Assemble of system.

(Some Tips & Tricks)
It means to fit the parts of the system and make it final to use. Before assemble the system, you should remember the following steps. - Your hands and body must be dry - Put off the Power plug from the SMPS. - You should have the better knowledge of parts that you are going to add. - You need some space (3’x4’) - Make ready the entire Screwdriver, screws & other manual installations guide before installations. - Don’t do the Hurry while you are assembling - After finishing the assemble part, Re check all the Parts that are seated & plugged properly. - Finally, plug the Power and SWTICH on, then do the further Process.

Choosing the Correct Cashing Box.
- Before assemble you should have the knowledge about AT & ATX Motherboard, if you have AT M/B then choose the AT cashing, If you have ATX M/B then choose the ATX Cashing Box. - Lay down cashing box horizontally, then add the SMPS properly and Check other LEDS are available or Not, - Make sure that you have Screws on the Cashing Box to attach the Motherboard on it.

Adding the Motherboard on the System.
First Take the M/B Now Carefully attach it on the Cashing box Match the Side of Keyboard / Mouse first Properly Don’t make touch the Motherboard on the Cashing Box. Properly the Skew the Screws & Pages.

Adding the CPU on the Motherboard.
Turn off the computer Make confirm that CPU is compatible with your Motherboard. Notice the corner point which is pointed, and it do it on the Motherboard. Unlock the CPU SLOT. Now carefully add the CPU on the CPU Slot Properly by matching the Pointed Corners. - Give Little Pressure and Lock the CPU Handle. - Finally add the Cooling Fan on the CPU and Add the Power of Cooling Fan on the Power plug of System Fan.

Adding the IDE on the Motherboard.
- First make confirm that you have IDE Cables of Good Condition. - Make the IDE Drives Master / Slave (Specially Make HDD Primary Master and CD / DVD Slaves) - Now add the IDE and detect it later from BIOS Setup.

Adding the Floppy on the Motherboard.
- First make confirm that you have Floppy Cables of Good Condition. - Add the IDE Cable on the Motherboard and do same at Floppy and Add the Power - Now Control it from BIOS Setup. ( if the Connection is not ok, then it keeps Lighting the Indicator light continuously )

Adding the Power on the Motherboard.
- First match the side of Power supply - Now add it on the Motherboard Properly.

Adding the RAM on the Motherboard.
- First Make confirm that you have SD RAM or DDRAM. - Now take the RAM and unlock the sides of RAM MODULE. - Now carefully, add the RAM on the RAM Slot and Lock the Sides of RAM Module Sides.

Adding the PCI cards on the Motherboard.
- Before adding the PCI Cards on the Motherboard First Make confirm that are compatible with your system and Compatible version of windows. - Now carefully add the PCI Card on the PCI Slot of M/B. - Now switch on the later add the Driver of PCI card.

Adding the LEDS
- This one is the main part of the assemble , don’t loose the Installation guide of Motherboard / Read carefully the caption of LEDS on the Motherboard. - Add Properly the LEDS By Checking - After Finishing all the Assemble Side Now add the Back plane Sides Properly and give and Power and Switch on the Powers


The process of starting or resetting a computer. When first turned on (cold boot) or reset (warm boot), the computer runs the software that loads and starts the computer's operating system, which prepares it for use.

The system files needed to start Windows. The boot files include Ntldr and

A process in which a computer that is starting (booting) creates a log file that records the loading of each device and service. The log file is called Ntbtlog.txt, and it is saved in the system root directory.

The partition that contains the Windows operating system and its support files. The boot partition can be, but does not have to be, the same as the system partition.

A portion of a hard disk partition that contains information about the disk's file system and a short machine language program that loads the Windows operating system.

A portion of a physical disk that functions as though it were a physically separate disk. After you create a partition, you must format it and assign it a drive letter before you can store data on it. On basic disks, partitions are known as basic volumes, which include primary partitions and logical drives. On dynamic disks, partitions are known as dynamic volumes, which include simple, striped, spanned, mirrored, and RAID-5 volumes.

Resource settings that have been allocated for a specific device. Each device on your computer has a hardware configuration, which may consist of IRQ lines, DMA, an I/O port, or memory address settings.

Hardware lines over which devices can send signals to get the attention of the processor when the device is ready to accept or send information. Each device must have a unique IRQ line.

A portion of computer memory that can be allocated to a device or used by a program or the operating system. Devices are usually allocated a range of memory addresses.

Any piece of equipment that can be attached to a network or computer; for example, a computer, printer, joystick, adapter, or modem card, or any other peripheral equipment. Devices normally require a device driver to function with Windows.

Memory access that does not involve the microprocessor. DMA is frequently used for data transfer directly between memory and a peripheral device such as a disk drive

On x86-based computers, the set of essential software routines that test hardware at startup, start the operating system, and support the transfer of data among hardware devices. The BIOS is stored in read-only memory (ROM) so that it can be executed when you turn on the computer. Although critical to performance, the BIOS is usually invisible to computer users.

An operating system used on all personal computers and compatibles. As with other operating systems, such as OS/2, it translates user keyboard input into operations the computer can perform. MS-DOS can be easily accessed by using the command prompt, while MS-DOS-based programs can be accessed through the use of shortcuts on the desktop.


A protected-mode, virtual memory, multitasking operating system for personal computers based on the Intel 80286, 80386, i486, and Pentium processors. OS/2 can run most MSDOS-based programs and can read all MS-DOS disks.

The partition that contains the hardware-specific files needed to load Windows (for example, Ntldr, Osloader, Boot.ini, The system partition can be, but does not have to be, the same as the boot partition.

1. Floppy 2. HDD 3. CD ROM IN WHICH CONDITION , TO BOOT FROM FLOPPY ? Flopply is a small scale storage device , we can't store more data in it, so we use the floppy as a boot device just to transfer the system files into the Hard Disk. if the system files of Hard Disk is currupt or crashes. But remember that, if you are using the windows 98 and the system file is crashed or currupted then you should make the floppy bootable or startup of windows 98, as the same case in windows xp, you need the windows xp bootable floppy. IN WHICH CONDITION, TO BOOT FROM CD ROM ? Suppose the Hard disk windows is crashed or there is fresh hard Disk, or there you need to delete and want to create the new partitions, at that time ,we boot from cd room, but for that you need the bootable cd of windows which version that you are installation now. IN WHICH CONDITION , TO BOOT FROM HARD DISK,? This is the common matter, often to run the windows , we boot from the hard disk, the regular boot device or main boot device is hard disk for maintanence, installations, we boot from cd Rom, now a days, we rarely use the floppy Device.


