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Chapter II REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE Job satisfaction is a term used to describe how content an individual is with their job.

It is a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined by their parent's occupation. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person's level of job satisfaction; these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness of the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationships, and the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the job description/requirements). http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Job_satisfaction According to Locke and Lathan (2009), job satisfaction can be defined as positive feelings, which arise from opinion and evaluation of ones job or job experience. On the other hand, Hirschfeld (2009) defines job satisfaction as the level that a person would like his or her job. Thus job satisfaction is the emotional reaction, which is brought about by the outcomes in comparison to the expected outcomes from the employers or service receivers. This reaction is influenced by the individuals peculiar needs, expectations and values.

Job satisfaction is important in predicting systems stability, reduced turnover and worker motivation. If motivation is defined as the willingness to exert and maintain effort towards attaining organizational goals, then well-functioning systems should seek to boost factors such as morale and satisfaction, which predict motivation. A survey of ministries of health in 29 countries showed that low motivation was seen as the second most important health workforce problem after staff shortages (Mathauer et al, 2010). Previous African studies have identified the most important human resources tools to manage job satisfaction; these include materials, salary, training, the working environment, supportive supervision and recognition (Mathauner et al, 2010). These findings are relatively consistent with those of the Uganda Health Workforce Study, where the effects of several job-related factors were evaluated to judge their relative importance in predicting job satisfaction. In order of importance, the following were the most significant contributors to overall satisfaction: job matched with workers skills and experience, satisfaction with salary, satisfaction with supervisor, manageable workload and job security (Uganda Ministry of Health, 2010).

Early theory in worker satisfaction and motivation identified compensation as a hygiene factor rather than a motivation factor. This means that basic salary satisfaction must be present to maintain ongoing job satisfaction, but this by itself will not provide satisfaction and increased amounts of salary will not contribute to an increasing level of job satisfaction. However some research done in Africa suggests that salary increases and other improvements in compensation, in the context of highly inadequate pay and benefits, may indeed contribute to workforce retention (Kober et al, 2011). Against this background, it is imperative to look at the definition of job satisfaction as outlined by different authors.

Job satisfaction is described at this point as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience. Job satisfaction results from the perception that ones job fulfils or allows the fulfillment of ones own important job values, providing that and to the degree that those values are congruent with ones needs. According to Kreitner et al (2013) job satisfaction is an affective and emotional response to various facets of ones job.

According to Woods et al (2012), job satisfaction can be achieved when an employee becomes one with the organization, performs to the best of their ability and shows commitment; moreover, job satisfaction and performance are positively influenced by rewards. Kreitner et al (2013) identified various factors influencing job satisfaction, such as the need for management to create an environment that encourages employee involvement and manages stress in the workplace.

In order to understand job satisfaction it is useful to distinguish morale and attitude, and their relationship to job satisfaction (Locke, 2009).Morale can be defined as the extent to which an individuals needs are satisfied and the extent to which an individual perceives that satisfaction as stemming from the total job. Attitude can be defined as an evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way and includes cognitive, affective and behavioural components.

According to Mayer and Botha (2009), in most South African companies there is a low level of employee job satisfaction, resulting in a lack of commitment to performance and the achievement of organizational goals. In South Africa, human resource managers have job satisfaction and productivity at the top of their list of concerns (Grobler et al, 2009). This implies that job satisfaction affects employees performance and commitment.

It is therefore imperative that managers pay special attention to employees attitudes as job satisfaction can decline more quickly than it develops. Managers need to be proactive in improving and maintaining employees life satisfaction and not only satisfaction in the work environment as job satisfaction is part of life satisfaction, meaning an individuals life outside work may have an influence on ones feelings on the job(Staw,2011).

In a situation where a nurse is not satisfied with their work, this means that the nurse is not committed to her job. These two terms are closely related and go hand in hand since the factors influencing job satisfaction are similar to those affecting nursing commitment. In that case nursing commitment to a registered nurse according to Zwol (2009) involves establishing, maintaining and improving the quality of health care in nursing either individually or collectively. It is an act of committing to a charge or trust act of referring a matter to a legislative committee, it is an agreement or a pledge to do something in the future or the state of being obligated or being emotional. For many of the Christians nursing commitment is all about love of God and love for one another. (Zwol 2009.)

Commitment puts into to consideration the past and the present and is directed towards the future. Nursing commitment goes hand in hand with the quality of nursing care provided. For commitment to move from nursing care to caring nursing it requires accountability creativity and attitude. Accountability involves telling the patient your name, the role you play and your expectations from the patient. Creativity involves taking care of patient s needs. Ensuring that they are met at the right time and the patient is satisfied despite limited resources. Attitude comes about in that despite being tired, overwhelmed and burned out the nurse have to do their duties well. (Henderson 2010.) http://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/68085/Wanjohi_Nelius.pdf?sequence=1 Stress is as normal as the nature of the resistance of life (Sullivan, & Decker, 2009), people have been faced with the situations or events from daily life which created stress, tensions. Huber (2009) proposed that nursing work is one of the most stressful and challenging. Moreover, the nurses always have faced special, complex situation, and requirement to hand emergency events. Job stress can be accumulated with day-to-day, and if it is not resolved or adapt, it will evolve too high and consequences will lead to burnout occurs, decrease individual productivity (Huber, 2009), this is really very dangerous if a sufficient amount of stress it would create momentum in the process of working, and conversely

