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XLV , 2013
13
u
0 Zuu, X, Z. 2013
Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, vol. XLV 2013
Proceedings of the 13
th
nternational Congress, Chania, Sept.
2013
GEOELECTRIC PROSPECTING IN UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
REGION FOR DETECTION OF POSSIBLE GEOLOGICAL
DISCONTINUITIES, RIO, PATRA ,GREECE.
Angelis G. L.
1
, Step!n"p"#l"s P.
1
,P!p!$!%in"p"#l"s St. P.
1
1
University of Patras, Department of Geology, Sector of Applied Geology & Geophysics,
Laboratory of Geophysics 2 !"# $amp%s, &io Patras aggelisg'%patras(gr, stefanop'%patras(gr
A&st%!'t
Geophysical prospecting is a non catastrophic technique, applicable on a wide
range of problems, including archaeological, environmental and geological
problems. At Campus University of Patras, a detailed geophysical investigation
applied for detection of possible existing geological discontinuities, which produced
serious problems at buildings and main roads of Campus. As main technique used
the electric mapping and electric imaging. hese were applied on already prepared
geophysical grids by measuring parallel profiles along and perpendicular to the
geomagnetic north. he two geophysical grids were separated !"" meters away
each other. #irstly, an electric mapping procedure too$ place by using twin%probe
array with four electrodes in distance between ".&%' meters. As result was the
recording of soil resistance on hori(ontal layer with constant depth. )y processing
the data through Geosoft *asis +onta, software, the distribution of this physical
property was illustrated on color scale maps. -econdly, electric imaging technique
applied with twenty%five equal space electrodes along straight lines, with one meter
space by using the hybrid arrangement .enner%-chlumberger /-tephanopoulos,
0""01. As result was the recording of distribution of soil apparent resistivity on a
vertical layer in eight separated depths. 2esistivity calculated by processing
imaging data through 03 mathematical algorithm based on least squares inversion
/2es03inv1. #urther processing by *asis +onta,, had as a result the production of
hori(ontal slices /-tephanopoulos 0""01 and '3 maps, where the resistivity
distribution was illustrated on separated depths, in color and grey schedule format.
he combined geophysical investigation with the contribution of the 45-2
/4ori(ontal to 5ertical -pectral 2atio1 technique confirmed the existence of
geological discontinuity.
Key words: geoelectric imaging, geoelectric mapping, 45-2 technique.
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SBL;QEN.
1. Int%"/#'ti"n
Geophysical prospecting techni)%es *ere based on the st%dy of physical fields +gravitational,
magnetic, electrical, seismic, electromagnetic, aco%stic,( S%ch -ind of .eas%rements are
applicable on the s%rface of the earth, in the air and %ndergro%nd +*ells and shafts,( /he recorded
information can be %sed to determine the location of geological str%ct%res, ore bodies, and so forth
and their f%ndamental characteristics +Papamarinopo%los et al(, 2""1,( All geophysical techni)%es
are based on the %se of physicomathematical principles for the development of theory( 0ach of
them foc%s on a target from a different perspective, emphasi1ed on the differential meas%red
)%antity among potential target and the s%rro%nding soil material( /hese techni)%es are
characteri1ed by non2destr%ctive application, as a res%lt, they can be applicable to areas *ith
possible archaeological targets, a)%ifers and s%bs%rface geotechnical problems +Stephanopo%los,
2""2,( /his st%dy deals *ith some of electrical prospecting techni)%es and the application of them
for e3ploring possible geological discontin%ities +Angelis, 2"14,( 56S& +5ori1ontal to 6ertical
Spectral &atio, techni)%e *as %sed as an assistant method to determine the dynamic characteristics
of geological formations +Lane et al(, 2""7,( /he contrib%tion of 56S& *as the identification of
potential geologic discontin%ities +fa%lts, in the area of Patras University pl%s mapping of their
characteristics( /he s%rvey *as cond%cted to oriented geophysical grids for the application of
electrical mapping and electrical imaging +8orbas et al(, 2"12,(
0. Gene%!l A%e! Des'%ipti"n
University of Patras is located bet*een &io and Patras to*n( 9nside $amp%s there are main and
assist roads and also the st%dents %nion b%ilding( :ne of the main problem *as the damaging in
st%dents %nion b%ilding, *here a s%bstit%tion episode too- place( /he b%ilding abandoned for a
short period( Same circ%mstances fo%nd on the main road of $amp%s, *here crac- impacts *ere
easily observed on s%rface main road, for a long distance( Laboratory of Geophysics decided to
apply a detailed geophysical research for mapping the e3isting geological discontin%ity( /he
investigated area *as separated in t*o branches( :ne nearby the Administration ;%ilding of
$amp%s +<ig%re 2 left,, second appro3imately 1"" m a*ay, in front the e3isting $amp%s $h%rch
+<ig%re 2 right,( <rom previo%s geomorphology research in this area *as -no*n the e3istence of
&io = Patras <a%lt 1one +<ig%re 1,(
/he &ion2Patras fa%lt 1one has a >02S? general direction and e3tends along the rangefront that
is fo%nd behind the large all%vial fans of the &ion2Patras coastal plain +Palyvos et al(, 2""@,(
Fig#%e 1 1 Det!ile/ $"%p"l"g2 !l"ng p!%t "3 te Ri"n1P!t%!s 3!#lt 4"ne !t te l"ngit#/e "3
te Uni5e%sit2 "3 P!t%!s C!$p#s, l!%ge% ge"$"%pi' /is'"ntin#ities in/i'!ti5e "3 3!#lts !%e
in/i'!te/ &2 !%%"6 e!/s 7P!l25"s8 et !l. 099:;.