File system is the main key of windows to write the data on the Disk, without File System there is no Possibility to write the data on the drive, it means we can't install the Operating system, It means File system is a kind of system which anyhow need by Operating System to install its system files. We Change/Create the Files system DURING THE FORMATTING STEPS. 1. NTFS (New File Technology System) 2. FAT32 ( File Allocation Table) Fat32 File System Doesn't Supports the NTFS FIle System Partition Or Drives But NTFS File System Supports the Fat32 Files System. In Windows 98, Me, we cant change the File System at NTFS, Its Default File System is Fat32, THese Operating system DOesn't Recognize the NTFs File System Drive. IN windows 2000 and Later Version, It supports both FAT32 File SYstem and NTFS File System. NTFS File system is the Latest file system at windows , which as more Feature and security then the FAT 32 File System. IN NTFS FIle system, there is facilities of log files, which helps you to restore the data at the Prevous dates. and High Security , there is low chances of data loss. But in Fat32 there is log file facilities it means without any third party Software , you can't restore the data, there is low security and lots of chances for data Loss. FILE SYSTEM ------Fat32 NTFS WIN98 ----Supports Not Support W2K ---Supports Supports

(it means if you boot the System from Fat32 Bootable cd or Floppy, then It will not show the NTFS Drives, Always note this Point any how)

1. Right Click at My Computer 2. Click at Manage 3. CLick at Disk Management (Now see the Drives file system listed on the Screen)


Basic Input / Output System Complementary Meta Oxide Semiconductor BIOS / CMOS Setup: This is the Motherboard Setup, You don't Need Hard Disk, and Other operating System for This Setup. BIOS / CMOS Setup is also called the Control room of Motherboard, to configure the Date , time, Boot sequence , to enable or disable any component related with m/b , for security , we use the BIOS / CMOS Setup. CMOS Battery updates or save the changes of BIOS, you can also clear the BIOS changes by removing the CMOS Battery or Jumper related with BIOS / CMOS. TO RUN BIOS / CMOS SETUP 1. Restart the system or Switch on the System 2. Press F2 for Intel M/B and Press Del for Intel Chip & VIA Motherboad.

-- To configure the Date & Time -- TO Detect the IDE Devices. -- To Control the Floppy

- Boot from Floppy (98 startup Diskette) - Boot Using Bootable CD of windows 98.

1. Need bootable windows 98 cd. 2. Need a Well Condition CD ROM. 3. a Hard Disk


1. Run BIOS Setup 2. Set the Boot Sequance (First Boot - CD ROm, Second Boot - HDD) 3. Insert the Bootable cd of Windows 98 into CD DRive. 4. Press F10 ( save and Exit) 5. Boot from Hard Disk Boot From CD ROM 6. Select " Boot From CD ROM " and Press Enter. 7. Boot with Windows 98 Setup Boot With CD ROM SUpport BOOT Without CD ROM SUPPORT 8. Choose "Boot With CD ROM Support " and Press Enter (Later You will Get This Prompt) A:\> 9. A:\> Fdisk [ Type Fdisk & Press Enter ] 10. Again Press Enter. (Now you will see the Fdisk Main Options 1. Create the Ms DOs Partition 2. Active Ms Dos Partition. 3. Delete Ms Dos Partition. 4. Display Ms Dos Partition.

1. CREATE MS DOS PARTITION :This Option is used to create the new Partition on the Disk using this partition we can create the Following Partitions. Primary Dos Partition. Extended Dos Partition Logical Dos Partition. a. Choose the Create Dos Partition b. Choose the Primary Dos Partition and Press Enter (Now it checks the Drive) c. it ask you to create all the available Dos Space at Primary, Press "N" and Press Enter. d.Now specify the amount of Space at MB for Primary Dos Partition e. Then Press Enter, (Now it creates the primary Ms Dos Partition)

----------------------------------1. Choose the Create Ms Dos Partition. 2. Choose Extended Ms Partition 3. Now Press Enter, Don't Make any Changes there CREATING THE LOGICAL DRIVE PARTITION: 1. Choose the Create Dos Partition 2. Choose the Logical Dos Partition 3. Now specify the amount of Space for Logical Drive and Press Enter. 4. (using the Same Process you can create more Logical Drives until the Disk space remain.) TO ACTIVE THE MS DOS PARTITION Remember that Disk is useless or not recordable unless it is active.So always active the Ms dos partition. 1. At Fdisk option, choose the Active Dos Partition 2. Press f1 For Primary Dos Partition and Press Enter. (Now partition is actived) TO LIST THE TOTAL PARTITIONS 1. First Choose the Display Dos Partition at Fdisk Option and Press Enter. 2. Now it display the Primary Dos Partition, Press Enter to list Other Logical Drives. DELETING THE DOS PARTITION We can't delete the Partition from Top Row, here is the system to delete the partition from bottom level, it means Logical Dos Partition, Extended Dos Partition, Primary Dos Partition. 1. Select Delete Dos Partition and Press enter. 2. Now Select the " Delete Logical Dos Partition" & Press Enter. 3. Now Delete the Extended Dos Partition, then 4. Delete the Primary Dos Partition. (above you learned to create, List & Delete the Dos Partitions, but remember that after partition you must Format the Drive to install the Windows)

1. First Set the Boot sequence and Insert the windows 98 bootable CD. 2. Reboot the System or start with windows 98 bootable cd 3. Boot from Cd with Cd Rom Support later you will get. A:\> F: [ it means change the Volume Drive at CD ROM Volume ] F:\> Cd win98 [ Enter at Windows 98 Directory ] F:\win98> Format C: [ Type Format C: and PRess Enter] (Press "Y" To proceed Forward) after Completing the Formatting ,specify the Volume Name for the Drive and PRess Enter)

