New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.100/Database Absolute envelope delay.

The absolute delay of an audio communications channel over the fre uency band of the channel. !"0"#$ Advance Angle. In an automatic synchroni%er& the an'le in de'rees (rior to (hase coincidence that the 'enerator volta'e waveform will chan'e relative to the bus volta'e waveform durin' the (eriod of time between initiation of brea)er closin' and the actual closin' of the circuit brea)er contacts. This can be e*(ressed by the e uation+ Φ , - ./0 0 Φ S 0 T1 2here+ Φ , is the advance an'le in de'rees Φ S is the sli( fre uency in 3ert% and T1 is the brea)er closin' time in seconds. !4015$

Arc resistance (of a fault). That com(onent of the fault im(edance caused by the current flowin' throu'h ioni%ed air. There is no si'nificant reactive com(onent. The arc resistance accounts for the heatin' effect of the arc. Audio-tone protective relaying. 6rotective relayin' usin' a voice fre uency channel. !"0"#$ Audio-tone. See: voice frequency (1) data transmission. !"0"#$ Automatic synchronizing system. , relayin' scheme with one or more elements that+ 17 ta)es into account the closin' time of the controlled brea)er to calculate when the advance an'le is (ro(er to initiate closin'& 87 causes the brea)er contacts to close when a %ero (hase difference between the sensed volta'es occurs& .7 monitors and controls the fre uency and volta'e of the 'enerator. See: manual synchronizing system, semiautomatic synchronizing system, synchronizing relay& synchronism check relay. reaker-and-a-half. , confi'uration of three circuit brea)ers in series between two buses with a line& transformer& 'enerator or other circuit ta((ed between ad9acent circuit brea)ers. Therefore& the number of circuit brea)ers in a brea)er:and:a:half scheme is e ual to 1:1/8 times the number of circuits. !ote" also described as brea)er:and:one: half. See: double breaker. us transfer. The (rocess of transferrin' motor bus loads from one source to another source. #apacitive unbalance detection function. , function to detect the abnormal unbalance in ca(acitance between ca(acitor 'rou(s within a (hase& such as that caused by blown ca(acitor fuses or faulted ca(acitor units or elements& and to initiate an alarm or the closin' of a ca(acitor by(ass switch& or both. ;6<.#.11/7 !/0"5$ #omputer relay (or relay unit). See: $igital relay #ontrol diagram. , dia'ram which shows all of the functions that control the o(eration of an electrical device. !"0"#$ #ross-country fault. Simultaneous flash:over& 'enerally to 'round& of two different (hases in different line sections. ,lso loosely used to describe when com(arable faults occur on the same tower.

<o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. ,ll ri'hts reserved. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.
81>81#"18.doc 1 ?//@

