Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore.

Team Nonna’s

BACKGROUND OF THE MIDDAY SCHOOL MEAL PROGRAM In 2001, the Supreme Court of India directed state governments to introduce cooked lunches in all government and government assisted primary schools within six months. The subsidy offered by the central and state governments added up to only one to two rupees per child, and this was not sufficient to prepare a nutritious meal. As a result of the failures of the Supreme Court mandate and previous programs, and frustration at the inability to provide a basic meal to students, a group of talented and diverse individuals came together to think of a creative and innovative method to implement a school feeding program that could feed a large number of children with little cost, thus forming the Akshaya Patra Foundation. Akshaya Patra answers the Indian Supreme Court’s call for a viable midday meal program and also works to solve many of the hunger and educational issues facing India. Nutrition and school performance are closely related and Akshaya Patra is working towards eradicating hunger while promoting education.

DETAILED STUDY The strategic importance of procurement Procurement process is the term used by businesses to describe the buying process, and can refer to the purchase of supplies or services. The goal of the procurement process is to buy the exact product or service when needed for the most favourable price. Identifying a need is the first step in the procurement process.

STAGES OF PROCURMENT

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

Pre – procurement The beginning step in the process of procurement is the recognition that there is a need or wants for a particular good or service. Before there is a chance for the acquisition of goods, there has to be the desire to actually gain possession of something in particular. The term pre-procurement refers to the timeframe before a tender for a particular product or service has been issued. Activities undertaken in the pre-procurement phase can include structured discussions between suppliers and procurers, a market survey on the availability of certain products and procuring research & development (R&D) services. During Procurement Typically a purchase requisition (PR) will be sent to the buyer indicating what product or service is needed. Selecting a supplier typically involves calling out for tenders to multiple suppliers and comparing the bids to determine which supplier can best meet the needs of the business. The buyer will request a specific quantity and delivery date based on the requirements outlined on the purchase requisition. Determining the price paid usually includes comparing bids then negotiating the best price. The buyer should ensure all bids are an accurate reflection of the work to be performed or service provided and include all applicable taxes. This way, the total landed cost is known before the purchase order is placed. It is also necessary to understand the lead time and expected quantity to be delivered. Based on the actual need date, any accepted quote should meet the required date. Post – procurement The last step involves taking possession of the desired good or service, ensuring that the item is in compliance with all the claims made by the supplier, and rendering payment according

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

to the terms worked out with the supplier. In some cases, it may be possible to engage in the acquisition of services and goods prior to supplying payment. At other times, payment may be necessary before taking possession. With both scenarios, the consumer usually has a short period where it is possible to reverse the acquisition and move on to another option. Post procurement quality control:

a) Sampling. b) Rejected materials.

OBJECTIVES & SCOPE The need for a model quality assurance system Quality assurance is a wide-ranging concept which covers all matters that individually or collectively influence the quality of a product. Evaluation of information on quality is often lacking, and inspections at manufacturing sites are not routinely performed to a consistent standard. The implementation of a quality assurance system in procurement, including systems for prequalification, storage and distribution, may affect costs. However, the benefits of ensuring quality outweigh the cost investment because they reduce the possible losses caused by the purchase and supply of substandard products. Problem Definition Identification of procurement based problems right from selection of suppliers, incoming materials, delivery and storage with regards to quality assurance at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore and suggestions of suitable and effective alternatives.

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

RECOMMENDATIONS Documentation of policies and standards Documentation is a critical part of a quality assurance system. TAPF should have a comprehensive documentation infrastructure, which should include policies, guidelines, norms, standards, manuals, procedures, records and related documents. All activities of each section or department should be performed and documented in a standardized manner, following approved written procedures. The main elements of the documentation system of this model are described below.

Quality manual: The purpose of such a manual is to document the quality policy as defined by management in relation to the various activities undertaken by the procurement agency. There should be policy statements and a quality policy in terms of the agency’s activities and objectives.

Standard operating procedures (SOP’s) TAPF should have written, clear and detailed standard operating procedures (SOPs) for all the activities to be performed in the premises. The content of each SOP, particularly the stepby-step descriptions of activities and approved recording or reporting formats should reflect the operations of the particular procurement agency.