(Adeb-Saeedi, 2009; Sullivan & Decker, 2009). Symptoms of stress impact on the organizations, these express majors on the job such as leading to job dissatisfaction, high absenteeism, as well as labor turnover, poor quality control (Cooper & Marshall, 2010 cited in Sadri & Marcoulides, 2010). Here are some valid evidences that stress impacts on health of humans. Therefore, studies on job stress is needed and including its levels. Chen, Lin, Wang, and Hou (2009) were performed the study on 121 nurses working at seven hospitals in Yunlin and Chiayi Counties to determine the stressors, the stress coping strategies, and the job satisfaction. They found that stress level and frequency perception of nurses was significantly related to the type of hospital; the most intense stressor perceived by nurses was patient safety. They noticed that differences in working environment and administrative management can receive job satisfaction and job stress differently. Besides, they also found that nurse older than 40 years and who had worked for more than 20 years perceived more stress than others; nurses who were single or had no children more frequently adapt difficultly with stress than the others; nurses with monthly salaries less than NT$30,000 (950 USD) perceived lower satisfaction than others. Furthermore, those employed in their present hospital for more than 20 years perceived higher self-esteem satisfaction than those employed in their present hospital for less than 5 years.

Hamidi and Eivazi (2010) determine the levels of employees job stress and in urban health centers in Hamadan, Iran. They surveyed 120 employees. The result showed that the participants in all of the health centers were at moderate level of stress. There was a positive correlation between performance and the midlevel of employees stress was found. The results of a study by Christina and Konstantinos (2009) support the above findings. Christina and Konstantinos explored nurses job stress in Greek registered mental health and assistant nurses. They survey 85 register mental health and assistant nurses working in six acute psychiatric wards. The results reported that nurses experienced moderate level of stress and overall were satisfied with their job. http://digital_collect.lib.buu.ac.th/dcms/files/51913194/chapter2.pdf

The Roy Adaptation Model (Roy, 1976) is a theory used nationally and internationally in nursing practice that addressed the relationship between people and the environment. Sister Callista Roy defined nursing as the science and practice that expanded adaptive abilities and enhanced person and environmental transformation. She identified nursing activities as the assessment of behavior and the stimuli that influenced adaptation. Nursing judgments were based on this assessment, and interventions were planned to manage the stimuli (Alligood & Tomey, 2010). Environment was all the conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development and behavior of persons or groups, with particular

consideration of the mutuality of person and earth resources that includes focal, contextual, and residual stimuli (Roy & Andrews, 2010, p. 81). Roys model can be applied to all nursing practice settings because it primarily addresses the personenvironment adaptation of the patient. Roys propositions indirectly guided this study, which focused on the intersection between nurses and the work environment.

SYNTHESIS Satisfaction with ones profession can affect not only motivation at work but also career decisions, personal health and how one relates with others. The literature shows that what contributes to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is not only the nature of the job but also the expectation of what an individual perceives the job should provide. Health workers are at great risk of job dissatisfaction generally compared to professionals in other types of organizations. Low job satisfaction impacts on staff turnover and absenteeism, which could reduce the efficiency of health services.

Factors influencing job satisfaction vary in nature as there are personal factors and expectations involved, which tend to generate exceptions, therefore generalizations are risky. The future of the healthcare work environment poses significant challenges for employers and employees. The implication for managers is that if healthcare facilities desire to attract and retain healthcare professionals, they will need to find ways to cater for intrinsic job satisfaction factors as well as additional benefits.

Job satisfaction among healthcare professionals is an important predictor of individual well-being, general life satisfaction and job performance. Job satisfaction is an important factor in patient care, and there is also evidence to suggest that a high level

of job satisfaction results in good patient outcomes and health systems outcomes. Job satisfaction is a complex set of interrelationships of roles, responsibilities, tasks, interaction, rewards and incentives. The reviewed literature indicates low levels of general satisfaction among healthcare professionals. Dissatisfaction with autonomy in clinical decision-making, systems roles, and the amount of time spent with patients and poor salaries were some of the problems identified. What follows looks at some of these factors one by one.

Numerous studies conducted among healthcare professionals point to the importance of interpersonal relationships in job satisfaction, and show that they lead to increased patient safety, improved quality of care and greater patient satisfaction. Highly functioning teams have also been shown to offer great support to inexperienced staff. Specifically within healthcare, there has been a growing need to improve teamwork. Introducing team-building activities has resulted in stronger interpersonal; relationships, improved staff communication, understanding and clarity of roles as well as greater job satisfaction. Time is a subjective experience despite the fact that it can be measured. While the quality of time is of great importance so is quantity. Literature shows that perceived time pressure is associated with low job satisfaction among healthcare professionals. Dissatisfaction about time pressure expressed by healthcare professionals may

indicate concerns about autonomy.The literature suggests that the ability of an organization to support and deliver quality patient care is important to healthcare professionals job satisfaction. Organizational factors such as autonomy, teamwork, management support, workload and staffing levels have a great influence on job satisfaction because they impact on the delivery of quality patient care.

REFERENCE

http://policyresearch.limpopo.gov.za/bitstream/handle/123456789/708/FACTORS%20IN FLUENCING%20JOB%20SATISFACTION%20AMONG%20HEALTHCARE%20PROFE SSIONALS%20AT%20SOUTH%20RAND%20HOSPITAL.pdf?sequence=1 http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Job_satisfaction http://digital_collect.lib.buu.ac.th/dcms/files/51913194/chapter2.pdf http://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/68085/Wanjohi_Nelius.pdf?sequence=1