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March 21-22, 2014
David Robertson, conductor Gil Shaham, violin
INGRAM MARSHALL Bright Kingdoms (2003) (b. 1942) KORNGOLD Violin Concerto in D major, op. 35 (1937, rev. 1945) (1897-1957)
Moderato nobile Romance: Andante Finale: Allegro assai vivace Gil Shaham, violin INTERMISSION
DVOŘÁK Symphony No. 9 in E minor, op. 95, (1841-1904) “From the New World” (1893)
Adagio; Allegro molto Largo Scherzo: Molto vivace Allegro con fuoco
David Robertson is the Beofor Music Director and Conductor. Gil Shaham is the Carolyn and Jay Henges Guest Artist. The concert of Friday morning, March 21, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Dr. Virginia V. Weldon. The concert of Friday morning, March 21, includes coffee and doughnuts provided by Krispy Kreme. The concert of Friday evening, March 21, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mr. and Mrs. Norman L. Eaker. The concert of Friday evening, March 21, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Mr. and Mrs. James R. von der Heydt. Join David Robertson following the concert of Friday evening, March 21, for a Q&A to learn more about the program. Sponsored by University College at Washington University professional and continuing education. The concert of Saturday, March 22, is underwritten in part by a generous gift from Drs. Dan and Linda Phillips. Pre-Concert Conversations are sponsored by Washington University Physicians. These concerts are part of the Wells Fargo Advisors series. Large print programs are available through the generosity of Delmar Gardens and are located at the Customer Service table in the foyer.
BY PA U L SC H I AVO
1893 DVOŘÁK Symphony No. 9 in E minor, op. 95, “From the New World” Thomas Edison completes work on world’s ﬁrst motion picture studio 1937 KORNGOLD Violin Concerto in D major, op. 35 George Gershwin dies of brain tumor, at age 39, in Beverly Hills 2003 INGRAM MARSHALL Bright Kingdoms U.S. and British forces invade Iraq
These compositions explore new musical territory. Ingram Marshall’s Bright Kingdoms uses prerecorded sounds in an orchestral context. Erich Wolfgang Korngold’s Violin Concerto also owes something to what was, when it was written, still a young technological development. Korngold was a renowned composer of Hollywood film scores, and he wrote this concerto using themes that originally appeared in the soundtracks for several movies. Antonín Dvořák’s Symphony No. 9, “From the New World,” predates the kind of modern technical developments that shape Marshall’s and Korngold’s compositions. Nevertheless, it brings a fresh American spirit to the genre of the central-European Romantic symphony, a novel achievement. INGRAM MARSHALL Bright Kingdoms KINGDOMS OF INNOCENCE Although he worked extensively with sound synthesizers early in his career, most of Ingram Marshall’s compositions of the last three decades have used instruments and recorded sounds, usually altered through electronic processing. Among those works are two pieces for orchestra and recorded sounds, Peaceable Kingdom and Kingdom Come. The St. Louis Symphony performed the latter piece in 2005. (The Orchestra also commissioned and played the first performance of Marshall’s Sinfonia “Dolce far Niente,” in 1998.) We hear a third of Marshall’s “Kingdom” pieces. Like its companions, Bright Kingdoms combines instrumental music and recorded sounds, the latter electronically processed in various ways. The recorded sources are a Swedish children’s choir and a boy singing a hymn whose words translate as “Through the bright kingdoms of this earth, go we to paradise with song.” The composer has written of this work: “Unconsciously, the music turned out to be about innocence, the kingdoms of innocence and the dissolution of those kingdoms.”