Elements of standard operating procedures

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

Title and number describes clear indication of the activity to be performed. Objective: what is to be accomplished and/or achieved with the SOP.? Scope: level or depth, or how widely, the SOP is applicable. Responsibility: list the person(s) responsible for performing the activities listed in the procedure. It may be useful to refer to the position rather than the name of the person. Action: sequence of action steps to be followed, from the beginning to the end of the process, to perform the activity.

Code of conduct The procurement agency should design, authorize and implement a written code of conduct. The code of conduct should describe the policy of the procurement agency regarding the conduct of staff in respect to their activities. It should be followed by all personnel.

Maintenance of records: Records of all operations should be maintained and kept in a suitably organized manner. Sufficient areas for the storage of records, including product information, manufacturers’ information and inspection reports, should be available. Access to these areas should be restricted to authorized personnel only, as confidential information may be filed.

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

VENDOR REGISTRATION
1. Name of food business ………………………………………………….

…………………… Telephone No. ………………………………………………………
2. Address of premises

………………..................................................................................... ………………..................................................................................... 3. Postal Code …………………................. 4. Type of premise Farm/small holding Food Manufacturing/processing Catering Hotel Private house used for a food business Wholesale/cash and carry Premises used by a number of businesses Distribution/warehousing Moveable premises

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

Retailer Market Other: please give details ………………………………………………. 5. Does your business handle or involve any of the following? Frozen foods Canned foods Fruit and vegetables Dairy products Delivery service Bulk Storage Use of private water supply Other: please give details ……………………………………………….. 6. Does your business posses any quality certification? If YES, Please specify……………………………… 7. What kind of Quality Assurance measures does your business consider to ensure the freshness and retainment of nutritive value of raw materials? 8. How long have you been in business? No. of years………………. 9. Are vehicles used for transporting raw materials from the premises? YES/NO

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The main aspects while choosing any prospective vendor is  QUALITY  PROXIMITY  COST

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

This is an effective tool which helps in performing a thorough background check of the prospective vendors. Also, helps to determine the capability of the vendor to supply raw materials. Shortlist vendors based on the requirements and specifications. Helps to enhance the prioritization of vendors.

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

VENDOR EVALUATION

Evaluation of potential suppliers

Vendor Name: Vendor Number: Date: Buyer: Vendor Rating: PURCHASING Criteria Yes No Comments Provides cost-saving alternatives Offers competitive pricing Backorders are held to a minimum Supplies current catalogs Provides status of orders Apprises system of any potential delays or problems Promptly replaces any rejected items Is courteous and helpful interested in maintaining account and relationship Provides quality products Addresses complaints within a reasonable time Maintains up-to-date inventory end stock Provides notice of any special offers or promotions RECEIVING Criteria Yes No Comments Delivers goods and/or services on time Consistently delivers product in good condition Packages products to restrict damage in transit Provides accurate delivery receipts Provides courteous service Packs a shipment list with delivery Provides proper credit for items not received or rejected Strives to provide cost savings

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

This will involve getting to know more about vendors who can supply goods or services that will meet all the specifications, including the price range. This may involve taking bids on a project, negotiating prices, or accepting proposals. Over time, one or two suppliers are likely to stand out from all other vendors. Once the final decision is made between the two remaining suppliers, the time has arrived to move on to the final stage of the procurement process. PROCUREMENT – The Akshaya Patra Foundation  QUALITY  COST  SERVICE TAPF procurement processes are structured to support these performance drivers. The challenge is to maintain stability and cohesion internally and with core suppliers. The philosophy is to develop long term, sustainable relationships with suppliers. Deming's Quality Assurance Cycle There are 4 steps in this cycle,  Plan  DO  Check  Action

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

The above processes are followed by successful manufacturing organisations to ensure better functioning of the operations. PROCUREMENT – Other Quality Issues
 Delay in transportation from Vasantpura storage area to TAPF stores.

