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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database Absolute envelope delay.

The absolute delay of an audio communications channel over the fre uency band of the channel. !"0"#$ Advance Angle. In an automatic synchroni%er& the an'le in de'rees (rior to (hase coincidence that the 'enerator volta'e waveform will chan'e relative to the bus volta'e waveform durin' the (eriod of time between initiation of brea)er closin' and the actual closin' of the circuit brea)er contacts. This can be e*(ressed by the e uation+ , - ./0 0 S 0 T1 2here+ , is the advance an'le in de'rees S is the sli( fre uency in 3ert% and T1 is the brea)er closin' time in seconds. !4015$

Arc resistance (of a fault). That com(onent of the fault im(edance caused by the current flowin' throu'h ioni%ed air. There is no si'nificant reactive com(onent. The arc resistance accounts for the heatin' effect of the arc. Audio-tone protective relaying. 6rotective relayin' usin' a voice fre uency channel. !"0"#$ Audio-tone. See: voice frequency (1) data transmission. !"0"#$ Automatic synchronizing system. , relayin' scheme with one or more elements that+ 17 ta)es into account the closin' time of the controlled brea)er to calculate when the advance an'le is (ro(er to initiate closin'& 87 causes the brea)er contacts to close when a %ero (hase difference between the sensed volta'es occurs& .7 monitors and controls the fre uency and volta'e of the 'enerator. See: manual synchronizing system, semiautomatic synchronizing system, synchronizing relay& synchronism check relay. reaker-and-a-half. , confi'uration of three circuit brea)ers in series between two buses with a line& transformer& 'enerator or other circuit ta((ed between ad9acent circuit brea)ers. Therefore& the number of circuit brea)ers in a brea)er:and:a:half scheme is e ual to 1:1/8 times the number of circuits. !ote" also described as brea)er:and:one: half. See: double breaker. us transfer. The (rocess of transferrin' motor bus loads from one source to another source. #apacitive unbalance detection function. , function to detect the abnormal unbalance in ca(acitance between ca(acitor 'rou(s within a (hase& such as that caused by blown ca(acitor fuses or faulted ca(acitor units or elements& and to initiate an alarm or the closin' of a ca(acitor by(ass switch& or both. ;6<.#.11/7 !/0"5$ #omputer relay (or relay unit). See: $igital relay #ontrol diagram. , dia'ram which shows all of the functions that control the o(eration of an electrical device. !"0"#$ #ross-country fault. Simultaneous flash:over& 'enerally to 'round& of two different (hases in different line sections. ,lso loosely used to describe when com(arable faults occur on the same tower.