100/Database $ifferential bus protection. . The sum of all currents enterin' and leavin' a section of the electrical systemA measured with consistent (olarity. hi'h:volta'e shunt reactor that is constructed of dis):ty(e coils. .New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std. .(hase com(arison7. Tri((in' is accom(lished by forward overreachin' elements in the absence of a bloc)in' si'nal from the remote terminal.#. These coils are wound with one or more co((er stra(s in (arallel.#.lso referred to as an o(eratin' current. combination of these sections forms one (hase of the reactor. !"0"#$ $istributed resources. . techni ue used to limit the outa'e duration and restore service to customers throu'h fault location identification and automatic switchin'.00 msec7 followin' loss of channel. . .ll ri'hts reserved. !"0"#$ $ouble breaker. See: pickup (of a relay). See: directional comparison protection. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.47 !/0"5$ $irectional comparison blocking. See: restrainin' current. See: static relay.07 !/0"5$ $istribution factor ($s).#. !"0"#$ $isc-type reactor. See: transient fault recorder.8. method of (rotection in which an internal fault is identified based on the direction of fault currents associated with the (rotected bus. $ropout (of a relay).6<. !"0"#$ $irectional comparison unblocking. fre uency shift carrier system is usually used& with normal transmission of the 'uard . .07 !/0"5$ $istribution automation.doc 8 ?//@ . See: directional comparison protection.6<. bus (rotection method in which an internal fault is identified by the amount of difference between the currents enterin' the bus and those e*itin' the bus. The (er unit current at a location in the (ower system as a (er unit of fault current. . 6ower sources such as small 'enerators& (hotovoltaic units& fuel cells& etc. .bloc)in'7 fre uency. . . E*ternal faults do not (roduce loss of channel.8.ty(ically 1"0 : .6<.6<. <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE.8.6<. .#.& that are connected on distribution circuits and dis(ersed throu'hout the utility distribution system. .8. .usually BonC : BoffC (ower line carrier7 is used to bloc) tri((in' at the remote terminal for e*ternal faults. $irectional bus protection. That level of the measured uantity at which a sensin' device will 9ust reset. reset (of a relay). static relay or relay unit in which the desi'ned res(onse is develo(ed by convertin' the in(uts into numeric form and mani(ulatin' them mathematically or lo'ically.47 !/0"5$ $ifferential current. The method can be based on absolute current directions with res(ect to a selected reference& or relative directions with no reference re uired .8. . (ilot system in which the channel e ui(ment . 81>81#"18. $igital relay (or relay unit). The first turn is wra((ed around an insulatin' cylinder& then a number of turns is wound over this first turn& (roducin' a dis) section. . confi'uration of two circuit brea)ers in series between two buses with a line& transformer& 'enerator or other circuit ta((ed between the circuit brea)ers.47 !/0"5$ $igital fault recorder ($%&).#. (ilot system similar in all as(ects to a (ermissive overreachin' transfer tri( scheme e*ce(t that the unbloc)in' scheme (rovides a tri((in' window . .

. . parallel transfer. The material used to facilitate the interru(tion of the arc durin' o(enin' of a switchin' device.nterrupting medium. controllin' in(ut to a (rotective relay by e*ternal means to (ermit or (revent the o(eration of the relay. !/0"5$ . mutual coupling. shunt reactor arran'ement consistin' of three wye:connected reactors and a fourth connected from neutral to 'round. %ault impedance.11. !"0"#$ <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. slo' transfer.ccidentally ener'i%in' a 'enerator that is off:line& with the field de:ener'i%ed.#. !"0"#$ %ault recorder. See: capacitive coupling. ?//@ .ll ri'hts reserved.7 %ault locator. . The im(edance at the (oint of the fault& which can include the im(edance of the arc& the fault initiatin' ob9ect and the tower footin' resistance. D6R is usually caused by a short circuit of an ener'i%ed (ower conductor to 'round and is the result of the in9ected current flowin' throu'h the im(edance of the 'round circuit. Inability of a relay to (erform (ro(erly due to a malfunction of one or more (hysical com(onents& which must be re(laced to correct the malfunction. See: supervision (relays).nadvertent energizing. !4015$ . keyed. . . See: transient fault recorder. . !4015$ +ybrid &elay. !"0"#$ (round fault (transmission ) distribution protective relays). See: fast transfer.#. output supervision (relays). (round potential rise ((*&). residual voltage transfer. +ard'are failure (relays). . . The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. . parallel transfer. . The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source with no intentional delay& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess& and the time that the brea)ers are simultaneously o(en is minimi%ed .<. keying (.07 !/0"5$ -ey. (rotective relay in which the desi'ned res(onse is develo(ed usin' more than one technolo'y.8. 81>81#"18. . The load is allowed to be (owered from the second source if there is an acce(table (redetermined difference between the res(ective volta'e (hasors of the load volta'e and the second source volta'e.nput supervision (relays). residual voltage transfer.n e*ternal si'nal initiatin' a chan'e in state of a communications channel tri( condition.n insulation failure between an ener'i%ed conductor and 'round. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.doc . That characteristic of electric circuits in which lon'itudinal volta'e is develo(ed in one circuit due to its (ro*imity to a second circuit that has current flowin' in it.nductive coupling (electric system). slo' transfer. %our-reactor scheme. device& either hardware or software& that calculates fault location. See: in-phase transfer.6<.New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std. The difference in 'round (otential between a location in (ro*imity to a (oint of lar'e current in9ection into the 'round and any remote 'round (oint. .100/Database %ast transfer. .usually less than 10 cycles7./0 protective relay telecommunications).n-phase transfer (motor bus).