 Poor communication between senior management and those responsible for adhering to quality procedures.  Potential hazards during raw material handling at vendor’s site, during transportation and after the delivery of the raw materials.  Categories of hazards
 Physical Hazards: stones, dust, insects, etc  Chemical Hazards: incidental or unintentionally added chemicals, as well as

naturally occurring toxins.
 Biological Hazards: Microbial activity

Procurement reasons that may lead to these quality problems and issues Production pattern in the country Various factors have contributed to surplus of foodstuff in some states while, others are still deficient. Hence transportation from these procurement areas to consumption centres all over the country will be affected. If production was uniformly surplus in all states, items could be procured in areas of consumption. Though the FCI is required to give the grains to TAPF

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

according to the schedule provided, it becomes increasingly difficult to be able to adhere to the schedule due to its own constraints. Limited Choice As procurement of rice, wheat, animal grain, pulses and dals are to be channelised through single agency, i.e. Food Corporation of India, there is very little option and choice left for TAPF to make decisions.

Flush Season Because of the infancy of organised storage system in India, farm products are marketed in very limited periods, known as flush season. If the product is not procured during the flush season vigorously, it will not be possible to procure these at economical rates later. The high rate of inflow of such products during very limited period and their procurement within the time frame causes its own problems.

Fresh supplies Due to long duration transportation to consumption areas because of distance constraints, it is becomes increasingly difficult to retain the freshness and nutritive value of food stuff also considering the varying time, temperature aspects.

QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s  Local sourcing was an important way of securing supplies and achieving consistency,

whilst maintaining a degree of loyalty amongst the supply base this should be consistent with the underlying philosophy of TAPF.  developing long term, sustainable relationships with their suppliers,  Create a culture of quality that support at the top and permeates the supply chain  Business with only reputable suppliers who specify remaining shelf life ensuring better quality goods and services.  Reverse osmosis: A technique which involves diffusive mechanism used to separate impurities and solute enabling pure solvent to permeate through the system. This system can be used in the treatment of water which is obtained from Municipality.
 Continue using random sampling methods. Also try and inculcate systematic

sampling, is a statistical method involving the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame. For example, for rice, for every 20 kilos, keeping 2 kilos as the sampling quotient, sampling tests can be conducted.  Request vendors to submit a checklist or questionnaire containing product information for assessment.  Contract inspectors to perform inspections at the vendor site where procurement at initial level takes place. The extent and quality of these inspections may vary according to the resources available. Mutual recognition and coordination of such inspections is necessary.

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

 TAPF can implement their own internal quality assurance systems important to ensure that the system is adapted to reflect the activities of each specific task in the procurement process.
 To ensure a high degree of consistency, TAPF can maintain no more than two

potential sources of supply for all major raw materials.

CONCLUSION  Quality control – a dynamic concept. Quality control is concerned with the product, while quality assurance is process– oriented. Even with such a clear-cut difference defined, identifying the differences between the two can be hard. Quality control can cover not just products, services, and processes, but also people. Employees are an important part of any company.
 Evolves from initial plans as experience grows. Quality control achievement evaluates

whether or not the end result is satisfactory  Procurement quality involves determining capability of a supplier to satisfy requirements. And TAPF must ensure that these are identified as the core suppliers and work on building long term relationship to cater to sustainability on the long run.  Vendor Management - Drives the selection, motivation and evaluation of its suppliers

VENDOR MANAGEMENT

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

Procurement processes can be structured to support the performance drivers – Quality, Service and Cost. Integration is the key, with purchasing and supply chain management functions working alongside the product development team helps to develop business plan on a long term. Flexibility is the key as the dynamic market environment makes it difficult to plan with certainty. The challenge is to maintain stability and cohesion internally and with core suppliers. This can be difficult when working quality into each step in the process and receiving material that doesn’t conform to the standards necessary for the chain. This leads to product variations that must be addressed, such as whether to rework and use, return to the vendor, or scrap the material altogether. The long-term goal of these recommendations is the design and implementation of a uniform and harmonized system that will ensure procurement of products of defined quality for supply to children, prison inmates and old aged. While most organizations recognize that quality affects demand and cost, the degree of uncertainty in the distribution channel itself, which impacts quality through management’s efforts to procure adequate stock of product during peak demand, must also be considered. The food industry is no exception when it comes to suffering as a result of natural variations in such agricultural parameters as precipitation and temperature. Understanding the potential risks to agricultural production and food processing capacity relies on statistical analysis of historical information. Quality assurance in procurement stage at TAPF Quality assurance is a wide-ranging concept which covers all matters that individually or collectively influence the quality of a product ie the cooked meal. It is the totality of the

