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Fastening Technology Manual

Only the information and data given in the latest issue of the brochure are valid. The ascertained data only applies when Hilti products are used. All rights are reserved. Also, no extracts may be published or contents copied without our expressed permission.

Fastening Technology Manual

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The quality of the products, software and services offered by Hilti and which is assured by our Group-wide quality management, covers our manufacturing, technical documentation, services and advice. In view of the fact that our quality system meets the stringent requirement of ISO 9001 and the European directive EN 29001, the Swiss Association for Quality Assurance, SQS Berne, has issued the corresponding SQS certificate to Hilti. In this way, this independent association for quality inspection and surveillance has verified the comprehensive quality system of the Hilti drilling and electric tools, DX, anchor and construction chemicals divisions. As a result of bilateral agreements between various national certification authorities, the SQS certificate is recognized by most European states.

Fastening Technology Manual

Table of Contents
Pages

Anchor Technology ................................................................................... 1-28


Base material ............................................................................................................... 1 Why does an anchor hold in base material? ................................................................ 4 Setting anchors ............................................................................................................ 6 Loadbearing behaviour ................................................................................................ 8 Long-term behaviour .................................................................................................. 24

Corrosion ................................................................................................ 29-63


How does Hilti solve the corrosion problem ............................................................... 30 Application examples / recommendations .............................................................. 30 Critical special applications .................................................................................... 39 Theory for consideration ............................................................................................ 41 Fundamental aspects of corrosion ......................................................................... 41 Types of corrosion and corrosion phenomena ....................................................... 45 Fastener protection against corrosion .................................................................... 51

Fire Prevention ....................................................................................... 65-72


Introduction ................................................................................................................ 65 Fire prevention regulations ......................................................................................... 67 Hilti fire prevention products ....................................................................................... 68 Product information .................................................................................................... 68 Testing/Inspection of products .................................................................................... 71

Anchor Fastening Design ..................................................................... 73-108


Safety concept ........................................................................................................... 73 Anchor fastening design ............................................................................................. 77 Influence of concrete compressive strength and direction of loading ........................ 79 Influence of depth of embedment .............................................................................. 82 Influence of edge ....................................................................................................... 85 Influence of distance between anchors ...................................................................... 88 Check for anchor breakage ........................................................................................ 91 Examples of applications ........................................................................................... 94 Computer programme for anchor fastening design .................................................. 103 Procedure for anchor fastening design .................................................................... 104 Summary of required formulae ................................................................................ 105 List of abbreviations ................................................................................................. 108

Fastening Technology Manual

Table of Contents
Pages

Anchor Selection Table ....................................................................... 109-112 Criteria Relevant to Safety ......................................................................... 113 Product Information ............................................................................ 114-198
HUC ......................................................................................................................... 114 HSL-TZ ..................................................................................................................... 118 HSL-GR .................................................................................................................... 122 HSC ......................................................................................................................... 125 HST-R ....................................................................................................................... 130 HSA .......................................................................................................................... 134 HSA-K ...................................................................................................................... 139 HKD-S ...................................................................................................................... 145 HPS-1 ....................................................................................................................... 148 HRD-U ...................................................................................................................... 150 HUD-1 ...................................................................................................................... 152 HRA ......................................................................................................................... 154 HY150-HAS(R) ......................................................................................................... 156 HY150-HIS-(R)N ...................................................................................................... 160 New Design Method ............................................................................................... 164 HDA .......................................................................................................................... 172 HVA-HAS(R) ............................................................................................................ 179 HVA-HIS-(R)N .......................................................................................................... 186 HVA-Rebar ............................................................................................................... 192 HY150 Rebar ........................................................................................................... 198

Appendix 1 list of test reports .......................................................... 199-200 Appendix 2 Application reference in Hong Kong ............................. 201-202 Hilti engineering / Testing services / Download pages ............................... 203

Fastening Technology Manual

Anchor Technology
1. Base material

Different anchoring conditions

The wide variety of building materials used today provide different anchoring conditions for anchors. There is hardly a base material in or to which a fastening cannot be made with a Hilti product. However, the properties of the base material play a decisive role when selecting a suitable fastener/anchor and determining the load it can hold. Base materials have been described comprehensively in brochure A1 (Base materials for fastenings). The main building materials suitable for anchor fastenings have been described in the following. 1.1 Concrete

A mixture of cement, aggregates and water

Concrete is synthetic stone, consisting of a mixture of cement, aggregates and water, possibly also additives, which is produced when the cement paste hardens and cures. Concrete has a relatively high compressive strength, but only a low tensile strength. Steel reinforcing bars are cast in concrete to take up tensile forces. This is then referred to as reinforced concrete.

Cracking from bending

Section a-a Stress and strain in sections with conditions I and II

Section b-b

b,D b,Z f ct

...... ...... ......

calculated compressive stress calculated tensile stress concrete tensile strength

Fastening Technology Manual

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If the tensile strength of concrete is exceeded, cracks form, which, as a rule, cannot be seen. Experience has shown that the crack width does not exceed the figure regarded as admissible, w~ = 0.3 mm, if the concrete is under a constant load. If it is subjected predominately to forces of constraint, individual cracks can be wider if no additional reinforcement to restrict the width of cracks is provided in a concrete component. If a concrete component is subjected to a bending load, the cracks have a wedge shape across the component cross-section and they end close to the neutral axis. It is recommended that anchor systems which have a follow-up expansion feature and are of the force-controlled type e.g. HSL-TZ, HST or undercut anchor systems e.g. HUC and HSC, be used in the tension zone of concrete components. Other types of anchors can be used if they are set at such a depth that their anchoring section is positioned in the compression zone. Anchors are set in both low-strength and high-strength concrete. Generally, the range of cylinder compressive strength, fcc200, is between 20 and 50 N/mm2. Expansion anchors should not be set in concrete which has not cured for more than seven days. If anchors are loaded immediately after they have been set, the loading capacity may only be taken to be the actual strength of the concrete at that time. If an anchor is only set and then loaded later, the loading capacity can be taken to be the strength determined at the time of applying the load. Cutting through reinforcement when drilling anchor holes must be avoided. If this is not possible, the design engineer responsible must be consulted first. 1.2 Masonry

If cracks in the tension zone exist, suitable anchor systems are required.

Observe curing of concrete when using expansion anchors.

Avoid cutting reinforcement.

Masonry is a heterogeneous base material. The hole being drilled for an anchor can run into mortar joints and cavities. Owing to the relatively low strength of masonry, the loads taken up locally cannot be particularly high. A tremendous variety of types and shapes of masonry bricks are on the market e.g. clay bricks, sand-lime bricks or concrete bricks, all of different shapes and either solid or with cavities. Hilti offers a range of different fastening solutions for this variety of masonry base material e.g. HPS, HRD, HUD, HIT etc. If there are doubts when selecting a fastener/anchor, your local Hilti salesman will be pleased to give assistance.

Different types and shapes

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A plaster coating is not a base material for fastenings.

When making a fastening, care must be taken to ensure that a layer of insulation or plaster is not used as the base material. The specified depth of embedment (anchoring depth) must be in the actual base material. 1.3 Other base materials

Gas concrete

Gas concrete: this is manufactured from fine-grained sand as the aggregate, lime and/or cement as the binding agent, water and aluminium as the gas-forming agent. The density is between 0.4 and 0.8 kg/dm3 and the compressive strength 2-6 N/mm2. Hilti offers the HGN and HRD-G anchors for this base material. Lightweight concrete: this is concrete which has a low density 1800 kg/dm3 and a porosity which reduces the strength of the concrete and thus the loading capacity of an anchor. Hilti offers the HRD, HUD, HIT, etc anchor systems for this base material. Plasticboard/gypsum panels: these are mostly non-supporting building components, such as wall and ceiling panels, to which less important fastenings are made. The Hilti anchors suitable for this material are the HLD and HHD. In addition to the previously named building materials, a large variety of others e.g. natural stone etc, can be encountered in practice. Furthermore, special building components are also made from the previously mentioned materials which, because of the manufacturing method and configuration, then result in base materials whose peculiarities must be given careful attention e.g. hollow ceiling floor components etc. Descriptions and explanations of each of these would go beyond the bounds of this manual. Generally though, fastenings can be made to these materials. In some cases, test reports exist for these special materials. It is also recommended that a discussion be held in each case by the design engineer, company carrying out the work and Hilti technical staff.

Lightweight concrete

Plasterboard/gypsum panels

Variety of base materials

Jobsite tests

In some cases, testing on the jobsite should be arranged to provide proof of the suitability and the loading capacity of the selected anchor fastener.

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2. Why does an anchor hold in base material?

There are three basic working principles which make an anchor hold in a building material: Friction The tensile load, N, is transferred to the base material by friction, R. The expansion force, Fexp , is necessary for this to take place. It is produced, for example, by driving in an expansion plug (HKD). Keying The tensile load, N, is in equilibrium with the supporting forces, R, acting on the base material, such as with the HUC anchor. Bonding
Keying Friction

An adhesive bond is produced between the anchor rod and the hole wall by a synthetic resin adhesive, such as with the HVA anchor.

Bonding

Combination of working principles Many anchors obtain their holding power from a combination of the above-mentioned working principles. For example, an expansion force is exerted by an anchor against its hole wall as a result of the displacement of a cone relative to a sleeve. This permits the longitudinal force to be transmitted to the anchor by friction. At the same time, this expansion force causes permanent local deformation of the base material, above all in the case of metal anchors. A keying action results which enables the longitudinal force in the anchor to be transmitted additionally to the base material.
Combination of working principles

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Force-controlled and movementcontrolled expansion anchors

In the case of expansion anchors, a distinction is made between force-controlled and movement-controlled types. The expansion force of force-controlled expansion anchors is dependent on the tensile force in the anchor (HSL heavy-duty anchor). This tensile force is produced, and thus controlled, when the tightening torque is applied to expand the anchor. In the case of movement-controlled types, expansion takes place over a distance which is fixed by the geometry of the anchor in the expanded state. Thus an expansion force is produced (HKD anchor) which is governed by the modulus of elasticity of the base material.

Adhesive/resin anchor

The synthetic resin of an adhesive anchor infiltrates into the pores of the base material and, after it has hardened and cured, achieves a local keying action in addition to the bond.

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3. Setting of anchors
The user of an anchor system should receive instruction on how to set anchors in the case of anchor fastenings where safety is at stake. (The manufacturers instructions or those of the approval authority must be observed.) Generally, anchors are set, or anchor fastenings are made, in the following way. Mostly, the anchor hole is drilled using a rotary hammer or cam-action drill and carbide-tipped drill bits. Hilti supplies matched programmes of rotary hammers and drill bits as well as diamond core bits and drilling rigs which are suitable for the anchors in each case. Steel detectors can be used to indicate the position of reinforcing bars before anchor holes are drilled. If the user comes up against a reinforcing bar with a carbide-tipped drill bit (wrongly positioned hole), he will notice this because of the slower drilling progress, greater vibration and, possibly, slipping of the safety clutch of the rotary hammer drill. Drilling should then cease to avoid any damage to the building component and to protect the drill bit. If the engineer responsible for the structure permits the reinforcing bar to be cut through, as an exception, diamond bits will cut through the reinforcement cleanly. The depth of hole required for each anchor can be found in the setting details given in information about the anchors. In particular, this depth must be kept to in the case of anchors set flush with the work surface, such as the HKD anchor, HSC safety anchor and the HVA adhesive anchor. The hole may be drilled deeper without second thoughts and without influencing the loadbearing behaviour in the case of anchors which are correctly positioned automatically by the bolt head or nut when they are inserted into the hole. Perfect functioning of an anchor will be ensured if its hole is carefully cleaned to remove dust and fragments, for instance by using a jet of air from a suitable source. An anchor can be set either before the part to be fastened is put into place by presetting the anchor or after the part is in place by so-called through-fastening. In the latter case, the hole in the base material is drilled through the predrilled and correctly positioned part to be fastened, the anchor is inserted through this part into the base material and then expanded. If chemical anchors are used, allowance must be made for the curing time before a tightening torque or a working load can be applied.
Producing the anchor hole

Hole depth

Cleaning of hole

Setting the anchor

Curing time

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Tightening the anchor nut or bolt

The operations for making most anchor fastenings are finished when the nut or bolt is tightened. The applied tightening torque is converted to a prestressing force (preload) in the anchor which pulls the part being fastened tightly against the base material (clamping force). Wrongly positioned holes are those which cannot be drilled to the required depth bacasue the drill bit comes into contact with a reinforcing bar or the hole is produced in the wrong place. As a recommendation, new holes for adhesive anchors, undercut anchors and force-controlled metal expansion anchors should be drilled at a distance 3 x d (drill bit nominal diameter) away from the wrong holes, provided that these have been filled with repair mortar. If the wrong hole has not been filled with repair mortar, the new hole should be drilled 2 x the depth of the wrong hole away from it. If the reinforcement has been damaged or destroyed, design evidence must be provided to the effect that the reduction in the loadbearing capacity of the building component can be accepted.

Wrongly positioned holes

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4. 4.1 Loadbearing behaviour Type of loading
Direction of loading

The type (direction) of loading is defined by the angle, , which is formed by the longitudinal axis of the anchor and the direction of the applied load.

Accordingly, the load is pure tension when = 0, pure shear when = 90 and a combined load (inclined tension) at 0 < < 90.

When under a shear or combined load, the anchor is also stressed in bending because the point of load application is outside the point where the anchor is clamped in the base material.

Point of load application

Compressive load on base material in section Z-Z

Bending moment M, relative to the Y-Y axis

No bending moment, M, must be allowed with the standard fastenable thicknesses (thickness of the part to be fastened) given in the information about the anchors because the recommended shear or combined load was determined during tests using just this thickness of the part to be fastened.

Allowance for bending moment not necessary with standard fastenable thicknesses

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Stand-off fastening

When selecting the size of anchor for a stand-off fastening subjected to a shear load, V, or a combined load, F, the bending moment, M, must be allowed for. (The bending arm is the distance from the point of load application to the surface of the supporting base material plus the diameter of the anchor bolt/rod)

4.2

Mode of loading

Sustained static load

Pulsating load

Alternating load

The working load acting on an anchor can be a sustained static load or a load which varies with time. In design work, a distinction is made between a predominantly dead load and a not predominantly dead load Load i.e. a dynamic load. If a load only varies in the tensile range or only in the compressive Time range, it is referred to as a Static load pulsating load . If a load varies in both the Load tensile and compressive ranges, it is referred to as an alternating load . A shock load is characterised Time by a rapid loading rate and a Pulsating load short time in which the load acts of only a few Load milliseconds. Dynamic loads can be caused by, for example: - machine foundations Time - crane rails - bridges Alternating - pipelines - railway tracks.

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4.3 Load-displacement behaviour
Elastic behaviour under working load

If an anchor fastening has been correctly designed and properly made, it displays an essentially elastic behaviour under the working load. When the load is applied to the anchor fastening and remvoed from it, the displacement is reversible. If the working load is exceeded, the anchor fastening must not fail with a brittle behaviour. An advantage is the type of behaviour where a large amount of displacement takes place in the range of the ultimate load. Thus, in the case of force-controlled expansion anchors, the visible reexpansion, or follow-up expansion, under a tensile load indicates that the working load of the force-controlled expansion anchor has been exceeded. This is why these anchors are referred to as safety anchors. The following fundamental load-displacement behaviour exists independent of the type of loading (direction of the load) or the type of anchor used:
Load Ultimate load

Beyond the working load

Overloading

NE

Working load Reversible displacement

Displacement Permanent displacement

Load-displacement behaviour The gradient, B, depends on the stiffness (rigidity) of the anchor. Hence, an anchor which has a short rod/bolt or a shallow anchoring depth, for example, will have a steeper characteristic curve than an anchor which has a long rod/bolt and a large depth of embedment. The prestressing force, P, which is set up when the anchor is set or the part to be fastened is put into place, has a major influence on the load-displacement behaviour of an anchor when it is subsequently loaded. After an anchor has been prestressed once to Po ,it has an elastic behaviour up to this level on being reloaded. The load, NE represents a kind of limit to elasticity. It corresponds to the prestressing force Po applied when the anchor is set. Proportions of plastic displacement, such as expansion movement of forcecontrolled expansion anchors or settlement of key-action anchors
Prestressing force influences load-displacement behaviour

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are taken up in advance by the prestressing process.

It can thus be said that a load which is smaller than the existing prestressing force only results in slight additional loading of the anchor and produces no displacement worth mentioning. This statement has been explained and depicted in detail in the following. To this end, the entire system, consisting of anchor, base material and part fastened, must be looked at more closely.
Consideration of entire system

The prestressing force, P, the clamping force resulting from it, Fcl , which presses the part fastened against the base material, and the external working load applied to the part fastened, NA, all act in the complete system.

The following figs. 1-6 show the load-deformation behaviour when the anchor is prestressed and the external working load is subsequently applied. Fig. 1: This shows the system of base material and anchor represented by different elastic springs (unloaded state) base material (concrete) anchor (steel) Fig. 2: Load-deformation characteristic for steel and concrete Steel: elastic spring - large deformation Concrete: Stiff spring - small deformation

base material (concrete) Load anchor (steel)

co nc ret e

el ste

Deformation

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Fig. 3: The required tightening torque (prestressing force) is applied. As a result: The anchor steel elongates, ls The concrete is compresses, lc The bolt/rod is prestressed, P = Fs A clamping force, Fcl , builds up between base material and part fastened. Fig. 4: The prestressing force causes the bolt/rod to elongate, ls. At the same time, a clamping force, Fcl , is produced.

ing mp cla ce for

Bolt/rod elongation through prestressing

Bolt/rod elongation through external load

Fig. 5: An external load, NA, is applied to the part fastened: The prestressing force, Fs, increases and the bolt/rod elongates further, ls *. The clamping force, Fcl , decreases, so does compression of the base material.

Fig. 6: This is the load-displacement behaviour after applying the external load, NA. This load causes further elongation of the bolt/rod and a reduction in the clamping force, Fc. It is then zero (Fcl = 0), when the additional bolt/rod elongation is equal to the concrete compression, lc, caused by the pretensioning force, P. ltot. = ls + ls* Fs = P + Fs = Fcl + NA.

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Fig. 6 shows clearly that an external load smaller than the prestressing force only results in a slight increase in the force in the bolt ( Fs) and produces no displacement, ls* worth mentioning.
Loading until failure

If the prestressed anchor is loaded until failure in a static test, the following load-displacement diagram results.
Load, carico kN 140 120 100 40 80 60 40 Zrec 20 0 0 4 1 2 1 6 8 Displacement, mm deformazione 30 Zrec 20 x 10 0 Load, carico kN 60 50 y

.05

.1 .15 .2 .25 Displacement, mm deformazione

Static tensile test, Heavy-duty anchor, M16

Initial section of the curve on a large scale

If the initial range is enlarged, the very small amounts of displacement of a prestressed fastening can be identified in the range of the working load, Nrec.
Loading in shear

Fastenings subjected to a shear load are generally designed allowing for shear and, partly, bending (a stand-off fastening). With heavy-duty fastenings, in particular, the shear load is often taken up by friction because of the high pressure existing between the part fastened and the base material. Only when the frictional resistance is exceeded, is the anchor then subjected to a shear load.

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4.4 Failure modes

4.4.1 Effects of static loading The failure patterns of anchor fastenings subjected to a continually increased load can be depicted as follows:
Failure patterns

The weakest point in an anchor fastening determines the cause of failure. Modes of failure, 1, break out, 2, anchor pullout, 3, failure of anchor parts, occur mostly when single anchors at a suitable distance from an edge or the next anchor are subjected to a pure tensile load. These causes of failure govern the max. loading capacity of anchors. On the other hand, a small edge distance causes the modes of failure 4, edge break, and 5, splitting of building components. The ultimate loads are then smaller than those of the previously mentioned modes of failure. The tensile strength of the base material for the fastening is exceeded in the cases of break out, edge break and splitting. Basically, the same modes of failure take place under a combined load. The mode of failure 1, break out, becomes more seldom as the angle between the direction of the applied load and the anchor axis increases. Generally, a shear load causes a conchoidal area of spall on one side of the anchor hole and, subsequently, the anchor parts suffer a bending tension failure or shear break. If the distance from an edge is small and the shear load is towards the free edge of a building component. However, the edge break away.

Causes of failure

Combined load

Shear load

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4.4.2 Effects of dynamic loading
Anchor failure under dynamic loading

If a dynamic load in the pulsating tensile range is applied, the mode of failure is generally only breaking of the anchor provided that the load amplitude (max. to min. stress) remains within the strength of the concrete under a pulsating load. This is always the case with standard applications. 4.5 Influence of cracks

Very narrow cracks are not defects

Efficient utilisation of reinforcement

Loadbearing mechanisms disrupted by crack

A general introduction to the problem of cracks in reinforced concrete components is given in the brochure A1, Base materials for fastenings. It is not possible for a reinforced concrete structure to be built which does not have cracks in it under working conditions. Provided that they do not exceed a certain width, however, cracks do not have to be regarded at all as defects in the structure. With this in mind, the designer of a structure assumes that there will be cracks in the tension zone of reinforced concrete components during his/her design work (condition II). Tensile forces from bending are taken up in the composite construction by suitably sized reinforcement in the form of ribbed steel bars, whereas the compressive forces from bending are taken up by the concrete (compression zone). The reinforcement is only utilized efficiently if the concrete in the tension zone is permitted to be stressed (elongated) to such an extent that the concrete cracks under the working load. The position of the tension zone is determined by the static/design system and where the load is applied to the structure. Normally, the cracks run in one direction (line or parallel cracks). Only in rare cases, such as with reinforced concrete slabs stressed in two planes, can cracks also run in two directions. Testing and application conditions for anchors are currently being drafted internationally based on the research results of anchor manufacturers and universities. These will guarantee the functional reliability and safety of anchor fastenings made in cracked concrete. When anchor fastenings are made in uncracked concrete, equilibrium is established by a tensile stress condition of rotational symmetry around the anchor axis. If a crack exists, there is serious disruption of the loadbearing mechanisms in this case because virtually no annular tensile forces can be taken up beyond the edge of the crack. The disruption caused by the crack has the effect of reducing the loadbearing capacity of the anchor system.
Crack plain

a) Uncracked concrete

b) Cracked concrete

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The width of a crack in a concrete component has a major influence on the tensile loading capacity of all fasteners, not only anchors, but also inserts, such as cast-in headed studs. A crack width of about 0.3mm is assumed when designing anchor fastenings. The reduction factor which can be used for the ultimate tensile loads of anchor fastenings made in cracked concrete compared to uncracked concrete can be assumed to be 0.6 - 0.65 for the HSL-TZ, for example, or 0.65 - 0.70 for the HSC and HUC anchors, for instance. Larger reduction factors for ultimate tensile loads must be anticipated (used in calculations) in the case of all those anchors which were set in the past without any consideration of the above-mentioned influence of cracks. In this respect, the safety factor to allow for concrete failure when the concrete is cracked is not the same as the figure given in product information i.e. all previous figures in the old anchor manual. This is an unacceptable situation which is being eliminated by carrying out specific tests with anchors set in cracked concrete and adding suitable information to the product descriptions. Cracks in concrete have no influence on the ultimate shear loads worth mentioning. Since international testing conditions for anchors are being based on the above-mentioned crack widths, no theoretical relationship between ultimate tensile loads and different crack widths has been given. The statements made above apply primarily to static loading conditions. If the loading is dynamic, the clamping force and prestressing force in an anchor bolt/rod play a major role, as described in section 4.3. If a crack propagates in a reinforeced concrete component after an anchor has been set, it must be assumed that the prestressing force in the anchor will decrease and, as a result, the clamping force of the part fastened will be reduced (lost). The properties of this fastening for dynamic loading will have deteriorated. To ensure that an anchor fastening remains suitable for dynamic loading even after cracks appear in the concrete, care must be taken that the clamping force and prestressing force in the anchor are maintained. Suitable measures to this effect can be sets of springs or similar devices. In this respect, reference shuld be made to section 5 because also the Relaxation of prestressing force plays a role.
Prestressing force in anchor bolts/rods

Reduction factor for cracked concrete

Loss of prestressing force due to cracks

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4.6
Influence of direction of applied load

Influence of type of loading

Static loading tests have provided the basis for determining the influence of the type of load i.e. the direction of the applied load. These tests were carried out using different anchor systems and different angles of load application.

Bending tension failure under inclined tensile loading Modes of failure depending on type of loading

Shear failure under lateral loading

Different types of anchors have different ultimate tensile and shear loads and modes of failure owing to their different designs. There can also be different causes of failure depending on the direction of loading.
Ultimate loads [kN]
30,0 27,5 25,0 22,5 20,0 17,5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
O

Angle []

Ultimate loads under various types of loading, taking a safety anchor (HSC-A M8*40) set away from component edges as an example.

As a rule, a combined load acts at an angle of 90 0. The relationship between the recommended load and the angle of load application has been presented in product information sheets in the form of a so-called interaction diagram.

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4.7 Influence of concrete strength
Concrete breakage

If the concrete base material has a low strength, an anchor fastening subjected to pure tensile loading nearly always fails because a cone of concrete breaks out.

Crater-like breakage of concrete with anchor under tensile load

As the strength of the concrete increases so does the ultimate load of the anchor fastening unless the strength of the anchor material is exceeded. If the anchor does not break, the ultimate load increases proportionally with the tensile strength of the concrete. Usually, however, the strength of concrete is given as the compressive strength. It is therefore obvious that the ultimate load, Nu , of an anchor fastening is given in relation to the concrete compressive strength.
Ultimate load, Nu

Anchor break

Anchor breakage

Co

e cr

te

br

ea

g ka

Application range

Compressive strength, fc

Influence of concrete compressive strength on ultimate load of anchor

The relationship between the concrete compressive strength and the characteristic ultimate load of the anchor fastening i.e. 5% fractile value from tests, is given in the brochure B2, Anchor fastening design.

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4.8 Influence of anchoring depth h ef

Anchoring depth is a decisive influencing factor.

A very important factor influencing the loadbearing capacity of an anchor fastening is the anchoring depth, hef ,of the anchor. This is the depth at which the resultant, R, of the forces produced by the anchor fastening are taken up by the base material/concrete. By way of explanation, for example, the anchoring depth of expansion anchors is the distance measured from the surface of the supporting base material to the end of the expansion section, wedges etc. As a simple explanation, as the anchoring depth increases, a greater volume of the base material is available to take up the forces which are acting. This means that higher loads can be taken up i.e. the tensile loading capacity becomes higher with increasing anchoring depth.
Ultimate load, Nu

Relationship between anchoring depth and ultimate load

of con cre te Bre aka ge

Breakage of anchor

Anchor pull-through

Range of depth of embedment

Depth of embedment hnom

Influence of depth of embedment on ultimate load of anchor

The increase in ultimate load, however, is limited by the strenght of the anchor material or the frcictional resistance between the anchor and the wall of its hole. This means that a greater anchoring depth only has a positive effect on the ultimate load of an anchor fastening if the mode of failure is break-out of the concrete.

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Most anchors can be set deeper than the recommended min. anchoring depth (depth of embedment). This is possible if either a longer anchor rod is used or thickness fastened is reduced. 4.9 Anchors near building component edges
A small edge distance reduces the ultimate load

If the distance from a building component edge is smaller than recommended, the loading capacity of the concrete is reduced because there is less volume of concrete to take up the forces. This is shown clearly during pull-out tests by the broken-out concrete which is cut by the component edge.
C = distance from

Failure when close to an edge

Depending on the type of anchor, a min. edge distance, cmin , must be observed to ensure that the component edge does not break away when the anchor is being set or expanded. The distance of an anchor from an edge or from the another anchor is related to the anchoring depth. Standardisation permits the influence of the edge distance to be described for an entire anchor system. Independent of the size of anchor. The min. edge distance is 0.5 - 3.5 times the anchoring depth, depending on the type of anchor. The edge distance, at which no further reduction in the loadbearing capacity results, is 1.25 - 3.5 times the anchoring depth. As an edge distance equal to or greater than ccr, the full loadbearing capacity of an anchor fastening is obtained again.
Ultimate load, Nu

Min. edge distance

cmin

Zone of influence of distance from edge

ccr

Distance from edge, c

Influence from distance from edge on ultimate load of an anchor

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Shear load in direction of building component edge

A shear load acting towards the edge of a building component has a particularly unfavourable influence on the loadbearing capacity of an anchor fastening. If anchor fastenings are made near an edge, where c < ccr , reinforcements should be provided in the component edge at the level of the anchoring depth. This should be at least 0.25 times the anchor load (for all types of loading). The admissible stress in the steel, s,adm , should be used in the design calculation.

4.10 Multiple-anchor fastenings If the load to be carried is distributed among several anchors by a fastened part, such as a bracket, reference is made to a multiple-anchor fastening.

Multiple-anchor fastenings

Multiple-anchor fastening Small anchor spacings reduce The ultimate loads of single anchors. the

distance between anchors, scr , is the distance at which concrete that breaks out with a single anchor without influencing the neighbouring anchors. If the anchoring spacing is equal to or less than scr , the ultimate load of the single anchor will be reduced because the cones of concrete which break out with the anchors overlap each other.

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Anchor Technology

Break-out cones of concrete influencing each other

The anchor spacing, scr , at which the concrete can break away with an anchor without influence from another anchor, is diameter, d. This is approx. 3.5 times the anchoring depth, hef , for metal expansion anchors and undercut anchors, but 1.5 times the anchoring depth for adhesive/resin anchors.

Anchor spacing for undisturbed break-out of concrete with anchor

Ultimate load, Nu

Smin Zone of influence

Scr

Distance between anchors, s

Influence of distance between anchors on ultimate load of anchor

If the anchor spacing which is less than the specified min. distance, smin, is used, the concrete can already be destroyed when the anchor is set, either because of cracks which run from one anchor to another when a force-controlled anchor is expanded or by local destruction of the concrete when the tightening torque is applied to force-controlled anchors. In view of this, there should be no reduction in the min. anchor spacing which, depending on the type of anchor, is between 0.5 and 2 times the anchoring depth. If, however, small anchor spacings are unavoidable, a solution can be found in individual cases by setting neighbouring anchors at different depths. Before doing so, however, advice should be obtained from Hilti.

Reduction of min. anchor spacing

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Multiple-anchor fastenings next to each other need shear reinforcement.

If several multiple-anchor fastenings are made next to each other on a building component and no shear reinforcement has been provided to take up the additional load resulting from them, the distance between each multiple-anchor fastening, ac ~ = 2 scr , must be observed.

4.11 Influence of reinforcement The tests to determine the application conditions were carried out using unreinforced concrete components. The results are thus on the safe side because, in practice, concrete structures are reinforced. It is known from research work that reinforcement has no significant influence on the ultimate loads of anchor fastenings provided that this reinforcement is not specifically positioned stirrup-type reinforcement. The reinforcement can have a positive effect in that, for example, the width of cracks is kept small or the sudden (brittle) breaking of component edges is avoided. Similarly, stirrups, coils or close-mesh surface reinforcement positioned away from edges can have a favourable effect on the load-displacement behaviour of an anchor fastening. No generally valid figures for the influence of reinforcement can be given, however, because of the many varying factors, such as type, amount, and positioning of the reinforcement as well as the position of the anchor relative to the reinforcement.

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Anchor Technology
5. Long-term behaviour

An anchor fastening should fulfill its purpose over the normal life expectancy of a structure or the part fastened. Prerequisites for this to be achieved are the correct design and proper installation of the anchor fastening. This also means that various influencing factors have to be allowed for, such as the mode and type of loading, corrosion and temperature. 5.1 Static effects (sustained loading)
Time-dependent deformation due to sustained load

Most mineral building materials, and also plastics, display deformation with respect to time if they are subjected to a sustained load. This phenomenon, which takes the form of the point of load application moving in the direction of the applied load in the course of time, is referred to as creep. Creep is a function of time and loading level. The typical pattern of creep of an anchor fastening made in concrete can be shown by a sustained load test.
7

6
Displacement speed: [mm/10 days]

3 + 2
x

+ +
x

+ x
40

+ x
60 80

x+ 100 120

x+ 140 160

x+ 180

20

Test duration: [days]

HSL-TZ M 12 anchor under sustained load

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Immediately after a load is applied to an anchor, a relatively large amount of creep takes place. In this time, the stresses in relatively highly loaded points of the concrete decrease, the stress distribution changes and the creep stabilises. The influence of the magnitude of the load is shown clearly by the results of long-term static loading tests after 100 days of loading in each case at different load levels.
Creep after 100 days (mm)

Creep of concrete

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Load, relative to max. working load, Nrec

Influence of magnitude of load on creep of M8 metal anchor loaded for 100 days

If the sustained load exceeds a certain level, the creep progresses until the fastening fails. The loads recommended by Hilti, Nrec , have been set in a range according to the current level of knowledge, however, in which creep has a negligible effect on an anchor fastening. The influence of the creep of concrete on the prestressing force in the anchor bolt/rod has been described in the following section 5.2.

5.2

Dynamic effects

This subject has been discussed in detail in the brochure A2, Factors influencing fasteners.
Material fatigue

The fatigue of a material can already occur at relatively low loads if it is exposed to sustained dynamic loading. According to experience, the concrete is never affected, but always the steel. The number of load cycles which produces failure is primarily dependent on the stress amplitude, a , i.e. the max. to min. stress.

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Anchor Technology
Failure due to fatigue always takes place at points where there are high stress peaks. In anchors, this is mostly the first loadbearing turns of a thread where the stress is locally much higher at the thread root than in the full cross-section. If metal anchors set in concrete are subjected to dynamic loading, allowance must be made for a reduction in the ultimate loads as a result of material fatigue. The reduction is approx. 50 -70% for dynamic tensile loading. this then gives stress amplitudes which are below the fatigue strength of the anchor parts which are exposed to the risk of fatigue failure. The performance of anchors subjected to dynamic loading can be considerably improved by the prestressing force. Even while the anchor is being tightened to the desired prestressing force, and also after applying this tightening torque, the concrete creeps under the prestressing force. This creep results in elastic behaviour of the anchor rod, which returns to its original length, and, in turn, the pretensioning force decreases. This phenomenon is also referred to as prestressing force relaxation. The prestressing force decreases a relatively large amount immediately after the tightening torque is applied, as a function of the creep.
Pt / Po [%] 100

Fatigue failure

Ultimate load reduced by dynamic loading

Decrease in prestressing force

80

60
with retightening

40
without retightening

20
Po = Initial prestressing force

100

200

300

400

500 Time t [days]

Influence of retightening on anchor prestressing force

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Tests have been shown that the measured loss of prestressing force in anchors/fasteners of different anchoring principles such as cast-in headed studs, undercut anchors and expansion anchors, is comparable with respect to time.
Small reduction in prestressing force due to retightening of anchor

In practice, this means that the remaining prestressing force after a considerable time is only 30 - 40% of the initial figure. One way of making up the lost pretensioning force to a certain extent is to retighten the anchor. Anchors which have been set in not fully cured concrete should be retightened when the concrete has cured because (fresh) concrete displays a greater amount of creep. The statements made above only apply to uncracked concrete. If the concrete is cracked, it must be anticipated that the prestressing force in the anchor bolt/rod will decrease even more because of a widening crack. The prestressing force in an anchor set in cracked concrete can only be maintained by taking special measures, such as by using tensioning components (springs). Care must be taken in this case that the anchors always remain accessible. 5.3 Corrosion

Pretensioning force in cracked concrete

Protection against corrosion Anchors corrode (rust) mostly on the part protruding from the base material. All anchor parts made of metal, which is not stainless steel, are protected against corrosion e.g. galvanizing. If no regulations enforced by authorities have to be observed, the following recommendations can be made for long-lasting fastenings:
Application conditions inside rooms without particular exposure to dampness with sufficient concrete coverage inside applications in damp rooms with occasional condensation and in coastal area outside applications with only slight atmospheric pollution inside applications with only slight atmospheric pollution outside applications with very corrosive atmospheric pollution stainless steel (austenitic CrNi steel) hot-dip galvanizing to 45 microns Protection against corrosion galvanizing to 5 - 10 microns

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Only stainless steels of the A4 grade should be used for anchor fastenings where there is a high corrosion risk in town and industrial atmospheres, in a coastal climate and in road construction. Special materials should be used for unusual applications in particularly corrosive atmospheres where the special materials have properties to resist the corrosive conditions e.g. in the chemical industry, road tunnels and indoor swimming pools. 5.4 Behaviour in fire
Town and industrial atmospheres

If requirements exist for the duration of resistance to fire (fire rating) of building components fastened with anchors, the entire structure including the fastenings must be tested for its behaviour in a fire. These tests can be carried out either by providing direct proof of the existing protective measures, such as covering, cladding or concrete coverage of steel components as protection (possibly in accordance with national standards), or by having fire tests carried out by recognised testing institutions, laboratories etc. with a subsequent test report, test certificate or assessment. Anchors for fire prevention are tested in keeping with the ISO 834 (DIN 4102, part 2) standard temperature curve.
1000

Evidence of fire rating

t min
K

o K 0 558 658 719 822 925 986 1029 1090 1133 1194

500

30

60

90 Time, t

120

min

180

Fire tests are currently being carried out with approved Hilti metal anchors set in cracked concrete so that the worst application case can be allowed for. Since no testing standard for anchors exists to date, the classification of a tested anchor is given, for example, as fire resistance class (fire rating) 90 minutes in F90 building compartments. The anchors are tested under a pure tensile load when set in ceilings and a shear load when set in walls. The fastenings are not covered. Since the grades of steel generally used in construction e.g. 5.6, lose their strength at 500C and above, a reduced working load is used when testing to achieve the 90 minute fire rating (duration of resistance to fire).

0 5 10 15 30 60 90 120 180 240 360

Fire tests with Hilti metal anchors

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Corrosion
Introduction
Avoidable damage by corrosion

Roughly a fifth of the worlds annual steel production is needed for the replacement of steel components damaged by corrosion. Most of this damge could be avoided in the light of the current level of technology. This means that great importance must be attached to selecting suitable protection against corrosion, among other things the use of a special material, and this is the more economical apporoach in the long term. Higher initial costs are soon compensated in most cases by longer life, reduced surveillance and less repair work. Where fastening systems are concerned, safety aspects are most important in addition to the economic implications. the safety requirements, which have become more stringent in recent years, and the latest research findings are taken into account when Hilti develops new products.

