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Yasmine ASSEF Patrick BASTARD Michel MEUNIER

ECOLE SUPERIEURE D~ELECTFUCI'T~ (SUPELEC) Service "Electrotechnique et Electronique Industrielle" Gif-Sur-Yvette. FRANCE

Abstract-This paper presents a new protection algorithm for the detection of single phase-toground faults in a power distribution network with compensated neutral grounding. This algorithm, based on the comparison of the residual current and phase currents, uses artificial neural networks. This method is tested with EMTP simulations as well as with experimental data which are closer to reality. Hence, the efficiency of the algorithm is shown.

Key Words-Power distribution system, Resonant grounded system, Relay, Artificial neural network, Multilayer perceptron.

I. INTRODUCTION A power system relaying device must detect a fault and disconnect rapidly the faulted element. As long as the fault is not cleared, the risk of equipment damage and supply interruption may be important. The fast growth of power system complexity may make traditional algorithms in someways inadequate. Hence new data processing techniques are becoming indispensable tools for the development of relaying devices. The artificial neural networks (ANN) are one of these techniques; they have already proven their efficiency for prediction, control and classification problems [6, 10, 111. A protection system may be basically considered as a classifier; it must be able to make the difference between faulty and sound situations. In the litterature some publications can be found describing the use of ANN in fault detection. Among these [15,16] deal with high speed protecive relays on transmission lines using Multilayer FeedForward

Neural Networks that seem the most well adapted among other ANN for classification problems. This paper deals with resonant grounded power systems. The advantages of compensated networks are quite well known. Most faults in this kind of power distribution systems are self-extinguishing single-phase to ground faults. The small fault currents that they induce allow the network to remain in operation but make their detection more difficult [8,9]. Hence the protection system must analyse transient state caused by these events which contain meaningful information [ 1, 21. When a low resistance fault occurs, the zero-sequence capacitors are loaded through the fault resistance. During this phase, active energy coming from the faulty feeder passes towards the sound feeder. The direction of the energy flow at the beginning of the fault may therefore be used to detect the fault on the line (upline or downline). This is the base of wattmetric processes. This h n d of procedures are efficient when the fault resistance is quite small. For a larger resistance, the zero-sequence voltage and the residual currrent are not very important and the sensitivity limit is rapidly reached. A new process called DeSIR (Detection Selective par les Intensites Residuelles) was developped to detect such high resistance faults [3]. The protection algorithm described in this paper is based only on the measurement of the 3 phase currents; voltages and currents of other feeders no longer need to be measured. This is the main particularity of this work. Moreover, the implementation of neural networks in the protection device makes the use of a threshold unecessary; this point will be detailed in section III. 11. THE COMPENSATED POWER DISTRIBUTION

A. Description

0-7803-3522-8196 $5.00 0 1996 IEEE

In a compensated power distribution network, a Petersen coil is connected between the neutral of the power system and the ground. The reactance of the Petersen coil is tuned for resonance with the zero-sequence capacitance of the system. Fig.1 shows a 20 kV power distribution system with a single phase fault in the first feeder. This network is simulated with the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). The single phase fault is characterized with its resistance Rd, its

distance to the busbar d and the phase of the feeding voltage. The grounding system is defined by an inductance Xn and a parallel resistance Rn. The total length of the feeder is L.

measured on one of the sound feeders during the fault described above.










Fig.1. Power Distribution System Simulated with EMTP. CT represents three phase current transformers; magnetic saturation may distort signals.

Fig. 3. Currents in the Sound Feeder. Phase a (-) Phase b and c ( ) Residual ( - - - )

After a fault, three phenomena take place one after another: the first is the discharge of the faulty phase capacitance due to the falling to zero of the faulty phase voltage (Fig.4) through the equivalent inductance of the network, the second is the charge of the sound phase capacitances by the fault current and the third is the circulation of the current in the neutral impedance. Let us suppose that the faulty phase is the phase a, the first phenomenon induces high frequency component transients in the current of phase a of the faulty feeder as well as in the current of phase a of the sound feeder. This is shown in the following figures. Fig. 2 shows the three phase currents ( I , , Zb, Zc) and the residual current ( Z , =Z , + Zb + I , ) in the faulty feeder where a fault occurs in phase a with Rd =7 R at 5km from the busbar.






1-1 6







Fig.4. F a u l t z g k e Voltage.

3001 0

Fig. 5. shows the circulation of the faulted current in the power network after the fault occurence.
Phase 3
Phase 1









Fig. 2. Currents in the Faulty Feeder. Phase a ( -) Phase b and c ( _._._. ) ReSldUal( - - - )


Any fault in a feeder may induce in the other feeders connected at the same busbar a capacitive current flow. This is shown by Fig. 3 that presents phase and residual currents

Fig.5. Circulation of Currents. Cd is the zero-sequence capacitance of the faulty feeder. C, is the zerosequence capacitance of the sound feeder.