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

arrangements made to ensure that TAPF is of the quality required for their intended goal, which is cater to hot, hygienic and nutritious food to underprivileged kids. Quality assurance therefore incorporates several factors and it is an integral part of all key activities in procurement. The implementation of a quality assurance system in procurement, including systems for prequalification, storage and distribution, may affect costs. However, the benefits of ensuring quality outweigh the cost investment because they reduce the possible losses caused by the purchase and supply of substandard products. Prequalification of raw materials and vendors/suppliers, purchasing, storage and are complex processes that may be involved in the entire chain.

Prequalification: The prequalification process can be conducted at two major levels, i.e. product-related assessment and vendor related assessment.

 Product-related assessment should ensure that the correct product is specified by

TAPF. Assess whether the manufacturer is offering a product that meets the predetermined norms and standards in terms of safety, quality and efficacy.
 Vendor-related assessment should ensure that the vendor is able to produce the

product as specified in the quality specifications information.

MODEL QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEMS

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

 Creation of a model quality assurance system to be adopted and implemented by procurement department, TAPF.  Creation of quality control guidelines to harmonize the evaluation of data and information on products as part of the prequalification procedure.  Creation of unified standards for inspection of manufacturers and suppliers to assess compliance with good manufacturing practices (GMP).

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN CHECKLIST

GUIDELINES FOR THE QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN CHECKLIST:

This checklist is provided as part of the evaluation process for the Quality Assurance Plan. The objective of the evaluation is to determine whether the document complies with TAPF QA development methodology requirements. Attached to this document is the DOCUMENT REVIEW CHECKLIST. Its purpose is to assure that documents achieve the highest standards relative to format, consistency, completeness, quality, and presentation.

AUTHOR REFERENCE (Project Identifier):

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s Designated Reviewers: 1: 2: 3: 4: Summary Reviewer: Start Date: Completed Date: Area Reviewed: Comments:

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y
1.0 GENERAL INFORMATION

REVIEWER COMMENTS

N

1.1 1.2 1.3

Purpose: Describe the purpose of the Quality Assurance Plan. Scope: Describe the scope of the Quality Assurance Plan as it relates to the project. System Overview: Provide a brief system overview description as a point of reference for the remainder of the document, including responsible organization, system name or title, system code, system category, operational status, and system environment and special conditions. Project References: Provide a list of the references that were used in preparation of this document. Acronyms and Abbreviations: Provide a list of the acronyms and abbreviations used in this document and the meaning of each. Points of Contact:

1.4

1.5

1.6

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y 1.6.1 Information: Provide a list of the points of organizational contact (POCs) that may be needed by the document user for informational and troubleshooting purposes. Coordination: Provide a list of organizations that require coordination between the project and its specific support function (e.g., installation coordination, security, etc.). Include a schedule for coordination activities. N REVIEWER COMMENTS

1.6.2

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y
2.0 SCHEDULE OF TASKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

REVIEWER COMMENTS

N

Based on the tasks described in your Project Plan, provide a schedule of the QA activities for the duration of the project. Tasks may include, but are not limited to, those listed below:

Identify Standards and Guidelines Evaluate Software Tools Evaluate Facilities Evaluate Software Products Review Process Evaluate Project Planning, Tracking, and Oversight Processes Evaluate Requirements Analysis Process Evaluate Design Process Evaluate Code and Unit Testing Process Evaluate Integration Testing Process Evaluate Acceptance Testing Process Evaluate Release Process Evaluate the Corrective Action Process Evaluate Storage and Handling Process Evaluate Deviations

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y Evaluate Risk Management Process N REVIEWER COMMENTS

To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS

To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y N REVIEWER COMMENTS

3.0 SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION

3.1

Documents by Phase: List and briefly describe the documentation expected to be produced during this project. Depending on the size of your project, this may include, but is not limited to, the

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y documents in the following subsections: 3.1.1 Initiate Phase: N REVIEWER COMMENTS