The recorded choir emerges from the first sound we hear, a single note sustained in the deep register of the orchestral basses and colored by a timpani roll. Initially the choral singing seems indistinct, as if the voices are coming from underwater, but they quickly grow brighter and clearer. Suddenly, however, the piece shifts to a faster tempo and embarks on a long episode for the orchestra alone. Here busy textures, assertive orchestration, generally static harmonies, and the repetition of short motifs yield music in a post-minimalist style recalling that of John Adams, a longtime friend of Marshall and advocate for his music. Eventually we come to another change and a new section featuring the bright sounds of bells and trumpet. The recorded voices also return and join with the orchestra in producing lush Romantic harmonies. When this music has run its course, the orchestral strings begin an elegiac passage based on the familiar hymn “Abide with Me.” At length, the polyphony of string sound dissolves, and children’s voices, pale and almost ghostly, take up the hymn melody. Soon the music is overtaken by darkly atmospheric sounds that suggest, as Marshall says, the end of the bright kingdom of innocence. This development augers a somber conclusion; but the final passage restores the hymn of the strings amid what seems the ringing of hundreds of bells. ERICH WOLFGANG KORNGOLD Violin Concerto in D major, op. 35 A ST. LOUIS PREMIERE The St. Louis Symphony has given the first performances of more than a few compositions. Many of these are recent works commissioned by the orchestra. But one, which has entered the standard orchestral repertory, dates back nearly seven decades. This is the Violin Concerto of Erich Wolfgang Korngold. The son of a prominent music critic, Korngold was a composer child prodigy. Gustav Mahler, upon hearing some of the 10-year-old Korngold’s compositions, extolled the boy’s “unbelievable talent.” Richard Strauss reacted to Korngold’s early orchestral scores by declaring: “One’s first reactions to the knowledge that these
Born May 10, 1942, Mount Vernon, New York Now Lives New Haven, Connecticut First Performance January 23, 2004, in Oakland, California, Michael Morgan conducted the Oakland East Bay Symphony Orchestra STL Symphony Premiere This week Scoring 2 ﬂutes piccolo 2 oboes English horn 2 clarinets bass clarinet 2 bassoons contrabassoon 4 horns 3 trumpets piccolo trumpet 3 trombones tuba timpani percussion piano strings recorded sounds Performance Time approximately 17 minutes
compositions are by an adolescent are feelings of awe and fear.” Korngold’s music soon was being performed by leading orchestras and soloists. The composer sealed his early reputation with a highly successful opera, Die tote Stadt, composed when he was 20. A CAREER IN HOLLYWOOD In the years that followed, Korngold continued to write in a variety of musical genres. In 1935 the celebrated theater director Max Reinhardt invited Korngold to Hollywood to adapt music for his famous film version of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The success of that project prompted the composer to remain in California. He soon became the most respected film composer in Hollywood. Among the movies for which he wrote scores were Anthony Adverse and The Adventures of Robin Hood (both of which brought him Academy Awards), Juarez, The Sea Hawk, The Prince and the Pauper, and Of Human Bondage. Korngold’s musical outlook was unapologetically Romantic. A rich harmonic palette and an effusive style of orchestration impart a late-19thcentury ripeness to his music, and his sweeping melodic lines recall those of Strauss. These qualities led to the neglect of Korngold’s music after his death, in 1957, when Modernism was at its zenith in compositional circles, but a recognition of these same qualities have recently given his work a second life. The past three decades have seen a renewed interest in and appreciation of Korngold’s music, and performances of Die tote Stadt, as well as his Violin Concerto and other concert works, have established Korngold as perhaps the last important Romantic composer. FILM MUSIC TO CONCERTO Korngold composed his Violin Concerto in 1945 for the great Hungarian violinist Bronislaw Huberman. For some reason, however, Huberman declined to perform it, and the premiere fell to Jascha Heifetz, who played it with the St. Louis Symphony in 1947. The piece adheres to the traditional concerto form of three movements and uses themes borrowed from Korngold’s film scores.
