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Before burning itself out, Yersinia pestis or Black Death claimed in the estimation of some experts up to 60% of Europe’s population. In its ake, there as another crisis! the lost of labor. "ost of the ealthiest and po erful had retreated from population centers in fa#or of more secluded locations to escape the horrors of the plague. "ost of the #ictims of the plague ere of the orking classes and lo er. $lso, along ith the disease itself, deaths ere caused out of fear and superstitions of the time as people took their rath out on an%one ho as different from hat as considered to be the norm. Indi#iduals ho had psoriasis, lepers, e#en people ith bad cases of acne ere some of these #ictims. &e s ere rounded up and blamed for the disease. E#en those ho sur#i#ed the disease ere sometimes executed as itches or being in league ith the de#il' h% else ould the% ha#e sur#i#ed( )o the ma*or result of the plague hether from the disease or the accompan%ing human made hell of persecutions out of fear and superstitions, a huge portion of the population as extinguished causing a labor shortage in Europe. In the %ears follo ing the plague there as a ma*or change in Europe as the cost of labor increased due to the high demand and lo suppl% hen the ealth% attempted to rebuild their loses after returning from hiding. +o e#er, the orkers ere in motion lea#ing their home to ns and #illages seeking higher ages. ,ith the higher ages there as a ne demand for more consumer goods and the craftsmen to create these goods. -uilds ere forming and gaining po er from their membership and customers. .eople ere becoming less dependent on the $ristocrac% as the% started to create their o n businesses out of their homes. /amilies started to speciali0e in hat the% ere best at creating hether it as gro ing crops and gro ing crops the% desired'some e#en started to speciali0e in certain crops, animal husbandr%, or creating other consumer goods such as furniture and clothing. "one% itself, e#en though it had been around since about 600 B.1.E. as not in ma*or demand since the 2oman Empire as coming more and more into common use ith the increase in the t%pe of goods no a#ailable. 3here as actuall% a rise of businessmen in to ns filling in the niche of distributing and marketing the resources that had been freed up from the control of the aristocrac% ho prior to the plague ere mainl% interested in ha#ing the people in their realm producing hat the% deemed important ith small subsistence plots for the indi#idual households. "ean hile, the aristocrac% had huge farm lands and manors hich needed labor or the% might ha#e to break a s eat orking the fields themsel#es. ,orse %et, the% didn’t ha#e the manpo er to help in protection from their greatest fears! their greed% neighbors. $long ith this, ith emigrating orkers, the% had no one to rule. 3he% did not ha#e the resources or anted to pa% the going rates to attract labor to their holdings. $ctuall%, I think that kno ing hat I kno of people, to sa% that the% ma% ha#e felt that it as beneath them to pa% for their sub*ects ma% ha#e been more of the realit%. 3o pro#e the idea that the% sa that it as beneath them to hire and pa% their sub*ects, man% resorted to brute force to crush this blossoming /ree4"arket in the ake of one of the largest natural disasters of humankind. 3roops ere sent and fighting broke out. 5ot ha#ing arms or the training, man% of the orking class had little option but to capitulate. $n ancient s%stem of serfdom'the idea that orkers of the land ere attached or tied to the land ' as adopted throughout Europe. .eople ere essentiall% ensla#ed and had no rights.