Hilti product quality

Series of tests and experiments are carried out to uphold a high level of product quality and to coninually improve products. The usual short-term tests, such as the salt spray test, alternating climate test (condensation test) or Kesternich test are most suitable for quality control purposes, but they do not allow conclusions to be drawn directly about behaviour in practice. In view of this, Hilti products are additionally subjected to stiff free weathering tests. Today, experience from up to 13 years of weathering in three different climatic zones is available. The weathering locations are in Schaan (rural atmosphere), Rouen (industrial atmosphere) and Le Havre (marine atmosphere). These studies have helped to provide insight into the way corrosion attacks fastenings. This is an outset requirement for developing optimized protection against corrosion. In addition to these studies, existing fastenings are regularly examined which can be viewed as a kind of long-term quality assurance. The protection against corrosion of special fastenings is checked during specific field tests. Conditions in road tunnels have been investigated by the Hilti Corporation in the Mt. Blanc Tunnel in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. A range of materials highly resistant to corrosion were subjected to these conditions in addition to the classical stainless steels 1.4305 (A1), 1.4391 (A2) and 1.4401 (A4). Further field tests are also being run in road tunnels in Switzerland and on power plant chimney stacks in Germany.

Many years of experience through ongoing studies

Applied research

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A) How has Hilti solved the corrosion problem in practice?
1. Application examples/recommendations Generally, the following recommendations can be given for selection of the right protection against corrosion for fastenings.
Surrounding conditions Inside rooms without particular influence of moisture If covering of concrete is sufficient Fastenings in damp inside rooms with occasional exposure to condensation and in coastal vicinity Fissaggi allaperto in atmosfera poco aggressiva Inside fastenings exposed to heavy condensation Hot-dip galvanized 45 microns Stainless steel (Austenitic Cr Ni steel) Protection Galvanized 5 10 microns

Outside fastenings in corrosive atmosphere

In the following, a detailed guide for selection of the right protection against corrosion for fasteners has been given for specific applications on the basis of commented examples. The selected applications have been arranged according to the following structure: Building construction General construction/finishing Cladding/Roofing Building services (house and building installations) Plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and ventilation Industrial installations Electrical installations Non-building construction/civil engineering Road construction/bridge building Tunnel construction Waterway construction/dock and harbour installations Special construction Industry/chemical industry Power plants Chimney stacks/waste incineration plants Waste water treatment plants Parking buildings Indoor swimming pools Stadiums

30

Building construction

31

Application General construction


Temporary fastenings: forming, makeshift fixtures, scaffolding Design fastenings

Conditions
Outside and inside fastenings

Recommended
Galvanized/Coated

Dry inside rooms, heated, no condensation

Galvanized

Brackets Supports Holders/Beams

Damp inside rooms, poorly ventilated rooms, basements/cellars, shafts/conduits, occasional condensation from high humidity and temperature fluctuations

Hot-dip galvanized

Frequent or long-lasting condensation e.g. greenhouses, non-enclosed, half-open inside rooms, open sheds

Stainless steel

Composite construction

Protection from concrete alkalinity

Galvanized

Fastening Technology Manual

Dry inside rooms, no condensation

Galvanized

Finishing
Dry walls/partition walls Suspended ceilings Windows, doors, railings, elevators, fire escapes Damp inside rooms, poorly ventilated, occasional condensation Hot-dip galvanized

Corrosion

Frequent or long-lasting condensation, half-open inside rooms, open sheds

Stainless steel

Building construction

Corrosion

Fastening Technology Manual

Application Cladding/Roofing
Profile metal sheeting Curtain wall cladding Fastening of insulating material Framing of cladding

Conditions
Rural, small-town atmosphere wihout industrial emissions, low SO2 content High-alpine atmosphere slight air pollution, low temperatures

Recommended

Inside fastening Outside fastening Insulation material

Galvanized Anchor: hot-dip galv. DX: special measures Plastic Galvanized Galvanized Anchor: hot-dip galv./ stainless steel DX: special measures Plastic Galvanized Galvanized Anchor: stainless steel DX: special measures Plastic Stainless steel Galvanized Anchor: stainless steel DX: special measures Plastic Stainless steel

Town atmosphere high SO2 e NOx pollution, chlorides from road salt can accumulate on not directly weaterhed parts

Inside fastening Outside fastening

Insulation material Industrial atmosphere very high SO2 pollution, under circumstances additional corrosive substances Inside fastening Outside fastening Insulation material Inside fastening Outside fastening Insulation material Not directly weathered fasteners e.g. behind curtain wall cladding, or exposed to the risk of corrosion if chlorides (road salt) can accumulate. If accompanied by a high SO2 concentration, even stainless steel can suffer corrosion.

Coastal atmosphere high chloride content, under circumstances combined with industrial emissions

Special materials

32

Building services

33

Application Plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and ventilation


Pipes cable trays Air ducts

Conditions
Dry inside rooms, heated, no condensation

Recommended
Galvanized

Damp inside rooms, poorly ventilated rooms, cellars/basements, shafts/conduits, occasional condensation from highly humidity and temperature fluctuations Frequent or long-lasting condensation e.g. greenhouses; not closed, half-open inside rooms, open sheds

Hot-dip galvanized

Electrical installations
Cable trays Lighting Aerials

Stainless steel

Industrial installations
Crane installations Barriers/fences Conveying equipment Machine fastening

Dry inside rooms, heated, no condensation

Galvanized

Fastening Technology Manual

Damp inside rooms, poorly ventilated rooms, cellars/basements, shafts/conduits, occasional condensation from highly humidity and temperature fluctuations Frequent or long-lasting condensation e.g. greenhouses; not closed, half-open inside rooms, open sheds

Hot-dip galvanized

Stainless steel

Corrosion

Civil eng.

Corrosion

Fastening Technology Manual

Application

Conditions

Recommended

Building construction/Bridge building


Traffic signs Crash barriers Connecting structures

Directly weathered Chlorides washed off directly weathered parts by rain

Hot-dip galvanized

Frequent heavy exposure to road salt If drying is poor Heavy exposure to chlorides If safety requirements are stringent

Stainless steel

Tunnel construction
Sheeting in tunnels Reinforcing mesh for sprayed concrete Traffic signs Supply lines Air ducts Lighting

See point 2, Critical special application

34

Civil eng.

35

Application Waterways & harbour installations


Fastenings on quay walls, harbour and dock installations

Conditions

Recommended

High humidity, dampness etc. Chlorides Frequently in combination with industrial atmosphere On rigs Under water: Pay attention to effects of cathodic protection system of rig!

Stainless steel/ Special materials

Off shore

Stainless steel

Drilling rigs Fastening of pipes etc. in concrete tanks (alternating oil - sea water contents) Fastenings in diret contact with conveyed medium (gas, oil, salt water) Special materials Special materials

Fastening Technology Manual

Corrosion

Special structures

Corrosion

Fastening Technology Manual

Application Industry/Chemical industry

Condition
Dry inside rooms

Recommended
Galvanized

Corrosive inside rooms (fastenings in laboratories, steelworks, plating plants etc.) Very corrosive vapours

Stainless steel/ Special materials

Outside fastenings Very high SO2 pollution Additional corrosive substances

Stainless steel

Chemical industry

See point 2, Critical special applications

Power plants

Extremely stringent safety requirements and long-life stainless steel For fastenings where high risk is involved

Stainless steel

36

Special structures

37

Application Chimney stacks of power plants and waste incineration plants


Ladders Platforms Steps Lightning conductors

Conditions

Recommended

In lower area

Hot-dip galvanized/ stainless steel

In exit area Concentration of acids at exit, often high chloride content in fossil power plants

Special materials

Waste water treatment plants

Applications in the atmosphere: high humidity, digester/sewage gas Underwater applications: - Community waste water - Industrial waste water The following applies to electrical insulation: Note: Contact between the fastener/anchor and concrete reinforcement must be prevented otherwise contact corrosion can rsult because water purification tanks have common grounds/earths

Hot-dip galvanized/ stainless steel

Stainless steel

Fastening Technology Manual

Stainless steel/ special materials Recommended material incl. coating

Corrosion

Special structures

Corrosion

Fastening Technology Manual

Application Parking buildings

Conditions
Heavy contamination with chlorides (road salt) brought in by vehicles, many wet-and-dry cycles

Recommended
Stainless steel

Indoor swimming pools

See point 2, Critical special applications

Stadiums

In rural atmosphere

Hot-dip galvanized

In town atmosphere - Accessible fastenings which can be checked, such as for seating - Fastenings where safety is at stake and they cannot be checked e.g. in roofs

Hot-dip galvanized/ stainless steel

Stainless steel

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Corrosion
2. Critical special applications Indoor swimming pools, leisure centres: Various research programmes are being run to evaluate the suitability of steels for fastenings in indoor swimming pools. It can be said from the start that the Ni alloys of the Hastelloy group and titanium are suitable, based on the extensive experience of the chemical industry. At the time of printing this section of the manual, nothing definite can be said about which of the steels having a high molybdenum content, such as the materials 1.4539 or 1.4529, can withstand expsure to corrosive surroundngs. In the case of an actual fastening, it is recommended that the possibility of supplying special solutions should be checked with the Hilti engineer responsible. Road tunnels: Typical of conditions in road tunnels are heavy deposits having a high chloride content, high humidity and, frequently, condensation. The film of moisture on metal surfaces is very often acid. Depending on the length of a tunnel, the traffic frequency, the number of tunnel conduits etc., steels containing approx. 4.5% Mo will be sufficient, but steels containing 6% Mo (material 1.4529) should be used for fasteners when safety is at stake. These steels are regarded as being sufficiently resistant to stress corrosion cracking. The conditions existing in road tunnels are being studied in the Mt. Blanc Tunnel by the Hilti Corporation in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Institute for Technology. A range of materials highly resistant to corrosion have been included in this study in addition to the classical stainless steels 1.4305 (A1), 1.4301 (A2) AND 1.4401 (A4). After only 11 months of exposure, heavy pitting and crevice corrosion could be observed on the CrNi steels (A1 and A2) as well as on the CrNiMo steels containing 2 - 3% Mo (A4). The steels containing approx. 4.5% Mo withstood the conditions considerably better, but they too were not free from corrosion. Only the CrNi steels containing 6% Mo, the nickel alloys and titanium proved resistant, even to stress corrosion cracking (see brochure B.4 for assessments) Fasteners of this material have been supplied by Hilti for repairs in the Mt. Blanc Tunnel.

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Corrosion

Chemical industry: Ni alloys from the Hastelloy group are suitable for special applications in the chemical industry e.g. in acid depots.

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Corrosion
B) Theory for consideration
1. Fundamentals of corrosion 1.1 Main corrosion terms and definitions The term corrosion has many different meanings for the layman. They include rust and the damage which corrosion causes. To standardize corrosion terminology, the main terms have been simplify (DIN 50900, ISO 8044). These main terms have been explained in the following, taking a fastening as the basis. Generally, a fastening consists of the part to be secured e.g. a bracket, the fastener itself, e.g. an anchor, and the base material in which the fastener holds e.g. concrete. It is sufficient to review the properties of these components for an evaluation of the loadbearing behaviour. When evaluating the resistance to corrosion, the surroundings must also be taken into account, such as the atmosphere, rain, dust etc. in our example. The constituents of the surroundings influencing the fastening make up what is called the corrosive medium. They can be, for example, a film of moisture including salts from dust deposits, condensation or also the alkaline system, also termed corrosion system, covers, by definition, all involved metal parts and all constituents of the corrosive medium whose properties influence corrosion. The combination of the properties of metal parts and the corrosive medium in the corrosion system decides whether or not corrosion can take place.
Selection of materials to suit requirements

What constitutes a fastening

Evaluation of resistance to corrosion

Corrosive medium Corrosive system

When deciding on the material or the protection against corrosion for metal parts - those of the medium are mostly given in adance in the construction industry - allowance must be made for the system requirements regarding functioning, safety, life and also appearance. In many cases, it is not necessary for corrosion to be stopped completely, but only for it to be reduced to an acceptable amount. Corrosion is defined as the reaction of a metal with its surroundings which causes a measurable change to the metal and can result in impairment of the functioning of a metal component or an entire system.

Corrosion

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Fastening Technology Manual

Corrosion
This measurable change to a metal component or an entire system caused by corrosion is termed corrosion phenomena, such as rusting, pitting, corrosion cracking etc.. The impairment of the functioning of a metal part or an entire system by corrosion is the damage caused by corrosion. An evaluation, however, can only be relative under consideration of the requirements for the parts function and life. 1.2 When can corrosion be expected? According to the foregoing definition, corrosion must be anticipated when the properties of the metal part and those of the corrosive medium have not been balanced with each other as regards the requirements. Consequently, it is absolutely essential that a profile of the anticipated or existing mechanical and chemical exposure be drawn up when evaluating the risk of corrosion of a system. This exposure profile is understood to be the effect of all properties which influence corrosion (Fig. 1).

Corrosion phenomena

Damage caused by corrosion

Risk of corrosion

Fig. 1: Influencing factors used in evaluating the risk of corrosion in a corrosion system

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1.3 What must be considered when evaluating the risk of corrosion?
Evaluation of risk of corrosion

Since the quality of a fastening depends on cretain outset conditions, anyone wishing to produce a perfectly satisfactory fastening should give fundatmental consideration to the following before selecting the fastener: Does the medium have a permanent or only occasional influence? For example, when dock installations are built, a fastener can be positioned permanently under water, in the tidal zone or in the atmosphere. Does the medium extend in all directions or is it only like a film? For example, the sea or dew and rain if above water respectively.

Crevices resulting from design

Design features, such as crevices, gaps etc., the often unintentional combination of different materials e.g. stainless-steel anchors in contact with reinforcement, the homogeneity of the base material and the prevailing weather side of buildings can have a decisive influence on the risk of an attack by corrosion. If mechanical loads are imposed, this can lead to corrosion phenomena of a cracking nature. High temperatures greatly increase the risk of corrosion when a large volume of medium exists, but, under certain circumstances, they cause file-like mediums to dry, thus preventing further corrosion from taking place. Direct current can be conducted through common grounds or pipes from railway installations or electrical protection equipment to other structures. The resulting flow of current can result in very serious corrosion at places far away. All the mentioned factors must be allowed for when selecting a suitable fastener. A systematic approach, allowance for all factors and the correct logical selection of a fastener are decisive for the longevity, efficiency and safety of a fastening.

Mechanical loads

Temperature

Direct current

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Corrosion
The properties of the surrounding medium play a major role where the risk of corrosion in a system is concerned. Generally, the constituents of the medium can be readily determined and defined in most cases if it is present in volume, for example, water, chemicals etc. In the case of film-like electrolytes, such as those which occur when dew forms in the atmosphere, this can only be done with a great deal of outlay. Consequently, a way round this is searched for using indirect methods and on the basis of practical experience by putting atmospheres into categories: Rural atmosphere Town atmosphere Industrial atmosphere and A marine climate
Medium determines risk of corrosion

Categories of atmosphere

These categories are only an aid though, because local conditions can differ very widely, depending on: Design features e.g. single of double-skin cladding, curtain wall cladding, the height of a structure Environmental conditions e.g. the formation of deposits, the frequency of the action of rain etc. The location of the structure e.g. protected from the wind. Recently, therefore, the classification of corrosiveness of the atmosphere is carried out primarily on the basis of the duration of moisture exposure as well as the SO2 and chloride pollution. The range of atmospheres which can be evaluated in this way begins with air-conditioned inside rooms and extends to tropical outside climates where there is serious air pollution. 1.4 How does corrosion take place? A distinction is made between three types of corrosive reaction: Chemical reaction e.g. oxidation Physical metal reaction e.g. embrittlement of steel caused hydrogen diffusing onto it Electrochemical reaction which takes place with an exchange of an electrical charge. This requires an electron-conducting medium - an electrolyte such as water - where a film of moisture can be sufficient.
Corrosive reaction

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Corrosion
2.
Corrosion phenomena

Types of corrosion and corrosion phenomena

Here, the focus should be on corrosion phenomena which take place on metal building components. The phenomena caused by corrosion around building components and in the surrounding medium have not been looked at in detail. Also, of the 20 types of corrosion covered by the German standard DIN 50900, only those relevant to construction and, in particular, to fastening technology, have been explained. 2.1 Types of corrosion without mechanical stressing:

Uniform removal

Uniform surface corrosion The rate of removal of the corroded metal is virtually the same over the entire surface. The best example of this type is the corrosion of zinc in the atmosphere. Patch (selective) corrosion:

Corrosion cells

The rate of removal differs locally. It is caused by so-called corrosion cells. The best example of this type in construction is the damage to reinforcing bars. Steel tends more to corrode patchily (selectively) than to rust uniformly.

Patchy (selective) rust

Fig. 2: Patch (selective) corrosion


* A corrosion cell consists of an anode and a cathode which are connected conductively by building materials and a corrosion medium i.e. metallically and electrolytically. The rate at which the metal surface is eaten away differs locally. The most frequent corrosion cells are contact cells i.e. combinations of dissimilar materials, and ventilation cells e.g. different amount of oxygen in devices.

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Corrosion
Sometimes, locally different conditions in the surroundings are responsible for an irregular rate of removal. For example, that part of an anchor which is in the hole is exposed to different conditions that the part outside in the atmosphere. Often, the critical zone is the point of transition because the moisture exposure here is longest.
Differences in surrounding conditions

Fig. 3: Patch (selective) corrosion Pitting: This phenomena shows as small pits on pinholes caused by local corrosion resulting from corrosion cells. This type of corrosion is observed primarily on materials which form a protective layer against corrosion (passive layer of coating) e.g. stainless steels, aluminium alloys, anodized aluminium and nickel alloys. In certain corrosive conditions, especially if chlorides are present, this layer is destroyed locally and, depending on the grain structure and purity of the steel, the results are different forms of pitting.
Protective layer penetrated locally

Fig. 4: Pitting

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Corrosion
Risk dependent on crosssection

This type of corrosion can also take place when materials have been metal plated and the plating is higher in the electromotive force series than the substrate e.g. chrome or nickel or steel. If building components have a large area, their loadbearing capacity is often not impaired by a certain amount of pitting. In the case of wire-like or rod-like components, however, pitting can very well result in hazardous reductions in crosssection. Crevice corrosion: According to DIN50900, the definition of this type is locally accelerated corrosion in crevices resulting from corrosion cells caused by different concentrations of the corrosion medium (electrolyte). Differences in the access of air can also be included here (see Fig. 5). Apart from crevices resulting from the design of a structure, deposits e.g. dust, can also form crevices. In the case of stainless steels, crevices formed by non-conductive materials e.g. plastic washers, are particularly critical. In fact, this is all the more critical the narrower the crevice is. For the CrNi and CrNiMo steels generally used in construction, the critical crevice width is less than 1 micron.

Corrosion in crevices

Critical crevice width

Sufficient oxygen (cathode)

Oxygen starved (anode) Fastened steel component

Material base

Fig. 5: Crevice corrosion

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Corrosion
Intercristalline corrosion: Selective corrosion advances around the grain boundaries and can result in the disintegration of the grain structure into individual grains. If a building component is stressed, intercristalline corrosion can also appear in the form of cracks. in the case of CrNiMo steels, this type of corrosion is mostly caused by poor heat treatment and, often, by careless welding. The susceptibility of these steels depends on the carbon content and the carbide forming constituents (Ti, Nb). If parts are to be welded, steels which are deep carburized or stabilized should be given preference. Contact corrosion: This corrosion is accelerated by the combination of two metals which have different electrochemical behaviour. The metal higher in the electromotive force series is protected, whereas the one of lower potential suffers an accelerated attack of corrosion (see also chapter 3.5.3).
Steel reinforcement Disintegration of grain structure due to wrong heat treatment

Steel reinforcement

Waste water A2 stainless steel

Galvanizing

Fig. 6: Contact corrosion in water treatment plant Microbiological corrosion: Microbes can cause and acelerate corrosion owing to the often corrosive produts of metabolism. A well known example is the damage to waste water conduits caused by bacteria which produce sulphuric acid. Only in recent years has it been realized that this type of corrosion causes much more damage than previously imagined.

Products of metabolism cause corrosion

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2.2 Types of corrosion with additional mechanical stressing Stress corrosion cracking:
Cracking of metals

This is understood to be the formation of cracks in metals influenced by certain corrosive medium while under a tensile stress. The stressing can be purely static or with a superimposed low-frequency pulsating load. The tensile stresses can also exist as residual (internal) stresses in building components. The crack can be transcristalline (see Fig. 7) or intercristalline. A break with very few signs of deformation is characteristic and, often, there are no visible products of corrosion. This makes early detection very difficult. Stress corrosion cracking only occurs when there is a special combination of metal and medium in certain conditions. Critical combinations are, for example, stainless steel and solutions containing chlorides as well as structural steel and nitrate solutions.

Failure of component with very little deformation

Fig. 7: Stress corrosion cracking Stress corrosion cracking can be caused by the formation of cracks having electrolytical (anodic) or physical metal (hydrogen induced) causes. The latter case occurs above all with high-strength steels i.e. a tensile strength greater than 1000 N/mm2. This phenomenon has also become known as delayed break where screws and similar building components are concerned because failure often occurs only after many years i.e. a so-called incubation time. This type of failure can be observed with threaded studs and nails.

Delayed break

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Vibrational corrosion (Corrosion fatigue) As a result of the interaction of corrosion and alternating mechanical stressing, transcristalline cracks can appear. In this case, the cracking, unlike stress corrosion cracking, is independent of critical marginal conditions. Any combination of metal and medium can be involved. In constrast to exposure to an alternating load in a dry atmosphere (fatigue), the most widely used materials have no fatigue strength in electrolytes i.e. there is no min. stress below which no fatigue failure occurs after any number of load cycles.
Corrosion and alternating mechanical stressing.

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3.
Purpose of protection against corrosion

Fastener protection against corrosion

Basically, the means provided for protection against corrosion must inhibit the sequence of corrosion, corrosion phenomena and corrosion damage in a given system. With economic aspects in mind, this should take place in such a way that, as specified in the requirements profile, no damage occurs or, if so, it only occurs after the planned life of a system. Fundamentally, two different approaches can be taken: Active protection against corrosion. Passive protection against corrosion. Stable, resistant materials are used for active protection against corrosion, whereas access of the corrosive medium (electrolyte) to the building components is prevented or made difficult in the case of passive protection. For example, passive protection can take the form of coatings, sealing or other designed measures. The protective measures taken by Hilti with fasteners have been shown in table 1.

What protection against corrosion is used by Hilti?

Protection against corrosion Plastics POM, epoxyacrylate Organic coatings Galvanized steel

Measures with fasteners Polyamide, polypropylene, polyethylene Epoxy resin Mechanical zinc plating & chromated Galvanized & chromated Sendzimir galvanized Hot-dip galvanized Stainless steels Special alloys Sealing caps

Corrosion-resistant materials Additional measures

Table 1

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3.1 Plastics Plastic anchors for light-duty fastenings are generally made of polyamide. This material has very good chemical resistance. The products for fastening insulating material are manufactured in polypropylene or polyethylene. These materials have good chemical resistance, but they are not stable in UV light in the long term. Special requirements exist for the rail anchor and these are met optimally by the plastic POM, such as very good electrical insulation properties, high strength and good chemical resistance. Epoxy acrylate and a modified epoxy acrylate are used for chemical fastenings i.e. the adhesive anchor and the Hilti injection technique. The resin, hardener and filler have been fine tuned to each other so that shrinkage, creep and water absorption are very small. The resistance to alkalis, saline solutions and acids is very good. 3.2 Organic coatings Organic coatings are only used to a limited extent by Hilti to protect fasteners against corrosion. Only certain nails for temporary fastenings have this coating. Organic coatings constitute, virtually without exception, passive protection against corrosion i.e. they prevent or delay the corrosive medium from reaching the surface of the metal. If protection is to be 100%, the coating must therefore be absolutely impervious i.e. pore free and dense, while having an optimal bond. In field practice, these conditions are difficult to achieve for several reasons. Their surfaces are often involved in the working principle based on frictional properties under high mechanical loading which govern proper functioning. In view of this, organic coatings of only limited thickness can be used. If the coating is thin i.e. less than 20 microns, it is virtually impossible for it to be without pores. These coatings only provide temporary protection against corrosion, therefore, because rusting below the coating will begin in a relatively short time if defects and a damp atmosphere exist at the same time. If active pigments are used e.g. Zn or Al, adequate resistance to corrosion is achieved.
Plastic anchors

Insulation fasteners

Rail anchor

Chemical fastenings

Temporary fastenings

Full protection difficult

Only limited coating thickness

Temporary protection against corrosion

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3.3 Zinc-plate steel
Most fasteners galvanized

Plating thickness governs duration of protection

Most fasteners are zinc plated. Zinc on steel is an ideal combination as protection against corrosion. Plating with zinc can be carried out easily and economically on a large scale by various processes. The protection it provides against corrosion can be adapted to suit different practical requirements by selecting a suitable plating thickness. Since corrosion in a certain atmophere progresses linearly with respect to time, the protection against corrosion is directly proportional to the plating thickness (see Fig. 8).

Mean life (years)

ral

and

30 20 10 0 0

cle

an

co

ast

40

al a

tm

osp

50

her

Tow

tm na

osp

Ru

her

e
pher e

st Indu

rial a

tmos

Sea water

20

40

60

80

100

Plating thickness (microns)

Fig. 8: Mean life of zinc plating (as per 11)

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3.3.1 Corrosion of zinc-plated steel Generally, zinc and zinc-plated steel corrode uniformly over the surface. The products of corrosion of pure zinc plating have a white to grey colour (this is sometimes called white rust), whereas those of iron-zinc alloy platings are red brown. Red rust is the name given to the products of corrosion of steel which appear at defects or after the zinc plating has weathered away. The products of corrosion of zinc, chiefly basic zinc carbonate, form a protective layer which clearly shows further corrosion. This protective layer weathers away slowly in the atmosphere. Its rate of removal is linear with respect to time. The rate of removal of zinc suffering atmospheric corrosion is roughly 10 times smaller than that of steel. In an atmosphere heavily laden with SO2 e.g.near industry, the protective layer cannot form completely. Owing to reaction with SO2 and oxygen in the air, zinc sulphate forms which is readily soluble in water so that it is then washed away by rain. This results in the rate of zinc corrosion beng considerably higher in an industrial atmosphere than in a rural or town atmosphere. The limits to the use of zinc plating, especially of hot-dip galvanizing, are reached here because of the restricted thickness on threaded parts. Hot-dip galvanizing has also not proven satisfactory as protection against corrosion where heavy condensation and poor ventilation exist e.g. for many kinds of double-skin claddng or in damp thermal insulation. Zinc platings provide cathodic protection because they have a lower electrochemical potential then steel i.e. they protect the underlying steel even if the plating has been slightly damaged. The protection offered, however, decreases rapidly with increasing extent of the damage (see Fig. 9a and 9b)
Zinc plating processes Products of corrosion

Rate of removal

Hindered protective layer near industry

Limits to use

Cathodic protection

Cathodic protection Zinc corrodes instead of steel

Steel corrodes outside of zinc

Fig. 9a

Fig. 9b

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3.3.2 Zinc plating processes The zinc plating processes used by Hilti are as follows: Process Mechanical zinc plating Galvanizing Sendzimir galvanizing Hot-dip galvanizing Mechanical zinc plating: During the mechanical plating processes, zinc powder in water-filled drums is hammered onto steel parts by galss beads. An electric current is not applied. The max. achievable plating thickness is approx. 20 microns. Mechanical zinc plating causes no hydrogen embrittlement, not even at the steel hardnesses usual for studs and nails. As a result, it is not necessary for fasteners to be subsequently baked. Galvanizing: When galvanizing, pure zinc from a zinc salt solution is deposited on the steel when a direct current is applied. The plating bonds very well, but the thickness is limited to approx. 25 microns. Galvanizing is used primarily for threaded parts for which mechanical zinc plating cannot be used. Both galvanically and mechanically plated fasteners have a min. plating thickness of 5 microns and are blue chromated. This gives them adequate long-term protection against corrosion if they are used in dry inside rooms. If exposed to moisture, however, the protection is limited (Fig. 10). Sendzimir galvanizing: During the sendzimir process, steel strip first has its surface cleaned by a special annealing process. It is then drawn continuously through a bath of molten zinc. The plating thickness, generally 20 microns on both sides, is achieved by wiping the strip with a jet of air or steam. Product Studs and nails Threaded studs, anchors, special-nails Anchors, installation components Anchors, accessory products

Plating thickness approx. 20 microns

Plating thickness approx. 25 microns

Plating thickness approx. 20 microns

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Hot-dip galvanizing: When hot-dip galvanizing, the individual parts are dipped in a bath of molten zinc. The plating thickness is govened by the submersion time and the constituents of the steel. Small parts are galvanized in drums and then centrifuged to remove surplus zinc. The plating consists of an iron-zinc alloy layer and a layer of pure zinc. On threaded parts, the plating thickness is between 45 and 60 microns. Greater resistance to corrosion in very damp and corrosive conditions is provided by sendzimr galvanizing (anchors and parts made of strip or sheet metal) and hot-dip galvanizing because of the thick layers and the better resistance to corrosion of the iron-zinc alloy layer. 4

Plating thickness approx. 45 - 60 microns

Rel. rate of corrosion

3
Polluted air 0,01 % SO2

1
Critical moisture content Clean air

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100

Rel. humidity (%) Fig. 10: Rate of corrosion as a function of air humidity 3.4 Corrosion-resistant materials Apart from brass, which is used for light to medium-duty fastenings in damp rooms, stainless steels are used mostly for corrosion-resistant fasteners and connecting components. The most widely used types (97%) are the austenitic CrNi and CrNiMo steels. Decisive for their use, apart from their ideal combination of resistance to corrosion, mechanical properties and the economics, are regulations, codes etc. from authorities. Special materials must be used for special fastenings where the requirements for resistance to corrosion are most stringent.

Stainless steels for corrosionresistant fasteners

Special materials for more stringent requirements

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3.4.1 Stainless steels A review of the most important stainless steels is given in tables 2 and 3.
Steels in construction

Of these steels, the ones most widely used in construction are still the materials 1.4301 and 1.4401. The latter has greater resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion owing to its molybdenum content.
DIN 17440 (Semi-finished product) 1.4305 1.4301 1.4401 1.4571 1.4436 DIN 267/11 (Threaded part) A1 A2 A4 Designation as per AISI 303 304 316

Table 2: Review of stainless steels


Material no. 1.4305 A1 1.4301 A2 1.4436 1.4401 A4 C 0.12 0.12 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.08 S 0.150.35 0.150.35 0.030 0.03 0.025 0.030 0.03 Cr 17.019.0 17.019.0 17.019.0 17.020.0 16.518.5 16.518.5 16.018.5 Ni 8.010.0 8.010.0 8.510.5 8.013.0 11.014.0 10.513.5 10.014.0 Mo 0.6 2.53.0 2.02.5 2.03.0

Table 3: Review of materials highly resistant to corrosion (DIN 17440 and DIN 267/11) [percentage by weight]

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3.4.2 Corrosion behaviour of stainless steels Owing to their ability to form a so-called passive layer, the corrosion behaviour of stainless steels is fundamentally different from that of unalloyed or low-alloyed steels. Whereas the latter generally suffers uniform surface to patch (selective) corrosion, which is clearly visible owing to the striking colour of the products of corrosion, namely rust, the stainless steels usually display local corrosion phenomena. This has resulted in some uncertainty, particularly since the accident in an indoor swimming pool in Uster, Switzerland, and in the trend of completely avoiding the use of stainless steels while reverting to classical materials, such as hot-dip galvanized steel. Stainless steels, however, are technically and economically the ideal material for many applications if their properties, mechanisms of corrosion and limits to use are allowed for. The main fields of application are cladding installation, road construction, bridge building, waste water treatment plants, marine engineering, industrial equipment construction and civil defence installations. The question of the limits to use cannot be given a general answer. If applications are critical, a special, differenetiated approach become necessary which also makes field tests essential in many cases. Apart from the surrounding conditions, the mechnical properties, processed condition and design features of stainless steel fasteners influence their corrosion behaviour. In an unpolluted atmosphere, stainless steels are not attacked by corrosion due to the protective passive layer (this is also why they are called stainless). If exposed to the following, however, corrosion is possible and must be expected: Very acid medium: mineral acids, SO2 solutions Strongly oxidizing or reducing substances: chhlorine gas, hypochlorite, NOx, hydrochloric acid. Substances containing chlorides or which separation: road salt, sea water Poor ventilation: in crevices, under deposits The last two are the most important in the construction industry.
Formation of passive layer

Local corrosion phenomena

Main fields of application

Limits to use

Corrosion of stainless steels

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Building materials are seldom corrosive

Only seldom do building materials contain corrosive substances. In the course of time though, concrete, brick, insulating material etc. can pick up damaging substances from the surroundings e.g. chlorides. Concrete can only be expected to pick up large amounts of chlorides if there is direct exposure e.g. via cracks, or through frequent wet and dry cycles (capillary effect). If fastenings are in a corrosive atmosphere, it can be assumed that concrete base material is less critical than the surrounding medium. Acid, corrosive precipitation from the atmosphere and condensation are neutralized by the alkalizing effect of concrete. In construction, the cases known to date of stainless steel being damaged by stress corrosion cracking were caused by poor workmanship when manufacturing the stainless steel fasteners. An exception in this respect is the damage which has occured in indoor swimming pools. Conditions similar to those producing stress corrosion cracking in indoor swimming pools, must, according to the current level of knowledge, be expected in any event with special applications, such as chimney stack construction for power plants, in the chemical industry and, possibly, in road tunnels. Recent studies have shown materials in the A4 group to be resistant when used for cladding installation in general building construction [9].

Damage from poor workmanship

Incorrect processing of stainless-steel fasteners

Further processing on jobsites, such as heating, forming and welding stainless steel fasteners cannot be permitted. Only this will ensure that the resistance to corrosion and the mechanical properties specified by the manufacturer are maintained. Subsequent treatment, such as oiling or coating, must not be carried out either because this can change the functioning, loadbearing behaviour and resistance to corrosion of fasteners. Furthermore, the use of tools made of unalloyed steel, such as pliers, brushes etc. must be avoided. Rusting particles on the stainless steel could initiate corrosion.

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3.4.3 Materials for special fastenings (In indoor swimming pools and tunnels) Hilti has carried out in-depth studies of fastenings where particularly corrosive conditions exist, such as in road tunnels, indoor swimming pools etc.. Fasteners, especially anchors, which are made of materials suitably resistant to corrosion, can be supplied for these special applications on request. Aluminium and copper as well as their alloys are only suitable for fasteners in exceptional cases owing to their low strength. Apart from this, their resistance to corrosion hardly exceeds that of stainless steels. On the other hand, several highly alloyed CrNiMo steels and special alloys are available. These steels and Ni alloys have been listed in table 4, roughly in the order of decreasing resistance to corrosion. The order is the result of a laboratory test, the FeCl3 test.
Material/ Des. Cr Ni Mo N Fe Others Standard/ Regulation
Special materials on request

2.4062

20.022.5

Rest

12.514.5

2.06.0

W: 2.53.5

VdTV WB 479

1.4529 Avesta 254 SMO

19.021.0

24.026.0

6.07.0

0.100.25

Rest

Cu: 0.51.5

SEW 400

Approx. 20

Approx. 18 Approx. 6.1

Approx. 20

Rest

Cu:Approx.0.7 Avesta

1.4462 1.4539 1.4439

21.023.0 19.021.0 16.518.5

4.56.5 24.026.0 12.514.5

2.53.5 4.05.0 4.05.0

0.080.20 0.040.15 0.120.22

Rest Rest Rest Cu: 1.02.0

SEW 400 SEW 400 DIN 17440

Table 4: Materials highly resistant to corrosion [percentage by weight] A term - activator total - is closely linked to this test (see Fig. 11).
Activator total

This is understood to be the total of the alloying constituents contributing to resistance to corrosion multiplied by a certain factor. The following formula has long been well known: AT = Cr + 3,3 Mo
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90 Inconel 625 80 70 60

+
1.4529 (6 % Mo)

CPT ( C)

50 40 30 20 10 20 25 30 0

+
1.4539 +

+ + (Duplex) + +

1.4571 (A4) 35 40 45 50 55

Activator total (% Cr+3.3 % Mo) Fig. 11: Critical pitting temperature (CPT) as function of activator total in FeCl3 test [12]

Activator total as a rough guide

Recently, nitrogen has also been incorporated in the activator total, but no agreement exists on the multiplication factor to be used. Values of 0, 13 and 30 are found. In view of this, the activator total must not be used as the sole criterion when evaluating the resistance to corrosion. It can only serve as a rough guide. The selection of one of these materials for use for critical applications in the construction industry must be basd on differentiated aspects. 3.5 Other measures for protection against corrosion

3.5.1 Sealing caps


Sealing cap

As an additional protective measure, sealing caps are available, particularly for DX fasteners. The purpose is to keep a corrosive medium away from the fastener e.g. rain or dew. Care must be taken to ensure that sealing is really tight over the entire time a cap is used. The sealing cap must be seated properly. If it does not seal completely, the opposite effect than that desired can, under circumstances, result because, if the air humidity is high, infiltrated moisture condenses when the temperature drops. This then dries only very slowly.

