This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
an object Corners and concavity information is more informative than mere lines Involves features and integration, use of other information in memory, influenced by context, integrated with action All learning involves the combination of new information with previous information which presupposes proper categorization, making object recognition crucial for learning and memory Necker Cube- ambiguous object that must be perceived from some perspective which implies that further information is provided by the observer and not the stimulus itself We do not passively receive information through observation, nor do we construct it after observation but rather organize the stimulus prior to observation Brain relies on parallel processing; analyzes a pattern’s basic features at the same time it analyzes an overall configuration What matters for familiarity is not simply the stimuli but the organization imposed upon it Perceptual system prefers simplest explanations, avoids coincidences, an does not contradict stimuli Recognition of objects begins with identification of basic features the object is composed of Features recognized are not the features of the stimuli itself but of our perception of it Integrative Agnosia- damage to parietal cortex leaves individual able to recognize features of objects but unable to understand them as a unified complex TMS disruption of parietal lobe in individuals impairs ability to recognize complex objects Familiarity and recency influence recognition Priming- initial exposure of stimuli prepares individual for secondary exposure Repetition Priming- repeating exposure of stimuli improves recognition of stimuli Word Superiority Effect- words or letters in words are easier to recognize than isolated letters Familiarity with the letter pattern of the word as well as adherence to grammar influence recognition of the word or letters in the word Over-regularization Errors- misread irregular letter patterns of words for more regular ones Feature nets- network of feature detectors organized in layers with each subsequent layer concerned with more complex features Activation Level- measure of current activation for a detector which is increased if the detector receives the appropriate input from its associated detectors, higher if input is frequent or recent Response Threshold- quantity of information activation needed to trigger a response Fire- detector signals to connected detectors Bigram Detector- detector for letter pairs Knowledge of detectors is not locally represented in any specific node so that one cannot look at a detector and conclude that it represents a common or rare bigram; must instead look at the total relationship between activation levels of all detectors which is distributed knowledge Interractive Model (McClelland/Rumelhart)- detectors not only trigger each other but inhibit each other as well across all levels and higher detectors can influence lower detectors and not just vice versa Inhibitory Connections- activation of one detector lowers detection of another detector
at most need 36 geons to recognize all objects Advantageous because geons are simple enough to be recognized from any perspective and objects can be recognized with only partial geons Viewpoint Dependent Model.Recognition by Components Model (Hummel/Biederman).mental process of directing or concentrating effort on a stimulus or event Is limited and selective Can be top-down active or bottom-up passive and either focused or divided as well as space or object based . not perception based Priming wrong word does not inhibit other detectors in low-validity primes but does so in high validity primes High validity primes produce warm-up effects and expectation effects while low validity primes produce only warm up effects Two types of primes. then late selection occurs Priming occurs even in the absence of expectations and is thus stimulus.unaware of background conversation but become aware when relevant Filter.all inputs receive relatively complete analuysis but it is only the attended input that reaches consciousness or is at least remembered If input is complex. while high validity priming has the cost of inhibiting detectors which gives evidence for a limited capacity system Attention.basic detector for features of spatial objects which are combined for recognition. the early selection occurs and if simple.attended input is identified and privileged from the start.inability to recognize faces and reliance on feature-level features to distinguish faces Recognition of faces is heavily view-point dependent Crucial whenever the task is familiar and repeated and it involves recognizing specific individuals in a category Involves fusiform face area specialization CHAPTER 4 Dichotic listening. stimulus based without expectation (low validity) and expectation based (high validity) Expectation priming takes longer to become effective while stimulus based priming is immediate Low validity priming has low costs.network of geon shape detectors arranged in a hierarchy of complexity Geon.do not see visual stimuli right in front of them due to attending to some other stimulus and not expecting the target to appear No conscious perception without attention Change Blindness.inability to detect changes in scenes they are looking directly at Early Selection. so that the unattended input receives little analysis and is never perceived Late Selection.hear recording in two ears but repeat recording from one ear only Cocktail Party Effect.blocks out potential distracters from processing Inattentional Blindness.store multiple perspectives of object in memory and recognize the object from a particular perspective and “rotate” it when it is incongruent thus making some perspectives faster at processing than others View-tuned representations are probably supported by inferotemporal cortex tissue Prosopagnosia.