<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database $ifferential bus protection. , bus (rotection method in which an internal fault is identified by the amount of difference between the currents enterin' the bus and those e*itin' the bus. ;6<.#.8.47 !/0"5$ $ifferential current. The sum of all currents enterin' and leavin' a section of the electrical systemA measured with consistent (olarity. ,lso referred to as an o(eratin' current. See: restrainin' current. ;6<.#.8.47 !/0"5$ $igital fault recorder ($%&). See: transient fault recorder. $igital relay (or relay unit). , static relay or relay unit in which the desi'ned res(onse is develo(ed by convertin' the in(uts into numeric form and mani(ulatin' them mathematically or lo'ically. See: static relay. $irectional bus protection. , method of (rotection in which an internal fault is identified based on the direction of fault currents associated with the (rotected bus. The method can be based on absolute current directions with res(ect to a selected reference& or relative directions with no reference re uired ;(hase com(arison7. ;6<.#.8.47 !/0"5$ $irectional comparison blocking. , (ilot system in which the channel e ui(ment ;usually BonC : BoffC (ower line carrier7 is used to bloc) tri((in' at the remote terminal for e*ternal faults. Tri((in' is accom(lished by forward overreachin' elements in the absence of a bloc)in' si'nal from the remote terminal. See: directional comparison protection. !"0"#$ $irectional comparison unblocking. , (ilot system similar in all as(ects to a (ermissive overreachin' transfer tri( scheme e*ce(t that the unbloc)in' scheme (rovides a tri((in' window ;ty(ically 1"0 : .00 msec7 followin' loss of channel. , fre uency shift carrier system is usually used& with normal transmission of the 'uard ;bloc)in'7 fre uency. E*ternal faults do not (roduce loss of channel. See: directional comparison protection. !"0"#$ $isc-type reactor. , hi'h:volta'e shunt reactor that is constructed of dis):ty(e coils. These coils are wound with one or more co((er stra(s in (arallel. The first turn is wra((ed around an insulatin' cylinder& then a number of turns is wound over this first turn& (roducin' a dis) section. , combination of these sections forms one (hase of the reactor. !"0"#$ $istributed resources. 6ower sources such as small 'enerators& (hotovoltaic units& fuel cells& etc.& that are connected on distribution circuits and dis(ersed throu'hout the utility distribution system. ;6<.#.8.07 !/0"5$ $istribution automation. , techni ue used to limit the outa'e duration and restore service to customers throu'h fault location identification and automatic switchin'. ;6<.#.8.07 !/0"5$ $istribution factor ($s). The (er unit current at a location in the (ower system as a (er unit of fault current. !"0"#$ $ouble breaker. , confi'uration of two circuit brea)ers in series between two buses with a line& transformer& 'enerator or other circuit ta((ed between the circuit brea)ers. $ropout (of a relay). That level of the measured uantity at which a sensin' device will 9ust reset. See: pickup (of a relay), reset (of a relay).
<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database %ast transfer. The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source with no intentional delay& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess& and the time that the brea)ers are simultaneously o(en is minimi%ed ;usually less than 10 cycles7. See: in-phase transfer, parallel transfer, residual voltage transfer, slo' transfer. %ault impedance. The im(edance at the (oint of the fault& which can include the im(edance of the arc& the fault initiatin' ob9ect and the tower footin' resistance. ;<.#.11.7 %ault locator. , device& either hardware or software& that calculates fault location. !"0"#$ %ault recorder. See: transient fault recorder. %our-reactor scheme. , shunt reactor arran'ement consistin' of three wye:connected reactors and a fourth connected from neutral to 'round. !"0"#$ (round fault (transmission ) distribution protective relays). ,n insulation failure between an ener'i%ed conductor and 'round. (round potential rise ((*&). The difference in 'round (otential between a location in (ro*imity to a (oint of lar'e current in9ection into the 'round and any remote 'round (oint. D6R is usually caused by a short circuit of an ener'i%ed (ower conductor to 'round and is the result of the in9ected current flowin' throu'h the im(edance of the 'round circuit.

+ard'are failure (relays). Inability of a relay to (erform (ro(erly due to a malfunction of one or more (hysical com(onents& which must be re(laced to correct the malfunction. !4015$
+ybrid &elay. , (rotective relay in which the desi'ned res(onse is develo(ed usin' more than one technolo'y. !/0"5$ ,nadvertent energizing. ,ccidentally ener'i%in' a 'enerator that is off:line& with the field de:ener'i%ed. !4015$ ,nductive coupling (electric system). That characteristic of electric circuits in which lon'itudinal volta'e is develo(ed in one circuit due to its (ro*imity to a second circuit that has current flowin' in it. See: capacitive coupling, mutual coupling. ,n-phase transfer (motor bus). The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. The load is allowed to be (owered from the second source if there is an acce(table (redetermined difference between the res(ective volta'e (hasors of the load volta'e and the second source volta'e. See: fast transfer, parallel transfer, residual voltage transfer, slo' transfer. ,nput supervision (relays). , controllin' in(ut to a (rotective relay by e*ternal means to (ermit or (revent the o(eration of the relay. See: supervision (relays), output supervision (relays). ,nterrupting medium. The material used to facilitate the interru(tion of the arc durin' o(enin' of a switchin' device. ;6<.#.8.07 !/0"5$ -ey, keyed, keying (./0 protective relay telecommunications). ,n e*ternal si'nal initiatin' a chan'e in state of a communications channel tri( condition. !"0"#$
<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database 1ine outage. See: outage. 1inear coupler. , transformer with a non:ma'netic core& havin' a low ener'y volta'e out(ut that varies linearly with the (rimary current. 1o'-impedance scheme. , differential method of bus (rotection usin' current transformers connected to a low im(edance load that maintains stability durin' saturation of current transformers from e*ternal faults usin' the conce(t of restraint or other means. See+ hi'h:im(edance scheme. ;6<.#.8.47 !/0"5$ 2anual synchronizing system. , control scheme whereby an o(erator controls the 'enerator volta'e& fre uency& and brea)er closin'. , 'rou( of instruments (rovides the information re uired to ma)e the closin' decision. The o(eratorEs action may be su(ervised by additional devices that (revent incorrect closures. See: automatic synchronizing system, semi-automatic synchronizing system, synchronism check relay. !4015$ 2atching transformer (Audio-tone relaying). , transformer for matchin' the im(edance of the terminal e ui(ment to the voice fre uency channel. !"0"#$ 2etal o3ide varistor (245). ,n assembly of metal o*ide varistor units that limits overvolta'es to a 'iven value. In the conte*t of series ca(acitor ban)s& the FGH is ty(ically defined by its ability to divert fault current around the series ca(acitor units& limitin' the volta'e to a s(ecified (rotective level while absorbin' ener'y. The FGH is desi'ned to withstand the tem(orary overvolta'es and continuous o(eratin' volta'e across the series ca(acitor units. ;6<.#.11/7 !/0"5$ 2icroprocessor-based relay. , relay in which the desi'ned res(onse is develo(ed by usin' one or more micro(rocessors. See: digital relay. 2otor bus. ,n au*iliary system bus that (rimarily su((lies (ower to motor loads. 2utual coupling (electric system). That characteristic of electric circuits in which volta'e is induced in one circuit due to its (ro*imity to a second ener'i%ed circuit. See: capacitive coupling, inductive coupling. !egative sequence polarization (relays). , relayin' o(eratin' (rinci(le in which a reference uantity is established for a directional determination usin' ne'ative se uence volta'e or current. !eutral reactor (transmission line). , reactor used in con9unction with three line: connected shunt reactors to create a hi'h im(edance& limitin' the flow of secondary arc current. !umerical relay (or relay unit). See: digital relay. 4perator 'indo' (operator synchronizing 'indo'). , (redetermined ran'e of volta'e& (hase an'le and sli( fre uency within which an o(erator can safely initiate closin' of a circuit brea)er to synchroni%e a 'enerator to the system. See: automatic synchronizing system, manual synchronizing system, semi-automatic synchronizing system. !4015$ 4utput supervision (relays). <ontrollin' the out(ut of a (rotective relay by e*ternal means to (ermit or (revent com(letion of an o(eration by the relay. See: supervision (relays), input supervision (relays).