Complete sealing necessary

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3.5.2 Designs to counteract corrosion When building components and systems are designed, aspects of protection against corrosion should be allowed for on principle whenever possible. Consideration must always be given to the entire system, not just an anchor. Special attention must then be given to crevices and gaps resulting from the design. Crevices can lead to a greater risk of corrosion. Whenever possible, therefore, they must be avoided. To maintain the passivating layer of stainless steels, an oxidant, generally oxygen in the air, must have access to the surface of the steel. Oxygen diffusion is hindered in a tight crevice filled with a corrosive medium so that the passive layer than breaks down locally ad permits a strong attack of corrosion. Crevices betwen materials which are not electrically conductive i.e. plastics, deposits etc., are more critical than those between metals. The tighter the crevice, all the more critical it is. The critical range of crevice width is between several 100ths to 10ths of a micrometer. This is why deposits of dust, for example, are more critical than the gap between an anchor and the hole wall. Often, crevices occurring with fastenings are specific to the system. Consequently, materials in the A2 group if there is no exposure to chlorides. 3.5.3 Avoidance of contact corrosion If two or more metals are used in combination with each other so that current can flow from one to the other, attention must be paid to their electrochemical compatibility. In a certain medium e.g. a humid atmosphere, every metal has a particular electrochemical potential. If the potentials of connected metals differ, a current flows in a similar way to that in a battery. The metal of lower potential corrodes more strongly, preferentially at the point of contact. The metal of higher potential is protected. This action is called contact corrosion.
The tighter the crevice, the more critical it is Design of building components

Crevices increase the risk of corrosion

Pay attention to electrochemical compatibility

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Rate of corrosion

Most decisive for the rate of corrosion is the ratio of areas of the two metals. One of the worst cases is a small area of the metal of lower potential and a large area of the metal of higher potential. A review of important metal combinations for use in construction, especially for fastenings, is given in table 4. It is assumed here that the fastener has a considerably smaller area than the part fastened. The table shows where it is anticipated that the attack of corrosion will become worse when the fastener is in contact with the indicated material. Some of this data was determined on our test rigs in different climates. If a combination of metals cannot be avoided, contact corrosion can be eliminated by using electrical insulation e.g. plastic washers or sleeves or suitable coverings. If fastenings are made under water e.g. in waste water treatment plants or in the sea, care must be taken to ensure that there is electrical insulation betweenthe fastener and the concrete reinforcing bars. Extensive damage repeatedly occurs in such cases.

Combination of different materials

Electrical insulation between fastener and reinforcement

Fasteners

Hot-dip galvanized

Aluminium alloy

Structural steel

Zinc Hot-dip galvanizing Aluminium alloy Cadmium plating Structural steel Cast steel Chromium steel Stainless steel Tin Copper Brass

O O

O O

G G G G G G G G G

I I G G G G G G G

O O O O

G G G G G G G

O O O O O

G G G G G G

O O O O O O O O O

G G

G Heavy corrosion of fasteners I Moderate corrosion of fasteners


O

Slight or no corrosion of fasteners

Table 5: Extent of contact corrosion with various combinations of materials

63

Brass
O O O O O O

Part fastened

Stainless steel

Galvanized

I G I G
O

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Fire Prevention
1) Introduction
Allowance for fire prevention when planning

Not only the stability and strength are important for the safety of a structure, but also the fire prevention measures taken play a major role. Consequently, fire prevention features are regarded as an integral part of a building or installation and they are incorporated right from the start when of planning a construction project.

Significance of fire prevention

The significance of fire prevention is made apparent by the fact that about 11,000 fires break out every day worldwide i.e. 4 million fires a year. The annual cost of the damage caused amounts to some 70,000 million dollars but, worst still, the fires cause about 15,000 deaths.

500.000

450.000

400.000

350.000

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Fig. 1: Number of fires per year in Great Britain [1]

Cause of fires

As can be seen from statistics for Great Britain, the number of fire outbreaks per year is steadily increasing. This trend also applies to other countries. The causes of fires differ widely, such as natural occurences, earthquakes etc., as well as negligence and arson.

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SFr. million 2.500

2.000

1.500

1.000

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

Fig. 2: Annual cost of damage in Great Britain [1]

Fires destroy inestimable material assets and take many lives. The economic implications are considerable: loss of production as well as jobs is often the consequence. A saying goes once burnt, twice shy. Statistics, however, show that this does not apply to fires. On the other hand, there is a possibility of keeping damage by fires within bounds. The collective term fire prevention covers many measures which serve one goal: this can be described by the following basic requirements: Public safety and order most not be jeopardized precautionary measures must prevent the outbreak of fires and fire fighting and rescue operations must be possible To meet these basic requirements, there is a great deal of specific and special action which can be taken. It can be classified as basic precautionary fire prevention or passive fire prevention.

The economic implications are considerable

Basic requirements

Since it is not possible to completely stop fires breaking, tolerable risks must be stipulated from which fire prevention requirements for structures and building components can be derived. In view of this, it is also necessary for economic reasonss for fire prevention measures to be set down relative to the anticipated fire risk.

Complete elimination of fires is not possible

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2) Fire prevention regulations
Different testing and inspection standards

Standardized European testing standard aimed for.

Up to the present time, each country has had its own inspection/testing standards where fire prevention is concerned. These differed widely from one country to another. All international companies, for example, must have every building component tested and inspected today in every country in the European Community according to the inspection and test-ing regulations currently valued there. In view of this situation, the aim should be for a standardized European testing and inspection standard to replace the individual national standards. The European standard, however, would only stipulate the testing/inspection criteria, the requirements for the test specimens and the measuriing instruments. The results of tests conducted by materials testing stations, institutes, laboratories etc., which would then be approved in Europe, should be made comparable. The results of testing by laboratories in Italy, for example, should be the same as those obtained in Great Britain, France or Germany. The following table gives the classification of building components as it exists today in Germany.

Goal: Comparable results

Building component > 30 Walls, beams, girders, floors/ceilings columns/piers, support, anti-radiation glass Fire walls Non-supporting outside walls Fire compartment components (doors, gates, dampers) Cable seals Pipes, installation shafts and ducts/conduits W 30

Fire rating corresponding duration of resistance to fire > > > 60 90 120

> 180

F 30

F 60

F 90

F 120

F 180

F 90 (F 120, F 180) + impact loading W 60 W 90 W 120 W 180

T 30 S 30 R 30 I 30

T 60 S 60 R 60 I 60

T 90 S 90 R 90 I 90

T 120 S 120 R 120 I 120

T 180

Table 1: Chart of fire ratings

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3) Hilti fire prevention products
Hiltis contribution to effective fire prevention concerns the areas of sealing and fastening. It is not possible to completely stop the outbreak of fires. The spread of fire, smoke and toxic gases to an entire building, however, can be avoided by incorporting fire compartments. The system solutions in the Hilti fire prevention line make an important contribution to containing fires. All penetrations, breaches and openings in fire walls and ceilings (floor decks) as well as all fastenings must comply with the specified fire rating i.e. the duration of resistance to fire, as a result of using tested and approved fire prevention systems. 3.1 Product selection The following basic applications provide the key to selecting fire prevention products:
Basic applications Effective fire prevention consists of sealing and fastening

Products must comply with the fire rating.

1 2 3 4

Suspended ceilings Fire prevention doors Facades and cladding Pipe penetrations or pipe suspensions 5 Air ducts 6 Cable trays/runs

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Applications Suspended ceilings
Construction chemicals: CP 601fire prevention sealant DX fastening: IBM internally thread stud DKH nail Anchor fastening: HSC safety anchor HKD flush anchor HEH short anchor DBZ wedge anchor HA8 ring bolt anchor

Fire prevention doors


Construction chemicals: CP 601, CP 612, CP 631 fire prevention sealants DX fastening: M8H threaded stud DKH nail Anchor fastening: HSC safety anchor HST-R stud anchor HKD flush anchor

Facades and cladding


Construction chemicals: CP etc. and CP 681 fire prevention sealants DX fastening: M8H threaded stud Anchor fastening: HSC safety anchor HST-R stud anchor HKD flush anchor

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Application

Pipe penetrations / pipe suspensions


Construction chemicals: CP etc. and CP 631 fire prevention sealant DX fastening: IBM internally thread stud M8H threaded stud Anchor fastening: HSC safety anchor HKD flush anchor HEH short anchor Diamond drilling: DCM 1 and DCM 1.5 diamond drilling equipment

Air ducts
Construction chemicals: CP 601, CP 611, CP 631 fire prevention sealants DX fastening: IBM internally threaded stud M8H threaded stud Anchor fastening: HSC safety anchor HKD flush anchor HEH short anchor

Cable tray / runs


Construction chemicals: CP 611 etc. and CP 681 fire prevention sealants DX fastening: M8H threaded stud DKH nail Anchor fastening: HSC safety anchor HKD flush anchor DBZ wedge anchor HA8 ring bolt anchor

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5) Inspection and testing of products
Performance capability of fasternings

Generating know-how in cooperation with Brunswick Technical University

The subject of fastening and fire prevention has been more or less neglected up to the present time. No detailed knowhow was available. The performance capabilities of fastenings were either underestimated or overestimated, for example, the very conservative assumptions of DIN 4102. In view of this, know-how was established during many tests carried out in co-operation with the institut fr Massivbau und Brandschutz of the Technical University of Brunswick, Germany, which permits a better evaluation to be made of the resistance to fire of fasteners. 5.1 Test arrangement Concrete component: B25 grade Type of loading: Pure tension All fasteners are set in a crack with a width, w, of 0.2 mm. The fasteners are exposed directly to flames without any shielding. Testing is according to the internationally valid standard temperature curve 5.2 Testing To evaluate the resistance to a fire, a so-called standard fire is used (ISO R 834). In this case, the temperature is increased as follows: After 10 min. 30 60 90 C 678 842 945 1006

Product evaluation on basis of standard fire

Greater depth of embedment improves the resistance to fire

Stainless steels perform better than carbon steels

5.3 Test results At high temperatures, the base material breaks down. The damaged area increases with the duration of the fire according to the temperature exposure. Setting an anchor deeper, therefore, helps to keep the fastening intact in concrete. Although metal does not burn, its loading capacity decreases with increasing temperature (especially from about 500C upwards). This is shown during the fire test, for example, by slipping nuts or breaking anchor rods. Stainless steels retain their strength longer than ordinary steels.

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As the temperature increases, the loading capacity of the base material and the fastener decreases. The conclusion is that the load must be reduced to below the normal level, Frec, necessary for ordinary steels to achieve the desired fire rating e.g. 90 minutes 5.3 Standard temperature curve

Reduction of recommended load, Frec

Admissible tolerance range STC

Temperature in fire chamber

Standard temperature curve (STC) DIN 4102, part 2, issue 1977 Measured temperature range recorded in a plotter diagram (feed 60 mm/h)

Test duration Test starting temperature 16 C

Temperatures in fire chamber Test 4 on Feb. 28, 1991

Appendix Test report

10

of

Amtliche Materialprfanstalt fr das Bauwesen


beim Institut fr Baustoffe, Massivbau und Brandschutz

der Technischen Universitt Braunschweig

number 3374/3291

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Anchor Fastening Design


1 Safety concept
New safety concept

The safety concept used today with an overall safety factor will be increasingly replaced by the new safety concept with partial safety factors. Both concepts are described in brief in the following.

Safety concept with overall safety factor

1.2 Safety concept with overall safety factor In the past, evidence of safety was generally provided by comparing the recommended load, Frec, (admissible load) with the actual load, Fact. Fact

Frec

(1.1)

The recommended load is calculated using the characteristic value load of a fastener, Rk and the overall safety factor, according to: Frec =

Rk

(1.2)

Here, the characteristic load value, Rk, is determined during tests. By using a safety factor, , a certain safety level and variances from laboratory conditions existing during the test are taken into account, such as: factors influencing fastener installation, setting, placement etc. local variances in strength of the base material unforeseen peak loads long-term effects The charakteristic load of a fastener value, Rk, is defined as the 5% fractile of the ultimate load determined during tests. It is calculated from the mean ultimate load, Ru,m, and the standard deviation, s, of the test series, according to Rk = Ru,m k s (1.3)

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The factors k is primarily dependent on the number of tests in the test series. It is fixed so that 5% of the ultimate loads are smaller than Rk for which a statement probability of 90% is taken as the basis. If the number of individual tests is equal to or larger than 40, k can be equated to 2 with adequate accuracy. The relationship between the recommended load and the characteristic ultimate load is depicted in fig. 1.

Frequency [%]

Probability density

Histogramme of the test results Probability density

Frec rec

Rk R =kR5% Rk ___ FF =R rec = k/


rec

R Ru,m u,m

Ultimate load load Ultimate

Fig. 1: Frequency distribution of ultimate load

1.2 Safety concept using partial safety factors The safety level is rated without compromises if the action (load) from the part fastened and the resistance (ultimate load of the fastener) are regarded as variable i.e. static values. In this respect, the load and the resistance are generally given the abbreviations S and R respectively. In fig. 2, variation of the load is depicted by its probability density function, fs (x) and, analogously, the variance of R by fR (x). The mean of the load, ms, is always smaller than the mean of the resistance, mR. If the fastening design is economical, the upper flattening range of fs (x) and the lower flattening range of fR (x) overlap. This means that the case of a loading which is greater than the resistance i.e.

Safety concept with partial safety factors

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>R S= can occur with a certain probability. (1.4)

Nominal safety zone fR(x) fS(x)

fS(x)

fR(x)

m mS S

Sk = Fk Sk

Rk R k

m mR R

Fig. 2: Probability density functions of loading and resistance The probability that equation (1.4) will be fulfilled, is termed failure probability, pf. Evidence of safety is provided in this concept if the failure probability, pf, of the fastening being designed is less than the admissible failure probability, pf,adm.: pf

Permissible probability of failure

pf,adm

(1.5)

Semi-probabilistic fastening design using partial safety factors

The amount of work involved in a fully probabilistic design i.e. calculation ot he failure probability, is too large for practicable fastening design. It is thus meaningful, as in other areas of engineering design, to design fastenings with the aid of partial safety factors which guarantee the desired safety level (probability of failure) i.e. compliance with equation (1.5). This approach if often referred to as semi-probabilistic fastening design. It must then be verified that the load used for fastening design, Fd = Sd, does not exceed the resistance used, Rd, i.e.

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Fd

Rd

(1.6)

Where: Rk Fd = Fk F and Rd = M Fd Fk Rd Rk F M design value of load characteristic value of load design value of anchor characteristic value of anchor partial safety factor for load partial safety factor for anchor (1.7)

The following is obtained by taking (1.7) into equation (1.6): Rk (1.8) Fk < F M If equation (1.8) is compared with equations (1.11.2) and it is born in mind that, generally, the actual load when verifying the safety level as per equation (1.1) has the significance of a characteristic load, Fk, the following results: = F M (1.9)
Nominal safety zone

Equation (1.9) thus establishes the link between the safety concept with an overall safety factor and the safety concept with partial safety factors. The partial safety factors for actions (loads) in construction have already been specified in Eurocode 1 and in national standards. These partial safety factors allow for any uncertainty when determining the magnitude of loads, uncertainties when stipulating the model for section size computation and inaccuracies when defining limiting conditions i.e. those conditions which, if exceeded, would prevent the structure from achieving the expected performance. The partial safety factors for resistance, as far as they are dependent on the building material, are containing in the Eurocodes 2 (design of concrete structures) and 3 (design of steel structures) . The partial safety factors specific to products are given in the Hilti information about these products.
Partial safety factors stipulated in Eurocode 1 for action/loads

Product-specific partial safety factors are given in product information.

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By way of explanation, a comparison of the previous and the new concepts has been given below.
Safety concept Previous
Anchor load (Ultimate load)

L M
ks L M L

Last

L
L ks M L

New (EUROCODE 1)

M M

Anchor load Ru,m Charact. anchor load Rk

Charact. anchor load

M Partial safety factor (resistance) Safety factor = 2.5-3


M L

M
0 Fd Rd

Design value, Rd

Recommended load Frec Actual load Fact

M
Fact Frec
0

M L M

M L

Design value, Fd

F Partial safety factor (action/load)


M

Actual load, Fact

Overall safety factor

Partial safety factor

2 Anchor fastening design


Anchors for secondary applications

Many anchors, above all those for light-duty and secondary applications, are often used in field practice without the anchor fastening being designed or, if so, only on a very simple basis. It must be emphasized, however, that the design and installation of anchor fastenings must be carried out with great care even if only small loads are involved, especially, for instance, for ceiling suspensions, pipefitting, light fittings and air ducts. When top-quality medium and heavy-duty fastenings have to be made in concrete, it is often necessary for them to be sized in accordance with standard engineering practice to make sure that not only the anchor fastening design is an optimum, but also that the required level of safety is guaranteed. Basically, an anchor fastening is designed using loads, based on the interrelationships explained in the brochure B 1, and on technical data relating to products. No generally applicable information can be given for applications where displacement governs the loadbearing capacity of the entire structure. This is because the displacement depends very much on the magnitude and direction of the load as well as on the pre-tensioning force and textures of the surfaces of the base material and the part being fastened. In such cases, Hiltis advisory service will help deal with specific problems.

Top-quality fastenings

Criteria for anchor fastening design

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The basis for a fastening design are the recommended anchor load, Frec or the anchor design value, Rd given in the product information for standard anchors set away from an edge and valid for following concrete strength:
Basis for design

In another step, allowance is made for the following influences of the special application conditions: fB fT fR fA for various concrete strengths for larger depths of embedment for fastening near an edge for anchors influencing each other

Influence factors

Finally, it must be checked whether the following is fulfilled:


Frec fB fT fR fA Fact Rd fB fT fR fA Fd

or

By setting an anchor deeper, breaking of the anchor can become the decisive mode of failure. Consequently, separate evidence must be provided of the safety level with respect to the yield strength of the anchor material if an anchor is set deeper (see chapter 2.5).

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2.1 Influence of concrete compressive strength and direction of loading Based on results of tests with anchors set away from edges if concrete components having different compressive strengths, ultimate loads were determined for medium-duty and heavy-duty anchors subjected to pure tensile loads, shear loads and combined loads. In accordance with safety considerations, the recommended loads given in the product information were determined from ultimate tensile and shear loads, N30, and, V30, respectively for anchors set in concrete having a min. compressive strength, fcc, of 30 N/mm2. When there is combined loading at any angle, , between the basic values N and V, the recommended load for an anchor in concrete having a compressive strength, fcc, of 30 N/mm2 (F30 ()) can be read straight from the table in the product information. A preliminary anchor design can be carried out rapidly in this way. The corresponding calculation is as follows: F30 () = N30 (N30 V30) 90
Concrete influencing factors for various concrete strengths

Ultimate loads for different load directions

Recommended loads for tensile and shear loading

( in )

With the aid of a variable, cB, having the units (N/mm2)-1, concrete influencing factors for the actual strength of concrete can be determined. The coefficients, cB, can be found in the product information. The concrete influencing factor for all directions of loading (FB ()) is determined as follows: (f fB = 1 + cB 1 cc, act 30) 90 The coefficient is applicable to the range of compressive strength of concrete, fcc, encountered normally in concrete and reinforced concrete construction from 20 to 55 N/mm2. If the strength is even lower than 20 N/mm2, suitable anchors can still transmit the load perfectly well the concrete. If the concrete has a strength higher than 55 N/mm2 , recommended loads for anchors are based on those for a concrete having a strength of 55 N/mm2 .

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The recommend load at an angle of (Frec ()) is again identical to the product of the given recommended load and the concrete influencing factor: Frec () = F30 () fB Example 1 heavy-duty anchor, HSL M16 concrete compressive strength: fcc = 25 N/mm2 Unknown: recommended tensile load Solution: the following is obtained from the table in the product review for the HSL anchor. Recommended load, F30, in kN for non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2, = 3
Size of anchor

Known:

M8 6.9 7.9 8.4 8.8 9.8

M10 10.4 12.5 13.6 14.6 16.7

M12 15.0 18.2 19.8 21.3 24.5

M16 25.7 31.3 34.2 37.0 42.6

M20 34.6 42.6 46.6 50.6 58.6

M24 45.5 55.9 61.0 66.2 76.6

Tensile

30 Combined 45 load 60 Shear 90

N30 = 25.7 kN, recommended tensile load for fcc = 30 N/mm2 Concrete influencing factor fB = 1 + 0.020 1 (2530) = 0.9 90

Recommended tensile load Nrec = N30 fB = 25.7 kN 0.9 = 23.1 kN

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Example 2 Known: selected type of anchor: HSL heavy-duty anchor existing load: Fact = 40 kN, = 60 concrete compressive strength: fcc,act = 25 N/mm2 Unknown: size of anchor Solution: a) using the table Recommended load, F30, in kN for non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2, = 3
Size of anchor

M8 6.9 7.9 8.4 8.8 9.8

M10 10.4 12.5 13.6 14.6 16.7

M12 15.0 18.2 19.8 21.3 24.5

M16 25.7 31.3 34.2 37.0 42.6

M20 34.6 42.6 46.6 50.6 58.6

M24 45.5 55.9 61.0 66.2 76.6

Tensile

30 Combined 45 load 60 Shear 90

Preliminary sizing from table: HSL M20 at F30 () = 50.6 kN Concrete influencing factor 60 fB = 1 + 0.020 1 (2530) = 0.97 90 Recommended load Frec = 50.6 0.97 = 49.1 kN > Fact b) Calculation of the recommended load for the HSL M20 on the basis of preliminary sizing with the vector diagram is as follows. 60 = 50.6 kN F30 () = 34.6 (34.6 58.6) 90 Concrete influencing factor fB = 0.97 (see under a) Recommended load Frec = 50.6 kN 0.97 = 49.1 kN > Fact

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2.2 Influence of depth of embedment The recommended loads were found during tests with anchors set at the smallest specified depth of embedment, hnom. This is also termed the standard depth of embedment.
fT Recommended loads found at the smallest specified depth of embedment

fT lim fT fT min

hnom

hact

hlim

Depth of embedment hact

As the depth of embedment increases, the loading capacity also increases. However, after a certain depth of embedment, (hlim), the loadbearing capacity can no longer increase because of local destruction of the concrete around the anchoring section. The influence of the depth of embedment also depends on the direction of loading. Tests have shown that for most known types of anchors subjected to a tensile load the influence of the depth of embedment is, as a close approximation, directly proportional to the existing depth of hact hlim: embedment in the useful range, hnom hact hlim fT = hnom hnom On the other hand, no increase in loadbearing capacity, or only a slight one, can be achieved by setting shear loaded anchors deeper. Assuming that the factor for unfluence on the depth of embedment of an anchor subjected to pure shear loading, fTV, is constant at 1, independent of the depth of embedment, the following formula results from linear interpolation between the values of pure tensile loading and shear loading for any direction of loading, , relative to the longitudinal axis of an anchor: hlim hact hact fT () = 1 hnom hnom 90 hnom

As the depth of embedment increases, the loading capacity also increases.

Influence of the depth of embedment also depends on the direction of loading.

No increase in loadbearing capacity, by setting shear loaded anchors deeper.

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Setting anchors deeper can lead to steel failure.

The higher loading capacity of concrete as a result of setting anchors deeper can lead to anchor breakage being the decisive mode of failure in many cases. In view of this, separate proof of safety of the fastening on the basis of the yield strength of the anchor steel should be given if an anchor is set at a depth greater than standard (see section 2.5). Before setting an anchor deeper, of course, a check should be made to make sure the thickness of the structural component is sufficient i. e. whether the remaining thickness of material is at least as large as with the min. depth of embedment and min. thickness of a structural component.

Limiting depths of embedment

The limiting depths of embedment are given in the product information. They are the result of numerous tests. For the sake of simplicity, only one characteristic figure has been given for each anchor system, hact /hlim, and this is on the safe side. In the case of the larger sizes of anchors, M16, M20 und M24, in particular, it is possible to go to a greater depth of embedment for an individual application after consulting Hilti. Example 3 heavy-duty anchor, HSL M12 concrete compressive strength: fcc = 25 kN/mm2 bolt quality: 8.8 Unknown: recommended tensile load for anchor at 1.5 times standard depth of embedment Solution: Recommended tensile load for fcc = 30 N/mm2 N30 = 15.0 kN Influence of concrete strength fB = 1 + 0.020 (2530) = 0.9 Influence of greater depth of embedment Min. depth of embedment: hnom = 80 mm Acutal depth of embedment: hact = 1.5 hnom = 120 mm hact 120 Depth of embedment = = 1.5 fT = 80 hnom influencing factor: According to the HSL product info.: hlim = 1.5 hnom = hact This means that no increase in loadbearing capacity can be achieved by increasing the depth of embedment. Known:

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Recommended load Nrec = N30 fB fT = 15.0 kN 0.9 1.5 = 20.3 kN Proof of safety based on yield strength As fy 84.3 640 = 30.8 kN > Nrec Nsteel = = 1.75 1.75 103 The safety factors, of 1.75 for the yield strength of anchor steel and of 3 for the failure of the base material have been used.

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2.3 Influence of edge If the distance from an edge, c, comes within the zone of c ccr, the recommended load must be reduced by cmin the edge influencing factor, fR. cmin is an absolute quantity for a certain anchor, which is given in the product information in relation to the min. depth of embedment, whereas c and ccr relate to the actual depth of embedment which is also equal to the min. depth of embedment in the case of standard anchors.
fR

Edge influencing factor, fR, must be considered near the edge

1 fR

cmin/hact c/hact

ccr /hact

c/hact

The edge influencing factor for an anchor subjected to pure tensile loading, fRN, is obtained using the coefficients, acN and bcN, given in the product information, using the following formula. c +b 1 fRN = acN cN hact The following applies to shear loading using the coefficients, acV und bcV: c 1 fRV = acV + bcV hnom
The right depth of embedment must be used

It should be remembered that the actual depth of embedment must be used for pure tensile loading and the min. depth of embedment for shear loading. Although they are the same in the case of standard anchors, it does enable the reduction for an edge to be allowed for correctly when anchors are set deeper if, at the same time, the corresponding depth of embedment influencing factor, fT(), is used.

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The reduction factor for an anchor near to an edge for any direction of loading, fc (), can be obtained via the angle by linear interpolation, proceeding from the previously determined reduction factors for pure tensile and shear loading.
fR () = fRN (fRN fRV) 90 Edge reduction factor for any direction of loading

The reduction factors for shear loaded anchors near edges given in the product information, allow for the greatest possible reduction, which occurs when the load is directed towards the edge. In corners and endfaces of structural components, several distances from edges can be decisive. In such a case, the individual edge influencing factors are mutliplied by each other.
Several distances from edges can be decisive.

c1

c2

fR = fR1 fR2 fR3

Example 4 stud anchor, HSA M12 110 concrete compressive strength: fcc = 30 N/mm2 direction of loading: = 60 distance from edge: c = 100 mm Unknown: recommended loading Known: Solution: The recommended load when fcc = 30 N/mm2 and = 60 can be read straight from the table in the product information for the HSA anchor. It is as follows: F30 () = 10.4 kN

c3

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Distance from edge
Type of loading Tensile N cmin 1.1 hnom ccr 2.2 hact c ccr in range cmin c fRN = 0.27 + 0.4 hact c fRV = 0.45 hnom

Shear V

1.1 hnom

2.2 hnom

(from product information HSA) Min. depth of embedment, HSA M12 110 hnom = 80 mm Existing depth of embedment: hact = hnom = 80 mm Min. distance from edge: cmin = 1.1 hnom = 88 mm Existing distance from edge: c = 100 mm ccr = 2.2 hact = 2.2 80 = 176 mm The distance from the edge is in the range of cmin c ccr, in which a reduction by fc must be allowed for. Reduction for pure tensile loading: + 0.4 = 0.74 fRN = 0.27 100 80 Reduction for pure shear loading: 100 = 0.56 fRV = 0.45 80 Reduction in direction = 60 60 = 0.62 fR () = 0.74 (0.74 0.56) 90 Recommended load Frec () = F30 () = 10.4 0.62 = 6.4 kN

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2.4 Influence of anchor spacing
s If the distance between anchors, s, is in the range of smin scr, the reduction factor, fA, must be taken into account. In this case, too, it holds true that smin is an absolute quantity for a certain anchor. It is given in the product information in relation to the min. depth of embedment, whereas s and scr are in relation to the actual depth of embedment. fA

Reduction factor, fA, due to small spacing

1 fA

smin/hact

s/hact

scr /hact

s/hact

The same reduction coefficients, as und bs, which are on the safe side, are used for tensile and shear loading independent of the direction of loading. Consequently, one formula is sufficient in principle to express the influence of the distance between anchors for all directions of loading: s + b fA = as s hx
1

hX = hnom applies to standard anchors. Only if anchors are set deeper, do the factors for tensile loading, fAN, when hX = hact, and for shear loading, fAV, when hX = hnom have to be determined seperately using the above formula if the load has to be increased above the depth of embedment influencing factor. The influencing factor for anchor spacing for any intermediate 90 is as follows: angle in the range 0 fA () = fAN (fAN fAV) 90
1 Spacing influencing factor for combined load

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If an anchor is influenced by several neighbouring and equally loaded anchors having different spacings, the total reduction factor for the spacings is equal to the sum of the individual reduction factors. This must only hold true, however, to the extent that a reduction factor has not already been covered in full by other influences of distances between anchors. The following example should make this clearer: The total reduction factor has to be determined for anchor D1. First, the circle of D1 D2 scr, F1 influence having a diameter s cr,2 1 2 2 of scr is drawn around each anchor. For anchors D1 and F2 D2 they form a common D3 D4 influencing area of F1. A reduction factor, fA1, has to s cr,4 s cr,3 be determined for anchor D1 2 2 with an anchor spacing of D1D2. The circles for anchors D1 and D3 form a common influencing area, F2. Although it overlaps F1 a little, a reduction factor, fA2, has to be allowed for nonetheless with an anchor spacing of D1D3. The circles also show that anchors D1 and D4 influence each other. However, the influenced area is already completely covered by the areas F1 and F2. In view of this, no reduction factor for anchor D4 is taken into account for anchor D1. The total influencing factor resulting from the anchor spacing in this case is as follows: fA = fA1 fA2

Example 5 Known: adhesive anchor HVA M16, a pair of anchors set at 1.5 times the standard depth of embedment (hact = 1.5 hnom) concrete compressive strength: fcc = 25 N/mm2 anchor spacing: s = 80 mm

Unknown: recommended tensile load on one anchor

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Solution: Recommended tensile load when fcc = 30 N/mm2 N30 = 18.0 kN Influence of concrete compressive strength fB = 1 + 0.020 (25 30) = 0.9 Influence of setting deeper Min. depth of embedment: hnom = 125 mm hact 187.5 = 1.5 = fT = 125 hnom Existing depth of embedment: hact = 1.5 hnom = 187.5 mm Depth of embedment influencing factor:

Influence of anchor spacing: Anchor spacing


smin 0.5 hnom scr 1.5 hact s scr in range smin s + 0.55 fA = 0.3 hact

(from product information HVA) Anchor spacing: smin = 0.5 hnom = 62.5 mm Actual anchor spacing: s = 80 mm scr = 1.5 hact = 1.5 187.5 = 281.3 mm The anchor spacing is in the range of smin s a reduction factor, fA, must be allowed for. 80 + 0.55 = 0.68 fA = 0.3 187.5
scr,

in which

Total influencing factor fG = fB fT fA = 0.9 1.5 0.68 = 0.92 Recommended tensile load Nrec = N30 fG = 18.0 0.92 = 16.6 kN

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2.5 Check for anchor breakage
At the standard depth of embedment no special proof of the yield strength need be given

If standard anchors set at the standard depth of embedment are used, no special proof of the yield strength of the anchor material need be given. If, however, anchors are set deeper, or a material of a lower strength is used (see example 6), proof that a safety factor, , of 1.75 has been allowed for against the guaranteed min. yield strength of the anchor material must be given. The following applies to tensile loading. fy,act A S Nsteel = Nrec 1.75 103 The following applies to any direction of loading at an angle of . VRk fy,act A S + Fsteel () = Frec () 1 1.75 103 90 90

Where: Fsteel (): max. recommended load when designing the anchor based on the yield strength fy,act: 1.75: : guaranted yield of strength of actual anchor material (Rp 0.2) safety factor relating to yield strength safety factor relating to failure = 3.0 concrete failure (HSL) = 2.5 concrete failure (e. g. HSL-TZ) = 2.2 steel failure tensile strength (e. g. HST-M10) = 1.75 steel failure yielt strength (e. g. HST-M12) stressed cross-section angle of loading relative to longitudinal axis of anchor characteristic shear load (mm2) () (kN) (kN) (N/mm2)

AS: : VRk:

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The formula given above is an approximation because the stress distribution in the steel parts under shear loading cannot be calculated accurately. If a stand-off fastening is being made, proof of the safe-working stresses based of the yield strength can be carried out in accordance with standard engineering practice. The shear stresses may be neglected in view of the circular cross-section of the anchors: M + N S = W AS Where: S: M: N: W: AS: normal (tensile) stress largest imposed bending moment tension component moment of resistance (section modulus) stressed cross-section (N/mm2) (Nm) (N) (mm3) (mm2) (N/mm2)
y,act

f 1.75

fy,act: yield strength

Example 6 Known: stainless steel heavy-duty anchor, HSLG-R M16, fy,act = 450 N/mm2 depth of embedment: (hact = 1.5 hnom) concrete compressive strength: fcc = 55 N/mm2

Unknown: recommended load at = 30 (not a stand-off fastening) Solution: Recommended load at = 30 when fcc = 30 N/mm2 30 = 31.3 kN F30 () = 25.7 (25.7 42.6) 90 Influence of concrete 30 (5530) = 1.33 fB = 1 + 0.020 1 90

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Influence of depth of embedment 1.5 hnom 1.5 hnom 30 1 = 1.33 fT() = hnom hnom 90 Total influence factor fG = fB fT = 1.33 1.33 = 1.77 Calculated (theoretical) recommended load: Fcalc () = F30 () fG = 31.3 1.77 = 55.4 kN Check of yield strength VRk = 0.6 As fy,act 103 VRk = 0.6 157 450 103 = 42.4 kN 450 157 30 Fsteel () = 1 90 1.75 103 Fcalc () Fsteel () consequently the recommended load must be limited to Frec () = Fsteel () = 35.0 kN

42.4 30 = 35.0 kN ) + 1.75 90

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2.6 Examples of applications 2.6.1 Fastening of railing / fencing posts

F = 1 kN

18 cm

8 cm
Concrete compressive strength fcc = 32 N/mm2

Anchor selection Expansion anchors which can be set through the in-place post would be practical here. A fastening of this kind could be carried out very well with the low-cost HSA anchor. If the posts are outside, either hot-dipped galvanized or possibly stainless steel anchors should be used. Determination of loading Assuming the post is relatively stiff (rigid), the following design calculation can be carried out for the top anchor:
a

MB = 0:
Nact B A

F (a+b) Nact b = 0 (a+b) F 104 Nact = = = 7.4 kN b 14

14 cm

90 cm

[ 65 x 42 t = 6 mm

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Preliminary design calculation Nact = 7.4 kN selected HSA M12 110, N30 = 9.5 kN min. base material thickness h = 12 cm 18 cm = h actual Influencing factors Concrete compressive strength fcc = 32 N/mm2 0 fB = 1 + 0.020 1 (3230) = 1.04 90 Depth of embedment Limiting depth of embedment: hlim = 1 hnom Depth of embedment influencing factor: fT = 1 Anchor spacing The actual anchor spacing is 140 mm. This means the min. anchor spacing smin = 1.0 hnom = 80 mm is kept to. No reduction factor for the anchor spacing has to be taken into account because the bottom anchor is not loaded in tension. Distance from edge Min. edge distance: cmin = 1.1 hnom = 88 mm Actual edge distance: c = 110 mm ccr for tensile loading: ccr = 2.2 hnom = 176 mm

The edge distance is on the bottom safe-working limit. The corresponding reduction factor is as follows: fcN = 0.27 110 + 0.4 = 0.77 80 Total influencing factor fG = 1.04 0.77 1 = 0.80 Nrec = 9.5 kN 0.80 = 7.6 kN Nact = 7.4 kN

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2.6.2 Canopy
B P2

1500

P1 C A 2000 1000 1000

P1

Known:

P1 = 10 kN, P2 = 30 kN Concrete compressive strength: fcc = 35 N/mm2

Determination of forces MA = 0: P 1 4 Cv 3 + P 2 2 = 0 Cv = (40 + 60) /3 = 33.3 kN MB = 0: Cv 3 Ah 1.5 = 0 Ah = 3 33.3/1.5 = 66.7 kN Fv = 0: A v P 2 + Cv 2 P 1 = 0


A Cv A Av P2 Cv P1

B Ah

P2 P1 Cv P1

A v = 30 + 20 33.3 = 16.7 kN
Av

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Connection at point A The two anchors allowed for at point A are only stressed by the shear load, A v. The compressive force, Ah, is transmitted straight to the base material.