6<. control scheme whereby an o(erator controls the 'enerator volta'e& fre uency& and brea)er closin'. . relayin' o(eratin' (rinci(le in which a reference uantity is established for a directional determination usin' ne'ative se uence volta'e or current. !umerical relay (or relay unit). 1inear coupler. . . .47 !/0"5$ 2anual synchronizing system. . The o(eratorEs action may be su(ervised by additional devices that (revent incorrect closures. .6<.ll ri'hts reserved.#. .n assembly of metal o*ide varistor units that limits overvolta'es to a 'iven value. See: automatic synchronizing system. See: digital relay. manual synchronizing system. 'rou( of instruments (rovides the information re uired to ma)e the closin' decision. transformer for matchin' the im(edance of the terminal e ui(ment to the voice fre uency channel. semi-automatic synchronizing system.#. semi-automatic synchronizing system.doc 4 ?//@ .n au*iliary system bus that (rimarily su((lies (ower to motor loads.100/Database 1ine outage. The FGH is desi'ned to withstand the tem(orary overvolta'es and continuous o(eratin' volta'e across the series ca(acitor units. See: capacitive coupling. transformer with a non:ma'netic core& havin' a low ener'y volta'e out(ut that varies linearly with the (rimary current. See: automatic synchronizing system. <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. . input supervision (relays). In the conte*t of series ca(acitor ban)s& the FGH is ty(ically defined by its ability to divert fault current around the series ca(acitor units& limitin' the volta'e to a s(ecified (rotective level while absorbin' ener'y. See+ hi'h:im(edance scheme. !4015$ 2atching transformer (Audio-tone relaying). That characteristic of electric circuits in which volta'e is induced in one circuit due to its (ro*imity to a second ener'i%ed circuit. !egative sequence polarization (relays). !4015$ 4utput supervision (relays).New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std. . . <ontrollin' the out(ut of a (rotective relay by e*ternal means to (ermit or (revent com(letion of an o(eration by the relay.11/7 !/0"5$ 2icroprocessor-based relay. . See: outage. See: supervision (relays). 2otor bus. relay in which the desi'ned res(onse is develo(ed by usin' one or more micro(rocessors. 4perator 'indo' (operator synchronizing 'indo'). (redetermined ran'e of volta'e& (hase an'le and sli( fre uency within which an o(erator can safely initiate closin' of a circuit brea)er to synchroni%e a 'enerator to the system. .8. 1o'-impedance scheme. . See: digital relay. 2utual coupling (electric system). differential method of bus (rotection usin' current transformers connected to a low im(edance load that maintains stability durin' saturation of current transformers from e*ternal faults usin' the conce(t of restraint or other means. 81>81#"18. synchronism check relay. . reactor used in con9unction with three line: connected shunt reactors to create a hi'h im(edance& limitin' the flow of secondary arc current. inductive coupling. !"0"#$ 2etal o3ide varistor (245). !eutral reactor (transmission line). This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.