Fig#%e 0 < Le3t = Te
&"#n/!%2 !%e! "3 te
G%!ss %egi"n 7%e/
s>#!%e; l"'!te/ ne!%
A/$inist%!t"%
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Fig#%e ? < I$p!'t C%!'@ "n te $!in %"!/ "3 C!$p#s.
?. Ge"l"g2 A Seis$i'it2
/he geology of *ide area in University $amp%s, consisted by A%aternary deposits, Plio2
pleistocene sedimentary roc-s and %nconsolidated soils( 9nside are incl%ded, coastal sands,
fl%vial sands and gravels, 5olocene deposits, *eathering mantle of Plio2pleistocene sediments,
as *ell as all%vial and dil%vial deposits( 9n general, the total thic-ness of the A%aternary deposits
e3ceeds 7" meters +&o1os et al(, 2"",(
/he high seismicity of the area is closely related to the above mentioned fa%lt tectonics and to
e3istence of grabens *ith a recent geodynamic evol%tion( /he dynamic loading on the vario%s
geological formations enco%ntered in Patras area shallo* and high magnit%de earth)%a-es, apart
from the direct res%lts on the constr%cted environment, may also activate landslides, roc-falls, and
li)%efaction +/selentis et al(, 1BB#,(
B. Met"/"l"g2
Detailed geophysical prospecting applied on gro%nd geophysical grids, located on t*o separated
region, geoelectric mapping *ith t*in2probe array thro%gh different electrode spacing, geoelectric
imaging *ith t*enty2five e)%al spaced electrodes thro%gh the hybrid ?enner2Schl%mberger
arrangement an as assistant 56S& techni)%e( Processing of the meas%red data thro%gh specific
soft*are, had as res%lt the creation of colo%red maps *here the distrib%tion of meas%red physical
property *as ill%strated(
C. Ge"p2si'!l Fiel/ P%"spe'ting
/he geophysical proced%re in the area of st%dy, applied by three different techni)%es, geoelectric
mapping, geoelectric imaging and 56S& techni)%e(
Geoelectric mapping applied by %sing fo%r electrodes *ith space "(!24 m distance thro%gh the
t*in2probe array arrangement( As a res%lt *as the recording of soil resistance on a constant depth
e)%al to 4 times the electrode space( As main obCective *as the delimitation of region in high and
lo* interest s%bareas, *hile other techni)%es foc%sed on the scope of the s%rvey, the mapping of
geologic discontin%ities( As main electrometer *as chosen the Geoscan &m# and the &ate%
system(
;eside the Administration b%ilding, *as located the Grass area, *here a geophysical grid *ith
dimension 1" 3 2" m researched( 9n the second area +$h%rch area,, researched a geophysical grid
*ith dimension 1! 3 1!(
/he meas%red physical property *as given in colo%r sched%le map format by processing the
geoeletric mapping data thro%gh the :asis .ontaC soft*are(
6. Ge"le't%i' i$!ging
Geoelectric imaging recorded the distrib%tion of resistivity on a vertical layer on eight different
separated depths( :n the gro%nd s%rface, t*enty2five e)%al spaced electrodes *ere located on a
straight line, *ith constant space e)%al to 1 meter( As main electrometer *as chosen the $amp%s
geop%lse signal *hich co%ld prod%ced e3ternal electric field in s)%are p%lse formation *ith
intensity "(! to 1"" mA( D%ring the field proced%re each meas%rement became by the
combination of fo%r electrode( /*o e3ternal *as %sed an c%rrent, *hile the t*o internal as
potential( ;et*een the t*o potential electrodes the apparent resistivity *as meas%red by adopting
the hybrid ?enner2Schl%mberger arrangement +Stephanopo%los 2""2,( As res%lt by this techni)%e
*as the distrib%tion of apparent resistivity on an inverse triangle, d%e to the geometric factor of the
techni)%e( :n the ma3im%m depth *as located the corner of the triangle, *hile its base, near the
gro%nd s%rface( /he central electrode *as located on the middle distance of the profile +ma3im%m
depth,, *hile the rest 2# electrodes *ere delimitation beside the central *ith e)%al space( ;y %sing
this tip, the discreet ability of the techni)%e increased( /he c%rrent intensity *as in lo* level at