IPE180

110

Ah

A Av
Av Vact = = 8.4 kN 2 Stud anchor HSA M16 V30 = 14.5 kN

Shear load per anchor:

Selected: Min. depth of embedment: hnom = 95 mm Concrete compressive strength fB = 1 Anchor spacing Min. anchor spacing:

smin = 0.9 hnom = 86 mm

Actual anchor spacing: s = 110 mm scr = 2.2 hnom = 2.2 95 = 209 mm The anchor spacing is in the range of smin s scr, in which a reduction of the recommended load must be taken into account. + 0.32 = 0.68 fA = 0.31 110 95 Total influence Vrec = fB fA V30 = 1 0.68 14.5 = 9.9 kN Vact = 8.4 kN

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Connection at point B
20

160

20
Ah F c Cv

= arc tg

= 27 (1.5 3)

Fc = Cv2 + Ah2 = 74.6 kN

140
Load per anchor: Selected: Preliminary design: Fact = FC / 4 = 18.6 kN heavy-duty anchor HSL M16/50, N30 = 25.7 kN, V30 = 42.6 kN

Concrete compressive strength 27 fB = 1 + 0.020 1 (3530) = 1.07 90 Depth of embedment HSL M 16/50: max. tfix = 50 mm hnom tfix Actual depth of embedment: = 105 mm = 20 mm

hact = hnom + max. tfix tfix hact = 105 + 50 20 = 135 mm 135 hlim hact = = 1.29 = 1.5 hnom hnom 105

27 = 1.20 fT () = 1.29 (1.29 1) 90 Anchor spacing According to section 2.4, it is sufficient to allow for the distance between the two nearest anchors. Min. anchor spacing: smin = 1.0 hnom = 105 mm Actual anchor spacing: s1 = 140 mm Actual anchor spacing: s2 = 160 mm scr = 3.0 hact = 3.0 135 = 405.0 mm smin s1, s2 scr

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Tensile:
+ 0.55 = 0.71 fA1,N = 0.15 140 135

fA2,N = 0.15 Shear: fA1,V = 0.15 fA2,V = 0.15

160 + 0.55 = 0.73 135

140 + 0.55 = 0.75 105 160 + 0.55 = 0.78 105

Combined load: 27 fA1 () = 0.71 (0.71 0.75) = 0.72 90 27 fA2 () = 0.73 (0.73 0.78) = 0.74 90 fA = fA1 () fA2 () = 0.72 0.74 = 0.53 Total influence: 27 F30 () = 25.7 kN (25.7 42.6) = 30.8 kN 90 fG = fB fT () fA = 1.07 1.20 0.53 = 0.69 Frec () = fG F30 () = 0.69 30.8 kN = 21.3 kN Fact = 18,6 kN

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2.6.3 Stand-off fastening

159/150 mm

60

V N

A column, for example a lamp post, must be installed accurately in the right place and vertically. Known: M = 8 kNm N = 4 kN V = 2 kN Concrete compressive strength fcc = 40 N/mm2

M V
B

240

Determination of forces MA = 0:
h
N/2 M A NA d B NB V/2 HA HB

N/2 d/2 NB d + M + h V/2 = 0 N/2 d/2 + M + h V/2 NB = d FV = 0: NA N/2 + NB = 0

2 0.1695 + 8 + 0.06 1 NA = N/2 NB = 2 = 22.8 kN (tensile force) 0.339 NB = N/2 NA = 2 + 22.8 = 24.8 kN (Compressive force) (If large lengths of thread stand free, proof must be given either of the compressive strength [stability under compression] or the space beneath the baseplate must be filled with mortar).

39

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Actual load: Fact = NA2 + (V/4)2 = 22.82 + 0.52 = 22.81 kN

NA

Fact

V/4 0.5 = arc tg = arc tg = 1.3 22.8 NA Hence, the loading is virtually in pure tension.

( )

V/4

Bending load on anchor:


Z = 60 mm
V M A

V h = 2000 0.06 = 30 Nm M = 4 4

Design calculation Using the HSLG stud version of the heavy-duty anchor, accurate adjustment of the column is possible using the lock nuts.

Selected: HSLG M16 N30 = 25.7 kN hnom = 105 mm

Concrete compressive strength 0 (40 30) = 1.20 fB = 1 + 0.020 1 90

( )

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Anchor spacing The distance between the two nearest anchors must be taken into account. Min. anchor spacing: smin = 1.0 hnom = 105 mm Actual anchor spacing: s1 = 240 mm Actual anchor spacing: s2 = 240 mm scr = 3.0 hnom = 3.0 105 mm = 315 mm smin s1, s2 scr 240 fA1 = fA2 = 0.15 . + 0.55 = 0.89 105 fA = fA1 fA2 = 0.892 = 0.79 Total influence fG = fB fA = 1.20 0.79 = 0.95 Nrec = fG N30 = 0.95 25.7 = 24.4 kN Fact = 22.8 kN Check for anchor breakage 30 000 22 800 640 s = + = 254 N/mm2 = 366 N/mm2 277 157 1.75 Selected: HSLG M16

Installation Put the column baseplate in exactly the right position. Drill through the holes in the baseplate using a 20 mm dia. drill bit to a depth of approx. 2 cm. Lift away the column and finish the holes with a 24 mm dia. drill bit. Insert the anchors and expand them. Put the bottom nut in place as well as the washers and the column. Put on the top washers and nuts. Adjust the column and tighten the top nuts.

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Anchor Fastening Design


2.7 Computer programme for anchor fastening design HIDU-CC Hardware requirements PC with Microsoft Windows* 3.1 or higher 386 processor (486 processor recommended) 4 MB Ram (8 MB recommended) 5 MB free space on the hard disk VGA monitor Mouse or other compatible pointing device 3 1/2" HD floppy disk drive for the installation

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2.8 Procedure for anchor fastening design Known: Fact, fcc, and anchor type

Preliminary design F30

F30 = recommended load when fcc = 30 N/mm2

Calculation of influencing factors: fB, fT, fR, fA fG

F = F30 fG

Standard anchor at standard depth of embedment

No Calculate Fsteel

Yes Yes No

New selection

F < Fsteel

Frec = F

Frec = F

Frec = Fsteel

No

Frec = Fact

Yes Fastening design finished

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2.9 Summary of required formulae Recommended combined load when fcc = 30 N/mm2
N30 F30()

V30

F30 () = N30 (N30 V30) 90 with N30, V30 from product information

Concrete compressive strength Tensile load: fB = 1 + cB 1 (f 30) 90 cc,act Combined load: Shear load: fB = 1 with cB from product information

Recommended load for fcc,act Tensile load: Combined load: Shear load: Nrec = N30 fB Frec () = F30 () fB Vrec = V30

with N30, V30 from product information Depth of embedment Tensile load:
hnom hact hlim

Combined load:

hact hlim fTN = hnom hnom hact hact hlim fT() = 1 hnom hnom 90 hnom

with hnom, hlim from product information Edge distance


c
c ccr Influencing factor, fR, in the range of: cmin c 1 + bcN fRN = acN Tensile load: hact

cmin ccr

Shear load: Combined load:

c 1 fRV = acV + bcV hnom 1 fR () = fRN (fRN fRV) 90

with cmin, ccr, acN, bcN, acV, bcV from product information

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Anchor spacing Influencing factor, fA, for all directions of loading s scr in the range of: smin s + b 1 fA = as s hact When hact hnom and there is shear loading, see page 17. with smin, scr, as, bs from product information Resulting recommended load Total influencing factor: fG = fB fT () fR () fA () Recommended load: Frec () = fG F30 ()
s smin scr

Check for anchor breakage fy,act A S VRk Fsteel () = 1 + Frec () 1.75 103 90 90

with fy,act, A S, VRk from product information Proof of safe-working stress of stand-off fastening fy,act M + N s = W AS 1.75 with W, AS from product information

Conversion of concrete compressive strengths Influence of test specimen shape fc = 0.81 fcc,200 fcc,150 = 1.06 fcc,200 fc = cylinder compressive strength 15 cm dia., h = 30 cm fcc,200 = cube compressive strength, 20 cm side length fcc,150 = cube compressive strength, 15 cm side length

The bolded quantities are concrete testing conditions according to the German Standard DIN 1045 which are used by Hilti.

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Anchor Fastening Design


2.10 Definitions
d

hnom

hef

h0

h1

d0

Definition Depth: Hole depth of full cross-section Hole depth to deepest point Min. depth of embedment Depth of embedment Effective anchoring depth Length: Anchor length Thickness: Thickness of fixture Thickness of non-loading layer Thickness of base material
* CEB: COMITE EURO-INTERNATIONAL DU BETON

CEB*

Previous

Definition Diameter:

CEB

Previous

ho h1 hnom hact hef

BT Tmin T

Shank/nominal diameter Hole diameter Outside diameter of fastener

d do dnom

D -

tfix anon h

S SG

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Anchor Fastening Design

Definition Spacing and edge distance: Spacing of anchors in a group Minimum spacing of anchors Characteristic spacing of anchor 1) Spacing between outer anchors in an group Edge distance Minimum edge distance Characteristic edge distance 2) Spacing between groups of anchors Characteristic spacing between groups of anchors Loads, forces, etc: Load Tensile load Shear load Bending moment Ultimate load (single value) Ultimate load (average value) Characteristic resistance (anchor) Design resistance (anchor) Recommended anchor load

CEB

Previous

Definition Strengths:

CEB

Previous

s smin scr

A Amin Ao

Concrete cylinder compressive strength Concrete cube compressive strength (Cube edge length = 200 mm) Characteristic cube compressive strength Average cube compressive strength Section modulus

fc fcc,200

c w

st c cmin ccr a

R Rmin Ro -

fcc,k fcc,m W fu fy

WN W W Rm Rp

Steel tensile strength acr Steel yield strength Stress: F N V M Ru Ru,m Rk Rd Frec F Z Q Areas: Mb Concrete area Fu _ F F5% Fempf Stressed area of steel Miscellaneous: Lever arm Eccentricity Coefficients: Safety factor Partial safety factor Admissible steel stress Bond stress

s,adm b

Zul n b

Ac As

Ac As

z e

a e

1) Spacing required for max. anchor capacity 2) Edge distance for max. anchor capacity

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Fastening Technology Manual

Anchor Selection Table

G = very suitable

= suitable

1) only certain sizes

Application

Base material
Concrete tension zone Concrete compr. zone

Approval

Type of anchor

Civil defence installat.

Aerated/gas concrete

Lightweight concrete

Solid brick masonry

Hard natural stone

Soft natural stone

Cavity brick masonry

ial Spec est Requ


Power plant and installation construction, cranes, securing heavy machinery/machines

Fire prevention

DIBt approval

VDS

Socotex

G G

G G G

HUC undercut anchor

Columns/supports, machines, apparatus/equipment, cranes

G G G G G G

G G G

G G G G G G G G G

HSL-TZ HSLG-TZ HSLB-TZ Heavy-duty anchor

Columns/supports, machines, apparatus/equipment, cranes

HSLG-R Heavy-duty anchor

Safety fastenings

G G

G G G

G G

HSC Safety anchor

In-place/through fastening: angles, channel/tracks, machines, wood beams

G G

G G G

G G

HST-R Stud anchor

In-place/through fastening: angles, channel/tracks, machines, wood beams

HSA/HSA-K Stud anchor

Fastening with small anchoring depths: channel/ tracks, slabs/ G G panels, brackets, mechanical installation components Steel construction for cranes, securing heavy machines

G G

HKD-S Flush anchor

G G

G G

HDA

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Anchor Selection Table

Advantages/key features

Thread size, anchor outside diameter

Version

Guide loads Nrec (kN) Vrec (kN)

Setting

Page

G Small edge distances and spacings G Removable

M12-M20

G G

N = 34-80 V = 15-80

G 114

G Universal use M8-M24 G G

G G

N = 8.3-51.2 G V = 9.6-81.0

G G G

Through-fastening

Hot-dip galv. steel

Stainless steel A2

External thread

Internal thread

Spec. head shape

Galvanized steel

Stainless steel A4

Hexagon head

Pre-fastening

118

G Universal use M8-M20 G G

N = 6.9-45.5 G V = 9.8-76.6 G 122

G Normal drilling without undercutting G Small edge distances, spacings and depth of embedment G Check of correct setting G Force-controlled expansion

M6-M12

G G G

N = 6.0-11.4 G V = 3.6-18.4 125

M8-M24

G G

N = 5.0-29.5 V = 4.2-37.8

G 130

G Force-controlled expansion G Check of correct setting G Special thickness fastened

M6-M20

N = 3.2-21.0 V = 2.4-20.5

G 134/ 139

G Controlled full expansion G Small depth of embedment

M6-M20

N = 2.4-18.4 V = 2.0-19.5

G 145

G Small edge distances and spacings G removable

M10-M16

N = 20.0-52.4 V = 27.2-80.0

G 172

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Fastening Technology Manual

Anchor Selection Table

G = very suitable

= suitable

Application

Base material
Plasterboard/Gypsum panels

Approval

Type of anchor

Aerated/gas concrete

Cavity brick masonry

Lightweight concrete

Hard natural stone

Solid brick masonry

Soft natural stone

Civil defence installat.

Concrete

Fastenings with small spacings and edge distances, but high ultimate loads (holding power) Chemical fastenings in solid masonry, concrete and rock

G HVA Adhesive anchor

G G

G G

Fire prevention

DIbt approval

VDS

Socotec

Hilti HIT HY 150 Injection technique

Chemical fastenings in railway ties/sleepers

HRA Rail anchor

Fastening battens, laths, trim, mouldings etc., components of electrical & plumbing installations Fastening of cladding and inside panelling

G G

HPS-1 Impact anchor

G G G

HRD-UGT Long-shank anchor

Fastenings of many kinds

G G

G G G

HUD-1 Universal anchor

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Anchor Selection Table

Advantages/key features

Thread size, anchor outside diameter

Version

Guide loads Nrec (kN) Vrec (kN)

Setting

Page

Stainless steel HCR

Spec. head shape

Stainless steel A4

Galvanized steel

External thread

Hexagon head

G Anchor fastenings without expansion pressure G For dry and damp base materials

M8-M24

G G

G G G

N = 6.0-43.0 V = 3.9-38.3

Through-fastening
G 179

Stainless steel A2

Internal thread

G Compact system G Economical, safe and universal G Low expansion pressure G For dynamic loading

all threadsizes and profile steels

G G

G G G

N = 4.8-25.0 V = 4.0-31.5

Pre-fastening
G

198

M22

G 154

G Quick setting G Removable G Bridging of gape G G G G Prefitted screw High bending strength Screw strength class 5.8 A4 stainless-steel screw

5-8 mm

N = bis 0,4 V = bis 0,9

G 148

10-14 mm

G G

N = 0,4-1,1 V = 0,8-2,5

G 150

G Effortless, quick setting G A large selection of screws can be used

5-14 mm

N = bis 3,0 V = bis 5,6

152

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Fastening Technology Manual

Criteria Relevant to Safety

Corrosion resistance

A4 316
Fire resistance

In fastening technology, safety aspects are most important in addition to the economical aspects of corrosion/rusting i.e. longer life, less maintenance and less repair work. Only materials in the A4 group (stainless steel) or those of a higher quality should be used for fastenings exposed to a greater risk of corrosion, such as those in town air, industrial atmosphere, coastal climate and in road construction.

If exposed to high temperatures, such as in a fire, the strength of concrete and the yield point as well as the tensile strength of steel decrease. In view of this, a reduction of the loading capacity of anchor fastenings exposed to heat must be anticipated. Anchors bearing the fire prevention mark have been tested through direct exposure to flames while being subjected to a given static tensile load and gave satisfactory results. They have been given fire ratings, where 60 means a duration of resistance to fire of 60 minutes.

Tensile zone / cracked concrete

Concrete has a relatively high compressive strength, but only low tensile strength. Steel reinforcement is embedded in concrete to take up tensile forces. If the tensile strength of concrete is exceeded due to its own weight or external loads, cracks appear in concrete up to 0.3 mm wide. A concrete component subjected to a load always has a zone stressed in compression and a zone stressed in tension, as shown in the diagram. It is recommended that anchor systems which are force controlled and have the follow-up expansion feature e.g. the HSL.TZ and HST-R, or undercut anchors e.g. the HUC and HSC, be used in the tension zone of concrete. If a fastener/anchor is subjected to a sustained action (load) which varies with time, failure by breaking can occur after a certain number of load cycles even though the maximum stress withstood up to this time is clearly lower than the breaking strength of the building material under a static load. This decrease in strength under repeated loading is referred to as material fatigue. It is suggested that a safety factor, , of 0.3 to 0.5 be used when designing fastenings which are to be suitable for dynamic loading. Ranges of stress then result which are within the service life of the anchor parts exposed to the risk of fatigue.

Fatigue / Dynamic

Shock / Seismic

Shock phenomena are characterized by a very short duration of the action (load) and extremely high forces e.g. the impact of a plane crash, falling rocks, avalanches and explosions. They result in either direct or indirect stressing of the fastened parts and equipment. In civil defence installations and nuclear power plants, the use of shock-tested fasteners/anchors is generally specified. The Federal Swiss Civil Defence Authority (BZS) carries out special tests to check the suitability of fasteners/anchors for shock-proof fastenings.

Edge / spacing distance

The spacing is the distance from one anchor centreline to another. If spacings are small, the loading capacity of single anchors decreases as soon as the concrete failure cones overlap. Systems which exert only low expansion forces, such as undercut anchors e.g. the HUC and HSC, or adhesive anchors e.g. the HVA and HIT, permit smaller spacings than other anchor systems. The edge distance is measured from the anchor centreline to the edge of a component. Near a component edge, the loading capacity of a base material is lower if the component edge passes through the concrete failure cone and reduces its effective volume. A reduction of the loading capacity must then be taken into account in accordance with the technical documentation. Systems which exert only low expansion forces, such as undercut anchors e.g. HUC and HSC, or adhesive anchors e.g. the HVA and HIT, permit very small edge distances to be used because of their working principles.

This inspection mark guarantees conformance of our drill bits with the requirements of the Institut fuer Bautechnik, Berlin, for carbide-tipped drill bits which are used to produce anchor holes. Our drill bits are subject to surveillance by the Versuchs- und Pruefanstalt fuer Werkzeuge e.V. Remscheid.

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Product Information
ial Spec est Requ

HUC-I
Hilti HUC / HUC-I undercut anchor
Features: High loading capacity HUC System: HUC-M Undercut anchor HUC-GT Undercut tool HUC-ST Setting tool drill system: DD 80 small distance from the edge and between anchors low expansion force in base material specials on request Bolt Material: Steel: fu = 1040 N/mm2 (M12 + M16) Steel: fu = 830 N/mm2 (M20) galvanized to 70 10 Tensile zone / cracked concrete
do h1 do l

HUC

Shock / Seismic

Tinst

h ef ho

dh t fix

Fatigue / Dynamic

HUC-I
l

Tinst

h ef ho

dh t fix

Edge / spacing distance

h1 h

HUC

Setting details
Setting details do hef ho tfix h l lG dh Sw

Anchor size

25

HUC - (I) M12*125 / 50 75 I

30

HUC - (I) M16*170 / 60 90 I

30

HUC - (I) M20*220 / 60 90 I

(mm) Drill bit diameter (mm) Min. depth of embedment (mm) Hole depth (mm) Max. thickness fastened

25 125 155 30 8 50 75 35 0 23 48 250

30 170 200 60 90 35 0 29 29 340 0

32 220 260 60 90 0 440

tfix,min (mm) Min. thickness fastened (mm) Min. base material thickness (mm) Anchor length (mm) Thread length (mm) Clearance hole

190 215 240 146 245 275 305 191 333 363 393 246 25 32 40 27 80 22
25 mm

13.5 19

33 200 27
30 mm

17.5 24

35 300 32
32 mm

22 30

Tinst (Nm) Tightening torque (mm) Width across flats Drill bit Diamant drilling system Undercut tool HUC-GT Setting tool HUC-ST

DD 80 25 25

DD 80 30 30

DD 80 32 32

Setting operation

Drill hole

Remove core

Produce undercut

Clean hole Remove water with dust removal system

Insert anchor with setting tool into undercut hole

Expand anchor

Secure part to be fastened

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Product Information
Recommended load, F30, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2,
Anchor size

M12 34.3 36.2 37.1 38.1 40.0

M16 54.4 57.9 59.7 61.5 65.0

M20 80.1 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0

= 2.5 (Concrete failure) = 2.2 (Steel failure)


N F s V c h

HUC

Tensile Combined load Shear

0 30 45 60 90

The Tensile load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.65 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR

previous nomenclature

Influence of concrete strenght fB fB = 1 + 0.02 (1 90

) (f cc,act 30)

(20 fcc, act 30) for M12, M20 (20 fcc, act 40) for M16

Influence of depth of embedment fT fT = 1 (No increase in loading capacity through setting deeper)

Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR


Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s [cm] 10,0 13,0 15,0 17,5 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 Anchor size M12 0.66 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.82 0.90 0.98 1.0 1.0 M16 0 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.79 0.85 0.91 0.97 1.0 1.0 0 0 0.66 0.68 0.73 0.77 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.95 1.0 M20 Edge Distance c [cm] 10,0 13,0 15,0 17,5 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 44.0 Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M12 0.62 0.69 0.74 0.81 0.87 1.0 1.0 M16 0 0.60 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.83 0.92 1.0 1.0 0 0 0.61 0.65 0.72 0.80 0.87 0.94 1.0 M20 M12 0.33 0.46 0.55 0.66 0.78 1.0 1.0 Shear fRV Anchor size M16 0 0.31 0.37 0.46 0.54 0.70 0.87 1.0 1.0 0 0 0.33 0.39 0.52 0.64 0.77 0.90 1.0 M20

Formula: smin = 0.75 hnom, scr = 2.5 hnom fA = 0.2 s + 0.5 hnom

Formula: cmin = 0.75 hnom, ccr = 2 hnom fRN = 0.32 c + 0.36 hnom

Formula: cmin = 0.75 hnom, ccr = 2 hnom fRV = 0.56 c 0.12 hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

90

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distance are equal to or less than ccr.

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Product Information
Recommended load, F30, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2,
Anchor size

M12 34.3 27.9 24.6 21.4 15.0

M16 54.4 46.3 42.2 38.1 30.0

M20 80.1 68.4 62.5 56.7 45.0

= 2.5 (Concrete failure) = 2.2 (Steel failure)


N F s V c h

HUC/I

Tensile Combined load Shear

0 30 45 60 90

The Tensile load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.65 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR

previous nomenclature

Influence of concrete strenght fB

) (f fB = 1 + 0.015 (1 cc,act 30)


90

(20 fcc, act 30) for M12, M20 (20 fcc, act 40) for M16

Influence of depth of embedment fT fT = 1 (No increase in loading capacity through setting deeper)

Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR


Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s [cm] 10,0 13,0 15,0 17,5 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0 55,0 Anchor size M12 0.66 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.82 0.90 0.98 1.0 1.0 M16 0 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.79 0.85 0.91 0.97 1.0 1.0 0 0 0.66 0.68 0.73 0.77 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.95 1.0 M20 Edge Distance c [cm] 10,0 13,0 15,0 17,5 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 44.0 Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M12 0.62 0.69 0.74 0.81 0.87 1.0 1.0 M16 0 0.60 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.83 0.92 1.0 1.0 0 0 0.61 0.65 0.72 0.80 0.87 0.94 1.0 M20 M12 0.64 0.86 1.0 1.0 1.0 Shear fRV Anchor size M16 0 0.61 0.72 0.85 0.98 1.0 0 0 0.64 0.74 0.94 1.0 M20

Formula: smin = 0.75 hnom, scr = 2.5 hnom fA = 0.2 s + 0.5 hnom

Formula: cmin = 0.75 hnom, ccr = 2 hnom fRN = 0.32 c + 0.36 hnom

Formula: cmin = 0.75 hnom, ccr = 1.2 hnom fRV = 0.89 c 0.07 hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

90

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distance are equal to or less than ccr.

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Product Information
HUC / HUC-I
Anchor mechanical properties
Anchor size Mechanical properties fuk fyk Ab As W M (N/mm )
2

M 12 1040 940 75.1 84.3 109 54.6

M 16 1040 940 144 157 277 139

M 20 830 660 227 245 541 216

Min. tensile strength Yield strength Cross-section of stud above the cone Stressed cross-section threaded area of stud Moment of resistance (section moduls) Recommended bending moment

(N/mm2) (mm2) (mm2) (mm3) (Nm)

Characteristic loads, Rk, in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc (N/mm2) 20 Tensile NRk HUC / HUC-I HUC Shear VRk HUC-I 30 40 > = 20 > = 20 M 12 70.0 78.1 78.1 100.8 43.8 M 16 111.0 136.0 149.8 171.4 81.6 M 20 163.4 188.4 188.4 203.4 101.7

The Tensile load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.65 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Steel failure New Safety-Concept (EUROCODE 1) R Fact F = Fd Rd = k
M

Fact . . actual load Fd . . . design action (load) Rd . . . design resistance (anchor) Rk . . . characteristic anchor resistance Nk . . . tensile load Vk . . . shear load F . . . partial safety factor (action/load) = 1.4 M . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 1.8 (Concrete failure) 1.6 (Steel failure)

Design resistance, Rd, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M12 47.6 47.6 50.4 39.9 51.8 36.0 53.2 32.1 56.0 24.4

M16 75.5 75.5 82.1 65.5 85.4 60.4 88.7 55.4 95.2 45.4

M20 111.2 111.2 111.8 93.0 112.1 83.8 112.4 74.7 113.0 56.5

Tensile

0 30

Combined load

45 60

Shear

90

HUC HUC-I HUC HUC-I HUC HUC-I HUC HUC-I HUC HUC-I

The Tensile load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.65 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete.

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Product Information
HSLG-TZ
Hilti HSL-TZ heavy-duty anchor
Features: Force-controlled expansion High loading capacity Suitable for the tension zone Suitable for shock and seismic loading Not twisting in hole when tighening 8.8 grade concrete as per ISO 898T1 Galvanized to min. 5 microns
Shock / Seismic
h

HSLB-TZ
l

HSL-TZ
tfix

Tensile zone / cracked concrete

dh do Tinst dw

Material:

hnom h1

hn

Versions: Hilti HSLB-TZ heavy-duty anchor with inspection control Feature: Automatic torque control Size: M12-M24 Setting details: valid for all versions
M 10/20

Hilti HSLG-TZ heavy-duty anchor with threaded rod Feature: Various threaded rod lengths Size: M8-M20

M 10/40

M 12/25

M 12/50

M 16/25

M 16/50

M 20/30

M 20/60

M 24/30
32 180 155 30 205 19 250 16 36 41 35 50 270

Setting details do h1 hnom tfix l hn Tinst (mm) Drill bit diameter (mm) Hole depth (mm) Min. depth of embedment (mm) Max. thickness fastened (mm) Anchor length HSL-TZ, HSL-B-TZ (mm) Head height + washer (Nm) Min. Tightening torque

12 80 69 20 97 7.5 25 4 40 117 20 109

15 90 79 40 129 10 50 5 17 17 25 140 TE-C-15/25 TE-Y-15/34 25 130

18 105 94 50 155 11 80 8 19 24 20 30 160 TE-C-18/20 TE-Y-18/34 25 152

24 125 113 50 177 14 120 9 24 30 26 40 180 TE-C-24/25 TE-Y-24/32 TE24, TE54*, 30 190

28 160 143 60 220 17 200 12 30 36 31 45 220 TE-Y-28/37

60 235

Max. gap (mm)

Sw
dh dw h

(mm) Width (mm) across flats HSL-B-TZ (mm) Clearance hole (mm) Washer diameter

HSL-TZ, HSL-G-TZ

13 14 20 120 TE-C-12/20 TE-Y-12/34

(mm) Min. base material thickness

Drill bit

TE-Y-32/37

TE1, TE5, TE10, TE14, TE15, Drilling machine TE18-M, TE24 * for TE-C drill bit only with adapter

TE54, TE74, TE92 TE74*, TE92*

Setting operations

Once the torque has been applied, the anchor has been properly expanded.

118

M 24/60

Anchor size

M 8/20

M 8/40

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Recommended load, F30, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2,
Anchor size

= 2.5

HSL-TZ

M8 8.3 8.7 9.0 9.2 9.6

M10 12.2 13.2 13.7 14.2 15.2

M12 16.8 18.7 19.7 20.7 22.6

M16 28.0 32.4 34.5 36.7 41.1

M20 37.6 43.4 46.3 49.2 55.0

M24 51.2 61.1 66.1


s F N

Tensile

0 30

Combined load

45 60

71.1 81.0

V c h

Shear

90

The Tensile load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.65 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strenght fB fB = 1 + 0.01 (1 90
Anchor size

previous nomenclature

) (f cc,act 30)

M8 69

M10 79

M12 94

M16 113

M20 143

M24 155

(20 fcc, act 55)


hnom [mm]

Influence of depth of embedment fT h fT = act Limiting depth of embedment hlim = 1.5 hnom hnom Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR
Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s (cm) 6.5 7.5 8.5 10.0 13.0 15.5 18.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 38.0 43.0 47.0 Edge Distance c M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 (cm) Anchor size 0 0.61 0.64 0.68 0.77 0.85 0.93 1.0 0 0.60 0.64 0.71 0.78 0.84 0.90 1.0 7.0 8.0 9.5 11.5 13.0 14.5 16.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 39.0

hact . . . actual embedment depth

Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M8 0.60 0.65 0.72 0.82 0.89 0.96 1.0 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 0 0.60 0.67 0.75 0.81 0.88 0.94 1.0 M8 0.41 0.46 0.55 0.67 0.75 0.84 0.93 1.0 Shear fRV Anchor size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 0 0.41 0.48 0.58 0.66 0.73 0.81 0.89 1.0 1.0

M8 0.61 0.64 0.68 0.73 0.83 0.92 1.0

0 0.60 0.66 0.71 0.76 0.80 0.91 1.0 1.0

0 0.60 0.64 0.68 0.72 0.80 0.88 0.97 1.0 1.0

0 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.89 0.92 0.97 1.0

0 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.88 0.97 1.0

0 0.61 0.65 0.69 0.74 0.78 0.85 0.93 1.0 1.0 1.0

0 0 0.60 0.64 0.67 0.73 0.79 0.85 0.90 0.96 1.0 1.0

0 0 0 0 0 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.88 0.93 1.0

0 0.40 0.49 0.55 0.62 0.68 0.74 0.85 0.96 1.0 1.0

0 0.41 0.66 0.51 0.57 0.62 0.71 0.80 0.89 0.97 1.0 1.0 1.0

0 0 0.41 0.45 0.49 0.56 0.63 0.70 0.77 0.84 0.91 0.98 1.0

0 0 0 0 0 0.51 0.60 0.68 0.77 0.86 1.0

Formula M8-M20: smin = 0.9 hnom, scr = 2.6 hact fA = 0.24 s + 0.38 hact

Formula M8-M20: cmin = hnom, ccr = 2.2 hact fRN = 0.33 c + 0.27 hact

Formula M8-M20: cmin = hnom, ccr = 2.5 hnom fRV = 0.4 c hnom

Formula M24: smin = hnom, scr = 3 hact fA = 0.15 s + 0.55 hact

Formula M24: cmin = 1.5 hnom, ccr = 2.5 hact fRN = 0.3 c + 0.25 hact

Formula M24: cmin = 1.5 hnom, ccr = 2.5 hnom fRV = 0.55 90 c 0.38 hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distance are equal to or less than ccr.

119

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HSL-TZ
Anchor mechanical properties
Anchor size Mechanical property fuk fyk AS W M (N/mm2) (N/mm2) (mm2) (mm3) (Nm) Nominal tensile strength Yield strength Stressed cross-section Moment of resistance (section modulus) Redc. bending moment without sleeve HSL-G-TZ HSL-G-TZ standard 8.8 standard 8.8 M8 800 640 36.6 31.3 12.5 M 10 800 640 58.0 62.3 24.9 M 12 800 640 84.3 109.1 43.7 M 16 800 640 157 277 111.0 M 20 830 640 245 541 216.4 M 24 830 640 353 935 374.2

Characteristic loads, Rk in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk 30 50 Shear VRk > = 20 M8 18.8 20.7 25.0 24.0 M 10 27.5 30.5 36.5 38.0 M 12 37.4 42.0 50.5 56.5 M 16 63.0 70.0 84.0 102.7 M 20 78.1 94.0 112.8 137.5 M 24 109.2 128.0 191.1 202.5

The Tensile load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.65 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete.

New Safety-Concept (EUROCODE 1) R Fact F = Fd Rd = k M Fact . . actual load Fd . . . design action (load) Rd . . . design resistance (anchor) Rk . . . characteristic anchor resistance Nk . . . tensile load Vk . . . shear load F . . . partial safety factor (action/load) = 1.4 M . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 1.8

Design resistance, Rd, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M8 11.5 12.1 12.5 12.5 13.3

M10 16.9 18.5 19.2 19.9 21.1

M12 23.3 26.2 27.6 29.0 31.4

M16 38.9 45.4 48.3 51.4 57.1

M20 52.2 60.8 64.8 68.9 76.4

M24 71.1 84.8 91.8 98.7 112.5

Tensile NRd

0 30

Combined load

45 60

Shear VRd

90

The Tensile load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.65 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete.

120

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HSL-TZ
Load-displacement behaviour HSL-TZ M 8, fcc = 30 N/mm2

Load N (kN) 30

20

10 Nrec

1 2

4 5

8 9 10 11 12 13 Displacement (mm)

Ultimate loads, Ru,m, in kN, 7%


Type of loading Application Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 50 20 non-cracked concrete 50 Shear Vu,m cracked/non-cracked concrete > 20 = 28.5 26.5 44.7 42.0 64.1 61.0 110.2 113.0 150.8 153.0 222.2 220.0 M8 15.6 18.6 24.0 M 10 20.5 29.1 31.5 M 12 27.6 41.7 42.5 M 16 48.9 71.7 75.0 M 20 57.7 98.1 88.7 M 24 88.7 117.4 127.0

cracked concrete w < = 0.4 mm Tensile Nu,m

121

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Hilti HSLG-R heavy-duty anchor


Features: high loading capacity force controlled expansion reliable pull-down of part fastened suitable for dynamic loading no rotation when tightening bolt
Shock / Seismic do

Tinst

dw

hnom

dh tfix hn

Bolt material:

HSLG-R: Stanless Steel A4, X 5 Cr Ni Mo1810 Fatigue / Dynamic

h1 h

A4 316
Corrosion resistance

Setting details
M 10/20 M 12/25 M 16/25 M 20/30

Anchor size Setting details do h1 hnom tfix l hn Tinst [mm] Drill bit diameter [mm] Hole depth [mm] Min. depth of embedment [mm] Max. thickness fastened [mm] Anchor length [mm] Head weight + washer [Nm] Tightening torque
M 8/20

12 80 65 20 95 7.5 25 4 13 14 20 120 TE-C-12/20 TE-Y-12/34 TE1, TE5, TE10, TE14, TE15, TE18-M, TE24, TE54*

15 90 75 20 107 10 40 5 17 17 25 140 TE-C-15/25 TE-Y-15/34

18 100 80 25 120 11 80 8 19 20 30 160 TE-C-18/20 TE-Y-18/34

24 125 105 25 148 14 120 9 24 26 40 180 TE-C-24/25 TE-Y-24/32 TE24, TE54*, TE74*

28 155 130 30 183 17 200 12 30 31 45 220 TE-Y-28/37 TE54, TE74, TE92

Max. gap [mm] Sw dh dw h [mm] Width across flats [mm] Max. clearance hole [mm] Washer diameter [mm] Min. base material thickness

Drill bit

Driling system

TE14, TE15, TE18-M, TE 24, TE54*

* for TE-C drill bit only with adapter

Setting operation

Once the torque has been applied, the anchor has been properly expanded.

122

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Recommended load F30, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2 = 3 for concrete, = 2,2 for steel
Anchor size

HSLG-R

M8 7.5 8.5 9.1 9.6 10.6

M10 10.9 12.8 13.8 14.8 16.7

M12 13.8 17.3 19.1 20.8 24.4

M16 22.2 30.0 33.8 37.7 45.4

M20
N

Tensile Combined load Shear

0 30 45 60 90

34.1 46.3 52.5 58.6 70.8

F s V c

Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strength: fB
concrete strenght fcc = 20 N/mm2 fcc = 30 N/mm2 fcc = 40 N/mm2 fcc = 50 N/mm2 fcc = 55 N/mm2 fcc 20 N/mm2 M8 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.5 10.6 tensile M10 M12 9.8 11.4 10.9 13.8 11.9 16.1 13.0 13.5 16.7 18.5 19.7 shear 24.4 M16 17.5 22.2 26.9 31.7 34.0 45.4 M20 27.0 34.1 41.2 48.3 51.9 70.8

( ) previous nomenclature

Anchor size

M8 65

M10 75

M12 80

M16 105

M20 130

hnom

[mm]

hact . . . actual embedment depth Influence of depth of embedment fT h fT = act limiting depth of embedment hlim = 1.5 hnom hnom

Zwischenwerte knnen linear interpoliert werden. Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR
Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile / Shear Spacing s [cm] 6.5 7.5 8.0 10.5 13.0 15.5 17.5 19.5 22.5 24.0 27.5 31.5 35.0 39.5 43.0 47.0 Anchor size M8 0.70 0.72 0.73 0.79 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.0 M10 0 0.70 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.94 1.0 M12 M16 M20 Edge Distance c [cm] 6.5 7.5 8.0 10.5 13.0 15.5 16.2 18.7 20.0 22.5 26.5 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 39.0

Reductions Factor (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M8 0.70 0.73 0.75 0.82 0.90 0.97 1.0 M10 0 0.70 0.71 0.78 0.85 0.91 0.93 1.0 M12 M16 M20 M8 0.30 0.37 0.40 0.59 0.77 0.95 1.0 Shear fRV Anchor size M10 0 0.30 0.33 0.49 0.64 0.80 0.85 1.0 M12 M16 M20

0 0.70 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.87 0.91 0.97 1.0 1.0

0 0.70 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.87 0.89 0.94 1.0 1.0

0 0.70 0.72 0.75 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.95 1.0 1.0

0 0.70 0.76 0.83 0.88 0.90 0.96 1.0 1.0

0 0.70 0.74 0.79 0.80 0.85 0.88 0.92 1.0 1.0 1.0

0 0.70 0.73 0.75 0.78 0.80 0.84 0.91 0.92 0.96 1.0 1.0

0 0.30 0.44 0.59 0.74 0.78 0.92 1.0 1.0

0 0.30 0.41 0.52 0.55 0.66 0.72 0.83 1.0 1.0 1.0

0 0.30 0.39 0.41 0.50 0.55 0.64 0.79 0.82 0.91 1.0 1.0

Formula: smin = hnom, scr = 3 hact fA = 0.15 s + 0.55 hact

Formula: cmin = hnom, ccr = 2.5 hact fRN = 0.2 c + 0.5 hact

Formula: cmin = hnom, ccr = 2.5 hnom fRV = 0.47 90 c 0.17 hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distance are equal to or less than ccr.