<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database *arallel transfer (motor bus). The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another& desi'ned to have two source brea)ers closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. See: fast transfer, in-phase transfer, residual voltage transfer, slo' transfer. *artial cross-polarization (relays). , variation of cross:(olari%ation in which the directional reference uantity consists of a combination of the volta'e associated with the o(eratin' uantity and another volta'e inde(endent of the o(eratin' uantity. Ior e*am(le& B,C (hase distance relay may use H, J 9H1< as its reference volta'e. See: cross-polarization, self-polarization. *artial differential scheme. , variation of a bus differential (rotection scheme in which some currents are e*cluded in the summation& ty(ically due to the unavailability of current transformers. The natural current unbalance resultin' from (artial summation is ta)en into account at the e*(ense of sensitivity. ;6<.#.8.47 !/0"5$ *ercentage restraint. In a differential relay& the restrainin' effect of throu'h:current on the (ic)u( current. This effect may be e*(ressed as the ratio of differential current to the throu'h:current& which must be e*ceeded for the relay to o(erate. The throu'h:current may be e*(ressed as the lesser& 'reater or mean of the individual restraint currents. ,lternatively& the effect may be e*(ressed as a (ercenta'e by which the (ic)u( current of the relay increases as the mean throu'h:current increases. *hantom tertiary. ,n a((arent tertiary that some transformer core confi'urations manifest. !"0"#$ *hase angle regulator (regulating transformer7. , hi'h volta'e (hase shifter used for (ower flow control& usually e ui((ed with an e*citin' windin' and a series windin'& re uirin' s(ecial relayin' consideration that differs from conventional transformer relayin'. !4015$ *ickup (of a relay). That level of the measured uantity at which a sensin' device will 9ust o(erate. See: dropout (of a relay), reset (of a relay). *ole-mounted sectionalizing device. See: automatic line sectionalizer. *olarizing voltage. The in(ut volta'e to a relay that (rovides a reference for establishin' the direction of the o(eratin' current. ;6<.#.8.07 !/0"5$ *ole-mounted sectionalizing device. See: automatic line sectionalizer. !4015$ *rimary arc current (single-phase tripping). The current in a (hase:to:'round fault (rior to sin'le:(hase tri((in'. See: secondary arc current (single-phase tripping). *rinciple failure (of a relay). Inability of a relay to (erform (ro(erly due to an inaccuracy or error in the relay conce(t or al'orithm. To correct the (rinci(le failure& the relay must be conce(tually redesi'ned. !4015$ &eporting rate. , rate in frames (er second that a device& such as a 6hasor Feasurement Knit& (eriodically transfers to a data collection device. !"0"#$ &esidual voltage transfer (motor bus). The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source throu'h brea)er schemes& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. The volta'e ma'nitude at the load bus must fall below a (redetermined level before the load is connected to another source. See: fast transfer, in-phase transfer, parallel transfer, slo' transfer.
<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database &esistor pad. , networ) of resistors desi'ned to attenuate a si'nal by a 'iven amount. !"0"#$ &estraining current. , current in a low im(edance differential relay which is derived from all currents of the differential %one to ma)e the differential function more secure when current transformers are saturated due to e*ternal faults. It is used in con9unction with a (ercenta'e differential characteristic to desensiti%e the effect of the differential current and reflects the severity of e*ternal faults. See+ differential current. ;6<.#.8.47 !/0"5$ &estricted earth relay. , sensitive relay that is desi'ned to detect 'round faults within a well:defined (rotective %one ;e.'.& windin' differential7. !/0"5$ &ing bus. , closed loo( confi'uration of two or more circuit brea)ers with a line& transformer& 'enerator or other circuit ta((ed between ad9acent circuit brea)ers. Therefore& a rin' bus scheme has an e ual number of brea)ers and circuits. In (ractice& the minimum number of circuits is three. 6ealing current. , small current& a((ro*imately one milliam(ere dc& introduced by the communications channel (rovider to (revent corrosion caused by small accumulations of o*ides at s(lices and other connection (oints. !"0"#$

