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HEAT OF NEUTRALIZATION-CALORIMETRIC METHOD
4TH MARCH 2014
NAME : BHINITHA A/P CHANDRASAGARAN ID :18802 PARTNER’S NAME :RAGAVI A/P PALANIAPPAN GROUP :1B COURSE : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LAB DEMONSTRATOR’S NAME :
OBJECTIVES To determine the heat of ionization of water and the heat of the second ionization of malonic acid .
the calorimeter consist of a 1-qt Dewar flask and a thermometer supported on a magnetic stirrer. The water is stirred in the calorimeter and the temperature is read every 20 seconds until a value constant within 0. 10.Its temperature before addition should be close tot the temperature of the solution in the calorimeter 9.As seen from figure.05 C is obtained 8. A duplicate determination is the made. The procedure is then repeated with 2. Stir the solution and record the temperature reading every 20 seconds until three value constant within 0. Dry the Dewar flask thoroughly and carefully measure 250 ml of the 0.0 N acetic acid solutions to substitute hydrochloric acid.0 N sulphuric acid and 2. The water is stirred at a moderate rate and the temperature is read every 20 seconds until it becomes constant within 0. 5. 4. 2. Then pipette 50 ml of ice water into the flask.5 C 3.This process is repeated and the average of the data taken for the calculation of the heat capacity 6. The temperature of the ice water in the thermos is then recorded.PROCEDURE 1.Withdrawn the ice water for this purpose with a chilled pipe from an ice-water mixture in 1-pt thermos bottle. Quickly add 50 ml of the 2. . The experiment is set up as shown in figure 3.0 N hydrochloric acid solution.1.05 C is obtained.2 N sodium hydroxide into the calorimeter 7.
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE EXPERIMENT The effectiveness of this experiment is moderate overall. c) The second part of the experiment is to determine the heat of neutralization for the neutralization reaction which involves both acid and base.DISCUSSION i.T) = C’( ) b) The temperature of calorimeter decreases as heat always flows from the hot body to the cold body according to the second law of thermodynamics and in this situation heat flows from the distilled water to the ice water. the change in temperature of calorimeter after the ice water being added into the distilled water in the thermos was observed in order to determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter by using the equation (50 x 4. > HCl > .18)( . This is because heat of neutralization strongly favors the formation of product which is water. d) After hydrochloric acid. Heat can be easily lost to the surrounding during the experiment especially the moment when we remove the top of the flask to add acid into it. ii. in . The heat loss can be . Heat is dissipated when reaction occurs and there is a high possibility that the heat will flow to the surroundings although we assume that there’s no heat transfer to the surroundings. In short. Thus. DIFFERENCE IN RESULTS There’s a difference in results in terms of the change in temperature in table 2. OBSERVATION a) In the beginning of the experiment. the mole of is higher than that in determines the rate of reaction. the temperature rises immediately for these three reactions as neutralization is an exothermic reaction in which heat is evolved from the reaction resulting in ΔH<0. As the mole of and so it has the highest rate of . As for HCl. iii. it is a stronger acid compared to in temperature reading from highest to lowest for the three reactions is in such arrangement. the change reaction. sulfuric acid and acetic acid are added into sodium hydroxide respectively.
MODIFICATION a) The calorimeter used in this experiment does not result in accurate results as heat is dissipated to the surroundings when the chemical substance is added into the flask. However. the experimental value deviates from the theoretical value. Therefore. c) The volume of the chemical substance used is also insufficient. b) The thermos flask used also results in an inaccurate data. This is because after each part of the experiment is finished we need to dry the thermos flask before adding in new chemical substance and it is difficult to scrub the bottom of the flask so the leftover droplets will be added into the newly added chemical substance resulting in a slight increase of the volume of the solution. This can reduce the heat lost to the surrounding. the thermometer should not be in contact with thermos but with the chemical substance that is going to be tested. the thermometer has to be in contact with the basement of the thermos flask to obtain the temperature reading of the liquid. Apparently. The modification that can be done is to heat up the thermos flask until all the droplets evaporate. the modification that can be done is to change the volume of the chemical substance to be more appropriate. From that. due to a small amount of chemical substance used. . iv. The modification that can be done by making a small hole on the top cover of the flask so that the chemical substance can be added into the flask by using pipette through that hole.reduced by making a small hole on top cover of the flask and then pipette the acid into the flask through the hole.