123

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HSLG-R
Anchor mechanical properties
Anchor size Mechanical property fuk fyk AS W M [N/mm ]
2

M8 700 450 36.6 31.3 9.4

M 10 700 450 58.0 62.3 18.7

M 12 700 450 84.3 109.1 32.8

M 16 700 450 157 277 83.2

M 20 700 450 245 541 162.0

Nominal tensile strength Yield strength Stressed cross-section Moment of resistance (section modulus) Rec. bending moment without sleeve

[N/mm2] [mm2] [mm3] [Nm]

Characteristic loads, Rk, in kN, non-cracked concrete


concrete strenght fcc = 20 N/mm2 fcc = 30 N/mm2 fcc = 40 N/mm2 fcc = 50 N/mm2 fcc = 55 N/mm2 fcc 20 N/mm
2

M8 21.3 22.5 23.8 25.0 25.6 23.1

M10 29.5 32.7 35.8 39.0 40.6 36.5

tensile M12 M16 34.3 41.4 48.4 55.5 52.5

M20 80.9

66.7 102.3 80.8 123.6 95.0 145.0 F = 1.4 MC = 2.15 MS = 1.56 load anchor concrete anchor steel

59.0 102.1 155.7 shear 53.1 99.0 154.4

New Safety-Concept (EUROCODE 1)


R Fact F = Fd Rd = k Fact . . . Fd . . . Rd . . . Rk . . . F M
M

actual load design action (load) design resistance (anchor) characteristic anchor resistance NRk . . . tensile load VRk . . . shear load . . . partial safety factor (action / load) = 1.4 . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 2.15

Design resistance, Rd, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M8 10.4 11.9 12.6 13.4 14.9

M10 15.1 17.9 19.3 20.7 23.5

M12 19.1 24.1 26.6 29.1 34.1

M16 30.9 41.8 47.3 52.7 63.6

M20 47.3 64.6 73.3 82.0 99.3

Tensile NRd Combined load Shear VRd

0 30 45 60 90

124

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HSC-A (R), HSC-I (R) safety anchor
Features: A complete system A keying hold Shallow depth of embedment Low expansion force (thus short distances from edges and between anchors) Automatic undercutting Correct setting check on anchor Depth-of-embedment mark Suitable for tensile zone (cracked concrete) Anchor stud, 8.8 grade, DIN ISO 898 Expansion sleeve, 95 MNPb 28 K, DIN 1651 X5 CrNiMo 17122 1.4401 or 1.4571 DIN 17440 (A4) Edge distance / Spacing

HSC-A

Shock / Seismic

do

Tinst

hnom h1

dh tfix

Tensile zone / cracked concrete

h l

Material:

HSC-(A,I)

HSC-I

HSC-R (A,I)

do

Tinst

A4 316
Fire Resistance Corrosion resistance

hnom h1 h

dh tfix

Setting details
Anchor size

HSC-A (R)

HSC-I (R)

M10 * 40

M12 * 60

M10 * 50

M10 * 60

Detail do h1 hnom tfix l Tinst Sw dh h (mm) Drill bit diameter (mm) Hole depth (mm) Min. depth of embedment (mm) Fastenable thickness (mm) Anchor length (Nm) Tigthening torque (mm) Width across flats (mm) Max. clearance hole (mm) Min. base material thickness

14 46 40 15 71.5 10 13 9 80
TE-C B1440

16 56 50 46 40 20 81.5 20 79.5 10 17 11 100 80


TE-C B1640 TE14, TE15 TE24 TE-C MW16

18 68 60

14 46 40

16 56 50

18 68 60

20 68 60

103.5 30 19 13.5 120


TE-FY B1860 TE54 TE74 TE-FY MW18

43 10 10 6.6 80
TE-C B1440

43.5

54.5 20 30 17 11 100
TE-FY B1850

64.5 30 19 13.5 120


TE-FY B1860 TE54 TE74

13 9

120
TE-FY B2060

Drill bit Rotary hammer Setting tool

TE-C B1450

TE-C B1640

TE14, TE15 TE24 TE-C MW 14

TE14, TE15 TE14, TE15 TE24 TE24 TE-C MW14 TE-C MW16

TE-FY MW 18

TE-FY MW20

Setting Operations

Drill hole

Blow and dust and fragments

Insert type A anchor into hole

Check setting of type A anchor

Insert type I anchor into hole

Expand anchor

Secure part to be fastened

Check setting of type I anchor

125

M12 * 60

M8 * 40

M8 * 50

M6 * 40

M8 * 40

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Recommended load F30, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2,
Anchor size

M8*40 6.2 6.2 6.8 6.5 7.1 6.6 7.4 6.7 8.0 7.0

M8*50 M10*40 M12*60 8.7 8.7 8.5 8.1 8.3 7.8 8.2 7.6 8.0 7.0 6.2 6.2 8.4 7.8 9.4 8.6 10.5 9.5 12.6 11.1 11.4 11.4 13.7 13.0 14.9 13.7 16.0 14.5 18.4 16.1

= 2.5 (Concrete failure) = 2.2 (Steel failure)


N (Z) F s (A) V (Q) c (R) h (SG)

HSC-A/AR

Tensile

0 30

Combined 45 load 60 Shear 90

HSC-A HSC-AR HSC-A HSC-AR HSC-A HSC-AR HSC-A HSC-AR HSC-A HSC-AR

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fA fR Influence of concrete strenght fB fB = 1 + 0.01 (1 90

( ) previous nomenclature

) (f cc,act 30)

[20 fcc, act 55]

Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR


Reduction Factor (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s (cm) 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 Anchor size
M8*40 M8*50 M10*40

Reduction Factor (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Shear fRV Anchor size
M12*60 M8*40 M8*50 M10*40 M12*60

Edge Distance c M12*60 (cm) 0 0 0.67 0.70 0.73 0.75 0.78 0.81 0.84 0.90 0.95 1.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0

Anchor size
M8*40 M8*50 M10*40

0.67 0.71 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.93 0.97 1.0 1.0

0 0.67 0.70 0.74 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.87 0.91 0.98 1.0

0.67 0.71 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.93 0.97 1.0 1.0 1.0

0.65 0.74 0.82 0.91 1.0 1.0

0 0.65 0.72 0.79 0.86 0.93 1.0

0.65 0.74 0.82 0.91 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

0 0 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.82 0.88 0.94 1.0

0.33 0.41 0.50 0.58 0.66 0.74 0.83 0.91 1.0 1.0

0 0.33 0.40 0.46 0.53 0.59 0.66 0.73 0.79 0.92 1.0

0.33 0.41 0.50 0.58 0.66 0.74 0.83 0.91 1.0 1.0 1.0

0 0 0.33 0.39 0.44 0.50 0.55 0.61 0.66 0.77 0.88 1.0

Formula: smin = hnom, scr = 3 hnom fA = 0.17 s hnom + 0.5

Formula: cmin = hnom, ccr = 2 hnom fRN = 0.35 c hnom + 0.3

Formula: cmin = hnom, ccr = 3 hnom fRV = 0.33 c hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

90

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distance are equal to or less than ccr.

126

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Recommended load, F30, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2,
Anchor size

M6*40 6.2 6.0 5.6 5.2 5.3 4.8 5.0 4.4 4.4 3.6

M8*40 M10*50 M10*60 M12*60 6.2 6.2 6.2 5.7 6.2 5.4 6.2 5.2 6.2 4.6 8.7 8.7 8.3 8.0 8.1 7.6 7.9 7.3 7.5 6.6 11.4 11.0 10.1 9.5 9.5 8.8 8.8 8.1 7.5 6.6 11.4 11.4 10.6 10.2 10.2 9.6 9.7 9.0 8.9 7.8

= 2.5 (Concrete failure) = 2.2 (Steel failure)


N (Z) F s (A) V (Q) c (R) h (SG)

HSC-I/IR

Tensile

0 30

Combined 45 load 60 Shear 90

HSC-I HSC-IR HSC-I HSC-IR HSC-I HSC-IR HSC-I HSC-IR HSC-I HSC-IR

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fA fR Influence of concrete strenght fB fB = 1 + 0.01 (1 90

( ) previous nomenclature

) (f cc,act 30)

[20 fcc, vorh 55]

HSC-I 20 fcc,act 40 HSC-IR 20 fcc,act 30

No increase in loading capacity (Steel failure)

Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR


Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s (cm) 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 Anchor size
M6*40 M8*40 M10*50 M10*60

Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Shear fRV Anchor size
M12*60 M6*40 M8*40 M10*50 M10*60 M12*60

Edge Distance c M12*60 (cm) 0 0 0.67 0.70 0.73 0.75 0.78 0.81 0.84 0.90 0.95 1.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0

Anchor size
M6*40 M8*40 M10*50 M10*60

0.67 0.71 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.93 0.97 1.0 1.0

0 0.67 0.70 0.74 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.87 0.91 0.98 1.0

0 0 0.67 0.70 0.73 0.75 0.78 0.81 0.84 0.90 0.95 1.0

0.65 0.74 0.82 0.91 1.0 1.0

0 0.65 0.72 0.79 0.86 0.93 1.0 1.0

0 0 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.82 0.88 0.94 1.0

0 0 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.82 0.88 0.94 1.0

0.33 0.41 0.50 0.58 0.66 0.74 0.83 0.91 1.0 1.0

0 0.33 0.40 0.46 0.53 0.59 0.66 0.73 0.79 0.92 1.0

0 0 0.33 0.39 0.44 0.50 0.55 0.61 0.66 0.77 0.88 1.0

0 0 0.33 0.39 0.44 0.50 0.55 0.61 0.66 0.77 0.88 1.0

Formula: smin = hnom, scr = 3 hnom fA = 0.17 s hnom + 0.5

Formula: cmin = hnom, ccr = 2 hnom fRN = 0.35 c hnom + 0.3

Formula: cmin = hnom, ccr = 3 hnom fRV = 0.33 c hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

90

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distance are equal to or less than ccr.

127

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HSC
Mechanical properties of anchor
I(R) M10*60 I(R) M10*50 I(R) M12*60

Mechanical property

A(R) M8*40/15

Units

Material Galv. steel A4

fuk

Nominal tensile strength

(N/mm2)

800 600 700 600 640 355** 22.0 20.1 12.7 450 355** 28.3 36.6 31.2 12.5 9.4 58.0 62.3 25.0 18.7 450 36.6 31.2 12.5 9.4 350** 34.6 58.0 62.3 25.0 18.7 450 350** 40.8 84.3 109.2 43.7 32.8 700

(N/mm2) fyk Yield strength

Galv. steel A4

As,I As,I W

Stressed cross-section of internal thread (stud) Stressed cross-section of external thread (stud or bolt) Section modulus Recommended bending moment *)

(mm )
2

Galv. steel A4

(mm2) (mm2)

(Nm)

Galv. steel A4

5.1 3.8

**) These values apply to HSC versions used with screws of the grade 8.8 (HSC-I) and A4-70 (HSC-IR) **) These values apply to the material used for the HSC-IR.

_ HSC-A Ultimate loads, Ru,m in kN, = 10 %


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile Nu,m Shear Vu,m 50 > = 20 Application non-cracked concrete non-cracked concrete non-cracked concrete AM8*40 17.5 23.3 17.6 AM8*50 24.4 32.5 17.6 AM10*40 17.5 23.3 27.8 AM12*60 32.1 42.8 40.4

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Steel failure

_ HSC-AR Ultimate loads, Ru,m in kN, = 10 %


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile Nu,m Shear Vu,m 50 > = 20 Application non-cracked concrete non-cracked concrete non-cracked concrete ARM8*40 17.5 23.3 15.4 ARM8*50 24.4 32.5 15.4 ARM10*40 17.5 23.3 24.4 ARM12*60 32.1 42.8 35.4

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Steel failure

A(R) M8*50/15

I(R) M6*40

I(R) M8*40

Type of anchor HSC

A(R) M12*60/20

A(R) M10*40/20

128

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HSC
HSC-A Characteristic loads, Rk, in kN, non-cracked concrete
Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk 30 50 Shear VRk > = 20 AM8*40 14.0 15.5 18.6 17.6 AM8*50 19.5 21.7 26.0 17.6 AM10*40 14.0 15.5 18.6 27.8 AM12*60 25.7 28.5 34.2 40.4

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Steel failure

HSC-AR Characteristic loads, Rk, in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk 30 50 Shear VRk > = 20 ARM8*40 14.0 15.5 18.6 15.4 ARM8*50 19.5 21.7 26.0 15.4 ARM10*40 14.0 15.5 18.6 24.4 ARM12*60 25.7 28.5 34.2 35.4

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Steel failure

HSC-I Characteristic loads, Rk, in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk 30 40 Shear VRk > = 20 IM6*40 14.0 15.5 16.1 9.7 IM8*40 14.0 15.5 17.1 13.6 IM10*50 19.5 21.7 23.9 16.6 27.6 27.6 16.6 IM10*60 25.7 IM12*60 25.7 28.5 31.4 19.6

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Steel failure

HSC-IR Characteristic loads, Rk, in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk Shear VRk 13.2 30 > = 20 7.9 15.5 10.2 21.7 14.5 14.5 IRM6*40 IRM8*40 14.0 IRM10*50 19.5 24.2 28.5 17.2 IRM10*60 IRM12*60 25.7

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.7 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Steel failure

129

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Hilti HST-R stud anchor


Features: High loading capacity Force-controlled expansion Suitable for use in the tension zone Suitable for shock loading (BZS approval) Fire prevention assessment HST-R: A4 stainless steel as per material 1.4401 & 1.4571 (DIN 17440)
Shock / Seismic

l lG

do

Tinst

Material:

hnom
Tensile zone / cracked concrete

dh tfix

h1 h

A4 316
Fire resistance Corrosion resistance

Setting details
M 12/120# M 16/100# M 16/140# M 16/180# M 10/50 # M 12/90 # M 20/60 # M 24/30 #
24 170 142 30 60 55 300 36 250 26.0

M 8/50 #

M 10/10

M 10/30

M 12/20

M 12/50

M 16/25

M 16/50

Detail do h1 hnom tfix l lG Tinst Sw h dh (mm) Drill bit diameter (mm) Min. hole depth (mm) Min. of embedment depth (mm) Max. fast. thickness (mm) Anchor length (mm) Thread length (Nm) Tightening torque (mm) Width across flats (mm) Min. concrete thickness (mm) Clearance hole diameter

8 65 55 10 75 30 50 10

10 80 68 30 50 20

12 95 80 50 90 120 25

16 115 95

50 100 140 180 30

M 20/30

Anchor size

20 140 117 60

95 115 90 110 130 115 145 185 215 140 165 215 255 295 170 200 200 230 25 25 13 100 9.0 30 45 17 120 11.0 35 60 19 140 13.5 TE-C-12/22 TE1, TE5, TE10 TE14, TE15, TE18-M 40 125 24 160 17.5 TE-C-16/23 TE-C-16/33 45 240 30 200 22.0

Required drill bit Rotary hammer / Combihammer

TE-CX-8/17, TE-CX-10/17, TE-C-8/17 TE-C-10/17 TE1, TE5, TE10, TE14, TE15

TE-C-20/23 TE-C-24/32 TE-Y-20/34 TE-Y-24/32 TE24, TE54* TE74*, TE92*

TE14, TE15, TE18-M, TE24, TE54*

* for TE-C-drill bit only with adapter # Special request item

Setting details

Drill the hole

Clean to hole

Insert anchor

Tap in the anchor

Tighten the nut

130

M 24/60 #

M 8/10

M 8/30

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Recommended load, F30, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2,
Anchor size

M8 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.2

M10 7.7 7.3 7.2 7.0 6.6

M12 10.6 10.3 10.1 9.9 9.6

M16 15.2 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.7

M20 22.4 23.1 23.5 23.8 24.5

M24 29.5 31.4 32.4 33.4


1)

= 2.5 (Concrete failure) = 2.2 (Steel failure)

HST-R

Tensile

0 30

Combined load

45 60

Shear

1)

90

35.3

Single-anchor fastening under a shear load > V30* = 1.2 V30 (load increase)
N (Z) F s (A) V (Q) c (R) h (SG)

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.6 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strength fB ) (fcc,act 30) (20 fcc, act 55) 90 Influence of depth of embedment fT fB = 1 + 0.01 (1 fT = 1 (no increase in loading capacity possible through setting deeper)

( ) previous nomenclature

Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR


Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s [cm] 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.0 Edge Distance c M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 [cm] Anchor size 0 0 0 0 0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.0 Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M8 0 0.69 0 0 0 0 0 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M8 0 0.49 0 0 0 0 0 Shear fRV Anchor size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24

M8 0.60

0.66 0.60

0.74 0.66 0.61

0.77 0.70

0.61 0.50

0.83 0.73 0.67 0.61

0.84 0.76 0.70

0.74 0.60 0.51

0.91 0.80 0.73 0.66 0.60 1.0

0.92 0.82 0.75 0.70 1.0

0.86 0.69 0.60 0.50 1.0 1.0

0.91 0.82 0.74 0.66 0.60 1.0 0.90 0.81 0.72 0.65 1.0 1.0 0.89 0.78 0.70 0.97 0.85 0.76 1.0 1.0 0.92 0.81 0.98 0.87 1.0 1.0 0.92 0.97 1.0

0.92 0.84 0.77 0.70 1.0 1.0

0.86 0.73 0.62 0.50

0.91 0.83 0.75 0.69 0.99 0.90 0.80 0.73 1.0 0.97 0.86 0.78 1.0 1.0 0.92 0.83 0.98 0.88 1.0 1.0 0.92 0.97 1.0

0.99 0.84 0.71 0.58 0.48 1.0 0.98 0.83 0.67 0.55 1.0 0.95 0.77 0.63 1.0 1.0 0.87 0.71 0.96 0.79 1.0 1.0 0.87 0.95 1.0

Formula: smin = 0.9 hnom, scr = 2.2 hnom fA = 0.31 s + 0.32 hnom

Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom fRN = 0.27 c + 0.4 hnom

Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom fRV = 0.45 90 c hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distance are equal to or less than ccr.

131

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HST-R
Anchor mechanical properties
Anchor size Property fuk [N/mm2] Nominal tensile strength HST-R M8 M 10 M 12 M 16 M 20 M 24

750

750

750

650

650

650

fyk

[N/mm2]

Yield strength

HST-R

400

400

400

350

350

350

in thread AS [mm2] Stressed cross-section in taper transition W M [mm ]


3

36.6 HST-R 23.5 31.3 HST-R 8.3

58.0 40.5 62.3 16.6

84.3 56.5 109.0 29.1

157.0 105.5 277.0 64.7

245.0 167.0 541.0 126.0

353.0 240.5 935.0 218.0

Section modulus Recommended bending moment

[Nm]

Characteristic loads, Rk, in kN, non-cracked concrete (HST-R)


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk 30 50 Shear VRk1)
1)

M8 11.3 12.5 15.0 7.4

M 10 17.3 19.3 23.1 11.6

M 12 23.9 26.5 31.8 16.8

M 16 34.2 38.0 45.6 27.5

M 20 50.4 56.0 67.2 42.9

M 24 66.4 73.8 88.5 61.8

> = 20

Single-anchor fastening under a shear load > VRk* = 1.2 VRk (load increase)

The load values must be multiplied by the factor 0.6 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete. Yield strength fy decisive ( = 1.75)

132

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
New Safety-Concept (EUROCODE 1) R Fact F = Fd Rd = k
M

HST-R

Fact . . actual load Fd . . . design action (load) Rd . . . design resistance (anchor) Rk . . . characteristic anchor resistance Nk . . . tensile load Vk . . . shear load F . . . partial safety factor (action/load) = 1.4 M . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 1.8 Concrete failure 1.6 Steel failure / 1.25 = Yield strength (Shear)

Design resistance, Rd, in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M8 6.9 6.6 6.4 6.2 5.9

M10 10.7 10.2 10.0 9.7 9.2

M12 14.7 14.3 14.1 13.9 13.4

M16 21.1 21.4 21.5 21.7 22.0

M20 31.1 32.2 32.7 33.2 34.3

M24 41.0 43.8 45.2 46.6 49.4

Tensile NRd Combined load Shear VRd1)


1)

0 30 45 60 90

Single-anchor fastening under a shear load > VRd* = 1.2 VRd (load increase)

The load value must be multiplied by the factor 0.6 when fastenings are made in cracked concrete.

HST-R Ultimate loads, Ru,m, in kN, ( 10% concrete failure)


Type of loading Base material Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile Nu,m Shear Vu,m non-cracked concrete 50 non-cracked concrete > 20 = 17.6 13.7 30.4 21.8 42.4 31.6 65.0 51.0 101.0 79.6 120.0 114.7 M8 16.0 M 10 21.0 M 12 29.0 M 16 48.0 M 20 55.0 M 24 83.5

Calculated ultimate load of steel with a guaranteed nominal tensile strenght (fuk).

133

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HSA stud anchor
Setting details and technical data for high loads for anchors in deep holes (large anchorage depth)

Large anchorage depth

Features:

Through fix anchor from M6 to M20 Hole diameter equals connection thread diameter High loading capacity Force controlled expansion Longer thread Technical Data for two anchorage depths
do

l IG

Tinst

Material:

All parts galvanized to min 5m Bolt: cold formed steel


hnom h1

dh tfix

Setting details
M8x137 # M 6x85 # M8x92 #

Setting detail do h1 [mm] drill bit diameter [mm] hole depth

6 55 47 10 65 C 30 30 85 D 50 5 10 100 6.6 TE-C-6/17 45 100 E 65 10 75 C 35 27 92 E 52

8 65 55 50 115 G 75 15 13 100 9 TE-C-8/22 TE5, TE10, TE10 A, TE14, TE15, TE18-M 72 137 H 97 20 90 E 42

10 70 59 37 108 F 60 30 17 100 11 TE-C-10/22 50 120 G 72

hnom [mm] min. anchorage depth tfix l [mm] max. fastenable thickness [mm] anchor length

end-face marking (length code) lg [mm] thread length

Tinst [Nm] tightening torque Sw h dh [mm] width across nut flats [mm] min. concrete thickness [mm] max. clearance hole

drill bit. rotary / combihammer

M 12x150 #

M 12x220 #

M 12x240 #

M 12x300 #

M 16x120 #

M 16x190 #

M 12x100

M 12x120

M 12x180

M 16x140

Setting detail do h1 [mm] drill bit diameter [mm] hole depth

12 95 80 5 100 E 45 25 120 G 65 55 150 I 95 85 180 L 125 50 19 120 13.5 TE-C-12/27, TE-C-12/34 TE14, TE18-M, TE24, TE54, TE74 125 220 O 165 145 240 P 180 205 300 S 180 5 120 G 50 25 140 I 70

16 115 95 75 190 L 120 100 24 160 17.5 TE-C-16/30 TE-Y-16/34 125 240 P 170

20 130 115 30 170 K 85 200 30 200 22 TE-C 20/22S

hnom [mm] min. anchorage depth tfix l [mm] max. fastenable thickness [mm] anchor length

end-face marking (length code) lg [mm] thread length

Tinst [Nm] thightening torque Sw h dh [mm] width across nut flats [mm] min. concrete thickness [mm] max. clearance hole

Drill bit. rotary/ combihammer

# Special reguest item

134

M 20x170

Anchor size

M 16x240 #

M10x120

Anchor size
M 6x65

M10x108 #

M10x90

M6x100

M8x115

M8x75

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HSA stud anchor
> 30 N/mm2, Recommended load F30 in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc =
Anchor size

Large anchorage depth


(Concrete failure) = 2,2 (Steel failure)
N (Z) F s (A) V (Q) c (R) h (SG)

=3

M6 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.4

M8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5

M10 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.8

M12 9.5 9.9 10.2 10.4 10.8

M16 14.0 14.2 14.3 14.3 14.5

M20 21.0 20.8 20.8 20.7 20.5

Tensile

30 Combined 45 load 60 Shear 90

Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strength fB fB = 1 + 0.015 (1 ) (f 30) 90 cc, act
(( )) previous bisherige designation Bezeichnung

[20 fcc, act 30]

No increase of loading capacity when in concrete of higher strength Influence of depth of embedment fT fT = 1 (no incease in loading capacity possible through setting deeper) Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR
Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Shear fRV

Tensile / Shear Spacing s [cm] 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 Anchor size M6 M8 Edge Distance c M10 M12 M16 M20 M6 [cm] 0 0 0.61 0 0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 0.69

Anchor size M8 0 M10 M12 M16 M20 0 0 0 0.70 0 0 M6 0.50 M8 0

Anchor size M10 M12 M16 M20

0.66 0.60

0.72 0.66 0.64 0.83 0.74 0.72 0.93 0.83 0.80 1.0 0.91 0.88 1.0 1.0 1.0

0.75 0.69 0.68 0.84 0.77 0.75 0.93 0.84 0.82 1.0 0.92 0.89 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

0.59 0.49

0 0 0.51 0 0

0.73 0.61 0.58 0.88 0.74 0.70 1.0 0.86 0.81 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

0.67 0.61

0.73 0.66 0.60 0.82 0.74 0.66 0.90 0.81 0.72 1.0 1.0 0.89 0.78 0.97 0.85 1.0 1.0 0.92 0.98 1.0

0.75 0.70

0.60 0.50

0.84 0.77 0.70 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.99 0.90 0.80 1.0 0.97 0.86 1.0 1.0 0.92 0.98 1.0

0.73 0.62 0.50 0.84 0.71 0.58 0.98 0.83 0.67 1.0 0.95 0.77 1.0 1.0 0.87 0.96 1.0

Charactaristic loads Rk in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk Shear VRk 30 > = 20 M6 8.2 9.6 5.3 M8 12.0 14.1 9.9 M 10 14.8 17.4 15.0 M 12 24.2 28.5 23.8 M 16 35.7 42.0 31.9 M 20 53.6 63.0 45.1

ultimate load of steel

no increase of loading through higher concrete strength

Design resistance Rd in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M6 Tensile NRd Combined load Shear VRd 0 30 45 60 90 4.5 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.3

M8 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2

M 10 8.1 8.5 8.7 8.9 9.4

M 12 13.3 13.8 14.1 14.3 14.9

M 16 19.5 19.7 19.7 19.8 19.9

M 20 29.3 28.9 28.7 28.6 28.2

135

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HSA stud anchor
Setting details and technical data for reduced loads for anchors in shallow holes (small anchorage depth)
l IG

Small anchorage depth

Features:

do

Tinst

Through fix anchor from M6 to M20 Hole diameter equals connection thread diameter High loading capacity Force controlled expansion Longer thread Technical Data for two anchorage depths

hnom h1 h

dh tfix

Material:

All parts galvanized to min 5m Bolt: cold formed steel

Setting details
M8x137 # M 6x85 # M8x92 #

Anchor size
M 6x50 M 6x65

Setting details do h1 [mm] Drill bit dia. [mm] Min. hole depth

6 45 37 5 50 A 15 20 65 C 30 5 10 100 6.6 TE-C-6/17 40 85 D 50 55 100 E 65 5 57 B 20 23 75 C 35

8 50 42 40 92 E 52 15 13 100 9 TE-C-8/22 63 115 G 75 85 137 H 97 5 68 C 25 25 90 E 42

10 60 51 45 108 F 60 30 17 100 11 TE-C-10/22 TE14, TE15,TE18-M, TE22, TE24 57 120 G 72

hnom [mm] Min. depth of embedment tfix l [mm] Max. fastenable thickness [mm] Anchor length

Head marking lg [mm] Thread length

Tinst [Nm] Max. tightening torque Sw h dh [mm] Width across nut flats [mm] Min. concrete thickness [mm] Clearance hole

Drill bit designation Rotary hammer

TE5, TE10, TE10 A, TE14, TE15, TE18-M

M 12x150 #

M 12x220 #

M 12x240 #

M 12x300 #

M 16x120 #

M 16x190 #

M 16x240 #

M 12x100

M 12x120

M 12x180

M 16x100

M 16x140

Setting details do h1 [mm] Drill bit dia. [mm] Min. hole depth

12 70 60 5 80 D 30 25 100 E 45 45 120 G 65 75 105 145 220 O 165 165 240 P 180 225 5 25 120 G 50

16 90 75 45 140 I 70 100 24 120 17.5 TE-C-16/18 TE-C-16/39 95 190 L 120 145 240 P 170 10

20 105 90 55 170 K 85

hnom [mm] Min. depth of embedment tfix l [mm] Max. fastenable thickness [mm] Anchor length

150 180 I 95 L 125 50 19 100 13.5

300 100 S 180 E 35

125 G 45

Head marking lg [mm] Thread length

Tinst [Nm] Max. tightening torque Sw h dh [mm] Width across nut flats [mm] Min. concrete thickness [mm] Clearance hole

200 30 160 22 TE-C-20/22S

Drill bit designation Rotary hammer

TE-C-12 / 27, TE-C-12/47 TE14, TE15, TE18-M TE22, TE24

# Special reguest item

136

M 20x170

M 12x80

Anchor size

M 20x125 #

M10x120 #

M10x108 #

M6x100

M10x68

M10x90

M8x115

M 8x57

M8x75

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HSA stud anchor
Setting details and technical data for reduced loads for anchors in shallow holes (small anchorage depth)
> 30 N/mm2, Recommended anchor load, F30 in kN, noncracked concrete fcc =
Anchor Type of loading

Small anchorage depth

= 3 (concrete failure) = 2,2 (steel failure)


N (Z) F s (A) V (Q)

M6 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.4

M8 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1 4.5

M10 4 4.7 5.4 6.1 6.8

M12 5.5 6.8 8.2 9.5 10.8

M16 8 9.6 11.3 12.9 14.5

M20 12.7 15.3 16.6 17.9


c (R)

Tensile

0 30

Combined

45 60

Shear

90

20.5
h (SG)

Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strength fB ) (f fB = 1 + 0.015 (1 30) 90 cc, act
( ) bisherige previous Bezeichnung designation

[20 fcc, act 30]

Influence of depth of embedment fT fT = 1 (no incease in loading capacity possible through setting deeper) Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance f A, fR
Reduction Factors (Anchor spacing) fA Tensile / Shear Spacing s [cm] 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 Anchor size M6 M8 Edge Distance M10 M12 M16 M20 s [cm] 0 0 0 0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M6 0 M8 0 0 0 0 0 M10 M12 M16 M20 M6 0 M8 0 0 0 0 0 Shear fRV Anchor size M10 M12 M16 M20

0.66 0.62

0.74 0.69 0.62

0.76 0.72

0.61 0.54

0.82 0.76 0.68 0.63

0.84 0.79 0.72

0.73 0.64 0.53 0.91 1.0 0.8

0.95 0.87 0.78 0.71 0.63 1.0

0.95 0.88 0.80 0.74 1.0

0.66 0.56

0.98 0.87 0.79 0.69 0.63 1.0 0.96 0.86 0.75 0.68 1.0 0.99 0.86 0.77 1.0 0.94 0.84 1.0 0.92 1.0

0.98 0.88 0.81 0.72 1.0

0.96 0.79 0.68 0.54 1.0

0.96 0.87 0.78 0.72 1.0 0.99 0.87 0.79 1.0 0.94 0.85 1.0 0.93 1.0

0.93 0.79 0.63 0.53 1.0 0.98 0.78 0.65 1.0 0.9 1.0 0.75 0.88 1.0

Charactaristic loads Rk in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk Shear VRk 30 > = 20 M6 4.8 5.7 5.3 M8 7.4 8.7 9.9 M 10 10.2 12.0 15.0 M 12 14.0 16.5 23.8 M 16 20.4 24.0 31.9 M 20 31.0 38.0 45.1

ultimate load of steel

no increase of loading through higher concrete strength

Design resistance Rd in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M6 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3

M8 4.0 4.6 5.1 5.7 6.2

M 10 5.6 6.5 7.5 8.4 9.4

M 12 7.7 9.5 11.3 13.1 14.9

M 16 11.2 13.4 15.6 17.7 19.9

M 20 17.7 21.2 23.0 24.7 28.2

Tensile NRd Combined load Shear VRd

0 30 45 60 90

137

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HSA stud anchor
Large and small anchorage depth Mechanical properties of HSA Setting details and technical data for small and large anchoring depths
Anchor size Property AS fuk fyk AS fuk W M [mm2] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [mm2] [N/mm2] [mm3] [Nm] Stressed cross-section in thread Nominal tensile strength in thread Yield strength in thread Stressed cross-section in taper transition Nominal tensile strength in taper transition Section modulus Recommended bending moment M6 20.1 650 600 13.2 780 12.7 4.1 M8 36.6 630 580 25.5 700 31.3 9.8 M 10 58.0 630 580 43.6 700 62.3 19.6 M 12 84.3 600 500 61.5 700 109 32.7 M 16 157.0 450 360 114.0 580 277 62.4 M20 245.0 450 360 182.7 520 541 121.7

Safety concept as per EUROCODE 1 R Fact F = Fd Rd = k M Fact . . actual load Fd . . . design action (load) Rd . . . design resistance (anchor) Rk . . . characteristic anchor resistance NRk . . . tensile load VRk . . . shear load F . . . partial safety factor (action / load) = 1.4 M . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 2.15 concrete failure / 1.6 steel failure

Influence of anchor spacing and edge distances, fA, fR Formula: smin = 0.9 hnom, scr = 2.2 hnom fA = 0.31 s + 0.32 hnom Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom c fRN = 0.27 + 0.4 hnom Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom c fRV = 0.45 hnom

A minimum distance of a > 2 scr must exist between groups of anchors to exclude any influence

The following applies to combined loading: fR = fRN (fRN fRV) 90


If the edge distance is less than ccr reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load must be provided between the component edge and the anchor.

Setting operations

Drill hole

Clean hole

Insert and hammer in anchor

Thighten the nut to the required torque.

138

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
deep embedment

Hilti HSA-K, HSA-KR stud anchor


Features: stud anchor M6M16 (galvanized), M6-M12 (stainless) - on special request Ideal for through-fastening Force-controlled expansion great hole depth long thread length All parts galvanized to min. 5 microns Bolt: cold formed steel stainless steel A 4: 1.4401 DIN 17440 X5 CrNiMo 17122

Ig

do

Tinst

Material:

A4 316
Corrosion resistance

hnom

dh

h1
h

tfix

Setting details
M10x108 # M12x150 # M12x240 # M 8x137 # M12x100 M12x180 M16x140 M 6x85 # M 8x92 # M10x90

Anchor size
M 6x65

Setting details

do
h1
hnom
tfix
l

(mm) Drill bit dia.


(mm) Min. hole depth
(mm) Min. depth of embedment
(mm) Max. fastenable thickness
(mm) Anchor length

6
55
47
10
65
C
30
5
10
100
6.6 TE-CX-6/17 TE-C-6/17

8
65
55
30
85
D
50

10
70
59
72
137
H
90

12
95
80
37
108
F
50

16
115
95
85
180
L
100

10
75
C
40

27
92
E
50
15
13
100
9 TE-CX-8/17 TE-C-8/17

20
90
E
50
30
17
100
11

5
100
E
50

55
150
I
100
50
19
120
13.5

145
240
P
120

25
140
I
55

75
190
L
100
100
24
160
17.5

Head marking
lg
Tinst
Sw
h
dh

(mm) Thread length


(Nm) Max. tightening torque
(mm) Width across nut flats
(mm) Min. concrete thickness
(mm) Clearance hole

Drill bit designation


Rotary hammer

TE-CX-10/17 TE-C-10/17

TE-C-12/22 TE-C-12/34

TE-C-16/23 TE-C-16/34

TE1, TE5A, TE10, TE10A, TE14, TE15, TE18-M

TE14, TE18-M, TE24, TE54*, TE74* * for TE-C-drill bit only with adapter # Special request item

Setting operations:

Drill hole

Blow out dust and fragments

Assemble nut and washer

Tap in the anchor

Tighten the nut

139

M16x190 #

M 8x75

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
deep embedment

Hilti HSA-K, HSA-KR stud anchor


> 30 N/mm2, Recommended load F30 in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc =
Anchor

= 3 (Concrete failure) = 2,2 (Steel failure)


N (Z) F s (A) V (Q) c (R) h (SG)

M6 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.4

M8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5

M10 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.8

M12 9.5 9.9 10.2 10.4 10.8

M16 14.0 14.2 14.3 14.3 14.5

Tensile

0 30

Combined load

45 60

Shear

90

Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strength fB fB = 1 + 0.015 (1 90 ) (fcc,act 30)

( ) previous nomenclature

[20 fcc, act 30]

no increase in loading capacity through higher concrete strength Influence of depth fT fT = 1 (no increase in loading capacity possible through setting deeper) Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR
Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s [cm] 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 Anchor size M6 M8 Edge Distance c M10 M12 M16 [cm] 0 0 0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M6 0.69 M8 0 M10 M12 M16 0 0 0 0 M6 0.50 Shear fRV Anchor size M8 0 0 0 0 M10 M12 M16

0.66 0.60

0.72 0.66 0.60

0.75 0.69 0.68 0.84 0.77 0.75

0.59 0.49

0.83 0.74 0.66 0.61

0.73 0.61 0.58

0.93 0.83 0.73 0.67 0.61 1.0 0.91 0.80 0.73 0.66 1.0 0.91 0.82 0.74 1.0 0.90 0.81 1.0 1.0 0.89 0.97 1.0

0.93 0.84 0.82 0.70 1.0

0.88 0.74 0.70 0.51 1.0

0.92 0.89 0.75 0.70 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.84 0.77 0.91 0.83 0.99 0.90 1.0 0.97 1.0

0.86 0.81 0.60 0.50 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.73 0.62 0.84 0.71 0.98 0.83 1.0 0.95 1.0

Formula: smin = 0.9 hnom, scr = 2.2 hnom fA = 0.31 s + 0.32 hnom

Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom fRN = 0.27 c + 0.4 hnom

Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom fRV = 0.45 c hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loading: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

90

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distances are equal to or less than ccr.

