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flat spiral spring

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PART 1 : Youn !" Mo#u$u" THEORY : For determine or young`s modulus for the material of the wire of which a spring is made. A bar is firmly clamped to the lower end of the spring and is allowed to performed horizontal swings . Y = 32 2 N ! r# $ 2 dyne"cm

%here Y = Young&s modulus of the wire N = total no. of turns in the spring = radius of the spring r = radius of the wire. ! = '.!. of the bar about the a(is of suspension. = '.!)* + 2 , r- 2. -2 # = length of the bar r = radius of the bar ! = '.! of suspension system about the a(is of suspension = !) , 2 m ( 2 ( = distance of each mass from the center of the bar 2m = mass of both rings in the bar /y 0nowing the periodic time $ of the horizontal oscillation of system %e can calculate the Young`s modulus of the wire of the spring.

A!' 1 $o determine Young&s modulus of the wire of the spiral spring. A22 A$34 1 Flat spiral spring 5 cylinder bar with clamping arrangement stop watch5 weight bo(5 micrometer screw gauge 5 6ernier calipers. 7!A8 A' 1

2 9:;73 ; 1 -. :lamp a spiral spring firmly to retort stand and cylindrical bar with two dices as shown in fig. $he bar is clamped to the lower end of the spiral spring. 2. :ount the no. of turns of spring . measure radius of the wire of the spring 5 radius of spring as part ! *-. to *3.. 3. allow the bar to perform horizontal oscillation . 3se the inde( pin for counting the oscillation . find the time for 2< oscillation .ta e two more reading and determine the mean periodic time $. #. find the '.! of the suspension system <. calculate =Y& by gi6en formula >. 2lot the graph of $2 against ! ? find the slope and calculate the Young`s modulus of the material of the wire of the spring .

9bser6ation table 1

-. Number. of turns in the spring N = @@@.. 2. diameter of the wire of the spring *i.@..*ii.@@.*iii.@@..*i6.@@.. mean diameter = d = @@@cm radius of the wire r = d " 2 = @..cm 3. ;(ternal diameter of the spiral spring *i.@@*ii.@@*iii.@@. 'ean diameter 7 =@@.cm adius of the spring = & = 7 " 2 =@@cm #. radius of spring measured to the center to the wire = & A =@@@cm <. mass of the cylindrical rod = '- =@@..gm >. length of the bar = = @@cm B. 7iameter of the bar *i.@@.*ii.@@.*iii.@@@*i6.@@@ mean diameter = @@@.cm radius r- = @@@cm C. '.!. of the rod !) = ' ! * 2 , r- 2 . -2 # 2 = @@@@.gm cm 9bs 7ist. of the no. dics from a(is of ratation 2 3 # < > B C D -) 'ean != !) ,2m(2 $ime for 2< oscillation tt2 t3 'ean t $= t"2< sec. 4ec. $2 !" $ 2

8raph 1

2lot the graph of ! against $2. Nature of the graph is a st. line passing through origin . 2lot the slope .

$2 :alculation 1 Y = 32 2 N * ! . r# $2 N = EEEEEEEE r =EEEEEEEEEEEE 'ean ! "$2 = EEEEEEEEE *from table. Y = EEEEEEEEEEEEEEE dyne" cm 2 *i. *ii. Y = 32 N F * slope . r# 4lope = EEEEEEEEEEE Y = @@@@@ dyne" cm 2

esult 1 *i. Young&s modulus of the material of the wire of the spring =@@@@@@ dyne " cm 2

;G; :!4; You are gi6en a flat spiral spring of no. of turns N. 3se a 6ernier to find the mean radius of the spring . 3se a micrometer screw gauge to find the mean radius r of the spring wire. HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH H

PART %: Mo#u$u" o& '( (#()* T+,o',)(c-$ B-c. 'oun#: !n this e(periment5 the 6alue of the modulus of rigidity I for the material of the wire of a flat spiral spring is determined from the 0nowledge of the periodic time of 6ertical oscillations of the spring when loaded with a 0nown mass and the dimensions of the spring as shown in Fig. D.-. $he formula is -> J2 3N I= r# %here $-2 ',*m"3.