6econdary arc current (single-phase tripping). The current in a (hase:to: 'round fault after sin'le:(hase tri((in'. It is the sum of two currents derived from the electrostatic and electroma'netic cou(lin' from the remainin' ener'i%ed (hases and ad9acent lines after the (rimary arc current contribution is removed by o(enin' the line circuit brea)ers. See: primary arc current (single-phase tripping).
6elf-polarization (relays). , distance relay o(eratin' (rinci(le in which the directional reference ;(olari%in'7 volta'e is the same volta'e used for the distance measurement. Ior e*am(le& B,C (hase distance relay uses H,D as a reference. See: crosspolarization, partial cross-polarization. 6emi-automatic synchronizing system. , relayin' scheme that has as(ects of both the manual and automatic synchroni%in' systems in that either one or the other will match the 'enerator or close the brea)er& but not both. See: automatic synchronizing system, manual synchronizing system. 6equential tripping. Tri((in' of brea)ers in a (redetermined se uence. ;6<.#.8.47 !/0"5$ 6equential tripping logic. Tri((in' lo'ic a((lied to (rovide security a'ainst a (ossible turbo'enerator overs(eed u(on an o(enin' of the 'enerator brea)er;s7 durin' a tri((in' of the unitA such as for a BnormalC ;manual7 unit shutdown or a Bturbine tri(C unit shutdown. , reverse (ower relay ;.87& monitorin' the flow of real (ower into the unit& is used to initiate tri((in' of the 'enerator brea)er;s7. !/0"5$ 6ingle-phase tripping. Disconnectin' only the faulted (hase durin' a sin'le:(hase:to: 'round fault on a (oly(hase (ower system.

6lo' transfer (motor bus). The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. , time interval& usually in e*cess if 80
<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database

cycles& occurs before the load is (owered from another source. See: fast transfer, in-phase transfer, parallel transfer, residual voltage transfer .
6pecial *rotection 6ystem (&emedial Action 6cheme)" ,n automatic (rotection system desi'ned to detect abnormal or (redetermined system conditions& and ta)e corrective actions other than or in addition to the isolation of faulted com(onents to maintain system reliability. See: 6ystem ,ntegrity *rotection 6ystems ;SI6S Survey: 2D <47 !/0"5$