1. Boot the System with Windows 98 bootable Cd. 2. Change the Drive into Cd Rom Volume 3. Enter at Windows 98 Folder (eg. Cd win98 ) 4. Now type "Setup" and Press Enter, 5. Follow the Steps given on the Screen 6. During the Setup , May you have specify the Company Name, Address, Serial Key of Of windows 98. (From the Next Boot , boot the system From Hard Disk) After Completion of Windows 98, May you have to install the driver of Followings manually - Audio Driver - USB Driver - VGA Driver Cd Key of Windows 98 HQ6K2 - QPC42 - 3HWDM -BF4KJ -W4XWJ

- Right Click at My Computer - Click at Manage - Click at Disk Management - Right Click on the Logical Drives. - Click at Delete Driver Letter. (Now it Deletes the logical Drives)

- First Right click on the Free Space of the Drive at Disk Management - click at new Drive - During the New Drive Wizard, choose the File System, Drive Letter & Sepecify the Drive Size then click at Finish, (First it starts to Format the new Drive, later it is ready to use) DEVICES :It means the each part either internal or external of the PC (Personal Computer ). such as CD Rom, Floppy, Mode, Sound card, etc are Devices. DEVICE DRIVER :It means the Software of the devices, generally it helps to make work the devices with your operating system (OS) comfortly. so always install the driver of the Device. PLUG & PLAY DEVICES. It means those Devices which is auto detects by the system after adding then into the computer, Now a days all the internal or external devices are plug and play devices. It is very easy to plug , install the driver and use it. NON PLUG AND PLAY DEVICES :It means those devices which is not detect by the system after adding then into the system, now a days we rarely found these kind of devices. USB :It stands for Universal Serial Bus which a latest development Device and very easy to use it, you don't need any driver , don't need to trun off the computer, reboot the system. you just plug it and play (use it ), Now a days , all external devices are USB Port, Such as Degital Camera, Web Camera, etc. INTERNAL DEVICES :It means those devices which are seated inside the PCI slot of the Motherboard is called Internal Devices. EXTERNAL DEVICES :It Means those devices which are Plug outside by giving the Power is called external devices, such as Monitor, Speaker, etc are External Devices.


INPUT DEVICES :It means those kind of Devices through we give the order to the computer. Such as Keyboard, mouse , scanner, etc are input devices. OUTPUT DEVICES :- It means those kind of Devices which shows or gives the results sent by cpu, Such as Monitor, printer, speaker, etc are Output Devices.

OPERATING SYSTEM = WINDOWS DUAL BOOTING := TWO OR MORE WINDOWS Before Dual Booting Remember the Following Things - if you are making the Dual Booting then first install the Single Operating System. (better Install the Windows 98) - Remember that the Path of another Operating System must be different from the Previous One. - it Means if you installed the Previous Os at C:\windows - Then Install the another Operating System at Next Path , such as D:\windows - During the Setup Change the Path of the Second Operating System , Don't Delete the Folder of Previous Operating System.

a. First boot the computer by using windows 98 bootable cd. i. Setup windows 98 ii. Boot with Cd Rom Support iii. Boot Without Cd Rom Support b. select the second number option and press Enter. a:\> F: [ change into the cd rom Volume Drive ] F:\> cd win98 [ change at win98 folder ] F:\win98> Format c: [Now format the c Drive] Message Do you want to proceed? [ Y/ N ] Y Enter. (After completing 100% the format is completed, now type the volume name for the drive and Press Enter) Now copy the system file into the drive F:\win98> sys c: [ enter ]



a. windows 98 Bootable cd b. Cd ROM c. 500 MB Hdd Space. d. 32 Mb Ram or above. a. First insert the windows 98 bootabole cd into Cd Drive. b. Boot from Cd With cd rom support c. change the Volume Name at Cd Rom Volume. d. Enter at Windows 98 Folder. [ F:\win98> ] e. F:\win98> setup [ type setup & Press Enter. ] f. Now Follow the Steps given on the Screen, During the Setup you have to setup the Name, Organization Name, Windows 98 Cd Key,etc. g. after finishing windows 98 setup, you have to Manually setup the Sound, VGA Driver , etc from Cd. Cd Key of windows 98 Second Edition HQ6K2 – QPC42 – 3HWDM – BF4KJ – W4XWJ Installing windows Xp System Requirement a. windows Xp Bootable Cd. b. Cd ROM c. Hdd Space 2GB Minimum d. RAM 128 MB Or Higher. e. Processor 400 Mhz and High. a. b. c. d. e. f. First insert the Windows Xp Bootable Cd into Cd Drive. Now Switch on the Power of Cpu Press Any Key to boot from Cd Rom Now Press Enter , to Continue Now Press F8 To Accept the Changes Now it Shows all the Available drives of HDD. C:\> ETON [ FAT32 ] 6785 MB D:\> ETON1 [ FAT32 ] 9000 MB E:\> ETON3 [ FAT32 ] 4315 MB g. Now Select the partition of the drive then Press D, to delete the current selected partion. Press C, To create the new Partition. Press Enter, to continue the Partition.


h. Now at next Step

a. b. c. d.

Format the Partition using NTFS Format the Partition using Fat32 Format the Partition using NTFS (quick) Format the Partition using FAT32 (quick)

i. Now after completion of formating , it starts to copy the files into your HDD. after file complete, it restarts your system (now at this time don't press Any key, it means boot from Hdd to continue the setups.) j. Approx it takes around 50-60 minutes to complete the windows xp setup ( May windows Xp auto install the Sound & VGA Driver but it depends upon your Motherboard. if your MotherBoard is intel / sis , etc then you have to install sound and VGA Driver Manually )

# INSTALLING THE FONTS :a. Insert the Floppy or Cd of Fonts into the Flopply Drive / Cd ROM. b. CLick at start >> Settings >> Control Panel c. Open the Folder of Fonts. d. CLick at File >> Install New Font e. Now choose the Drive or Folder where the Fonts are located. f. Click at Select all ( Now it starts to read the Fonts ) g. Click at Ok (Now it installs the selected fonts of the folder or drive into the computer system)