140

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
deep embedment

Hilti HSA-K, HSA-KR stud anchor


Mechanical properties
Anchor size

Mechanical property
AS
fuk
fyk
AS
fuk
W M

M6
20.1
650

M8
36.6
630

M 10
58.0
630

M 12
84.3
600

M 16
157.0
450
360
114.0
580
277 62.4

(mm2)
(N/mm2)
(N/mm2)
(mm2)
(N/mm2)
(mm3) (Nm)

Stressed cross-section in thread


Nominal tensile strength of the thread section
Nominal yield strength of thread section (min.)
Stressed cross-section of tapered section
Nominal tensile strength of tapered section
Section modulus of thread section Permissible bending moment

600, 400* 580, 350* 580, 350* 500, 350*


13.2
780
12.7 4.1, 3.4*

25.5
700
31.3

43.6
700
62.3

61.5
700
109

9.8, 7.3* 19.6, 14.5* 32.7, 25.4*

* HSA-KR, for the HSA-KR steel failure always occurs in the threaded section

Characteristic loads Rk in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2]
20
Tensile NRk Shear VRk 30 > = 20

M6
8.2
9.6 5.3

M8
12.0
14.1 9.9

M 10
14.8
17.4 15.0

M 12
24.2
28.5 23.8

M 16
35.7
42.0 31.9

steel failure no increase of loading capacity through higher concrete strength

New Safety-Concept (EUROCODE 1) R Fact F = Fd Rd = k M Fact . . actual load Fd . . . design action (load) Rd . . . design resistance (anchor) Rk . . . characteristic anchor resistance NRk . . . tensile load VRk . . . shear load F . . . partial safety factor (action/load) = 1.4 M . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 2.15 Concrete failure / 1.6 Steel failure

Design resistance Rd in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M6
4.5
4.1
3.9
3.7 3.3

M8
6.6
6.4
6.4
6.3 6.2

M10
8.1
8.5
8.7
8.9 9.4

M12
13.3
13.8
14.1
14.3 14.9

M16
19.5
19.7
19.7
19.8 19.9

Tensile NRd

0
30

Combined load

45
60

Shear VRd

90

141

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
shallow embedment

Hilti HSA-K, HSA-KR stud anchor


Features: stud anchor M6M16 (galvanized), M6-M12 (stainless) - on special request Ideal for through-fastening Force-controlled expansion Small hole depth long thread length All parts galvanized to min. 5 microns Bolt: cold formed steel stainless steel A4 1.4401 DIN 17440 X5 CrNiMo 17122

l Ig

Material:

do

Tinst

A4 316
Corrosion resistance

hnom h1 h

dh tfix

Setting details
M12x100 M12x180 M16x100 M16x140 M 6x85 # M 8x92 # M10x68 M10x90 M12x80

Anchor size
M 6x50 M 6x65

Setting details do h1 hnom tfix l (mm) Drill bit dia. (mm) Min. hole depth (mm) Min. depth of embedment (mm) Max. fastenable thickness (mm) Anchor length

6 45 37 5 50 A 15 20 65 C 30 5 10 100 6.6 TE-CX-6/17 TE-C-6/17 40 85 D 50 5 57 B 20

8 50 42 23 75 C 40 15 13 100 9 TE-CX-8/17 TE-C-8/17 40 85 5

10 60 51 25 45 5 25

12 70 60 75 105 165 5

16 90 75 45 95

92 137 68 E 50 H 90 C 25

90 108 80 100 150 180 240 100 140 190 E 50 30 17 100 11 F 50 D 30 E I L P E I L

Head marking lg Tinst Sw h dh (mm) Thread length (Nm) Max. Tightening torque (mm) Width across nut flats (mm) Min. concrete thickness (mm) Clearance hole

50 100 100 120 35 50 19 100 13.5 TE-C-12/22


TE-C-12/34

55 100 100 24 120 17.5

Drill bit designation Rotary hammer * for TE-C-drill bit only with adapter # Special request item

TE-CX-10/17 TE-C-10/17

TE-C-16/23 TE-C-16/34

TE1, TE5, TE5A, TE10, TE10A, TE14, TE15, TE18-M

TE14, TE15, TE18-M, TE 24 TE54, TE74

Setting operations:

Drill hole

Blow out dust and fragments

Assemble nut and washer

Tap in the anchor

Tighten the nut

142

M16x190 #

M10x108#

M12x150#

M12x240#

M 8x137 #

M 8x57

M 8x75

shallow embedment

Hilti HSA-K, HSA-KR stud anchor


> 30 N/mm2, Recommended load F30 in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc =
Anchor

= 3 (Concrete failure) = 2,2 (Steel failure)


N (Z) F s (A) V (Q) c (R) h (SG)

M6
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.3 2.4

M8
2.9
3.3
3.7
4.1 4.5

M10
4
4.7
5.4
6.1 6.8

M12
5.5
6.8
8.2
9.5 10.8

M16
8
9.6
11.3
12.9 14.5

Tensile

0
30

Combined load

45
60

Shear

90

Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strength fB fB = 1 + 0.015 (1 90 ) (fcc,act 30)

( ) previous nomenclature

[20 fcc, act 30]

no increase in loading capacity through higher concrete strength Influence of depth of embedment fT fT = 1 (no increase in loading capacity possible through setting deeper) Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR
Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA Tensile/Shear
Spacing s [cm]
4.0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5

Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR Tensile fRN


Anchor size
M6 0 M8 0 0 0 0.74 0 M10 M12 M16 M6 0

Shear fRV
Anchor size
M8 0 0 0 0.56 0 M10 M12 M16

Anchor size
M6 M8

Edge Distance c M10 M12 M16 [cm]


0 0 0.63 0

0.66 0.62

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 13.0 15.0 17.5

0.74 0.69 0.62 0.82 0.76 0.68 0.95 0.87 0.78 1.0 0.98 0.87 1.0 0.96 1.0

0.76 0.72

0.61 0.54

0.84 0.79 0.72 0.95 0.88 0.80 1.0 0.98 0.88 1.0 0.96 1.0

0.73 0.64 0.53 0.91 1.0 0.8 0.66

0.71 0.63 0.79 0.69 0.86 0.75 0.99 0.86 1.0 0.94 1.0

0.81 0.72 0.87 0.78 0.99 0.87 1.0 0.94 1.0

0.96 0.79 1.0 0.93 1.0

0.68 0.54 0.79 0.63 0.98 0.78 1.0 0.9 1.0

Formula: smin = 0.9 hnom, scr = 2.2 hnom fA = 0.31 s + 0.32 hnom

Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom fRN = 0.27 c + 0.4 hnom

Formula: cmin = 1.1 hnom, ccr = 2.2 hnom fRV = 0.45 c hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

For combined loading: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

90

In the edge of a concrete component, there must be reinforcement which can take up 0.25 times the anchor load if edge distances are equal to or less than ccr.

143

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
shallow embedment

Hilti HSA-K, HSA-KR stud anchor


Mechanical properties
Anchor size Mechanical property AS fuk fyk AS fuk W M [mm2] [N/mm2] [N/mm2] [mm2] [N/mm2] [mm3] [Nm] Stressed cross-section in thread Nominal tensile strength of the thread section Nominal yield strength of thread section (min.) Stressed cross-section of tapered section Nominal tensile strength of tapered section Section modulus of thread section Permissible bending moment M6 20.1 650 M8 36.6 630 M 10 58.0 630 M 12 84.3 600 M 16 157.0 450

600, 400* 580, 350* 580, 350* 580, 350* 500, 350* 13.2 780 12.7 4.1, 3.4* 25.5 700 31.3 43.6 700 62.3 61.5 700 109 114.0 580 277 62.4

9.8, 7.3* 19.6, 14.5* 32.7, 25.4*

* HSA-KR, for the HSA-KR steel failure always occurs in the threaded section.

Characteristic loads Rk in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2] 20 Tensile NRk Shear VRk 30 > = 20 M6 4.8 5.7 5.3 M8 7.4 8.7 9.9 M 10 10.2 12.0 15.0 M 12 14.0 16.5 23.8 M 16 20.4 24.0 31.9

steel failure no increase of loading capacity through higher concrete strength

New Safety-Concept EUROCODE 1 R Fact F = Fd Rd = k M Fact . . actual load Fd . . . design action (load) Rd . . . design resistance (anchor) Rk . . . characteristic anchor resistance NRk . . . tensile load VRk . . . shear load F . . . partial safety factor (action/load) = 1.4 M . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 2.15 Concrete failure / 1.6 Steel failure

Design resistance Rd in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M6 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3

M8 4.0 4.6 5.1 5.7 6.2

M10 5.6 6.5 7.5 8.4 9.4

M12 7.7 9.5 11.3 13.1 14.9

M16 11.2 13.4 15.6 17.7 19.9

Tensile NRd

0 30

Combined load

45 60

Shear VRd

90

144

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Hilti HKD-S, HKD-SR anchor


Features: internal thread and small depth of embedment anchor flush with surface after removal of part fastened movement-controlled expansion galvanized to min.8 m 9S Mn Pb 28 K, DIN 1651 HKD-SR: stainless steel A4 X 5 Cr Ni Mo 17122, 1.4401, DIN 17440 HKD-S:

IG

hs min

A4 316
Corrosion resistance

do

Tinst

Material:

hnom ho
Fire resistance

dh

Setting details
Anchor size 1/4 Setting details do hnom l h1 lG (mm) Drill bit diameter (mm) Min. depth of embedment 25 (mm) Anchor length (mm) Hole depth (mm) Effective thread length 27 11 7,5 5 100 7
TE-C-8/17 TE-CX-8/17 TE1, TE5, TE10A, TE14 TE15

M6 25 8 30 32 11 30

M8 5/16 30 40 10 30 33 13 9,5 10 100 9


TE-C-10/17 TE-CX-10/17

M 10 3/8 30 40 12 40 43 13 30 33 12 12,0 10 100 11


TE-C-12/17 TE-Y-12/34

M 12

1/2

M 16 5/8

M 20 3/4

15 40 43 15 50 54 18 14,0 20 40 120 13.5

16

20 65 70 23 20,0 80 140 17.5

25 80 85 34 24,5 160 180 22


TE-C-25/27S TE-Y-25/32 TE24, TE54 TE74, TE92

hsmin (mm) Min. screwing depth Tinst h dh (Nm) Max. tightening torque (mm) Min. base material thickness (mm) Max. clearance hole

14.5

Drill bit

TE-C-15/18 TE-C-16/18 TE-C-20/22S TE-Y-15/34 TE-Y-16/34 TE-Y-20/32 TE14, TE15, TE18-M, TE24, TE54, TE74, TE92

Drilling system Manual setting tool Mechanical setting tool HSD-G HSD-M

TE1, TE5, TE5, TE10A, TE14, TE14, TE15, TE15, TE18M, TE18-M, TE24, TE10A, TE14, TE18-M, TE15 TE24, TE54 TE54, TE74

M6; 1/425 M6; 1/430

M8; 5/1630 M10; 3/830 M12; 1/250 M16; 5/865 M8; 5/1640 M10; 3/840

M20; 3/480

Setting operations:

OK

145

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Recommended F30 in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2,
Anchor size

M6 1/4

M8 M10; 3/8 M12 5/16 30 40 1/2

M16 5/8

M20 3/4

= 3 (Concrete failure) = 2.2 (Steel failure)


N (Z) F

HKD-S, HKD-SR

Tensile

0
30

2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1 2.0

3.8
3.6
3.5
3.4 3.2

3.8 5.0
3.9 4.8
3.9 4.7
3.9 4.6 4.0 4.4

8.5
8.4
8.3
8.2 8.1

11.5
11.8
12.2
12.6 12.9

16.0
17.2
17.8

Combined load

45
60

s (A)

18.4 19.5

V (Q) c (R) h (SG)

Shear

90

Bolt: 5.6, ISO 898 T1.


^ 1 bolt thread size. Min. length of thread engagement =

Recommended load for specific application: Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR Influence of concrete strenght fB fB = 1 + 0.02 (1 90
Anchor size

( ) previous nomenclature

) (f cc,act 30)

[20 fcc, act 55]


hnom [mm]

M6 1/4

M8 M10; 5/16 3/8

M12 1/2

M16 5/8

M20 3/4

25 30 30 40 30 40

50

65

80

Influence of depth of embedment fT h fT = act Limiting depth of embedment hlim = 1.4 hnom hnom

hact . . . actual embedment depth

Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR


Reduction Factors (Anchor Spacing) fA
Tensile/Shear Spacing s [cm] 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 10.5 13.0 14.0 16.0 17.5 20.0 23.0 24.5 26.5 31.5 Anchor size
M6 1/4 25 0.78 0.84 0.95 1.0 M8 5/16 30 0 0.78 0.87 0.96 1.0 1.0 M10 M12 3/8 1/2 40 50

Reduction Factors (Edge Distance) fR


Tensile/Shear Querlast fZQ M12 M16 M20 M24 M8 M10

0 0.78 0.85 0.86 0.95 1.0 1.0

0 0.78 0.79 0.86 0.89 0.94 1.0 1.0

Edge Anchor size M16 M20 Distance M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 c 5/8 3/4 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 [cm] 65 80 25 30 40 50 65 80 0 9.0 1 0 10.5 1 0 14.0 1 0 0 17.5 1 0 0 23.0 1 0 0.78 0 28.0 1 0.80 0 0.84 0.78 0.87 0.80 0.93 0.85 1.0 0.89 1.0 0.92 1.0 0.96 1.0

Formula: smin = 2 hnom, scr = 3.5 hnom fA = 0.14 s hnom + 0.5

Formula: cmin = ccr = 3.5 hnom

Separate groups of anchors must be at least a> 2 scr apart to ensure they do not influence each other.

146

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HKD-S, HKD-SR
Anchor mechanical properties
Anchor size
Mechanical property
HKD-S
fuk [N/mm2] Nominal tensile strength HKD-SR
HKD-S
fyk AS [N/mm2] [mm2] Yield strength Stressed cross-section HKD-SR

M6 1/4 M8 5/16 M10 3/8 M12 1/2 M16 5/8 M20 3/4 560 540 440 355 560 540 440 355
1)

510 540 410 355


1)

510 540 410 355

460 540 375 355

460 540 375 355

20.9 17.5 26.1 26.9 28.8 36.1 58.7 69.1 102.8 105.3 163.8 193.0
2) 2) 1) 2)

31.6 36.1

hnom = 30 mm hnom = 40 mm

Characteristic loads, Rk in kN, non-cracked concrete


Type of loading Concrete fcc [N/mm2]
20
Tensile NRk 30
50 Shear VRk > 20 =
1/4; M6 25 30 5/16; M8 30 40 M10; 3/8 30 40 M12; 1/2 M16; 5/8 M20; 3/4

5.8 7.2 10.1 6.0

9.1 11.4 14.6 8.8

9.5 11.5 14.7 8.8

12.0 15.0 16.1 9.7

20.4 25.5 29.9 18.0

27.6 34.5 47.3 28.4

39.2 48.0 62.0 58.5

Steel failure

New Safety-Concept (EUROCODE 1) R Fact F = Fd Rd = k M Fact . . . actual load Fd . . . design action (load) Rd . . . design resistance (anchor) Rk . . . characteristic anchor resistance NRk . . . tensile load VRk . . . shear load F . . . partial safety factor (action/load) = 1.4 M . . . partial safety factor (resistance) = 2.15 Concrete failure 1.6 Steel failure

Design resistance Rd in kN, non-cracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size

M6 1/4

M8 5/16

M10; 3/8 30 40

M12 1/2

M16 5/8

M20 3/4

Tensile NRd

0
30

3.3
3.2
3.1
3.0 2.8

5.3
5.0
4.9
4.7 4.5

5.3
5.5
5.5
5.5 5.6

7.0
6.7
6.6
6.4 6.2

11.9
11.8
11.6
11.5 11.3

16.1
16.5
17.1
17.6 18.1

22.4
24.1
24.9
25.8 27.3

Combined load

45
60

Shear VRd

90

147

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Hilti HPS-1, HPS-1R anchor


Features: ready-to-use fastener for through-fastening bridging of gaps due to collapsible section impact expansion by hammer or screwdriver removable and adjustable with a screwdriver available in various special versions HPS-1 anchor sleeve: PA 6.6 polyamide, containing no heavy metals In-place working temperature: from 40 C to +80 C Temperature when setting: from 10 C to +40 C Steel galvanized 5m, stainless steel A2

Material:

Drive screw: Base material: Setting details:


Anchor size HPS 4/0 4 25 20 2 21.5 7 TE-C4/9,5

Concrete, solid and hollow brick

Setting details
do ho [mm] Drill bit diameter [mm] Hole depth

HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS HPS 5/0 5/5 5/15 6/5 6/15 6/25 6/40 8/10 8/30 8/60 8/80 8/100 5 25 20 2 22 7.5 5 30 20 5 27 9.5 5 30 20 15 37 9.5 6 40 25 5 32 11 6 40 25 15 42 11 6 40 25 25 52 11 6 40 25 40 67 11 8 50 30 10 42.5 13 8 50 30 30 62.5 13 8 50 30 60 8 50 30 80 8 50 30 100

hnom [mm] Embedment depth tfix l dn [mm] Fixture thickness [mm] Anchor length [mm] Head diameter

92.5 112.5 132.5 13 13 13

Drill bit

TE-CX-5/12 TE-C-5/12 TMS-5/10

TE-CX-6/12 TE-C-6/12 TMS-6/10

TE-CX-8/17 TE-C-8/17 TMS-8/15

Rotary hammer Setting tool: Disassembly tool:

TE1, TE5, TE5A, TE10, TE10A, TE14, TE15, TE18-M hammer, Pozi-cross-recess screwdriver, size 2 or 1, or screwgun with Pozi-cross-recess bit, size 2 or 1 Pozi-cross-recess screwdriver, size 2 or 1, or screwgun with Pozi-cross-recess bit, size 2 or 1

Setting materials:

; ; ; ;

; ; ; ; ; ;

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Product Information
HPS-1, HPS-1R

Recommended load, Nrec and Vrec in kN, = 5


Anchor HPS 4/0 0.05 0.15 0.05 0.15 0.05 0.15 0.05 0.15 HPS 5/0 0.10 0.30 0.10 0.30 0.10 0.30 0.10 0.25 HPS 5/5 5/15 0.15 0.35 0.15 0.35 0.15 0.35 0.08 0.15 0.05 0.10 0.08 0.10 0.15 0.30 HPS 6/5 6/25 0.25 0.55 0.25 0.55 0.20 0.55 0.15 0.25 0.08 0.15 0.10 0.12 0.20 0.40 HPS 6/30 6/40 0.25 0.35 0.25 0.35 0.20 0.35 0.15 0.15 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.25 HPS 8/0 0.30 0.50 0.30 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.20 0.40 0.25 0.50 HPS 8/10 8/40 0.40 0.90 0.40 0.90 0.30 0.90 0.25 0.40 0.12 0.25 0.15 0.30 0.35 0.90 HPS 8/60 8/100 0.40 0.50 0.40 0.50 0.30 0.55 0.25 0.25 0.12 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.35 0.55

Base material
Concrete C20 Nrec Vrec Nrec Vrec Nrec Vrec Nrec Vrec Nrec Vrec Nrec Vrec Nrec Vrec

Engineering Brick 12 hole class B

Perforated Brick 3 hole cammon

Themalite Block 7 N Lightweight Themalite Block 1/2 N Lightweight 2) Gasconcrete G4, G6 1)

Extruded Brick Boral 10


1)

Drilling of hole: TE-CX, TE-C drill bit without hammering action 2) Drilling of hole: TK drill bit without hammering action If there is a sustained load at temperatures above 40 C, the recommended load should be reduced.

Ultimate loads Nu,m and Vu,m in kN, = 10 %


Anchor HPS 6/50 HPS 8/50 HPS 5/60 HPS 6/12 HPS 8/12 HPS 8/60 HPS 5/15 HPS 6/25 HPS 6/40 HPS 8/30 HPS 8/80 1.00 2.30 1.00 2.30 1.00 2.30 0.80 1.75 3.40 1.75 3.40 1.75 3.50 1.00 1.75 2.20 1.75 2.20 1.75 1.80 0.70 2.50 5.60 2.50 5.60 2.50 3.50 1.70 2.50 3.00 2.50 3.00 2.50 2.20 0.90

Base material
Nu,m Vu,m Solid brick Nu,m Vu,m Sand limeblock Nu,m Vu,m Gas concrete G4 Nu,m Vu,m

Concrete fcc = 20-45 N/mm2

The ultimate loads were determined using the minimum drill bit diameter.

149

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Hilti HRD-UGT frame anchor


Features: a ready-to-use anchor (anchor body and matching screw) suitable for through-fastening tap-in stops eliminate premature expansion low tightening torque Anchor body: PA 6 polyamide, containing no heavy metals In-place temperature range: from 40 C to +80 C Temperature when setting: from 10 C to +40 C Screw: Galvanized: with hexagon and countersunk head, 5 m, yellow chromated, 5.8, ISO 898 T1 Hot dip with hexagon and countersunk head, galvanized: 45m, grey, 5.8. ISO 898 T1 Stainless steel: with hexagon, A4-70 HRD-U: concrete, solid brick, hollow brick
hnom h1 tfix

HRD-UGT

Material:

Base material:

do

T40

Setting details:
Anchor size Setting details HRD-UGT

TE1, TE5, TE5A, TE10, TE10A, TE 14, TE15, TE18-M

Anchor holes in masonry or cellular concrete may only be drilled with the rotary action (without hammering). A TE-CX drill bit should be used preferentially. Holes in the part to be fastened should be max. 0.5 mm larger than the anchor dia. 1 ) 1st value: solid base material / 2nd value: hollow base material

Setting operations: HRD-UGT

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Product Information
Recommended loads Nrec and Vrec (kN), = 5

HRD-UGT
HRD-U10 1,80 0,80 1,20 1,50 0,80 0,50 0,50 0,30 0,25 0,25 0,30 0,65 0,80 HRD-U10 2,00 1,00 1,20 1,20 1,00 0,80 0,80 0,50 0,25 0,25 0,50 0,85 1,00

12

12

1 ) Hole product by rotary drilling only At temperatures above 40 C, the recommended figure should be reduced if there is a sustained tensile load.

Anchor spacing smin , and edge distance cmin (cm)

HRD-U10 10 10 10 25 25 25 25 25 25 10 15 15

HRD-U10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 15 15

Permissible bending moments, Md (Nm) HRD-UGT

The permissible bending moments pertaining to the screws under loads between the two limits given in the table may be interpolated. Example: For the HRD-U10 with galvanised screw under an actual F of 0.8 kN, the permissible bending moment is 9.45 Nm.

151

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Hilti HUD-1 anchor


Features: high holding power from the smooth surface, among other reasons suitable for through-fastening with screw resistance to turning in hole and premature expansion low screwdriving torque permits rapid setting resistant to temperature, impact and chemicals optimized screw guidance PA 6 polyamide, containing no cadmium In-place temperature range: from 40 C to +80 C Temperature when setting: from 10 C to +40 C Concrete, solid brick, hollow brick, aerated concrete

h1

;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;
L

hnom = l s

do

ls

tfix

Material:

Base material: Setting details:


Setting details do h1 Is tfix

Anchor size

HUD 5 5 35 25

HUD 6 6 40 30

HUD 8 8 55 40

HUD 10 10 65 50

HUD 12 12 80 60

HUD 14 14 90 70

[mm] drill bit diameter [mm] min. hole depth [mm] anchor hole = min. depth of emb. [mm] max. thickness fastened

depends on screw lengths SK/RK 3.54 29 TMS 5/10 TE-CX-5/12 TE-C-5/12 SK/RK 4.55 35 TMS 6/10 TE-CX-6/12 TE-C-6/12 SK/RK 56 46 TMS 8/15 TE-CX-8/17 TE-C-8/17 SK/RK/6K 78 58 TMS 10/15 TE-CX-10/17 TE-C-10/17 SK/RK/6K 810 70 TMS 12/15 TE-C-12/17 6K 1012 82 TMS 14/20 TE-C-14/17

Recommended wood screw type d IS [mm] wood screw diameter [mm] req. screw engagement length

Drill bit

Rotary hammer

TE1, TE5, TE5A, TE10, TE10A, TE14, TE18-M, TE24

;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;

Setting operations: Setting straight in base material flush with surface

Drill hole in base material and insert anchor. Put part to be fastened in place. Drive screw info anchor through in-place part until flush with part surface. Through-fastening

;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;

;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;; ;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;

Drill hole in base material. Insert screw to just hold in anchor. Insert anchor and screw into hole through in-place part. Tighten down part to be fastened.

;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;

;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;

Setting anchor through in-place part

Drill hole through in-place part into base material. Insert screw to just hold in anchor. Mark (M) part thickness (S) on screw. Tap anchor with screw through in-place part up to mark. Drive in screw.

;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;

;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;

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Product Information
;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;; ; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;; ; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ; ;;;;; ; ;
Vrec
L

HUD-1
L
Nrec

Recommended loads Nrec (kN), = 5


Anchor
Base material

HUD-1 5x25
Woodscrew Chip board screw

HUD-1 6x30
Woodscrew Chip board screw

HUD-1 8x40
Woodscrew Chip board screw

HUD-1 10x50
Woodscrew Chip board screw

HUD-1 HUD-1 12x60 14x70


Woodscrew Woodscrew

Concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Aerated Concrete PP 2 (G2)
Aerated Concrete PP 4 (G4)
Solid brick MZ201.8 Sand-lime block KSL 121.8
Sand-lime block KSL 61.5
Hollow brick HLzW 121.0 x 5DF
Hollow brick HLzW 120.8 x 5DF1) plastered
Gypsum panel2) 12.5 mm
Gypsum panel2) 2x12.5 mm
1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

0.30
0.06
0.10
0.17
0.25
0.10
0.08

0.10
0.04
0.06
0.06
0.15
0.05
0.05

0.55
0.10
0.15
0.35
0.50
0.20
0.10

0.35
0.06
0.10
0.15
0.30
0.08
0.08

0.85
0.15
0.30
0.60
0.85
0.30
0.20

0.50
0.10
0.20
0.35
0.40
0.12
0.12

1.40
0.20
0.40
0.80
1.00
0.40
0.25

2.00
0.25
0.50
1.00
1.50
0.50
0.28

3.00
0.30
0.60
1.005)
1.505)
0.605)
0.32

0.08

0.05

0.15

0.10

0.25

0.15

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.04 0.06

0.06 0.06

0.05 0.08

0.08 0.08

0.06 0.10

0.10 0.10

0.153)

0.153) 0.203)

0.304)

Drilling: TE-CX, TE-C-Bohrer without hammering Drilling: Twist drill Only with screw 6 mm Only with screw 8 mm Only with screw 10 mm

Recommended loads Vrec (kN), = 5


Anchor
Base material

HUD-1 5x25
Woodscrew

HUD-1 6x30
Woodscrew
0.90
0.05
0.18
0.30
0.56
0.35 0.14

HUD-1 8x40
Woodscrew
1.25
0.08
0.30
0.44
0.74

HUD-1 10x50
Woodscrew
2.20

1.32

HUD-1 12x60
Woodscrew
3.00

HUD-1 14x70
Woodscrew
5.60

Concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Aerated Concrete PP 2 G2
Aerated Concrete PP 4 G4
Solid brick
Sand-lime block Hollow brick HLzW 120.8 x 5DF plastered
Gypsum panel 12.5 mm

0.40
0.04
0.13
0.24
0.25
0.23 0.09

153

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Sw

Hilti HRA Rail Anchor


Complete HRA rail anchor system, HEA-E adhesive capsule Features: Suitable test by Technical Supervisory Authority, Munich Testing authority for Overland Traffic Facility Construction Meets all requirements for modern rail fastening components Insulation against stray currents Designed for high dynamic loading Adhesive anchoring exerting very low expansion forces due well-proven HEA system Good protection against corrosion Anchor: POM-coating: Plating: HEA-E capsule: Heat-treated steel 42CrMoS4 POM (Polyoxymethylen), Delrin 100 NC Galvanized FE/Zn 10C, yellow chromated Epoxyacrylate resin, hardener, quartz sand and glass

Tinst

Material:

h1 hnom

tfix

do

Setting details
Anchor size M 22 / 220a Setting details Capsule do h1 hnom tfix l Tinst hmin Sw [mm] Hole diameter min [mm] Hole depth [mm] Depth of embedment [mm] Max. thickness fastened [mm] Anchor length [Nm] Tightening torque [mm] Min. Base material thickness [mm] Across flats / jaw width max 35 130 140 125 40 220 300 160 38 35 110 130 105 40 220 300 160 38 HEA-E M 22 x 150 35 130 140 125 60 270 300 160 38 35 130 140 125 100 310 300 160 38 M 22 / 220b M 22 / 270 M 22 / 310

Diamond core bit Machines Setting tools For M22 thread / Drilling machine adaptor For M22/38 machine adaptor / Drilling machine adaptor

DD-BU 35 / 300-B 11 (DCM 1.5, DCM 2) DCM 1.5, DCM 2

TE-FY-SAS 20/24 / TE-FY-SA M 22 TS-N-3/4-SW 38 / TE-FY-SH 3/4

Curing times of HEA-E capsules


Temperature when setting: 5 C to 0 C 0 C to 10 C 10 C to 20 C 20 C and above Curing time until full loading capacity: 5 hours 1 hour 30 minutes 20 minutes

Setting operations

Drill hole (diamant drill).

Clean water and dust from hole (compressed air).

Insert HEA-E capsule.

Drive in HRA with drilling machine set at rotary hammer drilling.

Put on insulating collar sleeve and spring and tighten with stop nut.

The rail fasteing is ready for use.

154

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Product Information
Hilti HRA Rail Anchor
Evidence of fastening suitability The HRA Rail Anchor is a component of the rail fastening system. Several anchors transfer forces to the base material and interact with other components in a complex system. Determination of the dynamic loads which are imposed has to be carried out for each project and this calls for specialized railway knowledge. Users are already given support by Hilti advisors in this phase. Input for user Information is required about the loading and geometry of the rail fastening point so that the forces imposed can be determined. Your contact Phone Hiltis general representative in your country. The person responsible will contact the rail transportation group. Hilti advisory service Hilti carries out design calculations for fastenings under dynamic loading and determines the number and design of anchors. If necessary, Hilti also simulates the loading of the anchor system in a laboratory. Hilti gives customers supports with the fastening application. Mechanical properties / dimensions of steel core of all anchor types fu Nominal tensile strength > 1220 N/mm2 fy Yield strength > 1150 N/mm2 A5 Elongation at break > 11 % K Notched impact strength > 40 Joules (DVM specimen) do Shank diameter 22 mm du Expanded diameter 26 mm Ao Shank cross-section 380 mm2 Au Expanded cross-section 531 mm2 Wo Section modulus, top 1045.4 mm3 Wu Section modulus, bottom 1725.5 mm3 Electrical insulating properties: The anchor ist tested in two different ways. The testing allows for the standards ASTM D 149 and DIN 53 482. Requirements: 400 Megaohm at 500 V DC (Direct current), dry and after 48hour submersion in water. 5000 V AC (alternating current) over 1 minute, no electrical discharge or breakdown, dry and after 48 hours submersion in water. Ultimate loads Evidence

Input

Contact

Hilti service

Properties

Ultimate loads of HRA Extract from the research and test reports of the external testing laboratories (summary): Construction testing station, HTL Rankweil, Austria

HRA M 22 / 270 set in approx. 30 N/mm2 concrete


Tensile tests: Support, d = 550 mm Support, d = 460 mm Support, d = 100 mm Shear tests: Mode of failure: (kN) x 141.5 133.3 214.3 242.8 s (kN) 18.3 21.7 5.8 14.7 v (%) 12.9 16.3 2.5 6.1 Failure Concrete break Concrete break Anchor break

2 x anchor break, 3 x pull-out concrete spalling

Literature on HRA rail anchor Test report about behaviour under static and dynamic loading of the Hilti HRA rail anchor, size M 22 / 270 State authorized Construction Testing Station of HTL Rankweil (Building Materials and Components, 6830 Rankweil, Austria) Test report no. 175/88 dated September 30, 1988 Research report about testing the suitability of the Hilti HRA anchor for rail fastening Nbg Ia Testing authority for Construction of Overland Traffic Facilities O. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Josef Eisenmann Technical University, Munich Report No. 1300 dated October 9, 1989

Literature

155

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information

Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique


HAS, HAS-R, HAS-HCR
Features: Base material: concrete An anchor fastening without expansion High loading capacity Short distances between anchors from edges Simple handling and setting by hand insertion Anchor rod:

l dh Tinst do dw

hnom h1 h

tfix

Material:

HAS: Galvanized to min. 5 microns; 5.8 HAS-R: Stainless steel, A4-70, 1.4401 HAS-HCR: high corrosion resistance steel, e.g. 1.4529 Mortar cartridge: Hilti HIT HY 150 standard cartridge 330 ml Hilti HIT HY 150 big cartridge 1100 ml Dispenser: MD 2000, P 3000 F, P 5000 HY

Mixer

Adhesive cartridge

HCR
Setting details

High resistance

highMo corrosion

A4 316

Corrosion resistance

Edge-/spacingdistance

Fire resistance

Anchor size M8 Setting detail M 10 M 12 M 16 M 20 M 24

do
h1
hnom
tfix
dh
l
Tinst
Sw
dw
h

[mm] Drill bit diameter


[mm] Hole depth
[mm] Min. depth of embedment
[mm] Max. fastened thickness
[mm] Max. clearance hole
[mm] Rod length
HAS [Nm] Max. tightening torque
HAS-R/HAS HCR
[mm] Width across flats
[mm] Washer diameter
[cm] Min. base material thickness
ml Filling volume
Trigger pulls MD 2000

10
82
80
14
11
110
max. 15
max. 12
13
16
12
4
~1
TE-C-10/17 TE-CX-10/17
TE1, TE5, TE10, TE15, TE18-M

12
92
90
21
13
130
max. 28
max. 23
17
20
14
6
~1
TE-C-12/20 TE-CX-12/22

14
115
110
28
15
160
max. 50
max. 40
19
24
16
8
~1
TE-C-14/23 TE-Y-14/34

18
130
125
38
19
190
max. 85
max. 70
24
30
18
12
~2
TE-C 18/32S TE-Y 18/34S

22
175
170
48
26
240
max. 170
max. 130
30
37
22
28
~3
TE-C 22/27S TE-Y 22/32S

28
215
210
54
29
290
max. 240
max. 200
36
44
27
48
~6
TE-C-28/27S TE-Y 28/52S

Drill bit
Drilling system

TE14, TE15, TE18-M, TE24, TE54*

TE54*, TE74*, TE92*

* for TE-C drill bit only with adapter. Note: To guarantee optimal loads the first two pulls, after opening the cartridge HIT-HY 150 should be discarted.

156

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique HAS, HAS-R, HAS-HCR
Anchor mechanical properties HAS, HAS-R, HAS HCR
Anchor size M8 Mechanical property M 10 M 12 M 16 M 20 M 24

HAS
fu,k [N/mm2] Nominal tensile strength HAS-R
HAS-HCR
HAS
fy,k [N/mm2] Yield strength HAS-R
HAS-HCR
As [mm2] Stressed cross-section
Moment of resistance (section modulus)
HAS
Mrec [Nm]

580
700
700
490
450
450
30.2
23.4
7.0
7.7 7.7

580
700
700
490
450
450
49.0
48.4
14.4
15.9 15.9

550
700
700
460
450
450
72.4
86.9
24.3
28.5 28.5

550
700
700
460
450
450
139
231
64.6
75.8 75.8

530
700
700
430
450
450
219
457
119
150 150

530
700
500
430
450
250
314
785
205
257 143

Wel [mm3]

Recommended
bending moment

HAS-R HAS-HCR

Setting conditions
Temperature C -5 0 5 10 20 30 40 Gel (working) time tgel 40 min 30 min 20 min 11 min 6 min 3 min 1 min Curing time tcure 6h 4h 2h 90 min 60 min 45 min 30 min

The cartridge must have a temperature of at least +5 C when working.

Setting operations

3x
MD 2000

Tinst

Drill hole

Clear hole

Inject mortar

Insert anchor rod, observe tgel

Fix the element, observe tgel and tcure

157

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique HAS, HAS-R, HAS-HCR
Recommended loads The recommended loads are only valid for TE-drilling machine drilled holes. Anchor rod HAS, HAS-R, HAS-HCR Recommended loads F30 in kN, concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2
Type of loading
Tensile load 0
30
Combined load 45
60 Shear load1)
1) 2)

M8
4.8
4.5
4.4
4.3 4.0

M 10
6.3
6.2
6.2
6.1 6.0

M 12
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.4 9.4

M 16
12.1
12.5
12.7
12.9 13.3

M 20
20.0
20.6
20.9
21.1 21.7

M 242)
25.0
27.3
28.5
29.7 32.0

90

For group fastenings the shear load values have to be multiplied with the factor 0.8. For the anchor rod HAS-HCR M24 the recommended shear load is 26.8 kN.

Note: The indicated, recommended load values require a careful cleaning of the hole with brushes and blow-out pump. This holds true for all base materials and for anchor rods HAS as well as for internal thread sleeves HIS.

Recommended load for specific application: HAS, HAS-R, HAS HCR


Frec = F30 fB fT fA fR
For shear load fT = 1

Influence of concrete strenght HAS, HAS-R, HAS HCR


fB = 1 + 0.01 ( 1 90

) (f

cc,act

30) (20 < fcc,act < _ 55)

Influence of depth of embedment HAS, HAS-R, HAS HCR


hact fT = Limiting depth of embedment hlim = 2.0 hnom hnom
hact = actual embedment depth

Embedment depth
HAS hnom (mm) M8 80 M 10 90 M 12 110 M 16 125 M 20 170 M 24 210

158

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique HAS, HAS-R, HAS-HCR
Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA, fR
Reduction factors (Anchor spacing) fA Tensile/Shear Spacing s [mm] 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 130 150 170 190 210 Edge Distance c M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 [mm] Anchor size 0 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.0 0 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.0 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 170 190 220 260 300 340 Reduction factors (Edge distance) fR Tensile fRN Anchor size M8 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 1.0 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 0 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.82 0.85 0.88 0.95 1.0 M8 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.0 Shear fRV Anchor size M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 0 0.44 0.53 0.62 0.71 0.80 0.89 1.0

M8 0.78 0.83 0.89 0.94 1.0

0 0.80 0.84 0 0.87 0 0.91 0.80 0 0.95 0.84 0.80 1.0 0.89 0.83 0.95 0.87 1.0 0.91 0.96 1.0

0 0.71 0.74 0.77 0.80 0.82 0.88 0.93 1.0

0 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.84 0.89 0.96 1.0

0 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.80 0.85 0.89 0.94 1.0

0 0.72 0.75 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.92 0.98 1.0

0 0.44 0.51 0.58 0.65 0.73 0.87 1.0

0 0.45 0.51 0.58 0.64 0.77 0.90 1.0

0 0 0.42 0.47 0.56 0.66 0.80 0.89 1.0

0 0 0.46 0.53 0.65 0.72 0.84 0.99 1.0

Formula: smin = 0.5 hnom, scr = 1.0 hnom fA = 0.45 s + 0.55 hnom

Formula: cmin = 0.5 hnom, ccr = 1.5 hnom fRN = 0.3 c + 0.55 hact

Formula: cmin = 0.5 hnom, ccr = 1.25 hnom fRV = 0.8 90 c hnom

For combined loads: fR = fRN (fRN fRV)

Characteristic loads Rk in kN for HAS, HAS-R, HAS-HCR


Type of loading

Concrete fcc (N/mm2)


20

M8 13.0 14.4 17.3 8.4

M 10 17.0 18.9 22.7 12.6

M 12 25.7 28.5 34.2 19.8

M 16 32.7 36.3 43.6 33.5

M 20 54.0 60.0 72.0 54.7

M 24 67.5 75.0 90.0 80.61)

Tensile NRk

30 50

Shear VRk

30

Steel failure
1)

Steel failure only by anchor rod HAS-HCR M24; characteristic shear load 75,0 kN

Design resistance Rd in kN, HAS, HAS-R, HAS-HCR in concrete fcc = 30 N/mm2


Anchor size Tensile NRd Degrees 0 30 Combined load 45 60 Shear VRd
1)

M8 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.6

M 10 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4

M 12 13.3 13.3 13.2 13.2 13.2

M 16 16.9 17.5 17.8 18.1 18.6

M 20 28.0 28.8 29.2 29.6 30.4

M 241) 35.0 38.3 39.9 41.5 44.8

90

For the anchor rod HAS-HCR M 24 the design resistance values for shear load is 37.5 kN.