multitasking.single feature enough to find target. demands attention Filter Theory.targets that appear at previously attended or cued locations are more slowly responded to than targets that appear at uncued locations when a relatively long temporal interval intervenes between cue and target More time to look around with longer time giving more time to look around when uncued SNARC Effect.spatial numerical association of response codes Existence of a mental number line when subjects performed simple parity (odd-even) judgments . dorsal. splitting attention between tasks Early Selection. check each item serially.exogenous. ventral. and not attention demanding Combined Feature Search. unaware of neglect Selective attention both inhibits unwanted inputs and facilitates the processing of desired inputs Attention is a complex process and should be understood more as an achievement than an activity Interference increases as tasks increase in similarity and complexity Response Selector.focused on one input while ignoring others Divided Attention. top-down.unattended information is analyzed but remains unconscious Isolated Feature Search. bottom-up.combination of features.voluntary. cued (symbolic) Exogenous Attention. bottom-up. top-down. goal-directed.involuntary. goal-driven Selective Attention. unexpected (spatial) Invalid endogenous cues lose power. beginning with spatial attention but later object attention after focusing on object within that space Inhibition of Return.information passes through sensory register and filters through relevant information for memory while rest remains in buffer to be processed later Attenuation Theory.unattended input not analyzed Late Selection.Attention works to focus on a stimulus and prime the relevant detectors for that stimulus Passive Attention. but invalid exogenous cues do not Unilateral Neglect Syndrome.ignores all inputs coming from one side of the body. stimulus-driven Active Attention. expressed on opposite side of body from where the brain damage is Patients cannot attend to space but one they locate an object within space they can attend to that object Visual Neglect.attention disorder unaware or don’t respond to objects on one side of space.selects and initiates responses and plays a role in coordinating the timing of various activities and can presumably only initiate one activity at a time Show both spatial and object attention. done in parallel.all information is registered but bottleneck occurs so that early processing occurs until capacity is reached though some information gets through accidentally Accounts for extensive processing of unattended stimuli where some input is weakened but not filtered out completely Use eye movement and reaction time to infer attention Attentional shifts caused by peripheral events or over-learned symbols Endogenous Attention.endogenous. stimulus-driven.
high numbers on the right but clock-face priming is reverse effect Executive Control. long term memory.If numbers are associated with space then perhaps the perception of numbers can invoke an attentional shift towards either left or right which might suggest obligatory activation of a mental number line when processing numerical information Low numbers prime the left.process of placing new information into long-term memory Storage.remember recent stimuli Recency effects offer proof for short term memory and primacy effects offer proof for long term Video analogy is wrong because perception does not equal memory for encoding. remains dormant until retrieved Retrieval. if successful the list increases until unable to recall Working memory capacity is around seven items plus or minus two chunks Chunk. concepts and knowledge. maintains itself.process of locating information in memory and activating that information for use Information Processing. expertise CHAPTER 5 Acquisition. memory systems. unconscious.holds dormant generalized information Echoic Short Term Memory.Short term memory.recall series of words which are best recalled from the most recent and initial words Primacy Effect. optimizing memory. distortions and misinformation in maintenance and forgetting is not all-or-nothing in retrieval Working memory is limited and can hold only five or six words and thus recency effect Primacy effect due to memory rehearsal of initial stimuli Counting backwards will cancel out the recency effect but delaying recall does not Slowing presentation improves retention of pre-recency words but not recency words Digit-Span Task.recall information in short term memory even when not attending or processing it but will decay rapidly Free Recall Task.remember initial stimuli Recency Effect.task used for measuring working memory storage capacity by reading a series of digits and must immediately repeat them back.no attention.complex mental events involve discrete steps in a sequence Modal Model.storage unit in working memory with content varying according to the organization imposed by the individual . judgment and decision making.holds information currently and is instantly available but limited Long-Term Memory.process in which memory.task general mental resource needed whenever someone wants to avoid interference from previous habit and maintains the desired goal in mind while inhibiting habitual responses Those with superior WMC have superior executive control as well Practice reduces the strain on the executive control and response selector and builds habitual reactions Novice activity requires concentration on each component of activity but practice makes each component easier and integrates it more effectively into a total activity Automatic tasks are easier but lack the controlled precision of controlled tasks Automaticity. once acquired. problem solving. done in parallel.information processing involves both short-term and long-term memory Short-Term Memory. achieved through consistent mapping and practice in same context Higher Cognition.