Born May 29, 1897, Brno, Moravia Died November 29, 1957, Hollywood, California First Performance February 15, 1947, in St. Louis, Jascha Heifetz was the soloist, and the St. Louis Symphony was conducted by its music director, Vladimir Golschmann Most Recent STL Symphony Performance October 17, 2009, James Ehnes was soloist, with Bramwell Tovey conducting Scoring solo violin 2 ﬂutes piccolo 2 oboes English horn 2 clarinets bass clarinet 2 bassoons contrabassoon 4 horns 2 trumpets trombone timpani percussion harp celesta strings Performance Time approximately 24 minutes
ANTONÍN DVOŘÁK Symphony No. 9 in E minor, op. 95, “From the New World” CZECH COMPOSER IN AMERICA Antonín Dvořák was born in Bohemia, the country we now know as the Czech Republic, and during the 1870s rose to prominence as his homeland’s foremost composer. In the years that followed his fame spread throughout Europe and even across the Atlantic, where it attracted the notice of a Jeanette Thurber, who had established a new conservatory of music in New York. In 1891 she invited Dvořák to become the director of this school. He would be well compensated and his duties light, leaving plenty of time for composing. Dvořák accepted the position, and in September 1892 he sailed for America, where he spent most of the next three years. It was during this American chapter in his life that Dvořák composed his Symphony No. 9, which bears the subtitle “From the New World.” Dvořák declared that he intended the subtitle to mean “Impressions and greetings from the New World.” This heading signifies something very different from a musical panorama of America and American life, which some commentators have held the piece to be. Yet Dvořák also stated that the symphony’s American provenance would be obvious “to anyone who ‘had a nose.’” He told one correspondent: “I do know that I would never have written [it] ‘just so’ had I never seen America.” This ambivalent perspective applies to the symphony’s thematic material. During his American sojourn Dvořák expressed interest in black spirituals and Native American tribal music, and he once alluded to the “peculiarities of Negro and Indian music” in the themes of this symphony. But, as he also emphasized, there are no actual quotations of any American music in the “New World” Symphony. Moreover, most of the “peculiarities” of its melodies are also those of Czech folk song.
Born September 8, 1841, Nelahozeves, Bohemia Died May 1, 1904, Prague First Performance December 16, 1893, Carnegie Hall in New York City, Anton Seidl conducted the New York Philharmonic Orchestra STL Symphony Premiere March 13, 1905, Alfred Ernst conducting Most Recent STL Symphony Performance November 28, 2009, Ward Stare conducting Scoring 2 ﬂutes piccolo 2 oboes English horn 2 clarinets 2 bassoons 4 horns 2 trumpets 3 trombones tuba timpani percussion strings Performance Time approximately 40 minutes
Program notes © 2014 by Paul Schiavo 27
BEOFOR MUSIC DIRECTOR AND CONDUCTOR
David Robertson has established himself as one of today’s most sought-after American conductors. A passionate and compelling communicator with an extensive orchestral and operatic repertoire, he has forged close relationships with major orchestras around the world through his exhilarating music-making and stimulating ideas. In 2014-15 Robertson will celebrate his 10th season as Music Director of the 135-year-old St. Louis Symphony. In January 2014, while continuing as St. Louis Symphony Music Director, Robertson assumed the post of Chief Conductor and Artistic Director of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra in Australia.
David Robertson returns to conduct works by Brahms, Wagner, and Schoenberg next week with the St. Louis Symphony.
CAROLYN AND JAY HENGES GUEST ARTIST
Gil Shaham has performed with the St. Louis Symphony since 1996; his most recent appearance was in November 2012.
In the 2013-14 season Gil Shaham returns to one of his signature works, Korngold’s Violin Concerto. Including this weekend’s performances with the St. Louis Symphony, Shaham plays the work with Zubin Mehta and the Vienna Philharmonic at Carnegie Hall; the Cleveland Orchestra during its annual Miami residency; John Adams and the Houston Symphony; James Conlon and the National Symphony; the symphony orchestra of Austin; and France’s Orchestre de Paris. He also takes his long-term exploration of “Violin Concertos of the 1930s” into a fifth season, with performances of Bartók’s Second with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and Atlanta Symphony, Prokofiev’s Second with Michael Tilson Thomas and the San Francisco Symphony, Barber’s with the Louisiana Philharmonic and Mexico National Symphony, and Berg’s with the Berlin Radio Symphony and the Bavarian Radio Symphony in Munich, Paris, and at Carnegie Hall. With the symphony orchestras of Detroit, Singapore, and London’s BBC, Shaham gives the world, Asian, and European premieres of a new concerto by Bright Sheng.