INSTALLATING W2K(WINDOWS 2000 / XP ) :If your hard Drive has FAT32 File System then you can also Install the Windows xp or Windows 2000 From Dos, For this you have to do the Following 1. First Boot the Computer with Windows 98 Bootable Cd. 2. A:\> F: [ Change it into CD ROM Volume ] F:\ cd win98 F:\win98> Smartdrv.exe [ type "smartdrv.exe" & Press Enter ] F:\>win98>cd\ [ Exit From win98 Directory ] F:\> [ Now change the Cd of windows Xp / Windows 2000 ] F:\>cd I386 [ Type "i386" & Press Enter. F:\I386> winnt [ enter ] (Now Follow the Steps given on the Screen)

OR 1. Insert the Bootable Cd of W2k into CD Drive 2. Set the Boot Sequance [make first boot "CD ROM"] 3. During Booting Process is asked "Press Any Key to Boot from CD...." 4. Now Press any Key to boot from Cd ROm (It starts to check the System) 5. Press Enter,to Continue the Setup. 6. Press F8, to accept the changes To Continue the Setup, Press Enter. To Create the Partition, Press C To Delete the Partition, Press D. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C:\> [FAT32] 8000MB. D:\> [FAT32] 9000MB. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. Now you can Follow the Options given above. 8. To Continue the Setup , Select the Drive by using up / down arrow key and Press Enter. Format Using NTFS File System (Quick) Format Using FAT32 File System (Quick) Format Using NTFS File System. Format Using FAT32 Fiel System (If you are installing W2k only , then Better performance & Security, choose "Format using NTFS File System") 9. Now It Formats the Drive and Starts To Copy the Files into the Hard Drive. after finishing the Copy, May it Reboots the System, at This Time Boot From Hard Drive, Don't Press Any Key when it ask " Press any Key To Boot From Cd" 10. Now Follow the Steps Carefully by reading the Given Messages. (it takes Approx. 40 -60 Minute, to complete the Setup of W2k.) 11.May you have to Install the Driver of VGA & Sound at Intel Motherboards) Cd Key Of Windows XP (Service Pack 2 ) RHKG3 - 8YW4W - 4RHJG - 83M4Y - 7X9GW


a. First set the Boot sequance - First Boot [ cd rom] - Second boot [ IDE-0 ] b. Save the Changes [F10] c. Insert the Windows 98 Bootable Cd into Cd Drive. d. Now boot from Cd Rom e. Select Boot with Cd Rom Support. f. Now change the drive into the Cd Rom Volume Drive. (A:\> F: F:\> Cd win98 F:\win98> Format C: (after finishing the Formattings) F:\win98>Setup (Now Follow the steps given on the Screen) g. at next restart , boot from hard disk, ( after finishing the Installations of windows 98, you have to install the following drivers. - Driver of VGA ( Colors) - Driver of Audio (sound) - Driver of USB (other Drivers as you added the devices) h. Don't Forget to copy the windows98 folder from Cd into your Hard Drive, Later you need the windows 98 source folder while installing the Drivers.

Hardware means the physical parts of the System is called hardware, such as cd rom, floppy , cables, etc. •Motherboard 1.Motherboard(m/b) a. Intel b. Intel Chip c. Via i. Tiga ii.Tomato iii.Goldkist


Motherboard 1.At ( Advance Technology) a. 5 Pin Keyboard b. Power Connect 6 Pin (6/6) c. Power Connect(2 Column,1 row) d. Power , 12 / 5 V. 2.ATX (Advance Technology Extended ) e. 6 Pin Keyboard f. Power connect 20 Pin ( 10/10) g. Power Connector (2 row,1column) h. Power 12 / 5 /3 /3.3 V. MODELS OF MOTHERBOARD - 286 - 486 - (above Pentium I) 5 86…………………915 (Pentium M/b):- 810/815/ [ Pentium III ] - 845/865/910/915 [ Pentium IV ) ( you have to install the driver of Sound / VGA(color) according to the Motherboard model & version if it is inbuilt ) To see the Version / model of Motherboards :a.Start >> Run b.Type “Dxdiag” / “msinfo32” OR Reboot(restart) the system and at Startup press “ Pause / Break” (Now you can see the version & Model of Motherboard) • •CPU ( Central Processing Unit) Measure in Mhz / Ghz 100 -200 Mhz ( pentium I) 200-400 Mhz ( Pentium II) 500-1100 Mhz ( Pentium III) Above ( Pentium IV) •Hard Disk It is measured in MB / GB

10 GB / 20 Gb / 40 GB / 80 Gb /60 GB , etc •RAM ( Random Access Memory) It is measured in MB 128 Mb, 256 Mb Ram, 512 MB , 1 Gb •Cashing Box •Keyboard •Mouse •Monitor •Modem •Speaker •CD ROM Normal CD Rom ( Read Only ) RW CD ROm ( Read , Write ) DVD Combo ( Read, Write, DVD Read ) DVD Writer ( Read, Write, DVD Read, DVD Write) •Floppy Capactiy of CPU / Ram - start - run - "dxdiag" or "msinfo32" or Press "winlogo+break"

It stands for Micro Soft Disk Operating System which plays a inter-prater between software and hardware, its like a bone of human. Without ms dos, windows and other Programs are not possible. # loading Ms Dos command 1. Start >> Run 2. Type “CMD” and press  3. Type cd\  C :\> [C Prompt which is the original ms dos Prompt]

c:\ > Exit  [type exit and press Enter] There are two types of Ms Dos Command 1. Internal Ms Dos Command & External Ms Dos Command.