For instance. d) Large concentrations of hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion cannot coexist in solution. In this experiment. c) Besides.(aq) → (l) with NaOH e) In this experiment. The reactant which is consumed entirely first is called the limiting reactant. If heat is evolved.200 joules are evolved when 1 mole of a strong base is neutralized by 1 mole of a strong acid in a sufficiently dilute solution at 25°C. The neutralization reaction will occur until either H+ or OH. the reaction is exothermic (ΔH<0) and if heat is absorbed. because the neutralization reaction strongly favors the product (water). SCIENCE FACTS AND THEORIES a) Every chemical change is accompanied by a change in energy. The energy change of a reaction that occurs at constant pressure is termed the heat of reaction or the enthalpy change. b) The theory states that 57. The symbol ΔH is used to denote the enthalpy change. the theory also states that if acids which are only partly ionized are used. usually in the form of heat. the reaction is endothermic (ΔH>0) and this experiment heat is evolved this neutralization is an exothermic reaction. In such a process the only chemical change taking place is the reaction between the hydrogen ions. the result is less than the theoretical value stated due to some errors.200 J and it is verified in this experiment in which the heat of neutralization evolved from the reaction between (Weak acid) and NaOH is much less than HCl and respectively.is entirely consumed. the quantity of heat evolved is much less than 57. three various acids are used to neutralize sodium hydroxide solution. the volume of the acid or base may not be measured accurately so not all substances react each other completely as there must one of them that is in excess. and the hydroxyl ions. to form water.v. . H+ (aq) + OH.
. Heat can be easily lost to the surroundings when the top cover of the thermos flask is removed to add in the chemical substance resulting in a deviation from the theoretical value. and n is the number of moles of the limiting reactant. Treatment of error: Heat up the thermo flask until all the droplets evaporate or substitute with another dry flask. Treatment of error: The eye level must be perpendicular to the reading scale of the measuring cylinder. g) The equivalent concentration or normality of a solution is defined as the molar concentration. ANALYSIS OF ERROR AND PROBLEMS FACED a) Systematic Error: . b) Random Error: .f) The molar enthalpy of neutralization is defined as ΔH = where q is the heat of neutralization. it is difficult to scrub the basement of the flask thus there’s some leftover droplets and thus the volume and concentration of the acid or base is affected.Parallax error occurs when the eye level is not perpendicular to the reading scale of the measuring cylinder. divided by an equivalence factor. measured calorimetrically.During the process of drying the thermo flask. Treatment of error: Make a hole on the top cover and pipette the chemical substance into the flask through the hole to reduce heat lost to the surrounding. : Normality = vi.
49 kJ/mol and 73. NaOH respectively.. 1978.D. Physical Chemistry. This is verified by the results obtained which are 60. Oxford University Press. the quantity of heat evolved is much less than 57. Besides. John Wiley & Sons.50 kJ/mol as a weak acid is being used. Ninth Edition. the heat of ionization of water can be found from the heat of neutralization as water is produced from the neutralization process. If acids which are only partly ionized are used..W. Baird H. REFERENCES Crockford H. Second Edition. HCl and and base. The experimental value obtained deviates from the theoretical value due to heat lost to the surroundings.D.200 J.CONCLUSION In conclusion. 1975. Paula J..W. Laboratory manual of Physical Chemistry.W. This is proven by the result obtained from Reaction III which is 56. If solutions of moderate concentrations are used.26 kJ/mol from the reaction between strong acids. Atkins P. . a higher value for the heat of neutralization is often obtained. Getzen F.... Nowell J. heat of neutralization can be determined through calorimetric method.
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