March 23, 2014
Steven Jarvi, conductor Grant Riew, cello YO Concerto Competition Winner St. Louis Symphony Youth Orchestra
WAGNER Rienzi Overture (1838-40) (1813-1883) ELGAR Cello Concerto in E minor, op. 85 (1918-19) (1857-1934)
Adagio; Moderato— Lento; Allegro molto Adagio Allegro; Moderato; Allegro, ma non troppo Grant Riew, cello INTERMISSION
TCHAIKOVSKY Symphony No. 5 in E minor, op. 64 (1888) (1840-1893)
Andante; Allegro con anima Andante cantabile con alcuna licenza Valse: Allegro moderato Finale: Andante maestoso; Allegro vivace
The St. Louis Symphony Youth Orchestra is supported by the G.A., Jr. and Kathryn M. Buder Charitable Foundation and the Fox Performing Arts Charitable Foundation.
ART & STRUGGLE
BY RE NÉ S P E N C E R S AL L E R
RICHARD WAGNER Rienzi Overture
1838-40 WAGNER Rienzi Overture Tchaikovsky born in Ural region of Russia 1888 TCHAIKOVSKY Symphony No. 5 in E minor, op. 64 Vincent van Gogh shares a house in Arles with Paul Gauguin 1918-19 ELGAR Cello Concerto in E minor, op. 85 World War I ends
FROM DEADBEAT TO DIGNITARY Richard Wagner wrote his third opera, Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes, under extreme stress. He began it in 1838, while he and his first wife, Minna, were living in Riga (then part of Germany), where he conducted music for an undistinguished theatrical company. Not yet known as a composer, he had accumulated huge debts and had no means of paying them. In the summer of 1839, the couple skipped town under cover of darkness, bringing little besides their dog and the first two acts of Rienzi. After a terrifying voyage across the Baltic and the North Sea, they arrived in Paris in September. Paris, alas, was not welcoming. For two years the young composer eked out a living doing hackwork, unable to get his foot in the door of the Opéra. He continued working on Rienzi (at one point from a debtors’ prison) and writing desperate letters to anyone he thought could help him. In June of 1841, several months after he had shipped the finished score, he learned that Rienzi would be staged by the Royal Saxon Court Theatre; on April 7, 1842, he and Minna set off for Dresden. That same October, Rienzi finally had its premiere: a stupendous triumph. Based on a novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton, this swashbuckling five-act melodrama is grand opera at its most grandiose, reflecting Wagner’s ambition “to outdo all previous examples with sumptuous extravagance.” The story depicts a medieval papal notary’s doomed attempt to turn a degraded Rome—beset with feuding families, rampant corruption, and civil unrest—into a great Republic again. In the end, the eponymous hero dies in the collapsing Capitol, which the mob has set on fire. Rienzi launched Wagner’s career and, much to his irritation, remained his greatest popular success for the rest of his life. He considered it immature and Italianate, a formulaic entertainment that did not embody the aesthetic principles
he brought to bear in his later works. The full opera is seldom performed today. The overture, however, is a concert staple on the strength of its many gorgeous melodies and often inventive orchestration. A highlights reel from the opera, it begins with a single sustained trumpet note, which gradually builds in volume, signifying the revolutionary call to arms. The poignant main theme, initially voiced by the strings, is taken from Rienzi’s prayer in the fifth act; it pops up again in the Allegro energico section. Amid much euphoric fanfare, the overture concludes with a military march. AN IRONIC CODA The teenage Adolf Hitler was profoundly affected by a performance of Rienzi. Years later, according to one possibly apocryphal account, he even claimed, “At that hour it all began!” Among his most cherished possessions was the original manuscript of the opera, which he had requested as a gift for his 50th birthday. As Joseph Horowitz explains, “The Rienzi with whom the young Hitler identified, who imbued him with a special mission to lead his people ‘out of servitude,’ is of course a conquering hero. Even more Romantically potent is that Rienzi is a tragic victim, overthrown by a feckless mob at the opera’s close. Hitler himself perished, Romantically ‘betrayed,’ with the manuscript of Rienzi in his possession; some years before, he had refused to relinquish it to Bayreuth for safekeeping.” It has not been seen since.