1. To set date C:\> date  [ type date and Press Enter then type the current correct date by MM-DDYY ] 2.To set Time C:\> Time  [ type time and press  then set the correct current time and press Enter ] 3.To Clear the Screen C:\> CLS [ type CLS & Press  ] 4. To create the Text file C:\> Copy |__| con |__| file name  Type your message Press F6 & Press  (Now your File is saved) eg. C:\> Copy |__| con |__| Dambar  Hello me dambar and namaste to all 1 files copied 5. To list the files C:\> Dir  C:\> Dir / p  C:\> Dir / w  6. To see the Text Message C:\> Type |__| File name  Eg. C:\> Type |__| Dambar  (Now it shows the message of dambar) 7. To rename the text file C:\> Ren |__| old file name |__| new file name  Eg. C:\> Ren |__| dambar |__| sugarika  (Now it change of file name of dambar at sugarika but message will be same)

8. To copy the text message. C:\> copy |__| source file |__| target file  Eg. C:\> Copy |__| sugarika |__| Subash  (now it copies the message of sugarika at Subash) 9. to delete the text file C:\ Del |__| File name  Eg. C:\> Del |__| Sugarika  (Now it deletes the file of sugarika )

Directory is like a table where we can store the files and folders but can’t write at directory, it is known as <dir> on listing. Better always create the directory and put the files inside it. Md -Make Directory CD -Change Directory RD -Remove Directory # To create the Directory Syntax C:\> Md |__| Directory Name  Eg. C:\> Md |__| Raj  (Now it Creates the Raj Directory) # To Enter at Directory Syntax C:\> Md |__| Raj  C:\raj> (Now you are at Raj Directory, Create the files at raj directory) # To Exit From the Directory Type Cd .. -- [ Step wise Exit ]

Cd \

--[ Direct Exit at Root Directory]

# To copy all the files of Directory at next directory Syntax C:\> Copy |__| source Directory\*.* |__| Target Directory Drive\Directory  # To list the Details files and Sub Directory Structures Syntax C:\> Tree |__| Directory Name  # To copy all subdirectories along with files at Next Directory Syntax C:\> Xcopy/s |__| Source Directory\*.* |__| Target Directory (Now it copies all files along with Sub Directories at Target Directory) # To Remove the Directory Notes • Directory Must be Empty which you are going to empty • You must out from the directory Syntax C:\> RD |__| Directory Name  (Now it removes the Directory)

This command is used to copy all the files and sub directory tree from one directory to another directory. Syntax C:\> Xcopy/s |__| Source Directory \*.* |__| Target Directory 

+H H +R R To Hide To Unhide Read Only Editable

+A A +S S

Attributes Hide Attributes Unhide Hide System Files Unhide System Files

Syntax C:\> Attrib |__| Command |__| File / Directory  eg. C:\> Attrib |__| + H |__| Raj  (Now it hides the Raj Directory) + R, - R [this commands are only for text files] + A, - A [reserve] + S, - S [system files ] + h , -h [ file or directory both ] [Better always hide the system files for safe and security ] When you install the windows, it auto creates the system files at the drive where you install the windows, here are some system files Ms Dos, IO, NTDETECt, NTLDE, BOOT.ini, Here is the system file of win9x (Windows 95, 98) HARDWARE TROUBLE SHOOTINGS TROUBLE = PROBLEMS SHOOT = SOLVE./ FIND OUT RAM Error - Shows the Error During the Setup - Hangs the Programs. - NO Display


Shows the Error During the Setup --This is the Main Problem of RAM,Now a days , we get the Cd From Market that may also cause the Problem of Error During the Setup. Make Confirm that cd Program is ok. If still giving the Problem,then Replace the RAM Module -- If again giving the Problems then Replace the new one and Try, Now if it works properly then that RAM has Problems, -- If you use the Maxium Net with Restricted sites, then there is Max Possibility of Viruses into the Memory. Hangs the Programs - This type of Problems rises due to the Low Capacity of Memory becoz that Programs needs the High Memory to access, if so then add some other capacity of Memory and try , if again giving the same Probs, then replace the new one and try, It may also the Probs of Software Cd , Read Carefully the System Requirement of Software before installations. No Display With Beep Sound This is the problem that RAM Has No contact with your system, if the CPU Speaker is attached properly then It Gives the Sound of Ti ssssssss Ti ssssssssssss Ti sssssssssssss (Long Beep), if the CPu Speaker is not Attached , then it doesn't play the Sound, -- Properly seat the RAM into the RAM Module Before Replacing the new one. -- At this time you replace the RAM at Next computer or Change the New ONe and Try, again the There is No Display then Join the CPU Speaker and Try, if there beep sound with long one is coming then It is the probs of RAM, also try by cleaning the Slot of RAM Module Before Seated the RAM. -- If there is no Long Beep Sound and with No Display,then check the Power and Display cable of Monitor properly.


• Before installing any software, check the hardware or system requirement of the Software that you are installing now. Such as RAM, CPU SPEED, HDD Space, etc. • The Main thing is that you must check the Service Pack for the Latest Software, Games or Utilities, This Service Pack is only For windows 2000 or later versions, you can’t install the Service Pack For the windows 98, you can check the Service Pack From System Properties. Service Pack is available for windows 2000 or later, it is like this: - Service Pack 1, Service Pack 2, Service Pack 3, Service Pack 4, etc. you can buy only the service pack Cds for the windows, you don’t have do anything, just install the Service Pack Versions, May you have to reboot your System. Service Pack is also used for the Security and to keep away your system from the Bugs. • If you are installing the Software that is specially for Audio or Video, then may you have to check that which player do you need to run this Software, Such as Windows Media Player, Win Amp, Quick Time Player, Mpeg, Supporter Files, etc. So Before installing the Software that is relate with media then check above software in your pc.

Some software needs the latest version of Direct X, which means to make work properly with your VGA, Sound & Effects. You can check it By Running the Dxdiag. You can also get the Direct X Cds from Market, after installing it may you have to reboot your System to apply the changes of Direct X.

• Some times installing any Software or games or utilities that make your system very slow, it means there is lack of proper access power or Speed, at this time you have to update your RAM OR CPU Which is compatible with your Motherboard. • After installing any Software Better reboot your System completing the 100% installations so that you can run or access it properly. • After Installing any Software , Games or Utilities, if it not working Properly or not running or giving the Errors , OR Giving the Problems During the Installations then Better Replace the RAM New one, bcoz it may be also the cause . • Before installing any software, Games or Utilities Check the Required Version of Windows, Such as Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Xp, etc.

• If the installed Programs are not working Properly then First reinstall the program reboot your system then install it again and check it, if it again not working then replace the next Software Cd Check it. • Before installing Some Software, games or Utilities, may you have to disable the Norton Antivirus Software if it installed on your Computer.

• After Installing the Software, suppose you reboot your system but it shows only the blank Screen. At that time, reboot the system again in safe mode and uninstall the Software that you installed recently then reboot in Normal by Check it.

At windows Xp or Later Versions, you can system restore the previous steps of specified time or date: - Start >> Programs >> Accessories >> System Tools >> System Restore.

