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TRANSPORT IN MAN

Why do Man need a complex transport system?

RECALL YOUR CELL CHAPTER


Cells need to undergo respiration to release the energy stored in food. In order for respiration to occur, oxygen and glucose is needed.

Needs to be transported to the cell Needs to be transported away from the cell

So what transports these materials around to the cells?

BLOOD

This is what the human body does for its transport system!
Every cell requires oxygen and glucose constantly for respiration to release energy required for cellular activities For Man, we are a multi-cellular organism, meaning we have lots and lots of cells.

Man are also active in their lifestyle and therefore requires more energy.
More energy means more efficiency needed in the Human transport system

The human transport system therefore have to be very efficient in order to ensure that all cells have the necessary materials needed to survive

Blood flows through the heart twice before it completes one circuit.

Double circulation

Lungs Deoxygenated blood

Oxygenated blood

Body

Why is it advantageous?
Double circulation allows:
Blood entering lungs to be at low pressure.

Blood leaving the heart for the rest of the body to be at high pressure.

Advantages of a double circulatory system


Allows blood to enter the lungs at a lower pressure than that of the systemic circulation. Blood flows more slowly through the lungs to provide more time for blood to be well oxygenated.

Advantages of a double circulatory system


The heart can increase the pressure of the oxygenated blood, which means it can transport oxygen to the body tissues in the systemic circuit much quicker

The heart
Function:

to pump blood to all parts of the body.

The heart
Diagram of the heart is always opposite from the actual structure
Eg. the right hand side of your heart is the left hand side of the diagram
Right hand side of the heart

Left hand side of the heart

The heart
The heart pumps blood out of the heart by the contraction of the heart chambers The blood leaves the heart via the arteries Relaxation of the heart allows blood to flow back into the heart via the veins

Structure of the heart

(1) The 4 chambers of the heart

(1) The 4 chambers of the heart


Relaxation of the muscular walls of the chamber allows blood to flow into that chamber
Contraction of the muscular walls generate pressure to force the blood out of that chamber

(2) Blood vessels directly connected to the heart

(2) Blood vessels


connected directly to the heart
Heart pumps oxygenated blood out to the body via the Aorta. Superior and inferior vena cava are the 2 main veins that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart

(2) Blood vessels


connected directly to the heart
Deoxygenated blood gets pumped to the lungs for gaseous exchange via the pulmonary artery. After gaseous exchange, oxygenated blood gets sent back to the heart via the pulmonary vein.

A = Aorta

PA = Pulmonary Artery RV = Right Atrium


LA = Left Atrium

RV = Right Ventricle LV = Left Ventricle

(3) Structures that prevent mixing of blood

(3) Structures that prevent mixing of blood

The septum is a muscle wall that prevents the mixing of oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood.

Bicuspid valves prevent backflow of blood from left ventricle to left atrium Tricuspid valves prevent backflow of blood from right ventricle to right atrium

(3) Structures that prevent mixing of blood


Semilunar valves can be found at the entrance of the pulmonary artery and the aorta prevent the backflow of blood from the blood vessels back to the heart ventricles

PULMONARY ARTERY

SEMI-LUNAR VALAVES
AORTA VENA CAVA

PULMONARY VEINS

LEFT ATRIUM

RIGHT ATRIUM

BICUSPID VALVES

TRICUSPID VALVES RIGHT VENTRICLE

LEFT VENTRICLE

SEPTUM

Flow of blood

Flash animation of the cardiac cycle


http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/ hhw/hhw_pumping.html

Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through the Vena Cava

The blood pools in the right atrium

Semi-lunar valves open to allow blood to flow to the pulmonary circuit

The right atrium contracts, forcing the blood into the right ventricle

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Right ventricle contracts, forces the blood up into the pulmonary artery Tricuspid valves close to prevent backflow of blood

Tricuspid valves open to allow the blood to flow into the right ventricle

Oxygenated blood returns to the heart through the Pulmonary veins Bicuspid valves close to prevent backflow of blood

The blood pools in the left atrium

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The left atrium contracts, forcing the blood into the left ventricle
Bicuspid valves open to allow the blood to flow into the left ventricle

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Left ventricle contracts, forces the blood up into the Aorta

Part of the Circulatory System: The Blood Vessel


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relate the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries to their functions.

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Identify the blood vessels:

The Blood Vessels: An Overview

Noor Sarah Binte Abdul Rahman

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The Blood Vessels: Artery


Receive blood directly from heart Have thick, muscular and elastic walls to withstand the high pressure of the blood pumped from the heart. Contraction and relaxation of arteries (pulse) help push blood along the arteries All arteries carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary arteries.

The Blood Vessels: Capillaries

Arteries branch off into smaller blood vessels called capillaries. Single cell wall, for easy diffusion of substances from capillaries to cells, vice versa Capillaries will branch together again to form venules.