Born May 22, 1813, Leipzig Died February 13, 1883, Venice First Performance October 20, 1842, at Dresden’s Royal Saxon Court Theatre, Carl Reissiger conducting YO Premiere May 23, 1980, Gerhardt Zimmermann conducting Most Recent YO Performance November 25, 1995, David Loebel conducting Scoring 2 ﬂutes piccolo 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons contrabassoon 4 horns 4 trumpets 3 trombones tuba timpani percussion Strings Performance Time approximately 12 minutes
EDWARD ELGAR Cello Concerto in E minor, op. 85 GOODBYE TO ALL THAT Edward Elgar completed his Cello Concerto in the summer of 1919, at Brinkwells, a small cottage in Sussex that he and his wife rented every year. Brooding and elegiac, the work reflects his pervasive sadness, his sense that he was a man out of time, with all his best work behind him. The First World War had devastated England, leaving him, like so many of his countrymen, deeply disillusioned. His beloved wife, Alice, was quite ill, “fading away before one’s very eyes,” as he put it. Several of his friends had recently died, and he suffered from a painful chronic ear condition and a serious throat ailment for which he had undergone a risky surgery the year before. (In fact, he sketched out the opening theme of the cello concerto the very day he left the nursing home.) Although Elgar was only 62 and would live another 15 years, he had the overwhelming sense that life as he knew it was over. “Everything good and nice and clean and fresh and sweet is far away—never to return,” he lamented to a friend in a letter. Indeed, this was to be his last summer with Alice, who died in 1920, and the Cello Concerto was his last major work. The first performance, in October of that year, was a debacle. Elgar conducted the London Symphony Orchestra, with Felix Salmond as soloist, but he had not been given sufficient time to rehearse with the orchestra, and this was painfully evident. As one newspaper critic wrote, “The orchestra was virtually inaudible, and when just audible was merely a muddle. No-one seemed to have any idea of what it was the composer wanted.” The audience was clearly underwhelmed, perhaps expecting a virtuosic showpiece, not a case study in private despair. SOUL MUSIC Today Elgar’s Cello Concerto is a classic of the solo cello repertoire, thanks in part to generations of new performers who grew up hearing Jacqueline du Pré’s incandescent 1960s recordings. The four movements, conceived as two pairs, flow together with the perfect logic of a dream. The Adagio; Moderato opens with a brief and tumultuous recitative for the solo cello, which
Born June 2, 1857, Lower Broadheath, England Died February 23, 1934, Worcester, England First Performance October 27, 1919, in London; the composer conducted the London Symphony Orchestra, and Felix Salmond was the soloist YO Premiere This concert Scoring 2 ﬂutes piccolo 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons 4 horns 2 trumpets 3 trombones tuba timpani strings Performance Time approximately 30 minutes
is soon followed by the swaying, lyrical main theme, introduced by the violas and picked up by the cello. The second movement, a fretful scherzo, juxtaposes long sighing lines with stuttering pizzicato accents. The solo cello dominates the next movement, a hushed and heart-rending Adagio that meditates on a single theme of surpassing beauty. The finale is long and mercurial, with many key changes, tempo shifts, and shadowy harmonic undercurrents. As a whole, Elgar’s Cello Concerto is not about showing off the soloist’s technique; it’s about revealing the soul of the instrument, its dark-throated ecstasies, its deep and radiant blues. The cello suffers, but it also sings. PYOTR IL’YICH TCHAIKOVSKY Symphony No. 5 in E minor, op. 65 PRETTY PLEASURES Too many people who love Tchaikovsky are embarrassed to say so. To love the guy who wrote Swan Lake and The Nutcracker is so easy, so obvious. Your grandma, your favorite grocery checker, your least-favorite state representative, and Carmela Soprano probably love him, too. Piotr Il’yich Tchaikovsky made pretty music, and intellectuals have been sneering at the pretty-pushers for the past 100 years