• If you are updating your windows or Any Software or Utilities then before Update disable the System Restore First. My Computer >> Properties >> Updates >> Disable the System Restore. [Select the Drives] • Don’t Delete the EXE Files of Software if you installed, it means if you don’t need that Software then uninstall it Manually From add / remove option from Control Panel. • Don’t Keep the Recently unused Software, Games or Utilities. • Don’t keep any Backup Files of Games, Software, Utilities for long time, always burn it on the Cds by Checking the Virus Properly. • Better always install one Antivirus Software and keep updating it. • Before using any Floppy, Installing any Software, First Check it properly that files are affected or not. • Always Update the Following utilities on your System o o o o Latest Service pack of Windows Install the Latest Spy ware Utilities Install the Latest Anti Virus and Keep Updating. Install and keep updating the Direct X.

o Installing the windows media Players latest versions. o Keep Upgrade your Hardware (RAM, CPU, MotherBoard, etc)

Problem:- Floppy Disk Fail - Can't be accessible - Press F1 to continue Trouble Shoot - First of all Take the Data cable of Floppy and seat it into the Floppy Device Port on the Mother Board Properly - Then Plug the Data Cable into the Floppy and plug the cable of power. - Now Enable the Floppy From BIOS / CMOS Setup - Notice that if the Floppy Disk indicator , keeps lighting continues , then may there is some errors on the connections, - If the Indicator just light during the Boot process and stop , then it is ok - If the message of Can't be accessible, enable it from windows or bios setup.(it can be also the problem of Floppy Diskette)

Error Messages - Disk Boot Failure, Insert the System Disk & Press Enter. - No Media Found, Insert the Media & Press Enter. Trouble Shoot - Plug the IDE cable into the Port of Motherboard and IDE properly - Give the Power Plug to IDE - Make Primary / Secondary Master / slave to the IDE - Now Detect the IDE From BIOS Setup - Make Confirm that Windows is installed on HDD. - Change the Data cable of IDE , - Replace the New IDE and Try it.


If the system files of windows deleted then it may give you the Following Message while booting the Windows - NTLDR Missing - System File Missing - Reinstall the Windows. If you are getting this kind of message then you don't have to worry :1. Just make this drive secondary slave in which system file is missing 2. Make another working HDD primary 3. Boot from the Primary HDD 4. then Copy the System Files From Primary HDD ( NTDETECT, NTLDR, IO, MSDOS, BOO.ini) To Secondary 5. Now Boot the Computer From Secondary and Check it whether it giving probs or not.

# TROUBLE SHOOT OF RESOLUTION :Normal Resolution :-800x600 ,1024x768, (Desktop Properties – settings) Some times, we change the resolution of Windows more then the previous one or normal resolution, then it shows only the Blank screen, it means more resolution can't support by the Monitor. Here we can see the following type of errors or symptoms :- Computer boots , shows the windows loading but at the startup of Desktop , it shows the Blank screen. Trouble Shoot :1. First reboot the System by pressing restart 2. Press F8 3. Choose the Safe Mode & run windows 4. My Computer (right Click ) 5. Manage 6. Device Manager 7. Display Adapter (Browse) 8. Just Below of Display adapter, Choose the Shown category and right click 9. click at uninstall 10. Now reboot the System at Normal mode. 11. Now again reinstall the VGA Driver.


UTILITIES SOFTWARE :1. Anti Virus Programs 2. Compression Programs Compression Programs :1. WInzip - Add to Zip ( Compress) - Extract Files ( Uncompress) 2. Win Rar - Add to Archieve ( Compress ) - Extract Files ( Uncompress) ( May video, Images, Songs are cannot be compress fully) Compress Programs which 60-80 % Compress or zips the in the total size and reduce the disk space, in the requirement you can uncompress it, even you can put the password for security for the ziped or archieved folders. COMPRESSING THE FOLDERS :(First Install the Compress Software ( Winzip or Win rar ) 1. Right click on the Folder which you want to zip. 2. Click at Add to zip / Archieve 3. Choose the path of drive or folder where you want to put the out put . 3. Specify the Password for security 3. click at Ok, (Now it starts to compress the Folder and gives the output at the selected path) UNCOMPRESS OR EXTRACTING THE ZIPED OR ARCHIEVED FOLDER: (Uncompress or Extract to the Folder which one is zipped or archieved) 1.First right click on the Folder which one is zipped or archieved 2. Click at Extract Files 3. Click at Extract All 4. Choose the Path or Drive where you want to extract the Files. 5. CLick at extract all

(Now it starts Extracting the Files, if there is security then it may ask you the Password to proceed Forward)

UTILITIES SOFTWARE: Winzip / Winrar System Utilities

These types of software which means the Ad- Aware, Spyware, AntiVirus Softwares, Registry Recovery Softwares,etc.Basically , we use these types of software to keep our operating system healthy,to delete the unused and template files, to restore / backup the registry, to protect the system from the viruses & even for internet security, we use the System Utilities. here are some utilities software we use for :Virus Scan - AvG - KASPERSKY ANTI VIRUS PERSONAL - NORTON ANTI VIRUS - PANDA ANTI VIRUS - MACAFEE - PC CILIN - Quick Heal - NOD32 (recommended) ( Trozen,Winfile,win32,etc are irritating viruses) Internet Security ( if you use the Internet ) - Norton Internet Security - Fire wall ( of any software) Registry / Internet virus - Spy ware - ad- aware - Script Trap - Spy Agent


Inter connection between two or more than two devices to share files and printers. It may be either wire or wireless.

1. Local Area Network (LAN) 2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 3. Wide Area Network (WAN) 1. Local Area Network (LAN)
Network within limited area. Example: a room, room to room, one building to another. It may be wire (upto 300 Mbps) or wireless (LAN Card upto 10 to 200 Mbps).

2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Network as WAN.

3. Wide Area Network (WAN)
Network in remote area or a long distance. IT has no limitation. Examples: one country to another country, one city to another city. It may be wireless or broadbrand. This network uses IP Address, Fibre Optics, Antina and Frequency. The largest WAN in existence is the internet.