!"0"#$ &esidual voltage transfer (motor bus). parallel transfer. See: dropout (of a relay). !"0"#$ *hase angle regulator (regulating transformer7. residual voltage transfer. in-phase transfer. The volta'e ma'nitude at the load bus must fall below a (redetermined level before the load is connected to another source. *artial cross-polarization (relays). . See: fast transfer. . . hi'h volta'e (hase shifter used for (ower flow control& usually e ui((ed with an e*citin' windin' and a series windin'& re uirin' s(ecial relayin' consideration that differs from conventional transformer relayin'. This effect may be e*(ressed as the ratio of differential current to the throu'h:current& which must be e*ceeded for the relay to o(erate.8. See: automatic line sectionalizer. *ole-mounted sectionalizing device. The throu'h:current may be e*(ressed as the lesser& 'reater or mean of the individual restraint currents. variation of a bus differential (rotection scheme in which some currents are e*cluded in the summation& ty(ically due to the unavailability of current transformers. !4015$ *rimary arc current (single-phase tripping).6<. 81>81#"18. reset (of a relay).New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std. . rate in frames (er second that a device& such as a 6hasor Feasurement Knit& (eriodically transfers to a data collection device. . This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e. *artial differential scheme. !4015$ &eporting rate. See: automatic line sectionalizer.#. Ior e*am(le& B. Inability of a relay to (erform (ro(erly due to an inaccuracy or error in the relay conce(t or al'orithm. *olarizing voltage. The in(ut volta'e to a relay that (rovides a reference for establishin' the direction of the o(eratin' current. variation of cross:(olari%ation in which the directional reference uantity consists of a combination of the volta'e associated with the o(eratin' uantity and another volta'e inde(endent of the o(eratin' uantity. J 9H1< as its reference volta'e. slo' transfer. In a differential relay& the restrainin' effect of throu'h:current on the (ic)u( current.07 !/0"5$ *ole-mounted sectionalizing device. The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source throu'h brea)er schemes& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. That level of the measured uantity at which a sensin' device will 9ust o(erate. The current in a (hase:to:'round fault (rior to sin'le:(hase tri((in'.#. See: cross-polarization. The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another& desi'ned to have two source brea)ers closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. self-polarization.n a((arent tertiary that some transformer core confi'urations manifest. .100/Database *arallel transfer (motor bus).doc " ?//@ .ll ri'hts reserved. The natural current unbalance resultin' from (artial summation is ta)en into account at the e*(ense of sensitivity.6<. . slo' transfer. *hantom tertiary. To correct the (rinci(le failure& the relay must be conce(tually redesi'ned. !4015$ *ickup (of a relay).47 !/0"5$ *ercentage restraint.8. . *rinciple failure (of a relay). in-phase transfer. See: secondary arc current (single-phase tripping).lternatively& the effect may be e*(ressed as a (ercenta'e by which the (ic)u( current of the relay increases as the mean throu'h:current increases.C (hase distance relay may use H. See: fast transfer. . <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE.