The Blood Vessels: Veins


Capillaries branch together to form venules (smaller branches of veins) Veins transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart. (except for pulmonary vein) Thinner and less muscular wall compared to arteries Presence of valves Valves act as a one-way door to prevent backflow of blood Blood pressure in veins the lowest among blood vessels

Summary: The Blood Vessels


Structure
Diagram

Artery

Vein

Capillaries

Vessel Walls

Thick Muscular Wall.

Thinner than artery One cell thick (very Less muscular wall thin to allow exchange of materials) Non muscular Present (to prevent Absent back flow of blood) Very narrow (size of one red blood cell)
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Valves

Absent

Lumen

More narrow Wide than vein Cylindrical in shape. Noor Sarah Binte Abdul Rahman

Summary: The Blood Vessels


Structure
Diagram

Artery

Vein

Capillaries

Function

Carries blood away from the heart

Returns blood to the heart.

Exchange of materials between blood and cells through the capillary walls.

Blood Flow

Fast and under high pressure

Slow and smooth Slow and smooth. but faster than in the capillaries.

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Part of the Circulatory System: The Blood


Noor Sarah Binte Abdul Rahman 45

Components of Blood
What happen when blood is left to stand?

Plasma

White blood cells and platelets

Red blood cells

Centrifugation

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Components of Blood
What happen when blood is left to stand?
Blood

Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

Plasma

44%

1%

55%
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Red Blood Cells


Scientific Name: Erythrocytes

Structure Circular, flattened, elastic Bi-concaved No nucleus Contained red pigment haemoglobin
Lifespan: Short Lifespan Function: To transport oxygen to all part of the body.
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Red Blood Cells


How is the Red blood cell adapted to its function?
Structure Function

Bi-concaved

Increases surface area to volume ratio for faster


diffusion of oxygen in and out of the cell

Contains haemoglobin

Which binds reversibly to oxygen and allow transport


of oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body

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Red Blood Cells


How is the Red blood cell adapted to its function?
Structure Function

Flexible and elastic To enable the red blood cells to squeeze through narrow capillaries and allows
the transportation of oxygen to all parts of the body.

No nucleus

More space for haemoglobin be packed into


the cell so that more oxygen can be transported per unit time.
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Red blood cells contains Haemoglobin

Purplish Red

Bright Red

This reaction is reversible. Why is it important for the reaction to be reversible?

Red blood cells contains Hb

In lungs Hb binds with oxygen In oxygen-poor tissues (tissues low in oxygen) , oxy-Hb releases the oxygen

Red blood cells have no nucleus


More space to store oxygen This means that red blood cells cannot repair itself (no nucleus). Worn out red blood cells have to be destroyed by the liver or spleen.

Haemoglobin is broken down into bile pigments (mainly bilirubin) and iron.

Transport of Substances
Exchange of substances takes place between the blood and cells Substances move in and out of cells through diffusion and osmosis
White blood cell Red blood cell

Diffusion Diffusion

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Components of Blood
Blood

Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

Plasma

44%

1%

55%
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White Blood Cells


Scientific Name: Leucocytes

Structure Colourless, irregular in shape. Has Nucleus

Lifespan: A few days


Function: To protect the body against infectious diseases.
How do they do this?
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Types of white blood cells


White Blood Cells Lymphocytes Phagocytes

Produced by lymph nodes Round nucleus They produced antibodies that:(1)Neutralise toxins (2)Kill bacteria (3)Caused agglutination of foreign bodies

Produced by bone marrow Lobed nucleus Engulf and digest bacteria in a process called phagocytosis

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Let do some Thinking


Why do you stop bleeding after an injury?

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Components of Blood
Blood

Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

Plasma

44%

1%

55%
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Platelets
Structure Fragments of broken down cytoplasm Not cells and do not have organelles like nuclei.

Function: helps in the clotting of wound.

How?

Insoluble fibrin threads entangle the blood cells and the whole mass form a clot. Platelets becomes activated and becomes sticky. This helps blood clot at a wound to prevent: excessive blood loss entry of germs by sealing up the wound
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Components of Blood
Blood

Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

Plasma

44%

1%

55%
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Plasma
Structure Pale, colourless liquid 90% water 10% dissolved substances
Function: To transport blood cells, waste products (urea, uric acid, creatinine and carbon dioxide), soluble food substances (simple sugars, amino acids, fats and vitamins), hormones, Plasma proteins (fibrinogen, prothrombin, antibodies) and mineral salts (sodium, potassium, calcium).
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Function of Blood
Blood is a life-sustaining fluid Based on its components, what do you think is the function of blood?

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Function of Blood
Blood
Functions to Functions to

Transport
Substance like

Protect
Our body against

Disease causing germs (a) Digested food substances (b) Waste products (c) Hormones (d) Heat (e) Oxygen
Via

Phagocytosis

Antibodies

Clotting