or so. But preferring Stockhausen to Tchaikovsky doesn’t make a person smart, and besides, Tchaikovsky’s music, like most truly beautiful things, has facets. If nothing else, it should be admired for the same reason you admire Pet Sounds, or the Gateway Arch, or the pacemaker that keeps you alive: because it is so very well made. TWIST OF FATE It is a pleasure to listen to Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 5, and the structure of the four-movement work invites us to feel good, or at least better. It follows the “per aspera ad astra” model—“through hardships to the stars” —that Beethoven also adopted in his own Fifth Symphony: from minor to major, from dark to light (or at least somewhat lighter), from sorrow to celebration (of a qualified sort). Most critics identify the main theme as a musical representation of fate; the composer himself says as much in a programmatic outline that he drafted during
Born May 7, 1840, KamskoVotkinsk, Russia, Died November 6, 1893, St. Petersburg First performance November 17, 1888, in St. Petersburg; the composer conducted YO Premiere March 7, 1975, Gerhardt Zimmermann conducting Most Recent YO Performance May 3, 2009, Ward Stare conducting Scoring 3 ﬂutes piccolo 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons 4 horns 2 trumpets 3 trombones tuba timpani strings Performance Time approximately 50 minutes
the early stages of composition and later abandoned. Regardless of what it symbolizes, the theme is tirelessly reiterated, revised, and transformed over the four movements, and through its many permutations the emotional trajectory of the work is revealed. The so-called fate theme first appears in the opening measures as a mournful lament sung by the clarinet. In the second movement, it barges in rather rudely, interjecting harsh brass blurts in the wake of an achingly lovely horn and winds interlude. (The orchestra stops short for a moment, in shocked silence.) The third movement, an off-kilter scherzo, staggers gamely, like a woozy prima ballerina; the theme sneaks back toward the end, an ominous afterthought muttered by the winds. In the finale, the theme blazes out in a major mode and ignites a fever-dream march. INSECURE ARTIST Like many great artists, Tchaikovsky was tormented by self-doubt, and he allowed himself to be perhaps unduly influenced by the opinions of others. Ten years had elapsed since his Fourth Symphony (1878), and although his professional stature had risen during that time, thanks to the opera Eugene Onegin, the 1812 Overture, and other hits, he feared that he was creatively bankrupt. In a letter to his main patron, he admitted, “I want so much to show not only to others, but to myself, that I still haven’t expired... I don’t know whether I wrote to you that I had decided to write a symphony. At first it was fairly difficult; now inspiration seems to have deserted me completely.” At another point, he confessed that he had to “squeeze it from my dulled brain.” Despite these reservations, he was initially pleased with the finished symphony, but when critics and colleagues (even an otherwise supportive Johannes Brahms) advanced criticisms, he wrote, “Neither [Brahms] nor the players liked the Finale, which I also think rather horrible.” Not a month later, however, it was back in its creator’s good graces: “The Fifth Symphony was beautifully played and I have started to love it again—I was beginning to develop an exaggerated negative opinion about it.”
Program notes © 2014 by René Spencer Saller
STEVEN JARVI Steven Jarvi is the newly appointed Resident Conductor of the St. Louis Symphony, Music Director of Winter Opera Saint Louis, and the Music Director of the St. Louis Symphony Youth Orchestra. Formerly the Associate Conductor of the Kansas City Symphony (KCS), he won the Bruno Walter Memorial Foundation Award in 2009. He came to the KCS after several years as the Conducting Fellow with Michael Tilson Thomas and the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, as an Associate Conductor for the New York City Opera at Lincoln Center, and as the Apprentice Conductor with the Washington National Opera at the Kennedy Center in Washington D.C.