between ideas Superior to maintenance rehearsal for establishing information in memory Simply encountering a stimulus repeatedly is insufficient for memorizing it Maintenance Rehearsal. priming and conditioning Working Memory.mode of thinking about material in which one pays attention only to appearances and other superficial aspects of the material leading to poor memory retention .involves knowing what is the case.strong tendency to produce the same response over and over Relational Rehearsal. and consciously aware (akin to explicit memory) and contains episodic and semantic memory Semantic information often supplements episodic memory Episodic Memory.Chunking items requires attention and thus draws attention away from rehearsal Brown-Peterson Paradigm.whether the word is meant a certain way Shallow Processing. and expectations Semantic Memory. personal experiences.form of mental processing in which one thinks about the relations. and visuospatial sketchpad Central Executive.measure of working memory’s capacity in action Declarative Memory.levels of processing range from shallow or deep with deeper levels of processing being more conductive to memory so that learning is not simply a consequence of what we learn but how we learn it as well Evidence of levels of processing from incidental learning and intentional learning Physical Processing. specific time and place. merely being repeated Elaborative Rehearsal.mechanical process in which terms are continually cycled through working memory.director of working-memory system that is the component of the system needed for any interpretation or analysis Certain processes needed to control the sequence of our thoughts and actions.counting backwards after a memorization task removes recency effect by interfering with short term memory Operation Span. expressed behaviorally. these processes serve to select and launch specific responses and are needed for planning and setting of goals as well as resisting habits or routines Controls slave systems of phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad each of which is independent of the other Visual tasks interfere with visual tasks and verbal tasks interfere with verbal tasks with the speed of rehearsal affecting short term memory Goal Neglect. or connections.whether the word is written a certain way Acoustic Processing.involves knowing how.works in conjunction with short term memory and long term memory to maintain and manipulate a small amount of information relevant to current goals and includes central executive.facts and general knowledge Non-Declarative Memory.pattern of behavior in which one fails to keep one’s goal in mind so that one must rely on habitual responses even if those responses will not direct one towards the goal Exhibited in individuals who suffer frontal lobe damage Perseveration.whether the word sounds a certain way Semantic Processing.paying attention to what the material means and how it is related to other material one knows Levels of Processing (Craik/Lockhart).discrete events. expressed verbally. phonological loop. and unconsciously (akin to implicit memory) and contains procedural skills.
or biological state Context Reinstatement.form of memory that allows one to recollect the episode in which learning took place or the time and place in which a particular stimulus was encountered . sometimes in response to a question that requires the sought-after information and is often contrasted with recognition Recognition.either read pairs of words or generate second word from first word Recall is superior when the second word is generated rather that given CHAPTER 6 State-Dependent Learning.mode of thinking about material in which one pays attention to the meaning and implications of it which results in excellent memorization Deep processing more effective than shallow processing but incidental and intentional identical Task of learning requires not only placing information in long-term memory but creating a path to recalling it Transfer Appropriate Processing.led to the same mental and emotional sate he or she was in during some previous event which can often promote accurate recollection Memory influenced not only by specific memories but relationships between memories Encoding Specificity.Incidental Learning. emotional. emotional.tendency when memorizing to place in memory both the materials to be learned and also some amount of the context of those materials which results in these materials being recognized later on only if in the same context According to encoding specificity is not simply the memory but the memory in a particular context so that they may fail to recognize the same stimuli if it is in a different context Recall.mnemonic strategy where words are used as pegs to hang information upon Generation Effect.task of memory retrieval in which the rememberer must come up with the desired materials.learning seems linked to the person’s mental. or biological state during the learning and as a result the learning is more likely to show its effects when the person is again in that mental.level of processing relative to the type of memory being tested Semantic is superior because it is compatible with typical memory tests but if testing the pronunciation of words then phonology is more important to focus on Retrieval Path.connection that can lead to a sought-after memory in long-term memory Memorize more effectively when an order is discovered in the information or imposed upon it Mnemonic Strategies.the acquisition of memories in a setting in which people know that their memory for the information will be tested later Deep Processing.task of memory retrieval in which the items to be remembered are presented and the person must decide whether or not the item was encountered in some earlier circumstance and is often contrasted with recall Recall requires memory search and thus depends heavily upon connections and is strengthened by deep processing Recognition can follow the same form of recall or it can be influenced by mere familiarity Recognition thus depends at times on source memory and other times on familiarity Source Memory.learning that takes place in the absence of any intention to learn and correspondingly in the absence of any expectation of a subsequent memory test Intentional Learning.techniques to improve memorization Work better if personally organized than given to one’s self Peg-Word System. sometimes in response to a cue that names the context in which these materials were earlier encounters.