B. Simulation of the Set o f Electrical Events

As explained before, Fig. 1 was simulated with EMTP. The protection device of a feeder has to face at least the following events: - fault in another feeder, - energization of the feeder, - fault in the feeder. Obviously, the relay has to trip only in the last case. Lines are simulated with the frequency independent Distributed-Parameter Transmission Line Model of the EMTP. Some details in EMTP input data are given in Appendix I. Loads are defined by an inductance and a resistance in parallel. Several single phase faults are simulated: permanent faults, self-extinguished faults and intermittent arc faults. Other events like energization of a feeder with or without saturation of the magnetic circuit of CT are also simulated. The simulation of the CT is based on the model in Fig. 6, where the leakage reactance is supposed to be negligible compared to the winding resistance Re of the current transformer [13]. Zch is the secondary burden of the CT. The magnetizing inductance is represented by a type 96-element of EMTP, computed from the geometric data of the CT and the Hysteresis curve characterizing the magnetic material of the core [14].

the inrush currents saturates the CT and induces a false computed residual current, whereas no fault occured.

(7a) Phase a.

(7b) Phase b.

(7c) Phase c.

-801 0








time (5)

Fig. 6 . Current Transformer Model.

We have simulated almost 260 faulty cases. The various parameters considered are: - the phase of the feeding voltage (cp), - the position of the fault ( d ), - the fault resistance ( I Q I Rd I 300Q), - the neutral inductance (Xn) completly or partially in tune with the total capacitance of the system, - the length of feeders (Li ). The simulation time interval is 300 ms. The event always begins at 24 ms. The sampling frequency is I d Hz. One of the important points to consider is the saturation of the magnetic circuit of the current transformers. Indeed, measured currents may be distorted. Therefore, the residual current computed from the 3 measured phase currents may be false; and this point may disturb the reaction of the relay. Fig. 7 presents phase and residual currents for an energization; as it is shown, currents have an important second harmonic component due to the magnetic saturation of the 360 kVA distribution transformers. This decreasing DC component of

(7d) Residual Current. Fig. 7. Feeder Energization Phase Currents seen by the saturated CT. Values are multiplied by the ratio of the CT.

The aim of the presented work is to exploit the similarities and differences between each phase current and the residual current, to distinguish the faulty feeder. The scalar product is chosen as mean of comparison.
A. Mathematical Reminder
A basic way to compare two signals is taking by their scalar product. Let us consider two n-dimentional complex vectors x and y : x =(XI, ...,x n ) and y = ( y I , ...,y n ) The scalar product { x. y ) is defined by:

(x.y) =

xi. yi*

where y ' is the conjuguate of yi .


This product is maximum if x=y and zero if x and y are orthogonal. The associated norm of a vector x is calculated as follows:

threshold which could still permit the detection of high impedance fault. Hence, the interest taken in the use of ANN.

llxll =


By analogy, for time depending signals, the scalar product is given by [ 121:

2ool n

(SI. SZ) =
and for sampled signals:

p1 ( t ) .4 ( t ) dt



B. Application to Currents

00 800 samples



In order to measure similarities between the residual current and each phase current, the scalar products of the associated sampled signals are calculated using a 20 ms moving data window:

(9a) Rd=30R. Faulty Feeder ( ) Sound Feeder (-.-.-.)


( I j .Zr) =

c Z i ( t ) .Zr(t) At t't,

i E {1,2,3}

and t2 - t l = 20ms Fig. 8 presents these values for a faulty feeder (3 curves) and a sound feeder (3 curves); the associated currents are formerly presented in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3.

I a .



600 800 samples


1 m

(9b) Rd=300R. Faulty Feeder ( ) Sound Feeder (-.-.-.) Fig.9. Scalar Products for Different Fault Resistance Values


-1001 0




03 samples

1 "



Fig. 8. Scalar Products &=?'a). ) Faulty Feeder ( Sound Feeder (-.-.-.)

The similarity between the faulty phase and the residual currents is clearly shown by the rise of their scalar product at the begining of the fault; we can easily recognize the faulty feeder. Now, if the fault resistance Rd increases, the transients are more damped. Fig. 9 shows the curves of the scalar products obtained for larger fault resistances. We notice that waveforms are similar, but the more Rd rises, the more the curves of the faulty and sound feeders approach one another. This reveals the difficulty of defining a

The Neural Network employed is the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) [5]. After the training, the MLP is able to compute the right output not only from the inputs of the training examples but also from any unknown vectors. To obtain optimal results, the choice of the training example set is very important. It must be small enough to allow a fast convergence of weights, and big enough to represent correctly all the events which must be recognized by the MLP.
A. Neural Network's architecture

The architecture of the MLP is also quite important for a good generalization. The MLP used in this study is made of 5 perceptrons, with one hidden layer and one output; the latter is


equal to 1 if the feeder is faulty and -1 if it is sound. The

This following section describes the generalization phase which allows us to test the efficiency of our protection algorithm. First, we have used EMTP simulations to test the response of the MLP and after that we have employed experimental data.
A. EMTP Simulations

ANN has three inputs which are calculated as follow:

The scalar products are scaled in order to have smaller values. Every power network simulation allows to compute the inputs of the ANN for various position of the 20 ms moving data window [6].