6pill current. The difference in two in(ut currents that are su((osed to be e ual& as in a differential a((lication. ;<.#.517
6tart-up source. , source of 'eneratin' (lant au*iliary (ower that is inde(endent of the availability of the main 'enerator. 6teel armor. See: armored cable. 6upervision (relays). , function that allows one or several elements of a (rotective device to either (erform an intended action or to inhibit that action de(endin' on the condition of an in(ut. , su(ervisin' relay may control the su(ervised element;s7 directly ;in(ut su(ervision7 or it may only control the dis(osition of the out(ut si'nal of the element;s7 ;out(ut su(ervision7. See: input supervision (relays), output supervision (relays). 6ympathetic tripping. The (henomena where a brea)er tri(s for a fault on a nearby circuit& usually caused by current inrush on a circuit after the faulted feeder brea)er o(ens and the system volta'e returns to normal. ;6<.#.8.07 !/0"5$ 6ync-check relay. See: synchronism check relay. 6ystem ,ntegrity *rotection 6ystems (6,*6). The SI6S encom(asses S(ecial 6rotection Schemes ;S6S7& Remedial ,ction Schemes ;R,S7& as well as additional schemes such as underfre uency ;KI7& undervolta'e ;KH7& out:of:ste( ;GGS7& etc. , SI6S is a((lied to the overall (ower system or a strate'ic (art of it in order to (reserve system stability& maintain overall system connectivity& and to avoid serious e ui(ment dama'e durin' ma9or events. ;SI6S Survey:2D <47 !/0"5$ 7heoretical phasor. The (hasor value of an ac si'nal derived by mathematical analysis. !"0"#$ 7hree-line diagram (ac). , dia'ram that re(resents a 'rou( of three:(hase (ower system elements with three lines ;or four& includin' neutral7 interconnectin' the elements. See: one-line diagram. 7ime 6equence $ata (76$) file. ,n electronic data file where each data item is identified by a time ta'& such as in transient data records& event se uences and (eriodic data lo's. !/0"5$ 7ransient fault recorder. , recorder that is used to measure electrical uantities and monitor e ui(ment and systems. It automatically records transients when chan'es occur in the state of the monitored e ui(ment or when system values chan'e. ,lso called fault recorder& di'ital fault recorder ;DIR7& transient recorder or oscillo'ra(h. 7ransient overreach. , tendency of a relay or relay element to reach farther than its set value due to dc offset in the in(ut current. It is usually e*(ressed in (ercent& calculated as follows+
<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database


( Measured OperateValue Set OperateValue) 100% Set OperateValue

Transient Gverreach L -

7ransient recorder. See: transient fault recorder. 7riple modular redundant (72&)" , term associated with (rotective relayin' systems that have three system (rocessor elements wor)in' to'ether. This system can revert to two system (rocessor elements or one in the (resence of one or two faulty com(onents& res(ectively. ;SI6S Survey:2D <47 !/0"5$ 7rip 'indo' (unblocking or channel failure). , tri( (ermission out(ut 'enerated by a receiver after loss of channel ;usually within 4 : / milliseconds7 of 100 : 1"0 milliseconds duration. This tri( window is 'enerated only on the loss of channel and not when the channel is restored. The receiver lo'ic re uires that 'uard be restored and stable before the tri( window can a'ain be 'enerated. 7ripping modes. This term describes the se uence of o(erations of the devices that must tri( in a relay scheme. 8nblocking. , form of (ermissive overreachin' transfer tri( modified so that the receiver will 'enerate a tri( time window that will (ermit local tri((in' if the local relay sees a fault and a loss of channel. See: trip 'indo', permissive overreaching transfer trip. ;<.#.11.7 8tility-grade relay (protective relay). , 'eneric term for a relay that com(lies with ,NSI/IEEE <.#.50 and related (ower switch'ear standards& and that usually includes additional maintenance and testin' features. 5armetric relay. , relay that res(onds to the uadrature ;ima'inary7 com(onent of current com(ared to the (olari%in' volta'e. ;6<.#.8.07 !/0"5$ 9attmetric relay. , relays that res(onds to the in:(hase ;real7 com(onent of current as com(ared to the (olari%in' volta'e. ;6<.#.8.07 !/0"5$

&evise $efinitions #urrently in ,::: $ictionary"


#apacitive unbalance detection function. , function to detect the abnormal unbalance in ca(acitance between ca(acitor 'rou(s within a (hase& such as that caused by blown ca(acitor fuses or faulted ca(acitor units or elements& and to initiate an alarm& the closin' of the ca(acitor by(ass switch& or both. ;6<.#.11/7 !/0"5$ *ilot protection. !,dd+$ B,lso called tele(rotection.C

Additions to the abbreviations section, located in the back of the ,::: 6td 1;;-<;;="
,:$. intelli'ent electronic device $s. distribution factor (*&" 'round (otential rise
<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database (68 transformer. 'enerator ste(:u( transformer 6:&" se uence of events recorder

!4015$+ ,ND4MRev.015 !"0"#$+ ,ND"0"# !/015$+ DND/MRev.0"5

<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
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