usually by identifying the factors or the earlier event that is the cause of the current feeling or event Capgras Syndrome.subjective feeling that one has encountered a stimulus before or the objective fact that ne has encountered a stimulus and is influenced by the encounter whether or not one recalls the encounter or feels its familiarity Attribution.test in which the participants are shown strings of letters and must indicate as quickly as possible whether each string of letters is in English or not and is believed that people “look up” these strings in their “mental dictionary” Lexical-decision tasks are quicker if person has recently seen the test word.complete memories of the past but no sense of the familiarity and faces seem unfamiliar Activity in hippocampus when remembering and activity in anterior parahippocampus when knowing without recognition Activity in rhinal cortex during learning signals familiarity while activity in hippocampus signals remembering Lexical-Decision Task. if exposed to statement prior it was reasoned that the noise was less loud.form of memory testing in which research participants are not told that their memories are being tested and instead are tested in a fashion in which previous experiences can influence current behavior Sentences heard previously are more likely to be accepted as true on a truth-falsity test even if they were explicitly or implicitly warned that statements would be false Illusion of Truth.memory error in which one misremembers where a bit of information was learned or where a particular stimulus was last encountered Falsely identify people in one context based on exposure to person in another context Better at remembering that then remembering why something is familiar .form of memory testing in which participants are asked explicitly to remember some previous event where recall and standard recognition testing are both forms of direct memory testing Implicit Memory.task in which people are given the beginning of a word and must provide a word that starts with the letters provided More likely to complete string with a word if they have previously been exposed to that word.Familiarity.an effect of implicit memory in which claims that are familiar end up appearing more plausible False Fame.pattern or priming that occurs simply because a stimulus is presented a second time with processing more efficient on the second presentation Word-Stem Completion.erroneously believe a name or statement is famous based on familiarity rather than prior exposure Noise Study.step of explaining a feeling or event. thus showing repetition priming even when participants are not consciously aware Repetition Priming. even unconsciously Explicit Memory.memory revealed by indirect memory testing usually manifest as priming effects in which current performance is guided or facilitated by previous experiences and often accompanied by no conscious realization that one is being influenced by specific past experiences Indirect Memory Test.memory revealed by direct memory testing and typically accompanied by the conviction that one is remembering a specific prior episode Direct Memory Test. if not exposed to statement prior it was reasoned to be loud Source Confusion.exposed to noise with statement embedded in noise.
experimental procedure for eliciting and studying memory errors in which a participant sees or hears a list of words that are all related to a single theme but the word that names the theme is not itself included but people recall the theme word as well Intrusion errors come from words merely associated with the material being observed Younger and older individuals more intuitive with recall Generic Knowledge.repetition during encoding is better if the repetitions are spaced rather than massed Testing.the more similar the context during encoding and retrieval. as well as helping us recall an event But schemata ignore variation in similar situations and gaps in memory.mutual independence of implicit and explicit memories Damage to hippocampus produces implicit memories but not explicit ones Damage to amygdala produces explicit memories but not implicit ones CHAPTER 7 Levels of Processing.pattern of knowledge describing what is typical or frequent in a particular situation Schemata summarize the broadest pattern of what’s normal in a situation preparing us for it.inability to remember experiences that occurred before the trigger event Anterograde Amnesia. you are faster and more efficient in processing it.tie new information to hierarchies of concepts already available in long term memory Visual Imagery. you can detect this familiarity.an improvement in the speed or ease of processing that results from prior practice in using those same processing steps Fluency produces feeling of specialness in stimuli and when stimuli change this feeling dissipates but because fluency decreases we are unable to recognize what has changed and thus offer incorrect intuitions Stimuli will appear familiar when it has been encountered before. the more likely information is remembered Context of Encoding and Retrieval.helps with retrieval paths and diagnostic of what you know and do not know Information stored in memory as an interconnected network of information without any distinct divisions between memories This can result in transplant errors as bits of information from one memory become entangled in another memory Intrusion Errors.anterograde amnesia caused by damage to specific brain regions due to alcoholism Associated with damage to hippocampus which plays a crucial role in memory Such damage does not disrupt prior memories but only memory acquisition. that it is familiar because it has been previously encountered. and how you previously encountered it all of which occurs unconsciously Amnesia.knowledge of a general sort Schema. filling these in with expectations Ignore information that is unfamiliar and reinterpret it in familiar terms .broad inability to remember events within a certain category. the connection between working and long-term memory Korsakoff amnesiacs have no explicit memory but have implicit memories Double Dissociation.more meaningful the encoding.errors in which other knowledge intrudes into the remembered event Deese-Rediger-McDermott (DRM) Procedure.Perceiving stimulus makes it easier to perceive again because of priming detectors and strengthening connection to other detectors Processing Fluency.form integrated mental pictures of information Spacing Effects.inability to remember experiences that occurred after the trigger event Korsakoff Syndrome. the more easily information will be retrieved Organization. due in many cases to brain damage Retrograde Amnesia.