.8. Disconnectin' only the faulted (hase durin' a sin'le:(hase:to: 'round fault on a (oly(hase (ower system.e. !"0"#$ 6econdary arc current (single-phase tripping). 6ealing current.s7 durin' a tri((in' of the unitA such as for a BnormalC . Ior e*am(le& B.(olari%in'7 volta'e is the same volta'e used for the distance measurement. 6elf-polarization (relays). !/0"5$ &ing bus.87& monitorin' the flow of real (ower into the unit& is used to initiate tri((in' of the 'enerator brea)er. 6lo' transfer (motor bus). small current& a((ro*imately one milliam(ere dc& introduced by the communications channel (rovider to (revent corrosion caused by small accumulations of o*ides at s(lices and other connection (oints. It is the sum of two currents derived from the electrostatic and electroma'netic cou(lin' from the remainin' ener'i%ed (hases and ad9acent lines after the (rimary arc current contribution is removed by o(enin' the line circuit brea)ers. time interval& usually in e*cess if 80 <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE.#.C (hase distance relay uses H. See: automatic synchronizing system. Tri((in' lo'ic a((lied to (rovide security a'ainst a (ossible turbo'enerator overs(eed u(on an o(enin' of the 'enerator brea)er. reverse (ower relay . . Tri((in' of brea)ers in a (redetermined se uence.s7. . . . This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.'. 6emi-automatic synchronizing system. !/0"5$ 6ingle-phase tripping. .& windin' differential7. See: primary arc current (single-phase tripping).D as a reference. The (rocess of transferrin' load from one source to another source& desi'ned so that the two source brea)ers are not closed at the same time durin' the transfer (rocess. !"0"#$ &estraining current. sensitive relay that is desi'ned to detect 'round faults within a well:defined (rotective %one .47 !/0"5$ 6equential tripping logic.6<. closed loo( confi'uration of two or more circuit brea)ers with a line& transformer& 'enerator or other circuit ta((ed between ad9acent circuit brea)ers.. .#. manual synchronizing system. Therefore& a rin' bus scheme has an e ual number of brea)ers and circuits. . In (ractice& the minimum number of circuits is three.ll ri'hts reserved. current in a low im(edance differential relay which is derived from all currents of the differential %one to ma)e the differential function more secure when current transformers are saturated due to e*ternal faults. 81>81#"18. networ) of resistors desi'ned to attenuate a si'nal by a 'iven amount.manual7 unit shutdown or a Bturbine tri(C unit shutdown. partial cross-polarization. .New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std. It is used in con9unction with a (ercenta'e differential characteristic to desensiti%e the effect of the differential current and reflects the severity of e*ternal faults.6<. .100/Database &esistor pad. See+ differential current.8. relayin' scheme that has as(ects of both the manual and automatic synchroni%in' systems in that either one or the other will match the 'enerator or close the brea)er& but not both. 6equential tripping.doc / ?//@ . . The current in a (hase:to: 'round fault after sin'le:(hase tri((in'. See: crosspolarization. distance relay o(eratin' (rinci(le in which the directional reference .47 !/0"5$ &estricted earth relay. .

See: fast transfer. 7ransient overreach. . . function that allows one or several elements of a (rotective device to either (erform an intended action or to inhibit that action de(endin' on the condition of an in(ut. See: synchronism check relay. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.KH7& out:of:ste( .doc # ?//@ . . su(ervisin' relay may control the su(ervised element. dia'ram that re(resents a 'rou( of three:(hase (ower system elements with three lines . SI6S is a((lied to the overall (ower system or a strate'ic (art of it in order to (reserve system stability& maintain overall system connectivity& and to avoid serious e ui(ment dama'e durin' ma9or events.ll ri'hts reserved. !/0"5$ 7ransient fault recorder. 6ystem . . The SI6S encom(asses S(ecial 6rotection Schemes . residual voltage transfer . See: armored cable. . parallel transfer.*6).<.SI6S Survey:2D <47 !/0"5$ 7heoretical phasor.ntegrity *rotection 6ystems .07 !/0"5$ 6ync-check relay. . See: 6ystem .out(ut su(ervision7. It is usually e*(ressed in (ercent& calculated as follows+ <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. 6teel armor. .GGS7& etc.n electronic data file where each data item is identified by a time ta'& such as in transient data records& event se uences and (eriodic data lo's. See: one-line diagram.DIR7& transient recorder or oscillo'ra(h.New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std. .#. output supervision (relays). The difference in two in(ut currents that are su((osed to be e ual& as in a differential a((lication. .s7 . !"0"#$ 7hree-line diagram (ac).KI7& undervolta'e . in-phase transfer. 6upervision (relays). . 6pecial *rotection 6ystem (&emedial Action 6cheme)" .ntegrity *rotection 6ystems (6.n automatic (rotection system desi'ned to detect abnormal or (redetermined system conditions& and ta)e corrective actions other than or in addition to the isolation of faulted com(onents to maintain system reliability.ction Schemes .100/Database cycles& occurs before the load is (owered from another source. 81>81#"18. recorder that is used to measure electrical uantities and monitor e ui(ment and systems.S6S7& Remedial .in(ut su(ervision7 or it may only control the dis(osition of the out(ut si'nal of the element.517 6tart-up source. .#. 7ime 6equence $ata (76$) file.s7 directly . It automatically records transients when chan'es occur in the state of the monitored e ui(ment or when system values chan'e. . .6<.or four& includin' neutral7 interconnectin' the elements.8.lso called fault recorder& di'ital fault recorder .S7& as well as additional schemes such as underfre uency .SI6S Survey: 2D <47 !/0"5$ 6pill current. tendency of a relay or relay element to reach farther than its set value due to dc offset in the in(ut current. source of 'eneratin' (lant au*iliary (ower that is inde(endent of the availability of the main 'enerator. 6ympathetic tripping. The (hasor value of an ac si'nal derived by mathematical analysis. See: input supervision (relays).R. The (henomena where a brea)er tri(s for a fault on a nearby circuit& usually caused by current inrush on a circuit after the faulted feeder brea)er o(ens and the system volta'e returns to normal.