shallo* depths, *hile in deeper levels increased %ntil 2" mA, *hile the n%mber of cycles *ere
e3tended from 2 to 4( /he average of meas%rement *as set e)%al to one and the field error had
been set to 1D( 9n case of bad connections bet*een electrode and s%rro%nding soil, a little
moist%re of salty *ater *as introd%ced in the base of electrodeby %sing a inCection
+Stephanopo%los 2""2, 2""B,( ;y applying special soft*are depth2slice +Stephanopo%los, 2""2,
2""B,, hori1ontal slices *ere prod%ced, *hile by f%rther processing thro%gh :asis .ontaC
soft*are, the distrib%tion of resistivity in hori1ontal plan vie* and in 4D format obtained(
9n Grass area, *hich located beside the administration $amp%s b%ilding, 1B parallel profiles *ere
researched, *hile in second area +$h%rch area,, 1 parallel profiles( 9n second area the geoelectric
imaging techni)%e applied along and perpendic%lar to geomagnetic north a3is(
:. DVSR te'ni>#e
9n 1B7B >a-am%ra s%ggested estimating the amplification factor from the ratio of amplit%de
spectra of the hori1ontal to vertical components of gro%nd acceleration recorded on the s%rface(
/he relation bet*een this ratio and the fre)%ency is called the 56S& c%rve and has a pea- *ith in
dominating fre)%encies of the recording( /he pea- amplit%de is the amplification factor estimate,
and its fre)%ency is the principal fre)%ency of s%rface layer( <%rthermore, >a-am%ra ascertained
that s%ch a characteristic pea- of the 56S& c%rve is strictly related to local geology, being
independent of so%rce parameters and signal fre)%ency +>a-am%ra, 2""",( 5e also indicated that
the 56S& method *o%ld give the most acc%rate res%lts *hen the spectral ratio *ere eval%ated
from the hori1ontal and vertical component of S *ave +>a-am%ra et al(, 2""2,(
E. Ge"p2si'!l In5e%si"n
Geophysical inversion *as separated in t*o parts( <irstly *as foc%sed on processing the data from
geoelectric mapping thro%gh the *orld standard soft*are :asis .ontaC( As res%lt *as the creation
of colo%r sched%le maps *here the distrib%tion of soil resistance ill%strated in :hms( D%ring the
processing applied correction in case of base moving, *hile the data *ere e3tremely searched for
instantly e3isting bad dat%m points(
Secondly the data from geoelctric imaging *ere processed by %sing three different soft*are(
D%ring the meas%ring proced%re in field, inside the data had been introd%ced the geometric factor
of the applied electrode arrangement( /he elimination of this *as s%ccessf%l d%ring the
transformation of the data in format for &es2dinv soft*are +Stephanopo%los, 2""2,( ;y %sing 2D
special mathematical algorithm based on least s)%are inversion, the calc%lation of resistivity in
:hmsEm *as real( /he depth of first level *as set e)%al to "(! times the electrode spacing, *hile
the se)%ence deeper depths *ere increased by a val%e of 1"D( /he ratio of vertical to vertical filter
*as set e)%al to one and the damping factor *as limited bet*een "(""1 to "(1, *hile the ability of
recalc%lation *as enabled( /he radi%s search *as set to be applied if the rms error *as not
decreased abo%t !D( .a3im%m n%mber of iteration *as chosen e)%al to ! and the starting model
*as set to be sched%led by %sing the apparent resistivity val%es(
5ori1ontal slices from geoelectric imaging data, *ere prod%ced by adopting special depth2slice
soft*are +Stefanopo%los, 2""2,, *hich had the ability to reformat the processed data in :asis
.ontaC format( 5ori1ontal slices ill%strated the distrib%tion of resistivity on constant depth, *hile
there *as the ability to be compared *ith res%lts from geoelectrical mapping( Statistical analysis
by %sing the mean val%e each profile, applied before the main process before 4D proced%re( ;y
adopting 4D s%bro%tine of :asis .ontaC soft*are, a 4D presence of resistivity val%es obtained(
F.