= adius of the spiral measured to the center of wire5 N = $otal no. of turns in the spring r = adius of the wire ' = 'ass of the load m = 'ass of the spring $- = 2eriodic time of 6ertical oscillations

For the determination of Young&s modulus5 Y5 a bar is firmly clamped to the lower end of the spring and is allowed to perform horizontal swings. 32 J2 !N Y= r#$22 %here5 ! = the '.!. of the bar about the a(is of suspension5 $2 = 2eriodic time of horizontal oscillations

A(/: $o determine the modulus of rigidity I of the material of the wire of the flat spiral spring. A00-'-)u": Flat spiral spring5 micrometer screw gauge5 6ernier caliper5 stand inde( pin5 stopE watch5 weight bo(.

DIAGRAM 1

F9 '3KA1 'odulus of rigidity I of the material of the wire of the flat spiral spring is calculated by 1 -> J2 3N I= r# %here symbols has usual meaning. $-2 ',m"3

2 9:;73 ; 1 -. :ount the no. of turns of flat spiral spring5 and ta0e the mass of spring. 2. 'easure the diameter of the wire of the spring by using a micrometer screw gauge. *Note1 r should be measured accurately as it occurs in the fourth power.. $a0e no. of readings. Find mean diameter and calculate radius r of the wire of the flat spiral spring. 3. $he spring is closely wound without any gap. 'easure the e(ternal diameter of the spring using Lernier caliper. $a0e at least fi6e readings. :alculate the mean diameter of the spring5 and hence calculate the radius of the spring. = &Ar %here = 9uter radius of the spiral5 r = radius of the wire

#. :lamp one end of flat spiral spring to the stand and attach a mass ' to the lower end of the spring *fig D.-.. Find the periodic time $- of the 6ertical oscillations by timing 2< oscillations with a stop watch. <. 3se the inde( pin of the obser6ations of the oscillations. $a0e two more obser6ations and find a mean 6alue of time t5 for 2< oscillations. :alculate periodic time $- = t"2< >. repeat the obser6ations for 6arious loads.

9bser6ation table 1

Keast count of micrometer screw gauge = @@.. cm. 7iameter of the wire of the wire*2r.= *i.@..*ii.@@.*iii.@@..*i6.@@.. 'ean *2r. = @@@cm adius r = @..cm Keast count of Lernier caliper = @@@.. cm 9uter diameter of the spiral *2 &.= *i.@@*ii.@@*iii.@@*i6.@@. 'ean diameter *2 &.=@@.cm 9uter spiral adius * &. =@@cm adius of spiral measured to the center to the wire r = & A =@@@cm $otal no. of turns in the spring *N. = 'ass of the spring *m . = @@@@..gm eadings for the determination of period $9bs 'ass of no. Attached ' *gm. 2 3 # < > M,-n ',m"3 *gm. $ime for 2< oscillation in sec 2 3 'ean t $-= t"2< sec. 4ec. $-2 sec2 gm"sec2 ',m"3 $-2

8raph 1

2lot the graph of $ against '. Nature of the graph is a st. line. !ntercept on ' a(is eMual to m"3

$-2

m"3 7etermine the 6alue of *',m"3."$-2 = calculate I also. :alculation 1 From obser6ation table5 ',*m"3. 'ean $-2

= @@@@. gm"sec2

'ean radius of the wire r = @@@@..cm adius of the spiral measured to the center of wire -> J2 3N I= r# $-2 ',*m"3.

= @@@cm

= @@@@@@.. dyne"cm2

# 2

= @@@@. gm"sec2

F slope

RES1LT: $he modulus of rigidity I of the material of the wire of flat spiral spring = @@@@@dyne"cm2 4tandard 6alue of the wire of flat spiral spring = @@@@@dyne"cm2

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