Needs Statement Project Plan Quality Assurance Plan Feasibility Study Cost/Benefit Analysis Risk Analysis 3.1.2 Define Phase: • • • • • • 3.1.3 System Support and Acquisition Plan (initial) Functional Requirements Document Data Requirements Document System Security and Privacy Plan Internal Audit Plan Project Plan (updated) Design Phase:

System/Subsystem Specifications Database Specifications Program Specifications System Support and Acquisition Plan (final)

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y Validation, Verification, and Testing Plan (initial) Training Plan (initial) Project Plan (updated) N REVIEWER COMMENTS

To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS

To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y N REVIEWER COMMENTS

3.1.4

Build Phase: Installation and Conversion Plan (initial) Test Plan User’s Manual

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y Operations Manual Maintenance Manual Validation, Verification, and Testing Plan (final) Training Plan (final) Project Plan (updated) Evaluate Phase: Test Results and Evaluation Reports Installation and Conversion Plan (final) Project Plan (updated) Operate Phase: N REVIEWER COMMENTS

3.1.5

3.1.6

3.2

Pilot Test Results Training Material Project Plan (updated) Discipline for Documentation Standard Practices: Describe the criteria that will be applied during review and evaluation of all lifecycle documents.

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y
4.0 REVIEWS AND AUDITS

REVIEWER COMMENTS

N

4.1

Review Process: Define the steps of the review process and the procedures that will be used to conduct reviews. Formal Reviews and Audits: 4.2.1 Lifecycle Reviews: Include a schedule of reviews and include how the results of each review will be used on the project. Typically, the lifecycle reviews include: Requirements Review Design Review Specification Review Preliminary Design Review Critical Design Review Test Readiness Review Formal Qualification Review Production Readiness Review Acceptance Test Review Post-Implementation Review

4.2

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y 4.2.2 Audits: Describe the audits that will be conducted on the project and when they will be scheduled. N REVIEWER COMMENTS

4.3 4.4

Informal Reviews: Outline the types of informal reviews that will be conducted. Review Reports: Identify QA reports that will be produced throughout the project lifecycle and their uses. Review and Audit Metrics: Describe the metrics that will be used to capture management information, and how they will be analyzed and reported.

4.5

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y
5.0 TESTING

REVIEWER COMMENTS

N

Identify the roles and responsibilities of the QA function in relation to testing throughout the various stages of the project.
6.0 PROBLEM REPORTING AND CORRECTIVE ACTION

Discuss QA responsibilities and activities concerned with the reporting and tracking of project-related problems and resolutions. 6.1 6.2 Problem/Issue Documentation: Explain how problems and issues will be documented. Report Metrics: Describe how metrics from the above reports will be collected and analyzed to determine and coordinate corrective actions.

7.0 TOOLS

Describe the tools that will be used for QA and the methodology employed to implement usage of the mentioned tools.
8.0 PROJECT CONTROLS

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s To be completed by Author REQUIREMENT AUTHOR X– REFERENCE Page #/Section # AUTHOR COMMENTS To be completed by Reviewer COMPLY Y 8.1 Product Control: Identify how QA will monitor the methods and tools used to maintain and store controlled versions of system products. Supplier Control: Describe the provisions for assuring that products provided by suppliers meet established requirements. Identify the training activities that will be provided to meet the needs of QA on this project. N REVIEWER COMMENTS

8.2

9.0 TRAINING

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Procurement Plan at The Akshaya Patra Foundation, Bangalore. Team Nonna’s

BIBLIOGRAPHY Raw material procurement and delivery for the food processing industry. (www.esri.com/industry/agriculture/business/procurement.html) The value of effiency in food industry. (www.marshall.edu/library) Effect of raw materials storage and quality concerns (www.marshall.edu/library) Plans to introduce new regulations for procurement of raw materials. (www.foodbizdaily.com) Quality Assurance Systems: A practical approach. (www.cplbookshop.com/contents/C2007.html) An article on Model Quality Assurance designed by WHO. Quality metrics: Product metrics are for describing characteristics of product such as it’s size, complexity, features, and performance. Several common product metrics are mean time to failure, defect density, customer problem, and customer satisfaction metrics. Mean time to failure metric is, to put it plainly, the average time the product runs before experiencing a crash, which is important for systems like air traffic control that are required to have no more than a few seconds of down time in a full year. FAQ at TAPF Quality Policy, TAPF.

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