# 5.4.

PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS

251

Method 2, Equivalent Pipe Diameters
Extra length of pipe to allow for miscellaneous losses ¼ 735 Â 25 Â 10À3 ¼ 18:4 m So, total length for DP calculation ¼ 120 þ 18.4 ¼ 138.4 m

DPf ¼ 8 Â 0:0032 ¼ 277 kN=m2

(138:4) 1:982 998 Â ¼ 277,247 N=m2 À 3 2 (25 Â 10 )

(5:3a)

Note: The two methods will not give exactly the same result. The method using velocity heads is the more fundamentally correct approach, but the use of equivalent diameters is easier to apply and sufﬁciently accurate for use in preliminary design calculations.

5.4.3.

Power Requirements for Pumping Liquids
To transport a liquid from one vessel to another through a pipeline, energy has to be supplied to 1. Overcome the friction losses in the pipes; 2. Overcome the miscellaneous losses in the pipe ﬁttings (e.g., bends), valves, instruments etc.; 3. Overcome the losses in process equipment (e.g., heat exchangers, packed beds); 4. Overcome any difference in elevation from end to end of the pipe; 5. Overcome any difference in pressure between the vessels at each end of the pipeline. The total energy required can be calculated from the energy equation: gDz þ DP=r À DPf =r À W ¼ 0 where W ¼ work done by the ﬂuid, J/kg; Dz ¼ difference in elevations (z1 À z2 ), m; DP ¼ difference in system pressures (P1 À P2 ), N=m2 ; DPf ¼ pressure drop due to friction, including miscellaneous losses, and equipment losses (see section 5.4.2), N=m2 ; r ¼ liquid density kg=m3; g ¼ acceleration due to gravity, m=s2 . If W is negative, a pump is required; if it is positive, a turbine could be installed to extract energy from the system. The head required from the pump ¼ DPf =rg À DP=rg À Dz The power is given by Power ¼ (W Â m)=h, and ¼ (W Â m) Â h, for a pump for a turbine (5:5a) (5:6a) (5:6b)

EBSCO Publishing - NetLibrary; printed on 5/9/2011 11:25:40 PM via Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology eISBN:9780750684231; Towler, Gavin P.; Sinnott, R. K. : Chemical Engineering Design Account: -277897657

m 60 70 80 Figure 5. For preliminary design calculations. Elsevier Science and Technology Books All rights reserved. the efﬁciency of centrifugal pumps can be estimated using Figure 5. Sinnott. K. printed on 5/9/2011 11:24:16 PM via Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology eISBN:9780750684231. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher.12. P1 Liquid Level Z2 Vessel 2 Pump Datum Z1 Vessel 1 Figure 5. : Chemical Engineering Design Account: -277897657 .S. % 200 20 30 40 50 Head. Piping system. or applicable copyright law. EBSCO Publishing . Towler.13. Centrifugal pump efﬁciency. where m ¼ mass ﬂow rate. R. except fair uses permitted under U. h ¼ efﬁciency ¼ power out/power in.252 CHAPTER 5 PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION P2 Copyright © 2008. The efﬁciency will depend on the type of pump used and the operating conditions. Gavin P.13. m3/h 90 Efficiency..NetLibrary. 75 70 65 125 60 100 75 55 50 50 25 45 10 Capacity. kg/s.

except fair uses permitted under U. the difference in elevation is lower and the power required is reduced. or applicable copyright law.1 bar on the liquid..4. viscosity 0:62 mNmÀ2 s. Physical properties of toluene: density 874 kg=m3.S. Table 5. Sinnott.5. Gavin P. EBSCO Publishing .2 ¼ 0. including miscellaneous losses. The pipeline is 225 mm internal diameter and 900 m long. DPf ¼ 8 Â 0:0019 Â À 3 225 Â 10 2 ¼ 78. (P1 À P2 ) ¼ (1:05 À 1:1)105 ¼ À5 Â 103 N=m2 Energy balance 9:8(À30) þ (À5 Â 103)=874 À (78.981 W.221)=874 À W ¼ 0 W ¼ À389:2 J=kg Power ¼ (389:2 Â 55:56)=0:7 ¼ 30. which exerts a pressure of 1. f ¼ 0. Solution Cross-sectional area of pipe ¼ Minimum fluid velocity ¼ p (225 Â 10À3 )2 ¼ 0:0398 m2 4 1000 Â 103 1 1 Â Â ¼ 1:6 m=s 5 Â 3600 0:0398 874 (5:4a) Reynolds number ¼ (874 Â 1:6 Â 225 Â 10À3 )=0:62 Â 10À3 ¼ 507.11. to an on-shore storage tank. valves. using the ship’s pumps. K. Elsevier Science and Technology Books All rights reserved. amount to 600 equivalent pipe diameters.221 N=m2 Maximum difference in elevation.046/225 ¼ 0. PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS 253 Example 5. Initially. A tanker carrying toluene is unloaded.NetLibrary. The storage tank has a ﬂoating roof.2 Copyright © 2008. Estimate the power required by the pump.05 bar. printed on 5/9/2011 11:29:17 PM via Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology eISBN:9780750684231. (z1 À z2 ) ¼ (0 À 30) ¼ À30 m Pressure difference. The ship’s tanks are nitrogen blanketed and maintained at a pressure of 1. Take the pump efﬁciency as 70%. The maximum liquid level in the storage tank is 30 m above the lowest level in the ship’s tanks. R. Miscellaneous losses due to ﬁttings. : Chemical Engineering Design Account: -277897657 . The ship must unload 1000 metric tons (tonnes) within 5 hours to avoid demurrage charges. say 31 kW: (5:6a) (5:5) (5:3a) Note that this is the maximum power required by the pump at the end of the unloading when the ship’s tank is nearly empty and the storage tank is nearly full.046 mm Relative roughness ¼ 0. ¼ 900 þ 600 Â 225 Â 10À3 ¼ 1035 m   1035 1:622 Â 874 Â Friction loss in pipeline..484 ¼ 5:1 Â 105 Absolute roughness commercial steel pipe. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher.0002 Friction factor from Figure 5. Towler.0019 Total length of pipeline. For design purposes the maximum power case would be the governing case and would be used to size the pump and motor. etc.