B. Training Phase
The training set contains 55 different configurations of the network, 51 cases of single phase faults and 4 cases of feeder energization. The data, sampled at 104 kHz were resampled at IO3 kHz. The training patterns of single phase faults are simulated for the following values: 2R S Rd I 30R 2km I d I 6km 0 ' 1 cp 5 360' The length of the faulty feeder L is equal to I O km and the total lenght of the whole network is also fixed. The neural network is trained with the fast backpropagation learning algorithm of Matlab [7]. Briefly, the backpropagation algorithm is an iterative gradient algorithm designed to minimized the mean square error between the actual output of the MLP and the desired output [ 5 ] . The number of learning loops required to make the sumsquared output error of the MLP smaller than 0.02 is about 600 then the training is stopped. The evolution of this error and that of the learning rate is shown in Fig. 10.
Trainingfor 609 Epochs

The generalization set contains permanent faults, self extinguishing faults, intermittent arc faults, noisy signal, energization of the feeder with saturation of the CT and energization without saturation of the CT. All of the former cases have never been seen before by the MLP. The following figures show some of the results; the output of the MLP was multiplied by 100 in the figures.





01 b es I1




(lla) Rd=2fi L=lokm (p=160, neutral inductance completly tuned with total capacitance

neutral inductance under-tuned (90%)with total capacitance.

E "ioQo"-16'










Fig. 10.Sum-Squared Error and Learning Rate Evolutions.

, I





0 . 1

0 1 2



(1 IC) Inte&&ant Arc Fault. (1 Id) Energizath of a Feeder. Fig.11. Generalization Results The output of the relay of the faulty feeder is ploted with solid line and that of the sound feeder with dashed line.


Let us recall that the training set contains only permanent fault examples; nevertheless, the neural network recognizes as well intermittent arc faults as it is shown in Fig. (1Oc). Besides, the MLP identifies correctly a feeder-energization event, even if the residual current is not equal to zero because of the saturation of the magnetic circuit of the phase current transformers.

extinguishing arc faults and the fault resistance does not vary, to zero; future works will deals with other it is always - equal type of faults.


B, Pratical Experiments
It is interesting to see how the trained NN works with inputs which are not computed with EMTP. We have made a test model presented in Fig. 12. Actually, disruptive events like noises or unbalanced 3 phase loads are seen in the experimental tests; one can say that these events may also be simulated with EMTP but we want to assure that the ANN has not learned a particularity of EMTP simulations. This is an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the presented tool for real world systems.
dl -OW d06 d Md M 0 OM OM a06 006 01




(13a) f=2500 H z .

(13b) f=2500 Hz.


Fig.12 . Test Bench

This kind of test bench has already been used for another protection system developed in our laboratory. It allows to reproduce the voltages and currents which would be seen by a relay from the secondary of CT's and PT's. We also have to consider the sampling frequency of the acquisition card connected to the PC. Three different frequencies are used: fi = 5. IO3 Hz and fi = 2,5. I O 3 H z ; however, the EMTP sampling frequency is f = IO4 H z ; therefore the inputs of the MLP are calculated by (4) and then multiplied by f / A i E { 1,2}. Fig. 13 shows some of the results in case of fault occurence. The measured currents have been multiplied by the ratio of the CT which should be associated to our relay. The MLP recognizes as well the fault occurence, for different frequencies. The saturation of the magnetic circuit of the CT is very well seen in the experimentation. For the time being, experimentation corresponds only to short

0 0.01 0.M 0.03 0.M 0.E 0.06 Odl 0.W 0.W OS

WI (13c) f=5000 Hz. Fig. 13. Experimental Results.

VI. SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS Fig. 14 illustrates the presented method:



Fig. 14. Design o f the Proposed Method.

The results show that in some cases, the output may fall before the end of the transient; but, it is important to notice that one of the essential attributes of a relay is to operate only if there is a fault and not for any other power system disturbance (energization, fault in another feeder, ...). When a fault occurs in one of the feeders of the power network, the most important task for the relay installed in the sound feeders is to recognize them as sound, even if the neighbouring fault disturbs their input currents. This is the security of a relay. From this point of view, as the previous figures show, our algorithm has a correct performance. The ANN recognize very well the intermittent arc faults and the self-extinguishing faults, even if they have not seen them during the training phase. Also, the saturation of the magnetic circuit of the current transformers does not disturb the ANN. Experimental results are satisfactory. In the future, it will be very interesting to validate the algorithm with recorded data in a real distribution network.

