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OAA REVIEW ~EARTH & SPACE SCIENCE (ASTRONOMY) TOPIC WHAT IS IMPORTANT

GALAXY EARTH/MILKYWAY is a spiral galaxy Other types: elliptical, irregular

LIFE CYCLE OF STARS NEBULA-PROTOSTAR-GAS GIANT-SUPERNOVA-BLACK HOLE-DWARF-NEUTRON STAR- DUST PLANETS INNER PLANETS-M V E M/ OUTER PLANETS-J S U N MY VERY EAGER MOTHER JUST SAW US NIBBLING METEOROID METEOR METEORITE Chunks rock As it hits Earths atmosphere it Hits the ground &dust in space becomes a meteor creates a streak of light SOLAR SOLAR ECSLIPSE & LUNAR ECLIPSE SHORTEST DAY-least amount of sunlight hours Dec21 Winter solstice Sun rays directly overhead Sun rays directly overhead
Longest day-most amount of sunlight

LUNAR
E

ROTATION EARTH rotates on its axis,24HRS,DAY/NIGHT

REVOLUTION-365.4 days, revolves around the sun

hours March 21 Spring equinox Sep22/23 Fall equinox June 21 Summer solstice WINTER-further away Earth is TILTED to the sun SUMMER CLOSER WE ARE TILTED TO THE SUN

MOON PHASES caused by the amount of sunlit side of the moon faces the Earth :FILL IN THESE MOONS

New moon waxing crescent

first quarter

waxing gibbous

full moon

waning gibbous

third quarter

waning crescent

Asteroid made of rock, metal Comet-made of ice dust & rock Asteroid belt-between Jupiter and Mars TOOLS scientists use to study stars, planets and outer space TELESCOPE-makes things faraway look close (planets, moons, stars) PROBE-has cameras& computers to take pictures of distant objects in space SATTELITE-to look at outer space beyond Earth

OAA REVIEW~PHYSICAL SCIENCE TOPIC WHAT IS IMPORTANT


PHYSICAL CHANGE The starting and ending materials in a physical change are the same even though they look different EXAMPLE ---melting an ICE CUBE, pot of water boiling (water in the pot is a liquid after it boils it becomes a gas CHEMICAL CHANGE The substance changes making a new substance than before EXAMPLE: burning of wood, rusting

WAVES- CARRY ENERGY AND TRANSFER THROUGH DIFFERENT MATERIALS: KINETIC ENERGY- energy in motion---- POTENTIAL ENERGY-stored energy EXAMPLE- As a roller coaster is at the top of the hill POTENTIAL ENERGY as it goes down the hill its POTENTIAL ENERGY decreases at the same time the KINETIC ENERGY increases.

MOTION-changing position in a certain amount of time(waving your hand UNBALANCED FORCE- causes an object to move, stop, start & change direction BALANCED FORCE-equal(same) amount of force applied does not move SPEED-rate an object moves (how fast/how slow)- driving a car 75 mph Velocity-speed In a given direction-EXAMPLE-driving 80mph on I-77 N to Cleveland FRICTION-Objects rubbing together in OPPOSITE directions EXAMPLE-rubbing your hands, putting on your breaks on your bike MASS-The amount of space an object takes up FRAME OF REFERENCE-Background used for comparing something that is moving ACCELERATION-THE RATE AT WHICH VELOCITY CHANGES INERTIA-The tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion SPEED=DISTANCETIME CONSTANT SPEED=SPEED THAT DOES NOT CHANGE NEWTONS 1ST LAW: AN Object at rest will stay at rest. An Object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside or unbalanced force. ENERGY FOSSIL FUELS~GAS, OI,L COIL, are the fossil fuels there are only 3 & they CANNOT BE RENEWED!