3his s%stem as for the most part short li#ed and did start to dissipate as population le#els reached and surpassed the pre4plague period. In some states and this as extremel% rare, it as done peacefull% but for most of Europe there ere constant and #iolent .easant 2e#olts throughout the 67th through the 66th centuries hich helped the elite to change their minds. E#entuall%, Europe ould get back on the track of a rudimentar% /ree4"arket )%stem as families started to speciali0e and de#elop their o n home run businesses. 1ottage Industries started to spring up in hich se#eral families get together and create a product b% each famil% speciali0ing in a step of production. $n illustration of this ould be one famil% raises the sheep and pro#ides the ool, another speciali0es in processing the ool #ia combing, spinning, and ea#ing or knitting the cloth, another creates the d%e and d%es the ool, and %et another creates the clothing. )la#er% as still ali#e and ell but instead of ensla#ing fello Europeans, the main population #ictimi0ed as that of $frica. 3here as a ma*or demand for sla#es in the islands of the 1aribbean and the ne l% forming colonies of the $mericas. Belie#e it or not but in the 6600’s, the $mericas as not an attracti#e proposition for a lot of people in Europe! there ere man% dangerous unkno ns including diseases, the indigenous population, and none of the comforts of 8ci#ili0ation and onl% the hardiest of people stepped up to the challenge. 3here as also another class of persons sent to the colon% in the form of con#icts to ser#e their sentence orking in the colonies as sla#es or indentured ser#ants. $s time goes on, kidnapped $fricans become the mainsta% of sla#er% and are used hea#il% in the sugar cane plantations of the islands or the 1aribbean and the gro ing cotton, tobacco, and other plantations of 5orth $merica. )la#er% had become a a% of life mainl% in the southern states as more and more large plantations ere established gro ing a ide #ariet% of crops including rice, cotton, tobacco, and sugar. +o e#er, there as a trend to the ending of legali0ed sla#er% and the climate as no different in the 9nited )tates. "ost of the dri#e to end sla#er% as coming from the industriali0ed northern states. &ohn 1. 1alhoun, $ndre &ackson’s :ice .resident and a 9.). )enator, actuall% suggested extending sla#er% to all ho ere not propert% o ners. +e sa sla#er% as a ;.ositi#e -ood< in that it allo ed a superior group of people to take care of and look out for the ell4being of an inferior group'sounding a lot like the basis of )ocial Dar inism. +o e#er, our nation did not choose 1alhoun’s suggestion and actuall% pushed to head in the opposite direction'the limiting and possible eradication of sla#er%. =ur nation, under the direction of the ne l% come to po er 2epublican .art% hich is nothing more than the descendants of the ,hig .art%, embraced the economic ideas of $lexander +amilton and sho ed this b% adding his image to #arious denomination of mone%. +amilton as ar% of a /ree4"arket )%stem, hich is the natural de#elopment and e#olution of an econom% ith no interference in the dealings of participating parties hich as fa#ored b% 3homas &efferson and fa#ored hat ould become kno n as 1apitalism in the 6>?0’s. +is ideas included the support and aid of businesses from the go#ernment, protection of these businesses ith trade la s, tariffs, @uotas, and e#entuall%, anti4unionist la s. +is ideas ere basicall% hate#er as needed to establish hat as considered to be crucial industries. +e also liked the idea of "ercantilism hich is the use of colonies for homeland economic ad#antages and last but not least, he as for the ending of sla#er%. Aet’s face it! there are numerous problems ith sla#er%. 6. ,hene#er, and histor% has sho n this o#er and o#er throughout the ages e#en though there is some strange reason that those on top refuse to see or understand it 'probabl% has to do ith pointing the finger at themsel#es, %ou oppress someone, there is a constant struggle to rebel! to fight for one’s freedom. In some
cases it is a timid struggle in others it includes horrific #iolence and terrorism. +aiti and its blood filled birth as an independent and democratic nation as a perfect example of this. 2ebellions fill the histor% of sla#er% ith the most notable from the ancient orld being that of )partacus'%eah, that reall% happened, in fact, it as 1aesar’s good friend and future enem%, .ompe%, ho put do n the re#olt and crucified the sla#e arm% along the $pian ,a%. 2obin +ood as a stor% of rebellion against oppression. ,illiam ,allace of Bra#eheart fame as a struggle against sub*ugation. In $merica, things eren’t an% different ith numerous sla#e rebellions such as that of 5at 3urner’s in the 6>B0’s and the raids b% &ohn Bro n in the 6>?0’s. In all cases the ans er as to punish the oppressed b% oppressing them e#en more so ing the seeds of future rebellion, #iolence, and terrorism. C. $ southern doctor once rote something to the extent that sla#es are afflicted ith a strange malad% causing them to ant to run a a% from their masters and the cure as hipping it out of them. )la#es ha#e to be o#erseen and forced to perform the tasks their master desires and a large part of this is breaking their spirit and getting them to *ust follo orders. 