[6] H.R6gal, P. Bertrand, P. Bastard, M. Meunier, "A Neural Network Classifier for the Analysis of Power Transformer Differential Current," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Systems Application tu Power Systems, ISAP'94, Vol. 2, 5-9 Septembre 1994, Monpellier, France, pp. 673-680. 1-71 Neural Networks TOOLBOX for Use with MATLABTM, User's Guide. [SI W. Petersen, "Limitation of Earth Current and Suppression of Earth Fault Arcs by the Earthing Coil," Elektrotechnische Zeitschrif, Vol. 40, January 2 and 9, 1919, pp. 5-7 and 17-19. [9] L. Berthet, R. Meunier, "Maintient de la Foumiture pendant un D6faut Monophas6 MT: experience acquise au Poste de Guebwiller," in Proceedings of the Intematiun Symposium NMT'95, Mulhouse, France, 7-8 November 1995, pp. 46-51. [lo] D.J. Sobajic, Y.H. Pao, "Artificial Neural-Net based Dynamic Security Assessment for Electric Power Systems," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vo1.4, no. 4, February 89, pp. 220-228. [ l l ] V. Bohm, V. Passeltova, M. Navak, E. Pelikan, "Neural Network Predincting System for Electric Load in West Bohemia", in Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems, ISAP'94, Vol. 2, 5-9 Septembre 1994, Monpellier,France, pp. 857-864.
[ 121 F. de Coulon, Thiorie et Traitement des Signum, Trait6 d'Electricit.4,

A new protection algorithm based on the measure of similarity between the residual current and each phase current, associated to artificial neural networks has been presented. The novelty of this algorithm is that it works with a very reduced number of inputs; indeed, it needs only the three phase currents of the feeder in which the associated relay is installed; whereas relays generally require currents as well as voltages. Moreover, the ANN as a decision helper, allows the algorithm to recognize small and high impedance faults. This principle has been validated using EMTP simulations but also with experimental data. The results obtained were found very promising.
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Vol. VI, Presses Polytechniques Romandes, p. 47. [13] Power Systems Relaying Committee of the PES, "Transient Response of Current Transformers"; Ieee Inc; New York; January 1976. [14] P.Bastard, "SynthBse et validation d'algorithmes pour protections numkrique d'un reseau moyenne tension", Ph. D Thesis, University of Paris XI (Orsay), June 1992, pp. 50-58.
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Distribution Line Model (lumped resistive modelling, transposed line)

11 Resistance (Wlenght) 1

0.200 0.100

Surge I Propagation - Impedance(i2) - - Velocitv I1 (lenghvsec) I 40.0 1.OE5 31.6 i 1.0E5

Design a Transients Based Digital Ground-Fault Relay for Isolated or Compensated Network," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Power System Transients, IPST'95, Lisbon, Portugal, September 3-7 1995, pp. 270-275 D. Griffel, Y. Harmand, J. Bergeal, M. ClBment, "Nouvelles Techniques de mise la Terre des Neutres sur les rBseaux MT," Revue Ginirale d'Electriciti (RGE), no 11/94, December 1994, pp. 34-44. P. Ferracci, L. Berthet, M. Meunier, "An Equivalent Circuit for Earth Fault Transient Analysis in Resonant-Grounded Distribution Power Networks," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Power System Transients, IPST' 95, Lisbon, Portugal, September pp. 359-369. 3-7 1995, ._ R.P. LippAam, "An Introduction to Computing with Neural Nets," IEEE ASSP Maaazine. A~ril1987. DD. 4-22.

Yasmine ASSEF was bom in Tehran, IRAN, in 1970. She graduated from the &ole Sp6ciale des Travaux Publics, du BStiment et de l'Industrie, Paris, France, in 1993. Since 1994, she is working towards a Ph.D. Degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Paris VI at the Ecole Superieure d'Electricit6, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Patrick BASTARD was born in Pont-Audemer. FRANCE. in 1966. He graduated from the ficole Superieure d'Electricit&, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, in 1988. In 1992, he received a Ph. D. Degree in electrical engineering from the uniyersity of paris XI. H~ is now a researcher in the ficole superieure &Electricit&, Michel MEUNIER was born in Merdrignac, FRANCE, in 1945. He graduated from the Ecole Supkrieure d'Electricit6, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, in 1968. He has been working in the &ole Supdrieure d'Electricit6 since 1968. He is presently Professor at the ficole Supbrieure d'Electricit6 where he manages a research group on Rower networks. He is a member of the S.E.E. (Societe des Electriciens et Electroniciens).