally occurring animal and plant fibers. In general, synthetic fibers are created by forcing, usually through extrusion, fiber forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, forming a thread. Before synthetic fibers were developed, artificially manufactured fibers were made from cellulose, which comes from plants. These fibers are called cellulose fibers. e.g. Carbon, Glass, Metal, Silica
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OBJECTIVE
This project aims at developing a highly cost effective composite material. The challenge is to improve the mechanical properties with low cost. The reinforcement material used in composite material is generally synthetic. But the cost and availability of these synthetic material are much of concern.so we are going to use natural fibers or bio- fibers which are easily available and cheap comparatively.

TECHNICAL DETAILS
In this project work study of natural & synthetic fibers are done to compare these two fibers. NATURAL FIBERS USED: Coconut fiber, Flax fiber SYNTHETIC FIBER USED: Glass fiber RESIN USED: Epoxy HARDNER USED: Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP) MECHANICAL TEST PERFORMED: 1. Tensile Test 2. Compression Test 3. Bending Test These fibers are incorporated into epoxy resin and different mechanical testing is done on prepared specimens and their behavior is discussed and compared to each other.

INNOVATIVENESS & USEFULLNESS


Our Planet is being damaged by the regular consumption of the materials which are very rare and costly. The consumption of these materials is irreversible. Increasing pollution and spiraling consumption of the mineral and biological reserves have put an ever increasing stress on the

environment. With the growing awareness of global environmental factors, principles of sustainability, industrial ecology, eco-efficiency and green chemistry, engineering domain has got a focus towards the development of the new generation of materials, products, and processes. So we need to find an alternative for all these material and researchers are working for new materials and products that are compatible with the environment and independent of high costs and availability. Natural organic fibers from renewable natural resources offer a high potential to act as a biodegradable reinforcing materials and an alternative for the use of glass or carbon fiber and inorganic fillers. In the present work research is being made on the natural and synthetic fiber for the comparison of their mechanical properties to find out the whether natural fibers are real replacement of the synthetic fiber or not.

CURRENT STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT


Trail design and prototype development is completed. Testing of various variable using the prototype is going on.

MARKET POTENTIAL & COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Composites Market Opportunity in 2012 2017: Aerospace & Wind Energy markets show
highest growth potential. Composites industry is sustainable with over 30,000 known applications. Weight savings, fuel economy and other performance benefits will fuel the growth of composites consumption in Automotive. High cost of materials and lack of competitive manufacturing processes for high volume automotive applications continue to be limiting factors for future growth. Innovations aimed at lowering cost of end products by 30% have potential to grow composites market by a factor of 3x.