Ge"p2si'!l %es#lts
/he res%lt of geoelectric mapping in Grass area is ill%strated in <ig%re #(
Fig#%e B 1 Dist%i&#ti"n "3 ele't%i'!l %esist!n'e in G%!ss !%e! &2 !ppl2ing te T6in P%"&e
A%%!2 7N1S;.
At the *est corner of the map in fig%re # there are high val%es of soil resistance, *hile in the
opposite side these seemed to be decreased( /he ill%strated geophysical anomalies does not have
any geometrical formation, *hile bet*een # and ! is obvio%s a discontin%ity of geological
material(
/he application of geoelectric imaging ill%strated in <ig%re !(
Fig#%e C 1 Ve%ti'!l ele't%i'!l se'ti"n "3 ge"ele't%i' i$!ging.
As it is obvio%s from <ig%re ! the depth of investigation limits at #(4 meters( 9n this section the
resisitivity varies from "( 2 @!# :hmsEm( Lo* val%es of that physical property seemed to be
visible mostly on the center of the profile, *hile highest val%es are located peripheral of that(
;et*een electrode 7 & B, the transformation of the geological material is obvio%s by the
discontin%ity( ;y applying the depth2slice soft*are, in collaboration *ith the :asis .ontaC
soft*are, the hori1ontal slices ill%strated in <ig%re (
Fig#%e G 1 Dist%i&#ti"n "3 ele't%i'!l %esist!n'e $ete% in 1 $ /ept "n G%!ss !%e! #sing te
2&%i/ !%%!nge$ent Henne%1S'l#$&e%ge% 6it 1 $ /ist!n'e &et6een ele't%"/es 7E1H;.
<ig%re presents the distrib%tion of resistivity in hori1ontal slice at appro3imately 1 meter depth(
5igh resistivity val%es located almost on all over the ill%strated map( 9n some cases these are given
a geometric sched%le, b%t not so clearly( :n the 0ast side of the map the geologic material have
been shifted for a distance e)%al to 1 m at least, *hile the high resistivity val%es have been
s%bstit%ted by lo*er( 9n the centre of the map bet*een 1 217, there is a certificated separation of
this geological material along the >2S a3is(
Fig#%e : 1 ?D /ist%i&#ti"n "3 %esisti5it2 in 1BE9 O$sI$ in G%!ss !%e!.
<ig%re @ is given the 4D distrib%tion of resistivity in Grass area( /he red arro* means the
e3istence of metallic pipes *hich are %sing for grass *atering( /he red line indicates the impact of
the geological discontin%ity in that area +.o%relatos et al(, 2"12,(
9n <ig%re 7 is given the res%lt by %sing the geoelectric mapping in $h%rch area( At the left,
mapping has been applied parallel to geomagnetic a3is, *hile at the right, perpendic%lar to that(
Fig#%e E 1 Dist%i&#ti"n "3 ele't%i'!l %esist!n'e in C#%' !%e! &2 !ppl2ing te T6in P%"&e
A%%!2 7N1S, E1H;.
9n this region the geoelectric mapping applied *ith electrodes at 2 m distance, thro%gh t*in2probe
array( ;oth of processing gave the same res%lt( 5igh val%es of soil resistance at the top and bottom
of the map, *ith non *ell geometric formation( 9n the middle of each map, the high resistance
val%es separated by the e3istence of lo*er level val%es, *hile the first formation is shifted at least
1 m a*ay(
Fig#%e F 1 Dist%i&#ti"n "3 ele't%i'!l %esist!n'e $ete% in 0 $ /ept "n C#%' !%e! #sing te
2&%i/ !%%!nge$ent Henne%1S'l#$&e%ge% 6it 1 $ /ist!n'e &et6een ele't%"/es 7N1S,E1
H;.
5igh val%es of resistivity occ%r almost all over in both maps, *hile non2*ell geometric formation
appears( 9n some cases and especially in the centre and to*ards to the top of map a shift of
geologic formations is obvio%s( <rom <ig%re B certificated that the contin%ally of material are
separated by e3istence of lo*er resistivity val%es(
;y processing the above data set in 4D the res%lt in <ig%re 1" prod%ced, *here the impact of
possible geological discontin%ity is emphasi1ed by the red line +.o%relatos et al(, 2"12,(
Fig#%e 19 1 ?D %esisti5it2 /ist%i&#ti"n in 1?99 O$sI$ in C#%' !%e!.