159

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique HIS-N and HIS-RN internally threaded sleeves
Features: - Anchor fastenings flush with surface - Complete system consisting of robust foil capsule, internally threaded sleeve and setting tool - No expansion force in base material - High loading capacity -Small distance from edge and between anchors HIS-N : HIS-RN: mortar cartridge carbon steel galvanised to min. 5microns Stainless steel, A4-70, 1.4401 Hilti HIT HY150 HIS-N, HIS-RN internally threaded sleeves
hs

HIT HY 150 mortar cartridge

Material:

A4 316
Corrosion resistance Edge distance/ spacing

df d0

h1 h

Setting details
Anchor size Sleeve HIS-N ..., HIS-RN ... d0 [mm] Drill bit diameter h1 [mm] Hole depth hmin [mm] Min. thickness of base material hs [mm] Thread engagement min length max df [mm] Rec. clearance hole Tinst [Nm] Tightening torque HIS-N HIS-RN Drilling system for anchor setting TEas given or equivalent M8 M8x90 14 90 120 8 20 9 15 12 5 ... 25 M10 M10x110 18 110 150 10 25 12 28 23 5 ... 25 M12 M12x125 22 125 170 12 30 14 50 40 25 ... 75 M16 M16x170 28 170 230 16 40 18 85 70 55 ... 75 M20 M20x205 32 205 280 20 50 22 170 130 55 ... 75

Temperature when setting F 23 32 41 68 86 104 C -5 0 5 20 30 40

Min. time to wait until removing setting tool: tgel 25 min. 18 min. 13 min. 5 min 4 min 2 min

Temperature when setting F 23 32 41 68 86 104 C -5 0 5 20 30 40

Curing time until anchor can be fully loaded: tcure 6 hours 3 hours 1,5 hours 50 minutes 40 minutes 30 minutes

160

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique HIS-N and HIS-RN internally threaded sleeves
Anchor geometry and mechanical properties

Anchor size HIS-N ..., HIS-RN ... Sleeve length Outer sleeve diameter Stressed cross-section Sleeve Stressed cross-section screw Nominal tensile HIS-N strength HIS-RN HIS-N fyk [N/mm] Yield strength HIS-RN W el [mm] Moment of resistance of screw Mrec [Nm] Recommended 5.8 bending moment of 8.8 screw A2/A4 Element l [mm] d [mm] As [mm] As [mm] fuk [N/mm]

M8 M8x90 90 12,5 53,6 36,6 510 700 410 350 31,2 9,1 14,6 10,2

M10 M10x110 110 16,5 110 58,0 510 700 410 350 62,3 18,3 29,3 20,4

M12 M12x125 125 20,5 170 84,3 460 700 375 350 109 32,2 53,6 36,1

M16 M16x170 170 25,4 255 157 460 700 375 350 277 83,6 133,8 93,8

M20 M20x205 205 27,6 229 245 460 700 375 350 375 163,4 261,5 183,3

Setting operations

3x
MD 2000

Tinst

Drill hole

Clear hole

Inject mortar

Insert internally threaded sleeve; observe tgel

Fix the element, observe tgel and tcure

161

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique HIS-N and HIS-RN internally threaded sleeves

      
   



         

  

  
 
   

 

             





        


    


    


    


    



          

    

         


  

     
    


 
     
     
        

     

        
 

      


FB = 1 + 0.01 ( 1 - / 90 ) (fcc,act - 30) [20 < fcc,act < 55]

        

 



162

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique HIS-N and HIS-RN internally threaded sleeves
Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance fA; fR
Reduction factors (Anchor spacing) fA Tensile / Shear Anchor size Spacing s [mm] 50 60 70 80 90 110 120 130 170 190 210 --M8 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.0 M10 0 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 1.0 0 0.80 0.84 0.87 0.95 0.98 1.0 0 0.79 0.84 0.87 0.89 1.0 0 0.79 0.81 0.84 0.92 0.97 1.0 M12 M16 M20 Edge Distance c [mm] 50 60 70 80 90 110 120 150 170 220 260 300 330 Reduction factors (Anchor spacing) fA Tensile fRN Anchor size M8 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.82 0.85 0.92 0.95 1.0 M10 0 0.71 0.74 0.77 0.80 0.85 0.88 0.96 1.0 0 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.91 0.96 1.0 0 0.69 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.81 0.85 0.94 1.0 0 0.71 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.87 0.93 0.99 1.0 M12 M16 M20 M8 0.44 0.53 0.62 0.71 0.80 0.98 1.0 Shear fRV Anchor size M10 0 0.44 0.51 0.58 0.65 0.80 0.87 1.0 0 0.45 0.51 0.58 0.70 0.77 0.96 1.0 0 0.42 0.52 0.56 0.71 0.80 1.0 0 0.43 0.47 0.59 0.66 0.86 1.0 M12 M16 M20

Formula: smin = 0,5 * hnom , scr = 1,0 * hnom fA = 0,45 * s / hnom + 0,55

Formula: cmin = 0,5 * hnom , ccr = 1,5 * hnom fRN = 0,3 * c / hnom + 0,55

Formula: cmin = 0,5 * hnom , ccr = 1,3 * hnom fR = 0,8 * c / hnom

For combined loads : FR, = fRN - (fRN - fRV) * / 90

Design load Rd (kN); uncracked concrete fcc = 30 N/mm


Type of loading Tensile load Combined load Shear load 30 45 60 M8 6.3 5.5 5.1 4.7 3.9 M10 9.5 8.4 7.9 7.3 6.2 M12 12.1 11.1 10.6 10.0 9.0 M16 20.0 19.0 18.5 18.0 17.0 M20 27.5 27.2 27.1 26.9 26.6

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Fastening Technology Manual

New Design Method


Instructions for using this product information
The current design and safety concept, which uses the global safety factor, is being increasingly replaced by the partial safety factor concept. (See for example Ref. 1; page 5). One important feature of this partial safety factor concept is the strict separation of the partial safety factors for the applied loads and the partial safety factors for the resistance of the fastening to these loads Partial safety factors for loads are intended to cover uncertainties and scatter where loads are concerned. Partial safety factors for resistance covers uncertainties and the scatter pertaining to the resistance, i.e. the load bearing capacity of the fastening. This product information observes this strict separation of load and resistance by consequently describing the resistance only. The current international state of the art regarding the design of fastenings [1] was used as the basis for this product information. This design method was simplified to retain as much as possible of the previous design method, while including as much of the latest approach as possible. The details and the benefits of this new design method are described briefly below.

The New Design Method The main features of the new design method are: Differentiation between failure modes: pull-out, concrete or steel failure. The different failure modes, which occur when the anchor is loaded until failure are treated separately. Differentiation of the safety factors based on different failure modes. How these features are used in the actual fastening design work is shown in the following sections.

164

New Design Method

The benefits of this approach are: The new method reflects the actual anchor behaviour in a more accurate fashion, thus leading to higher loads with certain applications. The differentiation between failure modes allows more flexibility with regard to the steel elements without having to perform a new design calculation. The given data are in conformance with future design codes, such as the design method according to ETAG Annex C or ACI 318 chapter 23 (or see Ref. 1).

Fastening Technology Manual

New Design Method


Calculation 1. Tensile resistance: A distinction is made between three failure modes with this type (direction) of loading, namely pull out, concrete failure and failure of the steel element. The following chart shows the flow of required calculations:
Pull out failure
0 Nrec ,p initial value of

Concrete failure
0 N rec ,c initial value of

Tensile steel failure N rec,s recommended load of steel

recommended load

recommended load

Calculate: fB,N concrete strength influencing factor

Calculate: fB,N concrete strength influencing factor

Final recommended load of pull out failure: 0 Nrec,c = N rec ,p f B,N

Calculate: f A,N anchor spacing influencing factor

Calculate: edge distance fR,N influencing factor

Final recommended load of concrete failure: 0 Nrec,c = N rec ,c f B,N f A,N f R,N

Final recommended load: Nrec = min Nrec,p ; N rec,c ; Nrec,s

New Design Method

Safety check: N S Nrec

NS

Value of applied tensile load

165

Fastening Technology Manual

New Design Method


2. Shear resistance: A distinction is made between two failure modes with this type (direction) of loading, namely concrete edge failure, i.e. breaking away of the concrete component edge and the shear failure of the steel element. The following chart shows the flow of required calculations:
Concrete edge failure
0 Vrec ,c initial value of recommended load
1)

Shear steel failure Vrec,s recommended load of steel

Calculate: concrete strength influencing factor fB,V

Calculate: f AR,V anchor spacing and edge distance influence factor

Calculate: influencing factor for direction of f,V loading

Final recommended load of concrete edge failure: 0 Vrec,c = Vrec ,c fB,V fAR, V f,N

Final recommended load: Vrec = min

{ Vrec,c ; Vrec,s }

Safety check: VS Vrec

1)

0 The lead value Vrec ,c is taken as the resistance of a concrete component edge to a single anchor fastening at the minimum edge distance, cmin, and with the lowest concrete strength covered in this product information as well as an applied shear force acting perpendicular to the free edge of the concrete component.

166

New Design Method

VS

Value of applied shear load

Fastening Technology Manual

New Design Method


Final design check
In the final check of the fastening design, the following inequalities must be satisfied: for tension: for shear: NS Nrec VS Vrec

When there are combinations of tensile and shear loads, i. e. loads under an angle with respect to the anchor axis, the design check is given by FS() Frec() NS, VS, FS() denote the characteristic values of applied tensile load, shear load and combined load under an angle respectively. Nrec, Vrec, Frec() denote the recommended values of the resistance to tensile load, shear load and combined load under an angle respectively. These recommended values are obtained from the respective characteristic resistance by dividing the characteristic resistance by the relevant partial safety factors for material and the partial safety factor for action F = 1.4. Note: The appropriate partial safety factors for the resistances are already included in the data given in this product information!

References
[1] Comit Euro-International du Bton, Design of fastenings in concrete: Design Guide - Parts 1 to 3, Bulletin 233, Thomas Telford Publishing, January 1997.

New Design Method

167

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HDA-T / HDA-P design anchor
Features: - High loading capacity - Low expansion force in base material - Quick and easy setting operation by self-undercutting - Tools for anchor removal HDA bolt: HDA sleeve: 8.8, ISO 898 T1, galvanised to min. 5 microns Machined steel with brazed tungsten carbide tips, galvanised to min. 5 microns

HDA-T anchor for through-fastening

Material:

Special Request

HDA-P anchor for pre-setting

Stop drill bit

Setting tool

Cracked concrete
1)

Fatigue

1)

Shock / Seismic

1)

Small edge distance and spacing

Test reports and approval are in preparation

HDA-T

l
M a rk in g
d f

HDA-P

l
d

h ef h m in

t fix

h ef h m in

t fix

Setting details
Anchor size Stop drill bit for HDA-T Stop drill bit for HDA-P Setting tool Head marking
hmin [mm] Min. thickness of base material h ef

HDA-T/HDA-P

20-M10x100/20

22-M12x125/30

22-M12x125/50

30-M16x190/40

30-M16x190/60 Y-HDA-B 30x250 Y-HDA-B 30x190

TE- C-HDA-B 20x120 C-HDA-B 22x155 C-HDA-B 22x175 Y-HDA-B 30x230 TE- C-HDA-B 20x100 C-HDA-B 22x125 C-HDA-B 22x125 Y-HDA-B 30x190

TE- C-HDA-ST 20-M10 C-HDA-ST 22-M12 C-HDA-ST 22-M12 Y-HDA-ST 30-M16 Y-HDA-ST 30-M16 I 200 100 150 10 20 20 21 12 27.5 17 50 L 250 125 190 10 30 30 23 14 33.5 19 80 N 250 125 210 10 50 50 23 14 33.5 19 80 R 380 190 275 15 40 40 32 18 45.5 24 120 S 380 190 295 15

[mm] Effective anchorage depth [mm] Total anchor length min. [mm] Fastenable thickness for HDA-T max. [mm] Fastenable max. thickness for HDA-P HDA-T HDA-P

l
t fix t fix df dw Sw

60 32 18 45.5 24 120

[mm] Clearance hole [mm] Washer diameter [mm] Width across flats

Tinst [Nm] Tightening torque

168

New Design Method

60

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Setting hammer drills
Anchor size HDA-T/HDA-P 20-M10x100/20 22-M12x125/30 TE25 first gear 3.7 4.7 250 - 500 22-M12x125/50 30-M16x190/40 30-M16x190/60

Drilling system for anchor setting as given or equivalent Single impact energy Speed under load
1) 1) 1)

TE75, TE76 Max. hammering power 7.0 9.0 150 - 350

[J] [1/min]

The load capacity of anchors could be decreased by using hammer drills with divergent impact energy and speed. The Hilti Corporation accepts no liability in case of contravention.

The TE hammer drills have to be used in order to assure a safe application.

Setting operations
HDA-T

Drill hole with stop drill bit

Blow out dust and fragments

Expand anchor with setting tool on a hammer drill

Check setting: Setting mark on setting tool must be flush with part fastened surface HDA-P

Check setting: Setting mark on anchor rod must be visible

Secure part to be fastened

Drill hole with stop drill bit

Blow out dust and fragments

Expand anchor with setting tool on a hammer drill

Check setting: Setting mark on setting tool must be flush with concrete surface

Check setting: Setting mark on anchor rod must be visible

Secure part to be fastened

New Design Method

Mechanical properties of the anchor bolt


Anchor size
As fuk

HDA-T/HDA-P Stressed cross-section


2 2

M10 58 800 640 62.3

M12 84.3 800 640 109.2 59.9

M16 157 800 640 277.5 152.2

[mm 2 ] [N/mm ] [N/mm ] [mm ] [Nm]


3

Nominal tensile strength Yield strength Elastic moment of resistance Recommended bending moment
1)

f yk
Wel Mrec
1)

34.2

The recommended bending moment of the HDA-P anchor bolt is calculated from Mrec = MRd, s / F = (1.2 Wel fuk )/ ( Ms F ) , where the partial safety factor for bolts of grade 8.8 is Ms = 1.25 and the partial safety factor for action is taken as F = 1.4 .

169

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HDA-T/HDA-P anchor fastening design for non-cracked concrete
Mean ultimate loads1) for concrete failure, FRu,m, concrete strength C20/25
Load direction Tensile NRu,m Shear VRu,m
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN] non-cracked concrete ccr,N non-cracked concrete cmin [mm] [mm]

M10 77.1 150 16.9 80

M12 107.8 190 25.5 100

M16 202.1 285 51.9 150

Ultimate loads are for concrete cone failure under tension with c ccr,N and concrete edge failure under shear with one edge distance c = cmin and h 1.5 cmin. The mean ultimate loads are evaluated on the basis of the characteristic loads assuming a coefficient of variation of v = 15% and an infinite sample size.

Characteristic loads for concrete failure, FRk,c1), (5%-fractile of the ultimate load)
Load direction Tensile NRk,c Shear VRk,c
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN] non-cracked concrete non-cracked concrete

M10 58.1 12.7

M12 81.2 19.2

M16 152.2 39.1

FRk,c = FRu,m (1 k v ) , k = 1.645.

Design loads against concrete failure, FRd,c1), partial safety factor for concrete Mc = 1.8
Load direction Tensile NRd,c Shear VRd,c
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN] non-cracked concrete non-cracked concrete

M10 32.3 7.1

M12 45.1 10.7

M16 84.6 21.7

FRd,c = FRk,c / Mc .

1) 0 Recommended loads against concrete failure, Frec ,c , partial safety factor for action F = 1.4
Load direction
0 Tensile Nrec ,c 0 Shear Vrec ,c
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN]


2)

M10 23.1 5.0


2)

M12 32.2 7.6


2)

M16 60.4 15.5


2)

non-cracked concrete non-cracked concrete

0 Frec ,c

= FRd,c / F .

Shear loads are given for the minimum edge distances and can be increased, see fAR,V on page 172.

Recommended loads against steel failure, Frec ,s 1)


Load direction Tensile Nrec,s Shear Vrec,s
1) 2) 1)

Type of anchor [kN] [kN] HDA-T/HDA-P HDA-T HDA-P

M10 21.9 31.0 12.5

M12 31.9 38.1 17.1

M16 60.0 66.7

2)

The tensile recommended load against steel failure is calculated from Nrec, s = A s fuk / ( Ms F ) , where the partial safety factor for steel is Ms = 1.5 and the partial safety factor for action is taken as F = 1.4 . The shear recommended load against steel failure is calculated from Vrec,s = VRk,s / ( Ms F ) , where the partial safety factor for steel is Ms = 1.5 for HDA-T and is Ms = 1.25 for HDA-P. The partial safety factor for action is taken as F = 1.4 .

170

New Design Method

35.4

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
TENSION:
c
N rec,p /c/s

N group , cen tric s s

Valid tensile recommended load: Nrec = min { Nrec,c ; Nrec,s


Nrec,s , see previous page.

Tensile recommended load against concrete cone failure, Nrec ,c , for a single anchor in a group by taking into account different concrete strengths, spacing and edge distances:
o Nrec,c = N rec ,c f B f A,N f R,N 0 Nrec ,c , see previous page.

Influence of concrete strength, fB


Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 Concrete test specimen geometry Cylinder compressive strength fck,cyl [N/mm 2 ] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 concrete cylinder: height 30 cm, diameter 15 cm Cube compressive strength fck,cube [N/mm 2 ] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 concrete cube: side length 15 cm fB 1 1.09 1.22 1.34 1.41 1.48 1.55

fB =

fck ,cube 25

Limits: 25 N / mm 2 fck ,cube 60 N / mm 2

Influence of anchor spacing, f A ,N


Anchor spacing s [mm] 100 125 150 190 200 250 300 350 375 400 450 500 550 570 HDA-T/HDA-P anchor size M10 M12 M16 0.67 0.71 0.67 0.75 0.70 0.82 0.75 0.67 0.83 0.77 0.68 0.92 0.83 0.72 1.00 0.90 0.76 0.97 0.81 1.00 0.83 0.85 0.89 0.94 0.98 1.00

Influence of edge distance, fR ,N


Edge distance c [mm] 80 100 120 140 150 160 180 187 200 220 240 260 280 285 HDA-T/HDA-P anchor size M10 M12 M16 0.66 0.76 0.66 0.86 0.74 0.96 0.82 1.00 0.87 0.66 0.90 0.68 0.98 0.73 1.00 0.75 0.79 0.84 0.89 0.94 0.99 1.00

New Design Method

f A,N = 0.5 +

s 6 h ef

fR,N = 0.27 + 0.49 Limits: c min c c cr ,N c min = 0.8 h ef c cr,N = 1.5 h ef

c h ef
Note: If more than 3 edges are smaller than ccr,N consult your Hilti Technica l Advisory Service

Limits: s min s s cr,N s min = h ef s cr,N = 3 h ef

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Product Information
SHEAR:
c2 > 1 .5 c

V rec,c/s

Valid shear recommended load: Vrec = min { Vrec,c ; Vrec,s

c
h> 1 .5 c

s
c2 >

V group, centric
1 .5 c

Shear recommended load against concrete edge failure, Vrec,c, for a single anchor in a group by taking into account different concrete strengths, spacing, edge distances and load direction:
o Vrec,c = Vrec ,c fB f AR, V f, V 0 Vrec ,c , see page 170.

Note: If the conditions regarding h and c2 are not met, consult your Hilti technical advisory service!

Influence of concrete strength, fB, (see page 171)

Formulae for spacing and edge influence, fAR , V :


Formula for single anchor influenced only by edge

f AR, V =

c c c min c min

c 2,1 s n -1 s3 s2

Formula for 2 anchors (edge plus 1 spacing) only valid for s < 3c

fAR, V =

3c + s c 6 c min c min

s1 c 2 ,2 c h > 1,5 c

General formula for n anchors (edge plus n-1 spacings) only valid where sn and sn-1 are each < 3c and c2 > 1.5c

f AR, V =

3 c + s1 + s 2 + ... + sn 1 c 3 n c min c min

Note:

It is assumed that only the row of anchors closest to the free concrete edge carries the centric shear load

Influence of load direction, f,V


Angle [] 0 to 55 60 70 80 90 to 180 f ,V 1 1.1 1.2 1.5 2

Formulae: f, V = 1 f,V = f, V 1 cos + 0.5 sin =2 for 0 55 for 55 < 90 for 90 < 180
V ... applied shear force

172

New Design Method

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
COMBINED LOAD:
F ... applied force
The recommended value for a combined load Frec ( ) is given by:

cos 1.5 sin 1.5 + Frec ( ) = V Nrec rec

New Design Method

173

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HDA-T/HDA-P anchor fastening design for cracked concrete
Mean ultimate loads1) for concrete failure, FRu,m, concrete strength C20/25
Load direction Tensile NRu,m Shear VRu,m
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN] cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm ccr,N cmin [mm] [mm] cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm

M10 55.1 150 12.1 80

M12 77.0 190 18.2 100

M16 144.3 285 37.0 150

Ultimate loads are for concrete cone failure under tension with c ccr,N and concrete edge failure under shear with one edge distance c = cmin and h 1.5 cmin. The mean ultimate loads are evaluated on the basis of the characteristic loads assuming a coefficient of variation of v = 15% and an infinite sample size.

Characteristic loads for concrete failure, FRk,c1), (5%-fractile of the ultimate load)
Load direction Tensile NRk,c Shear VRk,c
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN] cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm

M10 41.5 9.1

M12 58.0 13.7

M16 108.7 27.9

FRk,c = FRu,m (1 k v ) , k = 1.645.

Design loads against concrete failure, FRd,c1), partial safety factor for concrete Mc = 1.8
Load direction Tensile NRd,c Shear VRd,c
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN] cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm

M10 23.1 5.1

M12 32.2 7.6

M16 60.4 15.5

FRd,c = FRk,c / Mc .

1) 0 Recommended loads against concrete failure, Frec ,c , partial safety factor for action F = 1.4
Load direction
0 Tensile Nrec ,c 0 Shear Vrec ,c
1)

Type of concrete [kN] [kN]


2)

M10 16.5 3.6


2)

M12 23.0 5.4


2)

M16 43.1 11.1


2)

cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm

0 Frec ,c = FRd,c / F .

Shear loads are given for the minimum edge distances and can be increased, see fAR,V on page 177.

Recommended loads against steel failure, Frec ,s 1)


Load direction Tensile Nrec,s Shear Vrec,s
1) 2) 1)

Type of anchor [kN] [kN] HDA-T/HDA-P HDA-T HDA-P

M10 21.9 31.0 12.5

M12 31.9 38.1 17.1

M16 60.0 66.7 35.4

2)

The tensile recommended load against steel failure is calculated from Nrec, s = A s fuk / ( Ms F ) , where the partial safety factor for steel is Ms = 1.5 and the partial safety factor for action is taken as F = 1.4 . The shear recommended load against steel failure is calculated from Vrec,s = VRk,s / ( Ms F ) , where the partial safety factor for steel is Ms = 1.5 for HDA-T and is Ms = 1.25 for HDA-P. The partial safety factor for action is taken as F = 1.4 .

174

New Design Method

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
TENSION:
N rec,p /c/s N group , cen tric s s

Valid tensile recommended load: Nrec = min { Nrec,p ; Nrec,c ; Nrec,s

}
c

Tensile recommended load against pull out, Nrec ,p , for a single anchor in a group:
o Nrec,p = Nrec ,p f B

h
c
1)

0 Initial value of the tensile recommended load against pull out, Nrec ,p , in concrete C20/25

Anchor size
0 Nrec ,p
1)

HDA-T/HDA-P in cracked concrete

M10 10

M12 13.9

M16 29.8

[kN]

0 0 0 The initial value of the tensile recommended load against pull out is calculated from Nrec ,p = NRd,p / F = NRk,p / (Mc F ) , where the partial safety factor for concrete Mc = 1.8 and the partial safety for action F = 1.4 .

Influence of concrete strength, fB


Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 Concrete test specimen geometry Cylinder compressive strength 2 fck,cyl [N/mm ] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 concrete cylinder: height 30 cm, diameter 15 cm Cube compressive strength fck,cube [N/mm2] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 concrete cube: side length 15 cm fB 1 1.09 1.22 1.34 1.41 1.48 1.55

fB =

fck ,cube 25

Limits: 25 N / mm 2 fck ,cube 60 N / mm 2

Tensile recommended load against concrete cone failure, Nrec ,c , for a single anchor in a group by taking into account different concrete strengths, spacing and edge distances:
o Nrec,c = N rec ,c f B f A,N f R,N

New Design Method

0 Initial value of the tensile recommended load against concrete cone failure, Nrec ,c , in cracked

1)

concrete C20/25
Load direction
0 Tensile Nrec ,c

2)

Type of concrete [kN] cracked concrete w = 0.3 mm

M10 16.5

M12 23.0

M16 43.1

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Product Information
Influence of anchor spacing, f A ,N
Anchor spacing s [mm] 100 125 150 190 200 250 300 350 375 400 450 500 550 570 HDA-T/HDA-P anchor size M10 M12 M16 0.67 0.71 0.67 0.75 0.70 0.82 0.75 0.67 0.83 0.77 0.68 0.92 0.83 0.72 1.00 0.90 0.76 0.97 0.81 1.00 0.83 0.85 0.89 0.94 0.98 1.00

Influence of edge distance, fR ,N


Edge distance c [mm] 80 100 120 140 150 160 180 187 200 220 240 260 280 285 HDA-T/HDA-P anchor size M10 M12 M16 0.66 0.76 0.66 0.86 0.74 0.96 0.82 1.00 0.87 0.66 0.90 0.68 0.98 0.73 1.00 0.75 0.79 0.84 0.89 0.94 0.99 1.00

f A,N = 0.5 +

s 6 h ef

fR,N = 0.27 + 0.49 Limits: c min c c cr ,N c min = 0.8 h ef c cr,N = 1.5 h ef

c h ef
Note: If more than 3 edges are smaller than ccr,N consult your Hilti Technica Advisory Service

Limits: s min s s cr,N s min = h ef s cr,N = 3 h ef

Tensile recommended load against steel failure, Nrec ,s


Load direction Tensile Nrec,s
1)

1)

Type of anchor [kN] HDA-T/HDA-P

M10 21.9

M12 31.9

M16 60.0

176

New Design Method

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
SHEAR:
Valid shear recommended load: Vrec = min { Vrec,c ; Vrec,s
c
h> 1 .5 c c2 > 1 .5

V rec,c/s
c

s
c2 >

V group, centric
1 .5 c

Shear recommended load against concrete edge failure, Vrec,c, for a single anchor in a group by taking into account different concrete strengths, spacing, edge distances and load direction:
o Vrec,c = Vrec ,c fB f AR, V f, V 0 Vrec ,c

Note: If the conditions regarding h and c2 are not met, consult your Hilti technical advisory service!

, see page 174.

Influence of concrete strength, fB, (see page 175)

Formulae for spacing and edge influence, fAR , V :


Formula for single anchor influenced only by edge

f AR, V =

c c c min c min

c 2,1 s n -1 s3 s2

Formula for 2 anchors (edge plus 1 spacing) only valid for s < 3c

fAR, V

3c + s c = 6 c min c min

s1 c 2 ,2 c h > 1,5 c

General formula for n anchors (edge plus n-1 spacings) only valid where sn and sn-1 are each < 3c and c2 > 1.5c

f AR, V

3 c + s1 + s 2 + ... + sn 1 c = 3 n c min c min

Note:

It is assumed that only the row of anchors closest to the free concrete edge carries the centric shear load

Influence of load direction, f,V


Angle [] 0 to 55 60 70 80 90 to 180 f ,V 1 1.1 1.2 1.5 2

Formulae: f, V = 1 f,V = f, V 1 cos + 0.5 sin =2 for 0 55 for 55 < 90 for 90 < 180
V ... applied shear force

New Design Method

177

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
COMBINED LOAD:
F ... applied force
The recommended value for a combined load Frec ( ) is given by:

cos 1.5 sin 1.5 Frec ( ) = + V Nrec rec

178

New Design Method

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HVA adhesive anchor: HVU capsule with HAS and HAS-R rods
Features: - Robust foil capsule - No expansion force in base material - High loading capacity - Small distance from edge and between anchors - Special lengths available on request HAS anchor rod: 5.8, ISO 898 T1, galvanised to min. 5microns HAS-R anchor rod: Stainless steel, A4-70, 1.4401 HAS-HCR anchor rod: High corrosion resistant quality, 1.4529 HVU capsule: Vinyl urethane methacrylate based resin, styrene free, hardener, quartz sand or corundum, foil tubes

HVU capsule

Material:

HAS, HAS-R and HAS-HCR rods

 
Corrosion resistance


High Corrosion resistance Edge distance/ spacing

df d0

h1 h

t fix

Setting details

1)

Anchor size M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 M39 HVU... M8x80 M10x90 M12x110 M16x125 M20x170 M24x210 M27x240 M30x270 M33x300 M36x330 M39x360 HAS... M8x110/ M10x130/ M12x160/ M16x190/ M20x240/ M24x290/ M27x340/ M30x380/ M33x420 M36x460/ M39x510/ 14 21 28 38 48 54 60 70 80 90 100 2) d0 [mm] Drill bit diameter 10 12 14 18 28 30 35 37 40 42 24 h1 [mm] Hole depth 80 90 110 125 170 210 240 270 300 330 360 hmin [mm] Min. thickness of base 100 120 140 170 220 270 300 340 380 410 450 material l [mm] Total rod length 110 130 160 190 240 290 340 380 420 460 510 tfix [mm] Max. fastenable 14 21 28 38 48 54 60 70 80 90 100 thickness df [mm] Clearance hole, rec. 9 12 14 18 22 26 30 33 36 39 42 max. 11 13 15 19 25 29 31 36 38 41 43 Tinst [Nm] Tightening torque HAS 18 35 60 120 260 450 650 950 1200 1500 1800 HAS-R and -HCR 18 35 60 120 260 450 Drilling system for anchor setting TE- 5...18M 5 ... 25 5 ... 55 25 ... 75 55 ... 75 55 ... 75 55...75 55...75 55...75 55...75 55...75 as given or equivalent DD80...250 80...250 80...250 80...250 80...250 1) The values for the total rod length and the maximum fastenable thickness are only valid for the HAS anchor rods given in this table. If other HAS rods are used, these values will change (Example: HAS M12x260/128; l = 260mm and tfix = 128mm). 2) This has been changed from the former 25mm! Capsule Anchor rod

New Design Method

Temperature when setting: 20 C and above 10 C to 20 C 0 C to 10 C -5 C to 0 C less than -5 C

Min. time to wait until Curing time until anchor removing setting tool: can be fully loaded: trel tcure 8 min. 20 min. 20 min. 30 min. 30 min. 1 hour 1 hour 5 hours Contact your Hilti advisory service.

179

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Setting operations

HVA - HVU with HAS or HAS-R


Anchor geometry and mechanical properties

dp

lp

1)

The recommended value of the bending resistance of the anchor rod is calculated from Mrec,s = (1,2*W* fuk)/(Ms,b x F), where the partial safety factor s,b for grade 5.8 and 8.8 rods is equal to 1.25 and for A4-70 is equal to 1.56 and the partical safety factor for action f = 1.4. The final safety check is then MS Mrec,s.

180

New Design Method

Anchor size M8 [mm] HVU capsule length 110 [mm] HVU capsule diameter 9.3 [mm] Stressed cross-section 32.8 500 [N/mm] Nominal tensile HAS 5.8 strength HAS 8.8 HAS-R 700 HAS 5.8 400 fyk [N/mm] Yield strength HAS 8.8 HAS-R 450 W [mm] Moment of resistance 26.5 Mrec,s [Nm] recommended HAS 5.8 9.1 value of bending HAS 8.8 1) resistance HAS-R 10.2 Sw [mm] Width across flats 13 dw [mm] Washer diameter 16 lp dp As fuk

M10 110 10.7 52.3 500 700 400 450 53.3 18.3 20.5 17 20

M12 127 13.1 76.2 500 700 400 450 93.9 32.2 36.1 19 24

M16 140 17.1 144 500 700 400 450 244 83.6 93.9 24 30

M20 170 22.0 225 500 700 400 450 477 163.4 183.4 30 37

M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 M39 200 225 260 290 320 350 25.7 26.8 31.5 31.5 32.0 35.0 324 427 519 647 759 913 500 800 800 800 800 800 700 400 640 640 640 640 640 450 824 1245 1668 2322 2951 3860 282.3 682.9 914.8 1273.9 1618.9 2134.1 316.8 36 41 46 50 55 59 44 50 56 60 66 72

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HVA anchor fastening design data

Caution: In view of the high loads transferable with HVU, the user must verify that the load on the concrete structure, including loads introduced by the anchor fastening does not cause failure e.g. cracking, of the concrete structure.

TENSION: Pull out/Concrete resistance


Recommended tensile resist ance, N
Anchor size
o

o rec,c

1)

, in C20/25 concrete
M16 M20 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 M39

M8

M10

M12

N rec,c [kN] 7.4 9.9 14.1 20.6 37.4 53.9 66.0 86.6 101.8 121.0 138.6 hnom [mm] Nominal anchorage 80 90 110 125 170 210 240 270 300 330 360 depth 1) o o o The recommended tensile design resistance is calculated from the tensile characteristic resistance N Rk,c by N rec,c= N Rk,c/(Mc,N,xF), where the partial safety factor Mc,N is equal to 2.16 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.



    



 

Influence of anchorage depth, fT


fT = hact hnom

  

 

Limits of actual anchorage depth, hact: hnom hact 2.0hnom Influence of concrete strength, fB,N
Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 Cylinder compressive strength, fck,cyl [N/mm ] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Cube compressive strength, fck,cube [N/mm ] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 fB,N 1 1.06 1.13 1.19 1.25 1.31 1.38

  

fck ,cyl 20 fB,N = 1 + 80


2 Limits: 20 N/mm f ck,cyl 50 2 N/mm

New Design Method

concrete cylinder: concrete cube: height 30cm, 15cm side length 15cm diameter Concrete test specimen geometry

181

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Influence of anchor spacing, fA,N
Anchor spacing s [mm] 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 310 340 390 420 450 480 540 600 660 720 Anchor size M8 0.63 0.64 0.66 0.67 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.81 0.88 0.94 1.00 M10 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.83 0.89 0.94 1.00 M12 M16 M20 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 M39

0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.73 0.77 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.95 1.00

0.63 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.82 0.86 0.90 0.94 1.00

0.63 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00

f A,N = 0.5 +
0.64 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.96 1.00 0.63 0.65 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.85 0.91 0.94 0.97 1.00

s 4h nom

0.63 0.65 0.67 0.69 0.70 0.73 0.76 0.79 0.81 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 1.00

0.63 0.65 0.67 0.68 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.78 0.83 0.85 0.88 0.90 0.95 1.00

0.64 0.65 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.91 0.95 1.00

0.63 0.64 0.65 0.67 0.69 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.83 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00

Limits: smin s scr,N smin=0.5hnom scr,N=2.0 hnom

Influence of edge distance, fR,N


Edge distance c [mm] 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 90 100 110 120 140 160 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Anchor size M8 0.64 0.69 0.73 0.78 0.82 0.87 0.91 1.00 M10 0.64 0.68 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.84 0.92 1.00 M12 M16 M20 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 M39

0.64 0.67 0.71 0.74 0.80 0.87 0.93 1.00

fR,N = 0.28 + 0.72


0.65 0.68 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.91 0.97 1.00

c h nom

0.66 0.70 0.75 0.79 0.87 0.96 1.00

Concrete recommeded tensile resistance, N rec,c for a single anchor in a group:

Nrec,c = No rec,c * fT * fB,N * fA ,N * fR,N

182

New Design Method

0.66 0.69 0.76 0.83 0.90 1.00

0.64 0.70 0.76 0.82 0.91 1.00

0.65 0.71 0.76 0.84 0.92 1.00

0.66 0.71 0.78 0.86 0.93 1.00

Limits: cmin c ccr,N cmin= 0.5 hnom ccr,N= 1.0 hnom Note: If more than 3 edges are smaller than ccr,N consult your Hilti technical advisory service!
0.67 0.74 0.80 0.87 0.93 1.00 0.64 0.70 0.76 0.82 0.88 0.94 1.00

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Steel resistance
Recommended tensile resistance, N rec,s,
Anchor size
2)

1)

of steel
M12 M16 M20 M24 M27 M30 M33 M36 M39

M8

M10

Nrec,s [kN] HAS Grade 5.8 7.8 12.4 18.1 34.4 53.6 77.2 101.6 123.6 154.1 180.8 217.4 2) HAS Grade 8.8 12.5 19.9 29.1 56.4 85.8 123.5 162.7 197.7 246.6 289.2 347.8 2) 3) HAS-R Grade A4-70 8.8 14.0 20.4 38.6 60.2 86.4 63.6 77.2 96.3 118.4 135.9 1) The recommended tensile resistance is calculated using Nrec,s= As*fuk/(Ms,N x F), where the partial safety factor, Ms,N, for grade 5.8 and 8.8 is equal to 1.5; 1.87 for grade A4-70, M8 to M24 and 2.4 for grade A4-70, M27 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4. 2) Data given in italics applies to non-standard rods. 3) Note: The values for the nominal tensile steel strength, fuk, for grade A4-70 changes for the sizes M27 to M39 from 700 N/mm2 to 500 N/mm2, the yield strength, fyk, changes for the sizes M27 to M39 from 450 N/mm2 to 250 N/mm2. The partial safety factor, 1) Ms,N, changes with steel strengths as stated in note above.