TYPES OF NETWORK: 1. Client/ Server Networking 2. Work Group 1. Client/ Server Networking: It is a computing architecture that distributes processing between clients and servers on the network. In this networking client computer need permission from server computer and security level is also high. Time, User name and Password are necessary in this networking.
Server Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client 4 Client 5


Fig. Client/ Server Architecture 2. Work Group: It is a computing architecture that distributes processing between all computers on the network. They can share files and printer to each others. Workgroup and Computer Name is needed for this network.
File Server Shared Printer

Com 2

Com 3

Com 4

No hub/Switch device are needed

Com 1

Com 2

Networking is performed to share files and printer which is the important point of service of network.

       Cd Rom Dvd Rom Drives Modem Printer Fax Etc…

 Low Cost  Easy to work

 Creates a Boundary  Creates relation  Save the time.

A standard rule for network and communication. There are mainly three types of Protocols are in use in networking while there are many protocols. They are: 1. FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP) 2. HYPER TEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP) 3. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP) HOW DOES MAIL TRANSFER THROUGH TCP? Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) transfer outgoing mail by the help of TCP. In other hand, Post Office Protocol (POP) received incoming mail through TCP. POP is also known as POP3. TCP SMTP (Outgoing) POP/POP3 (Incoming)

INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP): An unique identity of network and communication. IP Subnet Mask Gateway DNS Server DNS Client
The default IP must be 192.168. Here 192.168 is default IP. 0 is class. 1 is Computer Identity.

Note: IP for each and every computer must be different.

     Network Interface Card (NIC) Hub/Switch Rj Connector Rj Cable or Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Clapper.

NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC): A main network communication device through you can transfer the data in network. It creates a parallel connection between network and serial connection with system. HUB/SWITCH:
A multiport connection device to connect two or more network computer. We use the device like: 8 port, 16 port, 32 port etc… Hub have speed of 10/100 mbps (mega byte per second) Switch have speed of 100/100 mbps (mega byte per second)

RJ CABLE/UTP CABLE: This cable contains colors like: Blue, Blue White, Green, Green White, Brown, Brown White, Yellow and Yellow White.

Side 1
1. Green White 2. Green 3. Yellow White 4. Blue 5. Blue White 6. Yellow 7. Brown White 8. Brown

Side 2
1. Green White 2. Green 3. Yellow White 4. Blue 5. Blue White 6. Yellow 7. Brown White 8. Brown

Side 1 (1236)
1. Green White 2. Green 3. Yellow White 4. Blue

Side 2 (3612)
1. Yellow White 2. Yellow 3. Green White 4. Blue

5. Blue White 6. Yellow 7. Brown White 8. Brown

5. Blue White 6. Green 7. Brown White 8. Brown

Before configuration of network you must install the net card into your system. So, that we can configure the network. CONFIGURATION OF NETWORK: This is the main part of network which covers the network type, work group and computer name. In the case of work group, specify the common name with unique character or number. Don’t give the logical signs. It must be same for all computers. If the work group is different, it doesn’t matter. In this case network works but you can’t access the network computer directly. May it doesn’t show the network in my network places. In the case of computer name, it also must be unique and different from each other. May after configuration the network you need to reboot/restart your system. OPEN MY NETWORK PLACES ON DESKTOP

Open my network places Click on view workgroup ( it shows the computer name which you have configured.)

Right click on my computer Go to properties. Click Computer name. Click on change to change your computer name. (May you need to restart your system if you made changes.)


Right click on my network places. Go to properties Right Click on Local Area Connection . Click on properties. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties Automatically Manually IP:
Subnet Mask: Gateway:

Click on Ok button.

Run Ms-Dos command (cmd) C:\ipconfig/all. It shows Windows IP Configuration and Ethernet Adapter Local Area Connection.

Run Ms-Dos C:\ping ip ( If reply is shown for four times on screen it is Ok. Reply………………… Reply………………… Reply………………… Reply………………… If it is not shown but… Request time Out. Host unreachable Destination unfound Are shown you have an error. Therefore, you have to recheck your system.

Sharing is to give the permission to use the some drive or folder to the other network users. 1. Right Click on drive or folder. 2. Click on sharing and security.

Share this folder. Share name: Allow network users to make changes. Ok

Before making network drive you must create the folder and share it. Network drive which help to access the shared folder quickly as a drive from my computer. You can specify a drive later on the shared folder.

Now open my computer to see the current network drive.


File Server Shared Printer

Com 1

Com 2

Com 3

Com 4

Com 5

Here, only server has printer, now you can print the data from com 1, com 2, com 3, com 4 and com 5 without printer but for that network must be created and printer must shared from server, and must setup from com 1, com 2, com 3, com 4 and com 5. TO SETUP NETWORK FROM NETWORK COMPUTER:




1. Lease Line Connection :- In this type of connection we use the Antina , This type of connection is very Fast then the Dial up Connection. 2. Dial up Connection :- this type of Connection ,we use the Modem , and Little Slow then the lease line connection 3. Cable Connection :- This type of Connection we don't Need the Modem, We use the Network Card, and Speed is fast then the Others.

In Dial up Connection, you need to take the Internet connection line from ISP ( Internet service Providor), they give you. User Name :Password:Phone Number:1. Start >> Settings >> Control Panel 2. Double Click at Network Connections 3.Click at File >> New Connection 4. Choose "Connec to the Internet" >> Next. 5.Choose " Manually connection " >> Next 6. Choose " Dialup Connections" >> Next. 7. Now Type the ISP Name (raj, eton) >> Next 8. Specify the User name and Passwords >> Next >> Finish (create the Shortcut of Dialup on Connection on Desktop) (Now dialup Connection is Created) Now Connect the Phone line at the Line Port of Modem Specify the User Name, Password and Phone Line Click at Ok, ( Now it creates the connection, after Connection it show the Connection icon at Task Bar)