permissive overreaching transfer trip.ll ri'hts reserved. . located in the back of the . distribution factor (*&" 'round (otential rise <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE..usually within 4 : / milliseconds7 of 100 : 1"0 milliseconds duration. 8nblocking.#. . function to detect the abnormal unbalance in ca(acitance between ca(acitor 'rou(s within a (hase& such as that caused by blown ca(acitor fuses or faulted ca(acitor units or elements& and to initiate an alarm& the closin' of the ca(acitor by(ass switch& or both. . . . .NSI/IEEE <. 7ripping modes.#.07 !/0"5$ &evise $efinitions #urrently in .6<.New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.#. .::: $ictionary" #apacitive unbalance detection function.dd+$ B.8.-<.#. This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.11/7 !/0"5$ *ilot protection.#. This tri( window is 'enerated only on the loss of channel and not when the channel is restored..50 and related (ower switch'ear standards& and that usually includes additional maintenance and testin' features. tri( (ermission out(ut 'enerated by a receiver after loss of channel . This term describes the se uence of o(erations of the devices that must tri( in a relay scheme.7 8tility-grade relay (protective relay). See: transient fault recorder. .100/Database ( Measured OperateValue − Set OperateValue)  100% × Set OperateValue   Transient Gverreach L .ima'inary7 com(onent of current com(ared to the (olari%in' volta'e. 7ransient recorder.8. . form of (ermissive overreachin' transfer tri( modified so that the receiver will 'enerate a tri( time window that will (ermit local tri((in' if the local relay sees a fault and a loss of channel. 5armetric relay.C Additions to the abbreviations section. . term associated with (rotective relayin' systems that have three system (rocessor elements wor)in' to'ether. relays that res(onds to the in:(hase .=" . 'eneric term for a relay that com(lies with .real7 com(onent of current as com(ared to the (olari%in' volta'e.SI6S Survey:2D <47 !/0"5$ 7rip 'indo' (unblocking or channel failure). This system can revert to two system (rocessor elements or one in the (resence of one or two faulty com(onents& res(ectively.lso called tele(rotection. 81>81#"18. !.:$. .<.doc > ?//@ .11. intelli'ent electronic device $s.6<. 7riple modular redundant (72&)" . See: trip 'indo'. .6<.::: 6td 1. The receiver lo'ic re uires that 'uard be restored and stable before the tri( window can a'ain be 'enerated. relay that res(onds to the uadrature .07 !/0"5$ 9attmetric relay.

New or Revised Definitions for Inclusion in IEEE Std.doc 5 ?//@ .ND4MRev.0"5 <o(yri'ht = 8010 IEEE. 'enerator ste(:u( transformer 6:&" se uence of events recorder !4015$+ . This is an una((roved IEEE Standards Draft& sub9ect to chan'e.ll ri'hts reserved.100/Database (68 transformer. . 81>81#"18.ND"0"# !/015$+ DND/MRev.015 !"0"#$+ .