NEWTONS 2ND LAW: Describes the relationship between FORCE, MASS and ACCELERATION

F=M x A
NEWTONS 3rd LAW: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction EXAMPLE: BOUNCING A BASKETBALL

TOPIC

OAA REVIEW~LIFE SCIENCE WHAT IS IMPORTANT


Cells-tissues-organ-organ systems Cells make up tissues, tissues make up organs and organs make up organ systems Animal cell-cannot make its own food Lysosomes-break down food

CELLS-all living things are made of cells Plant cells- make their own food Cell wall-protects the cell Chloroplast-produce food Plant cells =change energy of sunlight through photosynthesis =cellular respiration-releases energy

REPODUCTION ASEXUAL ADVANTAGES reproduces by itself without having sexDOES NOT NEED A MATE Limits spread of HARMFUL (characteristics Genetic continuity-same genes are produced over and over DISADVANTAGE IF the environment changes the species may have a hard time adapting DOMINANT TRAIT-over powers, shows up more Example-bunny with brown fur (BB)is dominant over recessive (bb) white fur bunny Ecosystem- community of living organisms in an area with living and nonliving resources Biotic-living resources (plants, animals etc) Abiotic- non-living (light, soil, water) Symbiotic- one species living off of another SEXUAL Egg and sperm cell unite New combinations of traits may increase or decrease the organisms chance of survival Offspring inherit genes from both parents

RECESSIVE TRAITS-covered up (masked) by dominant traits-example-short pea plant (tt)

Sunlight is the energy source for all ecosystems Producer-turns energy into sugars by photosynthesis Consumers-cannot make their own food, eat other organisms Decomposers-garbage deposal of nature, they break down dead plants & animals to make nutrients PREDATORS-capture and kill other organisms (prey)ex.fox killing a mouse PARASITE-feeds on another organism(host) ex. Flea on a dog MUTUALISM-two or more organisms benefit mutually ex. flowers provide nectar for bees, bees carry the pollen from one plant to another COMMENSALISM-one sided relationship, one species benefits only ex. Bird living in a whole in a tree but the tree is not harmed COMPETITION- similar species compete same resources ex. cows and sheep eating the same grass

OAA REVIEW~EARTH SCIENCE WHAT IS IMPORTANT TOPIC


EARTH INTERIOR has INNER CORE, OUTER CORE, MANTLE, CRUST TECTONIC PLATESPlate Boundaries Convergent- plates-move towards each other

ROCK CYCLE3 TYPES OF ROCKS SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC, IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARYROCK- made of sediment(small parts of eroded rock & living things) has layers IGNEOUS ROCK-MADE OF cooled magma

Causes-FOLDING

Divergent-plates move apart

Creates mountains, erupts volcanoes

METAMORPHIC ROCK- formed by heat & pressure Transformational-plates slide past each other CONSTRUCTIVE FORCES MOUNTAIN BUILDING-folding of Earths crust creates mountains VOLCANOES-magma erupts to the surface DEPOSITION-sediment from erosion is deposited in new locations DESTRUCTIVE FORCES WEATHERING-Rock breaks apart by wind, water, ice and organisms (animals, people, plants) EROSION-rock and particles are broken down and carried to new locations GLACIERS-giant sheets of ice scrape Earths surface WATER CYCLE EVAPORATION-CONDENSATION-PRECIPITATION

Causes-earthquakes

TOPIC

WHAT IS IMPORTANT

VARIABLE-Any type of category you are measuring (time, event, object, feeling, idea)

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE Does not change

DEPENDENT VARIABLE Changes because of changes in the independent variable

SCIENTIFIC METHOD-THINL ABOUT YOUR SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT! Carmens science fair experiment just to refresh your memory STATE THE QUESTION-WHICH PAPER TOWELS ARE MORE ABSORBANT between BOUNTY, VIVA HYPOTHESIS-I THINK BOUNTY WILL BE MORE ABSORBANT DESIGN EXPERIMENT: get water, beakers, paper towels, CONDUCT EXPERIMENT- GOT A BEAKER FILLED WITH WATER STUFFED IT IN THERE, SQUEEZED ANALYZE RESULTS: use a graph to show results of experiment DRAW CONCLUSIONS: explain results MATERIALS NEEDED: BEAKER, WATER, PAPER TOELS Viva & Bounty INDEPENDENT VARIABLES- AMOUNT OF WATER, DEPENDENT VARIABLE-WATER SPILLED TO BE ABSORBED