generation and retrieval. one forgets more and more f earlier event forcing one to reconstruct the memory. interpretation and elaboration. attention.study the list multiple times Spaced practice is superior because the context differs on each repetition where as it does not in massed practice making it more likely to match a context when retrieved Spaced practice is best when done in a variety of study contexts Tip of Tongue Phenomenon.amount of time elapsed between the initial learning and the subsequent retrieval As the retention interval increases. perhaps due to relevant brain cells dying off or because connections are not continually refreshed Interference.study individual items of a list multiple times Spaced Practice. organization.learning something once makes relearning it later easier but the amount of savings declines over time Bjork’s Seven Study Techniques.knowledge is clearly there but cannot be retrieved Possibly explained through partial retrieval of associated information or interference from partiallyretrieved information Forgetting mainly due to interference Savings.occurs when a memory is in long term storage but one is unable to located the memory New information both causes interference and becomes connected to old information.an effect in which research participants efforts about an earlier event are influenced by misinformation they received after experiencing the event and in extreme cases can created false memories Can create entire memories for events that did not occur More hurt by misinformation the longer the time between the event and questioning making source monitoring more difficult and subtler questions producing larger effects Massed Practice.Misinformation Effect.interference from activity Attentional Interference.spacing.remembering the source of a memory Decay.interference recalling older information due to new learning Retrieval Failure.memories die off over time. and visualization Some memory errors occur due to connections to schematic knowledge that intrudes while other times because an episode triggers certain thoughts connected to the target memory while still other errors because different memories get connected together Retention Interval. changing it through these associations as well as completely replacing it Destructive Updating. thus making source monitoring more difficult Source Monitoring.interference from conversation Cell phones impair listening more when reading than typing Proactive Interference. variation.new information erases old information in memory .less remembered because the passage of time allows for new learning which disrupts the old Peripheral Interference.interference learning new information due to prior information Forget information not simply as a consequence of natural decay Retroactive Interference.
memory retrieval as well as being more important to us and rehearse emotionally powerful memories but narrows the attention of the event to emotional relevance Flashbulb Memories.Hypnosis has been suggested as a means of undoing the process of forgetting but this is not because they are actually remembering more but because they are willing to disclose or imagine more Little relationship between memory confidence and memory accuracy because the variables that influence confidence have no influence on accuracy Also no relationship between emotion and memory. general knowledge would be impossible Autobiographical Memory.memories of extraordinary clarity for highly emotional events Whether or not a flashbulb memory is correct is relative to whether or not it was consequential to the life of the individual Traumatic events can be forgotten if they are associated with childhood.memory that records the episodes and events in a persons life Information relevant to the self is better recalled and thus events that one participated in are better recalled Self-Reference Effect. alcohol or drug use Permastore. sleep deprivation.set of interwoven beliefs and memories that constitute ones beliefs about oneself and ones memories for the self-relevant events one has experienced People remember their lives biased towards stability and interpreted through the perspective of the present and in self-serving ways Emotions help us remember by triggering a response in the amygdala which promotes memory consolidation and later.permanent storage of memory which is enhanced if the stimulus is studied intensely at first and if further information related to it is acquired over time .tendency to have better memory for information relevant to oneself than for other things Self Schema. stress. false memories are just as upsetting Neither is the distinction between remembering and knowing a definite way of distinguishing false from true memories Without the interconnectedness of memories. head injuries.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.