1. Start >> Settings >> Control Panel >> Phone & Modems 2. Click at Modems >> Select Modem >> Properties 3. Click at Diagnostics >> Query Modem (if it gives the hardware list then Modem is ready to use, if it alerts with " Fail to connect Modem " then You have to reinstall the Device and Driver) CREATING THE DIALUP CONNECTION (WIN98): 1. My computer >> dial up networking >> Make New connection 2. click at next >> Specify the Country code, Country name, Connection Phone Number >> Next 3. Specify the User Name and Password >> Next >> Finish 4. Right click on the Connection >> Properties. 5. Remove the Right Tick Mark from Country Code, and Click at Server Types 6. Remove the Tick Mark from "NetBEUI" and "IPX" 7. Put the Tick Mark of "TCP / IP " 8. Click at Ok. TESTING MODEM(WIN9X) 1. Start >> Settings >> Control Panel >> Modem >> Diagnostic >>More info (If it shows the hardware Results then ready for use otherwise reinstall the device and Driver.) It is caused by virus (I don’t remember the name, these virus names is never so easy to remember). But this same virus will put the text “Hacked By Godzilla” in the Title bar on IE. After lot of searching I found information in Thai to fix this and I have at last fix my computer. To start with you will have to go in tools (in any folder window) and select “Folder options” there you will click on “View” tap and there you will select “Show Hidden files and folders” and un hake “Hide protected operating system file” (this selections are important to find the files you need to delete). You will then open Windows Task Manager (ctrl-alt-del) and select the “Processes” tap and find “wscript.exe” and click on “End Process” (if there is more than one process with that name you have to end all of them) after that you can close the “Task Manager” Then you will click on start and select “Search” and search for “autorun.inf” (Search the computer) You will then delete all the files that contains the text MS32DLL.dll.vbs (the virus). (There of course should not be Autorun.inf in the C rooth). You will also delete the virus from the system (C:\WINDOWS\ MS32DLL.dll.vbs) Next step is to edit the Register (Like always you have to be very care fool in the registry tools. Some mistake there can crash your computer)


Click on “Start” and select “Run” and type in “Regedit” and press “Enter”. Select HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE --> Software -->Microsoft -->Windows --> Current Version --> Run. Find there “MS32DLL” and delete that entry. Then select HKEY_CURRENT_USER --> Software --> Microsoft --> Internet Explorer -> Main. There you find “Window Title “Hacked by Godzilla”” and you should delete that entry. You can close the registry now. Next you will click on Start --> Run and type in “gpedit.msc” and press “Enter”. Then you will open “Group Policy”. There you will select User Configuration --> Administrative Templates --> System --> and there you will double click on “Turn Off Autoplay” and in the window there you should select “Enabled” and select “All drives” (they say in this Thai webside that select all turn of Autoplay will be safer for not getting viruses). Now you can close the Group Policy. Next you will click on Start --> Run and type “msconfig” and press “Enter”. You will open “System Configuration Utility”. Click on “Startup” tap and find the file MS32DLL take it out (this was written like this in Thai, only part that didn’t use the word Delete, but they probable mean that you have to delete the entry there. This entry wasn’t on my computer so I didn’t do anything there on my PC). Then you will exit the “System Configuration Utility” and select “Exit Without Restart” when prompt. After this you can open my Computer and select “Tools” and “Folder Options” and “View” tap to change back there. Select “Hide protected operating system file” and “Don’t show hidden files and folders”. Then you will empty the “Recycle bin” and “Restart” your computer. This helps me with my computer and I don’t get any “Autoplay” on my hard drive now. Originally Posted by thaiiceland , "edited by hh" - It is caused by virus (I don’t remember the name, these virus names is never so easy to remember). But this same virus will put the text “Hacked By Godzilla” in the Title bar on IE. After lot of searching I found information in Thai to fix this and I have at last fix my computer. 1-2. double click on My computer on Desktop , - choose Tool and select “Folder options” - click on “View” tap select “Show Hidden files and folders” and un hake "Hide Extention...." - and “Hide protected operating system file” (this selections are important to find the files you need to delete) - then click "OK" 3. open Windows Task Manager (ctrl-alt-del) and select the “Processes” tap - Click on "Image name" to sort File

- find “wscript.exe” and click on “End Process” (if there is more than one process with that name you have to end all of them) - close the “Task Manager”

4. then you will click on Start and select “Search” and search for “autorun.inf” (Search the computer) - you will then delete all the files that contains the text MS32DLL.dll.vbs (the virus) by pressing: SHIFT + DELETE. (There of course should not be Autorun.inf in the C rooth). 5. you will also delete the virus from the system (C:\WINDOWS\ MS32DLL.dll.vbs) by pressing: SHIFT + DELETE 6. Next step is to edit the Register (Like always you have to be very care fool in the registry tools. Some mistake there can crash your computer) - first, click on “Start” and select “Run” and type in “Regedit” and press “Enter”. - select HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE --> Software -->Microsoft -->Windows --> Current Version --> Run. - find there “MS32DLL” and delete that entry. 6. Then select HKEY_CURRENT_USER --> Software --> Microsoft --> Internet Explorer --> Main. There you find “Window Title “Hacked by Godzilla”” and you should delete that entry. You can close the registry now. 7. next you will click on Start --> Run and type in “gpedit.msc” and press “Enter”. then you will open “Group Policy”. - there you will select User Configuration --> Administrative Templates --> System --> and there you will double click on “Turn Off Autoplay” - in the window there you should select “Enabled” and select “All drives” (they say in this Thai webside that select all turn of Autoplay will be safer for not getting viruses). Now you can close the Group Policy. 8. Next you will click on Start --> Run and type “msconfig” and press “Enter”. - you will open “System Configuration Utility”. - click on “Startup” tap - find the file MS32DLL, choose Enable All, then unhake "MS32DLL" - click Apply then OK to close


- then you will exit the “System Configuration Utility” and select “Exit Without Restart” when prompt. 9. After this you double click on My Computer and select “Tools” and “Folder Options” and “View” tap to change back there. - select "Hide Extention..." and “Hide protected operating system file” and “Don’t show hidden files and folders”. - then you will empty the “Recycle bin” and “Restart” your computer. This helps me with my computer and I don’t get any “Autoplay” on my hard drive now. Click Start > Run. Type regedit Click OK. Note: If the registry editor fails to open the threat may have modified the registry to prevent access to the registry editor. Security Response has developed a tool to resolve this problem. Download and run this tool, and then continue with the removal. Navigate to the subkey: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run In the right pane, delete the value: "MS32DLL" = "%Windir%\MS32DLL.dll.vbs" Navigate to the subkey: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Main In the right pane, delete the value: "Window Title" = "Hacked by[REMOVED]"


Exit the Registry Editor.


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