3here ere actuall% professional hipping ser#ices for masters ho ere too la0% or s@ueamish to do it themsel#es. /rom a photocop% reproduction of a bill I sa for this ser#ice it asn’t a cheap ser#ice, neither as the ser#ice charges for persons ho hunted do n runa a% sla#es. 3hen there ere different state la s and if not la s, #ie points along ith the task of pro#ing this person as %our sla#e. In )eptember of 6>?6 in .enns%l#ania, a fugiti#e sla#e as tracked do n b% the master and his son in the to n of 1hristiana DI used to deli#er mail there,E ho e#er, in spite of the fact that the sheriff as accompan%ing the sla#e o ners to enforce federal la ! the local populace as of a different opinion. $ riot broke out and among the dead as the sla#e o ner. B. In the 5a0i +ell kno n as the 3hird 2eich, it as found that in man% of the sla#e production camps that onl% about 60% of the munitions produced orked as the% ere intended to ork and this included the eaponr%. .roduction as up to keep the masters off their backs and sta% ali#e, but @ualit% as highl% @uestionable. )ome of the e@uipment e#en featured built in defects. 3here ere also cases of sabotage in hich the eapons produced ould cause grie#ous in*ur% or the machiner% used to produce the eapons or e@uipment ere damaged. 3his is definitel% has to do ith the idea of being a sla#e and being forced against %our ill of doing something. I’m sure that there ere also production and @ualit% problems in#ol#ed in the sla#er% of $merica. 7. 3here as the actual procurement of sla#es. In the sugar plantations hich ate up li#es @uickl%, a constant suppl% of sla#es as needed and since *ust getting replacement sla#es as cheaper than breeding sla#es, males ere the main ones sought after. "ost sla#e sales ere done through auctions and could be expensi#e to ac@uire the ones %ou desired. $nother issue is that as ith an% good salesman, the sla#es ere fed, ashed off, and cleaned up for a better price. ,hen it reall% came do n to it, %ou didn’t kno hat %ou ere getting, ho ell the% ould
ork, hat their beha#ior as like, or ho trul% health% the% ere! %ou *ust had a cleaned up indi#idual. ?. $nother thing to consider as that %ou had to pro#ide shelter, clothing, food, and health care for %our sla#es. 3his ate up s@uare footage that could ha#e been used for more production but instead as left idle to house %our sla#es and pro#ide them ith their o n gardens and mone%. 6. $nother concept in economics is hat is kno n as opportunit% cost. 3his is hen a resource is tied up for one thing and the cost is recogni0ed as for hat else it could also ha#e been used. $n example of this ould be if 3homas $l#a Edison D6>7F46GB6E had been a sla#e orking on a cotton farm instead of his lab or if -eorge ,ashington 1ar#er D6>6746G7BE had been bus% cutting sugar cane instead of de#eloping an entire industr% ith the peanut hich helped some southern farmers reco#er from the loses from the boll ee#il infestation hich ruined the cotton crop b% gi#ing them an alternati#e crop to raise.. Imagine here )outh $frica ould be toda% if it hadn’t spent so much on $partheid or Israel if it used its abilities to de#elop there nation for all of its inhabitants instead of oppressing and relocating the .alestinians'the% ould probabl% ha#e far less securit% issues to orr% about. F. ,ith the threats of rebellion ithin the nation being a constant there is al a%s a real threat from external enemies. 3hink about it, in all cases of in#asion other than those b% the "ongols, one of the biggest things that enabled the in#asion and helped it to become a success as through the help of s%mpathetic members of the indigenous population and in most cases, these ere members of an oppressed group. If an attack happens, not onl% must %ou use troops to defend against and beat back the in#asion but %ou’ll also need to tie up troops keeping the oppressed groups from rising up and *oining the in#aders. Britain as able to in#ade +aiti and kick the /rench out b% supporting and liberating the sla#es'ho e#er, the sla#es then did turn on the British. >. 3he :alue of mone% itself ould come into @uestion. "ost sla#es do not possess mone% and the #alue of mone% is determined b% its suppl% and demand. In actualit% most people don’t desire mone%! the% desire hat the% think that mone% ill gi#e them. If onl% sla#eholders ere factored into this e@uation, hat ould be the #alue of mone% if the% are the onl% ones demanding it( G. =ther than sla#e armies in the "iddle East hich included sla#e generals, sla#es aren’t reall% kno n for their lo%alt% and illingness to fight for their masters. 60. 3here is al a%s the possibilit% that %ou could make a misstep and lose e#er%thing and find %ourself a sla#e. 66. /inall%, in order to ha#e an industriali0ed econom%, %ou need the demand or massi#e consumerism. In a sla#e econom%, the onl% ones bu%ing ould be the sla#e o ners and I doubt that their demand for certain goods ould be enough to dri#e and keep an industr% gro ing. In actualit%, like the "anors of "iddle $ge Europe, must plantations produced hat the% needed making them almost autarkic or in other ords self sustaining and not in need in factor% production.