Steven Jarvi leads the YO in its ﬁnal concert of the 201314 season on June 1.
YO CONCERTO COMPETITON WINNER
Grant Riew, a 17-year-old junior at John Burroughs School, is honored to be playing in his fourth year with the St. Louis Symphony Youth Orchestra. He is a student of Catherine Lehr, former Assistant Principal Cello of the St. Louis Symphony. He has also studied with Mary Lou Gotman of the Community Music School of Webster University and Hans Jensen at the Meadowmount School of Music. Riew was selected to be a member of the 2014 National High School Honors Orchestra sponsored by the American String Teachers Association. In 2013, Riew was principal cellist of the Missouri All-State Orchestra, winner of the Artist Presentation Society’s St. Louis Symphony Youth Orchestra Competition, quarter finalist in the Fischoff National Chamber Competition, and winner of the Fox Performing Arts St. Louis Teen Talent Competition. Grant Riew values all the friendships he has made through these musical experiences.
Grant Riew thanks his teachers for all the support they have given him in his musical endeavors.
ST. LOUIS SYMPHONY YOUTH ORCHESTRA 2013-2014
First Violins Christopher Goessling Concertmaster John Li Assistant Concertmaster Hava Polinsky Rachel Cheung Will Crock Katelyn Hamre Gajan Kumar Aisling O’Brien Hannah O’Brien Chad Pleasant Matthew Rho Julia Riew Julia Son Madison Ungacta Tiffany Wilkins Aishwarya Yadama Jinghang Zhang Second Violins Anthony Su Principal Rebecca Liu Assistant Principal Cherry Tomatsu Kayla Brown Amanda Cao Jason Cohn Elizabeth Cordell Madeline Hornsey Aidan Ip Sarah Kim Judy Luo Bryar Abas Omer Madelaine O’Reilly-Brown Faith Tan Emily Xu Anna Zhong Stephanie Zhong Violas Marisa McKeegan Principal Sharanya Kumar Assistant Principal Adam Garrett Stephen Ahrens Matt Diller Caleb Henry Daniel Larson Samuel Larson Jonathan Shields Brett Shocker Phoebe Yao Eunnuri Yi Cellos Sean Hamre Principal Eric Cho Assistant Principal Grant Riew Camille Cundiff Michelle Dodson Joshua Hart Julie Holzen Nathan Hsu Melinda Lai Dylan Lee Ann Ryu Jason West Basses Alex Niemaczek Principal Ryan Wahidi Assistant Principal Ben Vennard Pieter Boswinkel John Paul Byrne Alex Hammel Annamarie Phillips Phillip Sansone Justus Schriedel Flutes Madeline Bert Leah Peipert Rachel Petzoldt Shiori Tomatsu Piccolo Rachel Petzoldt Oboes Brenna Cunningham Ethan Leong Aura Martin Clarinets Earl Kovacs Aleksis Martin Wailani Ronquillio Kentaro Umemori Bassoons David Carter Alex Davies Joseph Hendricks David Schwartz Horns Terrence Abernathy Matthew Bloch Brandon Hoeflein Rachel Martin Jonas Mondschein Eli Pandolfi Trumpets Thomas Barron Charles Prager Benjamin Steger Garrett Thomas Trombones Ashley Cox Michael McBride Caleb Shemwell Bass Trombone Carter Stephens Tuba Alec Lang Percussion Matthew Clark Ryan Firth Brandon Lee Sam Lopate Joshua Luthy Coaches from the St. Louis Symphony Joo Kim, violin I Alison Harney, violin II Chris Tantillo, viola David Kim, cello David DeRiso, bass Jennifer Nitchman, flute Barbara Orland, oboe Philip Ross, oboe Timothy Zavadil, clarinet Tina Ward, clarinet Andrew Cuneo, bassoon Tod Bowermaster, horn Thomas Drake, trumpet Paul Jenkins, trombone Jonathan Reycraft, trombone William James, percussion
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