Final recommended tensile resistance: Nrec = min{Nrec,c; Nrec,s}

SHEAR:

 


 

   






 

   

 

 

  

Concrete edge resistance


Recommended shear resistance, V
Anchor size V
1) o rec,c

Note: If the conditions regarding h and c 2 are not met, consult your Hilti technical advisory service!
o rec,c 1)

, for C20/25 concrete and the edge distance c=cmin


M12 3.0 55 M16 4.0 65 M20 7.4 85 M24 11 105 M27 14.1 120
o

M8 1.6 40

M10 2.0 45

M30 18 135

M33 21.9 150


o rec,c=

M36 26.4 165 V


o

M39 31.0 180

[kN] [mm] Min. edge distance

cmin

The recommended shear resistance is calculated from the characteristic shear resistance, V Rk,c, using V where the partial safety factor Mc,V is equal to 1.8 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

Rk,c/(Mc,V x F),

New Design Method

Influence of concrete strength fB,V


Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 Cylinder compressive strength fck,cyl [N/mm2] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Cube compressive strength fck,cube [N/mm2] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 fB,V 1 1.12 1.22 1.32 1.41 1.50 1.58

fB,V =

fck,cyl 20

Limits: 20 N/mm2 f ck,cyl 50 N/mm2

183

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance, fAR,V fAR,V
Single anchor influenced by edge 1.0 s/cmin 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 c/cmin 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0

1.00 1.31 1.66 2.02 2.41 2.83 3.26 3.72 4.19 4.69 5.20 5.72 6.27 6.83 7.41 8.00 0.67 0.75 0.83 0.92 1.00 0.84 0.93 1.02 1.11 1.20 1.30 1.03 1.12 1.22 1.32 1.42 1.52 1.62 1.22 1.33 1.43 1.54 1.64 1.75 1.86 1.96 1.43 1.54 1.65 1.77 1.88 1.99 2.10 2.21 2.33 1.65 1.77 1.89 2.00 2.12 2.24 2.36 2.47 2.59 2.71 2.83 1.88 2.00 2.13 2.25 2.37 2.50 2.62 2.74 2.87 2.99 3.11 3.24 2.12 2.25 2.38 2.50 2.63 2.76 2.89 3.02 3.15 3.28 3.41 3.54 3.67 2.36 2.50 2.63 2.77 2.90 3.04 3.17 3.31 3.44 3.57 3.71 3.84 3.98 4.11 2.62 2.76 2.90 3.04 3.18 3.32 3.46 3.60 3.74 3.88 4.02 4.16 4.29 4.43 4.57 2.89 3.03 3.18 3.32 3.46 3.61 3.75 3.90 4.04 4.19 4.33 4.47 4.62 4.76 4.91 5.05 5.20 3.16 3.31 3.46 3.61 3.76 3.91 4.05 4.20 4.35 4.50 4.65 4.80 4.95 5.10 5.25 5.40 5.55 5.69 3.44 3.60 3.75 3.90 4.06 4.21 4.36 4.52 4.67 4.82 4.98 5.13 5.29 5.44 5.59 5.75 5.90 6.05 6.21 3.73 3.89 4.05 4.21 4.36 4.52 4.68 4.84 5.00 5.15 5.31 5.47 5.63 5.79 5.95 6.10 6.26 6.42 6.58 6.74 4.03 4.19 4.35 4.52 4.68 4.84 5.00 5.17 5.33 5.49 5.65 5.82 5.98 6.14 6.30 6.47 6.63 6.79 6.95 7.12 7.28 4.33 4.50 4.67 4.83 5.00 5.17 5.33 5.50 5.67 5.83 6.00 6.17 6.33 6.50 6.67 6.83 7.00 7.17 7.33 7.50 7.67 7.83 8.00

Formulae for spacing and edge influence, (Cmin = 0.5hnom) fAR , V :


Formula for single anchor influenced only by edge

f AR, V =

c c c min c min

c 2,1 s n -1 s3 s2

Tabulated results for 2 anchors (edge plus 1 spacing) only valid for s < 3c

fAR, V =

3c + s c 6 c min c min

s1 c 2 ,2 c h > 1,5 c

General formula for n anchors (edge plus n-1 spacings) only valid where sn and sn-1 are each < 3c and c2 > 1.5c

f AR, V =

3 c + s1 + s 2 + ... + sn 1 c 3 n c min c min

Note:

It is assumed that only the row of anchors closest to the free concrete edge carries the centric shear load

Influence of load direction, f,V


0 to 55 60 70 80 90 to 180 1 1.1 1.2 1.5 2

f, V = 1 f,V = f, V 1 cos + 0.5 sin =2

for 0 55 for 55 < 90 for 90 < 180

V ... applied shear force

Concrete recommended shear resistance, V rec,c, for a single anchor in a group:

Vrec,c = V orec,c * fB,V * fAR,V * f,V


184

New Design Method

Angle []

f ,V

Formulae:

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Steel resistance
Recommended shear resistance, V rec,s , of steel
Anchor size Vrec,s [kN] HAS Grade 5.8 2) HAS Grade 8.8 2) 3) HAS-R A4-70
1) 2)

1)

M8 5.6 9.0 6.3

M10 9.0 14.4 10.1

M12 13.1 20.9 14.6

M16 24.7 39.5 27.7

M20 38.6 61.7 43.3

M24 55.6 88.9 62.3

M27

M30

73.0 117.1 45.8

89.0 142.4 55.6

M33 110.9 177.4 69.4

M36 130.1 208.2 81.4

M39 156.5 250.4 97.9

2) 3)

The recommended shear resistance is calculated using Vrec,s= (0,6 As fuk)/(Ms,VxF). The values for the stressed cross-section, As, and the nominal tensile strength of steel, fuk, are given in the table Anchor mechanical properties and geometry. The partial safety factor, Ms,V, is 1.25 for grades 5.8 and 8.8; 1.56 for grade A4-70, M8 to M24, and 2.0 for grade A4-70, M27 to M39 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4. Data given in italics applies to non-standard rods. Note: The values for the nominal tensile strength of steel, fuk, for grade A4-70 changes for the sizes M27 to M39 from 700 N/mm2 to 500 N/mm2, the yield strength fyk changes for the sizes M27 to M39 from 450 N/mm2 to 250 N/mm2. The partial safety factor, 1) Ms,N, changes due to these changes in steel strengths, as stated in note above.

Final recommended shear resistance: Vrec = min{Vrec,c; Vrec,s } COMBINED LOADS:


N F ... applied force
The tensile and the shear resistance are calculated as shown above. Then the recommended resistance for a combined load F rec() is given by:

cos 1.5 sin 1.5 Frec( ) = + Vrec N rec

New Design Method

185

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HVA adhesive anchor: HVU capsule with HIS-N and HIS-RN internally threaded sleeves
Features: - Anchor fastenings flush with surface - Complete system consisting of robust foil capsule, internally threaded sleeve and setting tool - No expansion force in base material - High loading capacity - Small distance from edge and between anchors HIS-N : carbon steel galvanised to min. 5microns HIS-RN: Stainless steel, A4-70, 1.4401 HVU capsule: Vinyl urethane methacrylate based resin -styrene free, hardener, quartz sand or corundum, foil tubes

HVU Capsule

Material:

HIS-N, HIS-RN internally threaded sleeves

hs

 
Corrosion resistance Edge distance/ spacing

df d0

h1 h

Setting details
Anchor size Capsule HVU... Sleeve HIS-N ..., HIS-RN ... d0 [mm] Drill bit diameter h1 [mm] Hole depth hmin [mm] Min. thickness of base material hs [mm] Thread engagement min length max df [mm] Rec. clearance hole Tinst [Nm] Tightening torque HIS-N HIS-RN Drilling system for anchor setting TEas given or equivalent DDSetting tool HIS-S. M8 M10x90 M8x90 14 90 120 8 20 9 15 12 5 ... 25 M8 M10 M12x110 M10x110 18 110 150 10 25 12 28 23 5 ... 25 M10 M12 M16x125 M12x125 22 125 170 12 30 14 50 40 25 ... 75 M12 M16 M20x170 M16x170 28 170 230 16 40 18 85 70 55 ... 75 M16 M20 M24x210 M20x205 32 205 280 20 50 22 170 130 55 ... 75 M20

Temperature when setting: 20C and above 10C to 20C 0C to 10C -5C to 0C less than -5C

Min. time to wait until Curing time until anchor can removing setting tool: be fully loaded: trel tcure 8 min. 20 min. 20 min. 30 min. 30 min. 1 hour 1 hour 5 hours Contact your Hilti advisory service.

trel

tcure

Tinst

186

New Design Method

Setting operations

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HVA - HVU with HIS-N, HIS-RN
Anchor geometry and mechanical properties
dp

lp

Capsule lp [mm] dp [mm] Element l [mm] d [mm] As [mm]

Anchor size HVU ...

Capsule length Capsule diameter HIS-N ..., HIS-RN ... Sleeve length Outer sleeve diameter Stressed cross-section Sleeve Bolt HIS-N fuk [N/mm] Nominal tensile strength HIS-RN HIS-N fyk [N/mm] Yield strength HIS-RN W [mm] Moment of resistance of bolt Mrec,s [Nm] recommended value of 5.8 bending resistanceof 8.8 1) bolt A2/A4
1)

M8 M10x90 110 10,7 M8x90 90 12,5 53,6 36,6 510 700 410 350 31,2 9.1 14.6 10.2

M10 M12x110 127 13,1 M10x110 110 16,5 110 58,0 510 700 410 350 62,3 18.3 29.3 20.5

M12 M16x125 140 17,1 M12x125 125 20,5 170 84,3 460 700 375 350 109 32.2 53.6 36.1

M16 M20x170 170 22 M16x170 170 25,4 255 157 460 700 375 350 277 83.6 133.9 93.9

M20 M24x210 200 25,7 M20x210 210 27,6 229 245 460 700 375 350 375 163.4 261.5 183.4

The recommended value of the bending resistance of the anchor rod is calculated from Mrec,s = (1,2*W* fuk)/(Ms,b x F), where the partial safety factor Ms,b for grade 5.8 and 8.8 rods is equal to 1.25 and for A4-70 is equal to 1.56 and the partical safety factor for action F. = 1.4. The final safety check is then Ms,b Mrec,s.

HVA (HVU with HIS-N, HIS-RN) anchor fastening design data

Caution: In view of the high loads transferable with HVU, the user must verify that the load on the concrete structure including the loads introduced by the anchor fastening does not cause failure e.g. cracking, of the concrete structure.

TENSION:
    

 



New Design Method

  

 

Concrete/pull out resistance


   

Recommended tensile resistance, N


Anchor size
o

o 1) rec,c ,

in C20/25 concrete
M10 M12 M16 M20

M8

N rec,c [kN] 13.4 21.1 27.9 50.6 71.5 hnom [mm] Nominal anchorage depth 90 110 125 170 205 o o o 1) The recommended tensile resistance is calculated from the tensile characteristic resistance N Rk,c using N rec,c= N Rk,c/(Mc,NxF), where the partial safety factor, Mc,N, is equal to 2.16 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

187

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Influence of concrete strength, fB,N
Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 Cylinder compressive strength fck,cyl [N/mm] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Cube compressive strength fck,cube [N/mm] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 fB,N 1 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30

20 f ck, cyl = 1+ f B,N 100

Limits: 20 N/mm fck,cyl 50 N/mm

concrete cylinder: concrete cube: height 30cm, 15cm side length 15cm diameter Concrete test specimen geometry.

Influence of anchor spacing, fA,N


Anchor spacing s [mm] 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 90 100 110 120 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 310 340 390 410 Anchor size M8 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.81 0.83 0.89 0.94 1.00 M10 M12 M16 M20

Influence of edge distance, fR,N


Edge distance c [mm] 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 90 100 110 120 140 160 180 210 Anchor size M8 0.64 0.68 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.84 0.92 1.00 M10 M12 M16 M20

0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.95 1.00

0.63 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.78 0.82 0.86 0.90 0.94 1.00

0.63 0.65 0.66 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00

0.63 0.65 0.67 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.91 0.98 1.00

0.64 0.67 0.71 0.74 0.80 0.87 0.93 1.00

0.65 0.68 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.91 0.97 1.00

0.66 0.70 0.75 0.79 0.87 0.96 1.00

0.67 0.70 0.77 0.84 0.91 1.00

fR,N = 0.28 + 0.72

c h nom

f A,N = 0.5 +

s 4h nom

Limits: smin s scr,N smin = 0.5hnom scr,N = 2.0hnom

Limits: cmin c ccr,N cmin = 0.5hnom ccr,N = 1.0hnom Note: If more than 3 edges are smaller than ccr,N consult your Hilti technical advisory service!

Concrete recommended tensile resistance, Nrec,c, for a single anchor in a group:

Nrec ,c = No rec,c * fB,N * f A,N * fR,N

188

New Design Method

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Steel resistance
Recommended tensile resistance, Nrec,s , of the steel elements
Anchor size
sleeve Nrec ,s [kN]

1)

M8 13.0 14.4 8.7 13.9 9.8

M10 26.7 29.4 13.8 22.1 15.5

M12 37.2 45.4 20.1 32.1 22.6

M16 55.9 68.2 37.4 60.0 42.0

M20 50.1 61.2 58.6 93.4 65.7

Sleeve

HIS-N HIS-RN

Nbolt rec, s [kN]


1)

Bolt

grade 5.8 grade 8.8 grade A4-70

The recommended tensile resistance is calculated using Nrec,s= As*fuk/(Ms,NxF), where the partial safety factor, Ms,N, for the sleeve, bolts of grade 5.8 and 8.8 is equal to 1.5; 1.87 for grade A4-70 and the partial safety for action F=1.4.

Final recommended tensile resistance:


bolt Nrec = min Nrec,c;Nsleeve rec,s ;Nrec,s

SHEAR:

 

 

   


 



 


 

 

  

Concrete edge resistance

Note: If the conditions regarding h and c 2 are not met, consult your Hilti technical advisory service!
1)

Design shear resistance, V


o

o rec,c

, for C20/25 concrete and the edge distance c=cmin


M8 M10 M12 M16 M20

Anchor size

V rec,c [kN] 2.1 3.2 4.5 7.6 11.4 cmin [mm] Min. edge distance 45 55 65 85 105 1) o o o The recommended shear resistance is calculated from the characteristic shear resistance V Rk,c using V rec= V Rk,c/(Mc,VxF), where the partial safety factor, Mc,V, is equal to 1.8 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

Influence of concrete strength, fB,V

New Design Method

Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60

Cylinder compressive strength fck,cyl [N/mm] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Cube compressive strength fck,cube [N/mm] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60

fB,V 1 1.12 1.22 1.32 1.41 1.50 1.58

fB,V =

fck,cyl 20

Limits: 20 N/mm fck,cyl 50 N/mm

189

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance, fAR,V fAR,V
Single anchor influenced by edge 1.0 s/cmin 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 c/cmin 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0

1.00 1.31 1.66 2.02 2.41 2.83 3.26 3.72 4.19 4.69 5.20 5.72 6.27 6.83 7.41 8.00 0.67 0.75 0.83 0.92 1.00 0.84 0.93 1.02 1.11 1.20 1.30 1.03 1.12 1.22 1.32 1.42 1.52 1.62 1.22 1.33 1.43 1.54 1.64 1.75 1.86 1.96 1.43 1.54 1.65 1.77 1.88 1.99 2.10 2.21 2.33 1.65 1.77 1.89 2.00 2.12 2.24 2.36 2.47 2.59 2.71 2.83 1.88 2.00 2.13 2.25 2.37 2.50 2.62 2.74 2.87 2.99 3.11 3.24 2.12 2.25 2.38 2.50 2.63 2.76 2.89 3.02 3.15 3.28 3.41 3.54 3.67 2.36 2.50 2.63 2.77 2.90 3.04 3.17 3.31 3.44 3.57 3.71 3.84 3.98 4.11 2.62 2.76 2.90 3.04 3.18 3.32 3.46 3.60 3.74 3.88 4.02 4.16 4.29 4.43 4.57 2.89 3.03 3.18 3.32 3.46 3.61 3.75 3.90 4.04 4.19 4.33 4.47 4.62 4.76 4.91 5.05 5.20 3.16 3.31 3.46 3.61 3.76 3.91 4.05 4.20 4.35 4.50 4.65 4.80 4.95 5.10 5.25 5.40 5.55 5.69 3.44 3.60 3.75 3.90 4.06 4.21 4.36 4.52 4.67 4.82 4.98 5.13 5.29 5.44 5.59 5.75 5.90 6.05 6.21 3.73 3.89 4.05 4.21 4.36 4.52 4.68 4.84 5.00 5.15 5.31 5.47 5.63 5.79 5.95 6.10 6.26 6.42 6.58 6.74 4.03 4.19 4.35 4.52 4.68 4.84 5.00 5.17 5.33 5.49 5.65 5.82 5.98 6.14 6.30 6.47 6.63 6.79 6.95 7.12 7.28 4.33 4.50 4.67 4.83 5.00 5.17 5.33 5.50 5.67 5.83 6.00 6.17 6.33 6.50 6.67 6.83 7.00 7.17 7.33 7.50 7.67 7.83 8.00

Formulae for spacing and edge influence, (Cmin = 0.5hnom) fAR , V :


Formula for single anchor influenced only by edge

f AR, V =

c c c min c min

c 2,1 s n -1 s3 s2

Tabulated results for 2 anchors (edge plus 1 spacing) only valid for s < 3c

fAR, V =

3c + s c 6 c min c min

s1 c 2 ,2 c h > 1,5 c

General formula for n anchors (edge plus n-1 spacings) only valid where sn and sn-1 are each < 3c and c2 > 1.5c

f AR, V =

3 c + s1 + s 2 + ... + sn 1 c 3 n c min c min

Note:

It is assumed that only the row of anchors closest to the free concrete edge carries the centric shear load

Influence of load direction, f,V


0 to 55 60 70 80 90 to 180 1 1.1 1.2 1.5 2

f, V = 1 f,V = f, V 1 cos + 0.5 sin =2

for 0 55 for 55 < 90 for 90 < 180

V ... applied shear force

Concrete recommended shear resistance, V rec, c, for a single anchor in a group:


o Vrec,c = Vrec ,c * fB, V * fAR, V * f , V

190

New Design Method

Angle []

f ,V

Formulae:

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Steel resistance
Recommended shear resistance, V rec,s , of steel
Anchor size Vrec,s [kN] Bolt grade 5.8 grade 8.8 grade A4-70 M8 6.3 10.1 7.1 M10 9.9 15.9 11.1 M12 14.4 23.1 16.2 M16 26.9 43.1 30.2 M20 42.0 67.2 47.1
1)

1)

The recommended shear resistance is calculated using Vrec,s= (0,6 As fuk)/(Ms,VxF). The values for the stressed cross-section, As, of the bolt and the nominal tensile steel strength, fuk, are taken from the bolt standard ISO 898. The partial safety factor Ms,V for grade 5.8 and 8.8 is equal to 1.25 and 1.56 for grade A4-70 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

Final recommended shear resistance: Vrec = min{Vrec,c ; Vrec, s}

COMBINED LOADS:
N F ... applied force
The tensile and the shear resistance are calculated as above. Then the recommended resistance for a combined load F rec() is given by:

cos 1.5 sin 1.5 Frec( ) = + Vrec Nrec

New Design Method

191

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HVA adhesive anchor: HVU capsule with rebar sections Design method for anchors
Features: -Complete preconditioned rebar fastening - No expansion force in base material - High loading capacity - Small distance from edge and between anchors HVU Capsule Material: Rebar: Type BSt 500 according to DIN 488 (see also Euronorm 82-79). For differing rebar, consult your Hilti advisory service HVU capsule: Vinyl urethane methacrylate based resin -styrene free, hardener, quartz sand or corundum, foil tubes

Rebar section

d0

Edge distance/ spacing

h1 h

Setting details
Rebar dia. d [mm] 10 12 14 16 20 25 28 32 36 Capsule HVU... M10x90 M12x110 M16x125 M16x125 M20x170 M24x210 M30x270 M33x330 M39x360 d0 [mm] Drill bit diameter 12 15 18 20 25 30 35 40 42 h1 [mm] Hole depth 90 110 125 125 170 210 270 300 360 hmin [mm] Min. thickness of base 120 140 170 170 220 270 340 380 460 material Drilling system for setting rebar TE- 5...18M 5...25 5...55 25...75 55...75 55...75 55...75 55...75 55...75 as given or equivalent DDSetting tool HVA-RA 10 12 16 22 25 Min. time to wait until Curing time until anchor can removing setting tool: be fully loaded: trel tcure 8 min. 20 min. 20 min. 30 min. 30 min. 1 hour 1 hour 5 hours Contact your Hilti advisory service.

Temperature when setting: 20C and above 10C to 20C 0C to 10C -5C to 0C less than -5C

Setting operations

0 /d

trel

tcure

192

New Design Method

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
HVA - HVU with rebar sections
Anchor mechanical properties and geometry
d
dp

anchorage depth
lp

addtional length according to application

Note: The rebar section must be cut at a 45 angle at the embeded end!
10 M10x90 110 10.7 10 78.5 12 14 16 20 25 28 32 36 M12x110 M16x125 M16x125 M20x170 M24x210 M30x270 M33x330 M39x360 127 140 140 170 200 260 290 320 13.1 17.1 17.1 22 25.7 31.5 31.5 35 12 113.1 14 153.9 16 201.1 20 314.2 550 500 25 490.9 28 615.8 32 804.2 36 1017.9

Rebar dia. d [mm] HVU capsule lp [mm] HVU capsule length d [mm] Nominal rebar diameter Rebar section d [mm] Nominal rebar diameter As [mm] Stressed cross-section fuk [N/mm] Nominal tensile strength fyk [N/mm] Yield strength

HVA rebar as anchor fastening design data

Caution: In view of the high loads transferable with HVU,the user must verify that the load on the concrete structure including the loads introduced by the anchor fastening do not cause failure e.g. cracking, of the concrete structure.

TENSION: Concrete/pull out resistance


Recommended tensile resistance, N
Rebar dia. d [mm]
o

o rec,c

1)

, in C20/25 concrete
12 14 16 20 25 28 32 36

10

N rec,c [kN] 8.9 13.7 18.7 20.8 35.3 54.5 68.7 81.0 94.2 hnom [mm] Nominal anchorage depth 90 110 125 125 170 210 270 300 360 o o o 1) The recommended tensile resistance is calculated from the characteristic tensile resistance N Rk,c using N rec,c= N Rk,c/(Mc,NxF), where the partial safety factor, Mc,N, is equal to 2.16 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

New Design Method



    



 

Influence of anchorage depth, fT


fT = hact hnom
    

Limits of actual anchorage depth, hact: hnom hact 2.0hnom


   

193

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Influence of concrete strength, fB,N
Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 Cylinder compressive strength fck,cyl [N/mm] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Cube compressive strength fck,cube [N/mm] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 fB,N 1 1.03 1.06 1.09 1.12 1.15 1.18

20 f ck, cyl = 1+ f B, N 170

Limits: 20 N/mm fck,cyl 50 N/mm

concrete cylinder: concrete cube: height 30cm, 15cm side length 15cm diameter Concrete test specimen geometry

Influence of anchor spacing, fA,N


Anchor spacing s [mm] 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 250 280 310 340 390 420 450 480 540 600 660 720 Rebar dia. d [mm] 10 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.83 0.89 0.94 1.00 12 14 16 20 25 28 32 36

Influence of edge distance, fR,N


Edge distance c [mm] 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 90 100 110 120 140 160 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 Rebar dia. d [mm] 10 0.64 0.68 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.84 0.92 1.00 12 14 16 20 25 28 32 36

0.63 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.73 0.77 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.95 1.00

0.63 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.82 0.86 0.90 0.94 1.00

0.63 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.82 0.86 0.90 0.94 1.00

0.63 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00

0.64 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.96 1.00

0.64 0.67 0.71 0.74 0.80 0.87 0.93 1.00

0.63 0.65 0.67 0.69 0.70 0.73 0.76 0.79 0.81 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 1.00

0.63 0.65 0.67 0.68 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.78 0.83 0.85 0.88 0.90 0.95 1.00

0.65 0.68 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.91 0.97 1.00

0.65 0.68 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.91 0.97 1.00

0.63 0.64 0.65 0.67 0.69 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.83 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00

0.66 0.70 0.75 0.79 0.87 0.96 1.00

0.66 0.69 0.76 0.83 0.90 1.00

0.65 0.71 0.76 0.84 0.92 1.00

0.66 0.71 0.78 0.86 0.93 1.00

0.64 0.70 0.76 0.82 0.88 0.94 1.00

fR,N = 0.28 + 0.72

c h nom

fA,N = 0.5 +

Limits: smin s scr,N smin = 0.5hnom scr,N = 2.0hnom

Concrete recommended tensile resistance, N rec,c, for a single anchor in a group: Nrec,c = No rec,c * fB,N * f A,N * fR,N

194

New Design Method

s 4h nom

Limits: cmin c ccr,N cmin = 0.5hnom ccr,N = 1.0hnom Note: If more than 3 edges are smaller than ccr,N consult your Hilti technical advisory service!

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Steel resistance
Recommended tensile resistance, Nrec , of the rebar sections
Rebar dia. d [mm] Nrec,s [kN] rebar section
1)

1)

10 21.3

12 30.6

14 41.6

16 54.4

20 85

25 132.8

28 166.6

32 217.6

36 275.4

The recommended tensile resistance using Nrec,s= As*fyk/(Ms,NxF), where the partial safety factor, Ms,N, for rebar sections, type BSt 500 is equal to 1.32 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

Final recommended tensile resistance: Nrec = min{Nrec,c; Nrec,s}

SHEAR:

 

 

   


 



 


 

 

  

Concrete edge resistance


Recommended shear resistance, V
o

Note: If the conditions regarding h and c 2 are not met, consult your Hilti technical advisory service!
o rec,c 1)

, for C20/25 concrete and the edge distance c=cmin


12 14 16 20 25 28 32 36

Rebar dia. d [mm]

10

V rec,c [kN] 2.1 3 4.2 4.4 7.4 11.2 18.0 22.4 31.0 cmin [mm] Min. edge distance 45 55 65 65 85 105 135 150 180 1) o o o The recommended shear resistance is calculated from the characteristic shear resistance, V Rk,c, using V rec,c= V Rk,c/(Mc,VxF), where the partial safety factor, Mc,V, is equal to 1.8 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

Influence of concrete strength, fB,V


Concrete strength designation (ENV 206) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 Cylinder compressive strength fck,cyl [N/mm] 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Cube compressive strength fck,cube [N/mm] 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 fB,V 1 1.12 1.22 1.32 1.41 1.50 1.58

fB,V =

fck,cyl 20

Limits: 20 N/mm fck,cyl 50 N/mm

New Design Method

195

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Influence of anchor spacing and edge distance, fAR,V fAR,V
Single anchor influenced by edge 1.0 s/cmin 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 c/cmin 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0

1.00 1.31 1.66 2.02 2.41 2.83 3.26 3.72 4.19 4.69 5.20 5.72 6.27 6.83 7.41 8.00 0.67 0.75 0.83 0.92 1.00 0.84 0.93 1.02 1.11 1.20 1.30 1.03 1.12 1.22 1.32 1.42 1.52 1.62 1.22 1.33 1.43 1.54 1.64 1.75 1.86 1.96 1.43 1.54 1.65 1.77 1.88 1.99 2.10 2.21 2.33 1.65 1.77 1.89 2.00 2.12 2.24 2.36 2.47 2.59 2.71 2.83 1.88 2.00 2.13 2.25 2.37 2.50 2.62 2.74 2.87 2.99 3.11 3.24 2.12 2.25 2.38 2.50 2.63 2.76 2.89 3.02 3.15 3.28 3.41 3.54 3.67 2.36 2.50 2.63 2.77 2.90 3.04 3.17 3.31 3.44 3.57 3.71 3.84 3.98 4.11 2.62 2.76 2.90 3.04 3.18 3.32 3.46 3.60 3.74 3.88 4.02 4.16 4.29 4.43 4.57 2.89 3.03 3.18 3.32 3.46 3.61 3.75 3.90 4.04 4.19 4.33 4.47 4.62 4.76 4.91 5.05 5.20 3.16 3.31 3.46 3.61 3.76 3.91 4.05 4.20 4.35 4.50 4.65 4.80 4.95 5.10 5.25 5.40 5.55 5.69 3.44 3.60 3.75 3.90 4.06 4.21 4.36 4.52 4.67 4.82 4.98 5.13 5.29 5.44 5.59 5.75 5.90 6.05 6.21 3.73 3.89 4.05 4.21 4.36 4.52 4.68 4.84 5.00 5.15 5.31 5.47 5.63 5.79 5.95 6.10 6.26 6.42 6.58 6.74 4.03 4.19 4.35 4.52 4.68 4.84 5.00 5.17 5.33 5.49 5.65 5.82 5.98 6.14 6.30 6.47 6.63 6.79 6.95 7.12 7.28 4.33 4.50 4.67 4.83 5.00 5.17 5.33 5.50 5.67 5.83 6.00 6.17 6.33 6.50 6.67 6.83 7.00 7.17 7.33 7.50 7.67 7.83 8.00

Formulae for spacing and edge influence, (Cmin = 0.5hnom) fAR , V :


Formula for single anchor influenced only by edge

f AR, V =

c c c min c min

c 2,1 s n -1 s3 s2

Tabulated results for 2 anchors (edge plus 1 spacing) only valid for s < 3c

fAR, V =

3c + s c 6 c min c min

s1 c 2 ,2 c h > 1,5 c

General formula for n anchors (edge plus n-1 spacings) only valid where sn and sn-1 are each < 3c and c2 > 1.5c

f AR, V =

3 c + s1 + s 2 + ... + sn 1 c 3 n c min c min

Note:

It is assumed that only the row of anchors closest to the free concrete edge carries the centric shear load

Influence of load direction, f,V


0 to 55 60 70 80 90 to 180 1 1.1 1.2 1.5 2

f, V = 1 f,V = f, V 1 cos + 0.5 sin =2

for 0 55 for 55 < 90 for 90 < 180

V ... applied shear force

Concrete recommended shear resistance, V rec,c, of a single anchor in the group:


o Vrec,c = Vrec ,c * fB, V * fAR, V * f , V

196

New Design Method

Angle []

f ,V

Formulae:

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Steel resistance
Recommended shear resistance, V rec,s , of rebar sections
Rebar dia. d [mm] Vrec,s [kN]
1)

1)

10 12.4

12 17.8

14 24.2

16 31.6

20 49.5

25 77.1

28 96.6

32 126.2

36 169.5

The recommended shear resistance is calculated using Vrec,s= (0,6As fuk)/(Ms,VxF). The partial safety factor, Ms,V, for rebar sections, type BSt 500 is equal to 1.5 and the partial safety factor for action F=1.4.

Final recommended shear resistance: Vrec = min{Vrec ,c ; Vrec, s }

COMBINED LOADS:
N F ... applied force
The tensile and the shear resistance are calculated as above. Then the recommended resistance for a combined load Frec is given by:

cos 1.5 sin 1.5 Frec() = + Vrec Nrec

New Design Method

197

Fastening Technology Manual

Product Information
Hilti HIT HY 150 injection technique
Rebar fastening
0 /d

Features:

Base material: concrete Fastening without expansion High loading capacity Simple handling and setting Rebar: Steel of the grade fyk: 460 N/mm2 Adhesive mortar: Hilti HIT HY 150 standard cartridge 330 ml Hilti HIT HY 150 big cartridge 1100 ml Dispenser: MD 2000, BD2000, P 3000 F, P 5000 HY

Material:

h1 h

Adhesive bond
Hilti HIT-HY 150 adhesive is a hybrid system consisting of organic and inorganic binding agents. The poly merisation reaction of the resin component ensures good bonding and a rapid curing injection system with good handling characteristics. The cementitious reaction improves stiffness and bonding, especially at higher temperatures. The combined action of the two components results in negligible material shrinkage. The result is a very strong bond between rebar and concrete similar to that of cast in situ reinforcement. The hybrid mortar contains no styrene and is virtually odourless. Organic agents + Cementitions agents

d0

Strong hybrid bond

Setting details
Rebar size Y10 Setting details Y12 Y16 Y20 Y25 Y32 Y40

do
h1

[mm] Drill bit diameter


[mm] Hole depth
Filling volume** ml

14
100
9.6
TE-C-12/27

16
120
13
TE-C-14/23 TE-Y-14/34

22
160
36
TE-C 20/22 TE-Y 20/32

28
300
115
TE-C-25/27 TE-Y-25/32

32
375
150

40
480
276

48
600
422
DD-BI-48

Drill bit
Drilling system

TE-C-30/37 TE-Y-40/100 TE-Y-30/37

TE5, TE10, TE14, TE15, TE18-M, TE24

TE24, TE54*, TE74*, TE92*, DD80E, DD160E

* for TE-C drill bit only with adapter Note: To guarantee optimal loads the first two pulls, after opening the cartridge HIT-HY 150 should be discarted.
Setting conditions
Temperature C Gel (working) time tgel Curing time tcure

10 20 30 40

11 min 6 min 3 min 1 min

90 min 60 min 45 min 30 min

The cartridge must have a temperature of at least +5 C when working.

Setting operations

3x
MD 2000

Drill hole

Clean hole

Inject mortar
2

Insert Rebar

Test loads in kN, Rebar in concrete fcc = 30 N/mm


Rebar Size Pull Out load Y10 48.3 Y12 63.6

Y16 98.7

Y20 170.4

Y25 212.8

Y32 373.0 434.5

Y40 532.0

Note: This indicated, load values require a careful cleaning of the hole with brushes and blow-out pump.

198

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Appendix I - List of Test Report


Anchor type HSL-TZ Description Pull-out Test for the size M8-M20 Authority / Laboratory University of Hong Kong HSL-TZ Shear Test for size M8-M20 University of Hong Kong HSL Certification of use for fixtures in civil defence installations HSL-TZ Bundesamt fr Zivilschutz, D No./year AN-11&24 92 An-25 92 ZS-459-01 4.2.1992 Z-21.1-857 4.2.1991 Germany Germany Hong Kong Original in Hong Kong

Notification of Approval: Hilti HSL-TZ, Institut fr BauHSL-G and HSL-B-TZ heavy duty anchor (Valid until: 28.2.1996) technik, Berlin

HSL

Cahier des charges demploi et de mise en oeuvre des chevilles pour fixations de scurit HSL, HSLB, HSLG (valable jusquau 1.5.1993)

SOCOTEC, France

g 92.828 12/88

France

HSC-A/I

Pull-out Test for the size M8-M12

University of Hong Kong

An-56 92 An-57 92 Z-21.1-643 28.9.1990

Hong Kong

HSC-A/I

Shear Test for size M8-M12

University of Hong Kong

Hong Kong

HSC

Notification of Approval: Security anchor HSC-A, HSC-AR and HSC-1 for the tensile and compression zone (Valid until: 31.8.1995)

Institut fr Bautechnik, Berlin

Germany

199

Fastening Technology Manual

Appendix I - List of Test Report


Anchor type HSC Description Cahier des charges demploi et de mise oeuvre des chevilles de scurit HSC (valable jusquau 1.1.1995) HST-R Pull-out Test for the size M8-M24 University of Hong Kong HST-R Shear Test for size M8-M24 University of Hong Kong HST-R Notification of approval: Hilti HST-R stud anchor (Valid until: 31.1.1997) HUC Institut fr Bautechnik, Berlin An-85 93 An-86 93 Z-21.1-955 27.2.1992 Z-21.1-699 16.10.1990 MI-960XXX Hong Kong 96 MI-960XXX Hong Kong 96 An-56 92 An-57 92 An-56 92 Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Germany Germany Hong Kong Hong Kong Authority / Laboratory SOCOTEC, France No./year VX1034/2 1/92 Original in France

Notification of Approval: Hilti undercut- Institut fr Bauanchor HUC (Valid until: 31.10.1995) technik, Berlin University of Hong Kong

HVU-HAS

Pull-out Test for the size M12-M20

HVU-HAS

Shear Test for size M12-M20

University of Hong Kong

HY150

Pull-out Test for the rebar Y10-Y25

University of Hong Kong

HY150

Pull-out Test for the rebar Y16-Y32

University of Hong Kong

HY150

Shear Test for rebar Y40

University of Hong Kong

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Fastening Technology Manual

Appendix II - Application Reference in Hong Kong

HKD-S: Electrical Installation

HY150: Floor Slab Connection

HY150: Tower Crane Installation

HY150: Vertical Wall Connection

HKD-S: Air Duct Installation

HVU: Gondula Track Installation

HVU: Road Fencing Fixing

HVU: Lamp Post Fixing

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Appendix II - Application Reference in Hong Kong

HSL-TZ: Structural Canopy

HSL-TZ: Sturctural Steel Fixing

HST-R: External Cladding

HSL-GR: Window Wall Fixing

HSA: Internal Glass Wall

HSC: Marble Fixing

HST-R: Window Fixing

HSL-GR: Curtain Wall Fixing


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Hilti Engineering / Testing Service / Download

Anchor Design Team

Technical Seminar

Technology Conference

Site Investigation

Pull-out Test Service

Site Demonstration

Hilti download page


Calculation and design software
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