,ith this in mind, h% ould e need to de#elop industr% if there as no consumer base( +enr% /ord understood this. +e kne that in order to sell his auto at a lo price to attract bu%ers and %et be #er% profitable, he ould ha#e to produce and sell a large @uantit% of them'this is something an economist refers to as Econom% of )cale. In order to accomplish this, there had to be a demand! that is one of the biggest reasons he paid his orkers an unheard salar% of HC? a eek hich as almost fi#e times hat most factor% orkers recei#ed. In all, sla#er% could be a #er% expensi#e proposition on man% different le#els. ,h% ould an%one e#en consider it( )ure in some industries there are higher profit margins ith a labor force that %ou don’t appear to be pa%ing for but in actualit% the costs are immeasurable. I think that considering e#er%thing mentioned here and so much more that the biggest enticer as the same as at the end of the Black Death! a capti#e labor force and to feed the egos of those ho are on top as &ohn 1. 1alhoun point out in his 8.ositi#e -ood’ speech deli#ered to the 9.). )enate in 6>BF. $lso, ith this capti#e labor force there is a control of the population. $nother ma*or plus is that the direction of the nation ould be eas% to guide as the onl% ones ho ould be making decisions ould be the o ners. 3heir decisions ould be more than likel% to keep a certain le#el of stabilit% and predictabilit%. +o e#er, hat if %our extension of sla#er% and control ended at the doors of %our business( ,hat if the limit of %our responsibilit% as to suppl% the plant and e@uipment and a pa%check hich the emplo%ee belie#es that the% can do ith as the% please( ,hat if %ou coupled this ith the #er% base of human characteristics such as greed, self preser#ation, and fear( ,hat if %ou could make %our orkers belie#e that the% are here the% are at because of choices the% made'after all, isn’t the best a% to control a person is to make that person think that the% are in control( ,hat if %ou con#inced them of being free to come and go( ,hat if %ou con#inced them that through taxes the% are pa%ing for a go#ernment that is theirs but in actualit% is more responsi#e to the elite( ,hat if %ou create a s%stem of human husbandr% that eeds out those ho are capable of thinking be%ond the box b% either enlisting them into the higher echelons or labeling them as troublemakers in the e%es of others( ,hat if %ou could make the orkers sla#es to their o n materialistic desires hich runs them into a constant debt hich creates the need for them to cling onto their *obs( ,hat if %ou could ha#e a societ% here the bulk of the population is dependent on the elite ho control the resources( ,hat if %ou feed the idea that an%one can make it and that it is e#er%one for themsel#es( 3hen I ould sa% that %ou ha#e prett% much eliminated a lot of the problems abo#e and ha#e created a societ% of shoppers to keep the s%stem going so that %ou ha#e a constant flo of cash to keep %ou on top ithout the threat of rebellion except ith the fe ho get too greed%. Is this proof of a conspirac%( I ould sa% no. I ould sa% that for the most part, this is *ust ho it orked out! after all, the biggest dri#e in most people is to achie#e as much as the% can for the least amount of effort hich also feeds nicel% into this s%stem.
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