19. C"n'l#si"n
Detailed geophysical research in $amp%s of University of Patras, gave the chance for the *ell
mapping of an e3isting impact of geological discontin%ity( Geoelectric mapping *ith t*in2probe
array recorded the distrib%tion of soil resistance and separated the researched region in s%bareas
*ith lo* and high interest( Geoelectric imaging techni)%e foc%sed on high interest area location(
;y chosen the appropriate electrode space, in collaboration *ith s%itable electrode arrangement,
increased the resol%tion of that techni)%e( 0lectric mapping gave *ell description of general
geological statement, *hile imaging gave the e3pecting res%lt *here the e3isting fa%lt *as
mapped( <%rther processing *ith 4D gave the chance to the observer to see details *hich *ere not
seemed directly, *hile the %ndergro%nd pipe and geological discontin%ity *ere *ell recorded(
Also the e3istence of the above geological evidence *as fo%nd by geomorphological prospecting
*hich *as applied by PalyvosF et( al( 2""@( At this point the geomorphological research is
certificated by geophysical investigation( /he 56S& techni)%e, fo%nd that the geological
discontin%ity is e3tended %ntil !" meters depth( /hat depth co%ldnGt be reached by geoelectric
imaging d%e to the e3istence of physical and artificial obstacles, limited the electrode spacing(
11. A'@n"6le/ge$ents
/his *or- is a part of the .sc /hesis HDetailed Geophysical Prospecting for the investigation of
possible geological discontin%ities in University $amp%s area of Patras, GreeceI(
?e are gratef%l to the &ector and the staff of the /echnical Service of the University of Patras, for
giving permission to investigate in the University $amp%s( ?e *armly than- Dr( P(
Paras-evopo%los for val%able ideas and disc%ssion in the field abo%t 56S& techni)%e, also *e
*o%ld li-e to than- Dr( J( >i-ola-opo%los, Associate Professor in Department of Geology,
University of Patras for his help in the constr%ction of 4D mapping( ?e also than- %ndergrad%ate
st%dents for their help in the field +P( 8orbas, 0( .eta-sa, .(20( >orda, $h( Ga-o%, A(
:i-onomo%, J( Stratopo%los, D( /sa-iris, P( $hat1ileontiadis, S( .o%relatos, L( Smailis, and .rs
0( Jo%1eli, .sc st%dent(
10. Re3e%en'es
Angelis G( L( 2"14( Detailed Geophysical Prospecting for the investigation of possible geological
discontin%ities in University $amp%s area of Patras, Greece, .sc /hesis(
Lane K(?( Kr(, ?hite 0(A(, Steele G(6( and $annia, K($( 2""7( 0stimation of bedroc- depth %sing
the hori1ontal2to2vertical +5L6, ambient2noise seismic method, in Symposi%m on the
Application of Geophysics to 0ngineering and 0nvironmental Problems, April 21", 2""7,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ProceedingsM Denver, $olorado, 0nvironmental and
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.o%relatos S(, Smailis L( 2"12( Processing Nf Geoelectric imaging data thro%gh 4D algorithms
for the detection of e3isting geological discontin%ation in region of University $amp%s,
;achelor /hesis, Lab of Geophysics, Department of Geology, Sector of Applied Geology
and Geophysics, University of Patras(
>a-am%ra O( 2"""( $lear identification of f%ndamental idea of >a-am%raGs method for dynamic
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Proceedings of 12th ?orld $onference on 0arth)%a-e 0ngineering, >e* 8ealand(
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Papamarinopo%los St(, Stephanopo%los P( 2""1( Laboratory notes for the co%rse 9ntrod%ction to
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&o1os D(, Jo%-is G( & Sabata-a-is >( 2""( Large2scale engineering geological map of the Patras
city *ider area, Greece, 9A0G paper n%mber 2#1(
Stephanopo%los P( 2""2( /he contrib%tion of Geophysics *ith geoelectric imaging in sol%tion of
Archaeological and 0nvironmental problems( University of Patras, Department of Geology,
Sector of Applied Geology & Geophysics, PhD /hesis(
Stephanopo%los P( 2""B( Geophysical hard*are and soft*are notes, 6ol( 9, 99, University of Patras,
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2"12( Detailed Geophysical &esearch in &egion of University $amp%s for detection of
e3isting geological discontin%ation( ;achelor /hesis, Lab of Geophysics, Department of
Geology, Sector of Applied Geology and Geophysics University of Patras(