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Cornell

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1171.W67
of

Analysis

Chinese

characters

1924

023

476

546

ANALYSIS
OF

CHINESE

CHARACTERS

G.

D.

WILDER

AND

J.

H.

INGRAM

North

China

Union 1922

Language
4l*fe.

School

PL

I17(

Wb7

W,

1 1 2^ 1

liiJU^''

INTRODUCTION
TO

ANALYSIS

OF

CHINESE

CHARACTERS.

The
not

author

of the

great Chinese
most

Mr. English dictionary

has Giles,
it

hesitated

to express

his contempt of etymology as trenchantly Characters.


is childish in is the

has been

applied to
the Shuo

Chinese
Wen

He the
one

says

that "Much
and
can

of the
that the

etymology of
to know

extreme",
of which
we

of principle phonetic

combination

only

pretend
the

aiiything. Notwithstandingthe ridicule heaped


and

upon

it, scholars,
to pursue

like

Chalmers, Chalfant, Wieger


of the

others have

continued and

fascinating study

of origin
results

these
are so

symbols

have

given

us

most

results. These interesting character

convincingthat
the

in the

teachingof
the

writingwe

have

unhesitatingly adopted
writers
on

that principle

etymology of
it may that have been

the earliestChinese

the

childish though subject,


the
numerous

often be and

is yet superior to fanciful, students by foreign of


a

mnemonics task difficult

invented the

to

assist in the

of

memorizing
the

forms

few

thousand the

characters.

The

student

of these pages and

may
the

often

consider

etymology suggested fanciful


the eration following considof Chinese the

logic of
should
be

combinations
in

far fetched but

borne

mind.
to
some

They

are

the show

products
the

fancy
Chinese

and

imagination and
Therefore

extent
us
seem

workings of

mind.

they

interest

who
to

are

students of Chinese
we

thought. Moreover
are

they often
ancient

may

only
out

be fanciful because

ignorantof the

customs

of which

they arise, or of
entrusted

the

forms

of the utensils of which

they are

or of pictures, oue

the variations of pronunciation


were

in the different dialects.

If any

of

us

with

the task of

written symbols inventing


we

for both

concrete

and abstract objects less fanciful and


tainly cer-

ideas it is doubtful if
we

would

produce anything much


of such

could produce nothing certainly


invests the 3000
most

rich historic interest, as

characters. primitive
is
even a

Writing Chinese
insists on them the value of in mind.

characters
or logical

task of memory.

'

Modern

pedagogy fixing
in-

fancifullinks between
learn Chinese

ideas for

Those

who

try

to

characters

almost

Iv

INTRODUCTION

variably grope
by
the which
to

for some

association of ideas, some We have


no

in the formation logic

hold them in memory.

doubt

which

have been arrived at

and seal writings early than

by a study already more are etymologies


any memory

of the ancient

groupings of inscriptions more interesting, logical,


has

that the

and wider in- range invented

system that

been

or

can

be

study of the characters as written with the superficial studies enlistthe interest of the These etymological modern Chinese pen. task of committingto memory to aid the dry-as-dust historicimagination of the thoughtof three or four milleniums. these curious symbols by
the Missionaries in China have been
in many

sparedthe

task which the

their brethren
to people

of reducingthe language of have had,' places

ing. writ-

The years. For

genealogyof
an

Chinese

characters takes

us

back

neariy 4000

historical sketch the student is referred to interesting Tradition confirmed of which we here givea summary. introduction, Wieger's to the by well grounded induction ascribes the idea of writing of written characmythical Emperor Fu^ Hsi' i)^^ and the systemization Chieh^ j^fg in the 27thcentury B.C. Ts'ang' B.C.
had 2697-2598, Grand
are

'ters to

Emperor Huang^ Ti^


a

^^,

recorders

schools under trained in official

zk.

It t'ai"s/iiPor
on

Master. The

Bronzes
stone

of the i8th century B.C. with characters


drums

them

extant.

exhibited
some

in the

gateway of

the Confucian others to the

referred by Temple in Peking,

to the 12th

century,by
an

9th century B.C. show

in the inscriptions

used by style

of characters called the ^^ Chou* recorder ^ Chou'' in a catalog imperial seal, wen' or large "^"^ ta* chumi''. Later they became known as tadpole because k'o^ ton' tzu*, of the so (B.C. 200) ^^^ characters, many the penstrokes suggest

of scribes who

were

B.C. 500, complained, Confucius, tadpole. dishonest and instead of leaving blanks when they
a new ones.

form of

made characters, forgot characters.

These

he called

'^^

ck't^tzu^ Or odd

Ch'in^ Shih'
make
a new
are new

Huang^^^M.
known
as

213 B.C. had his primeminister

Li* Ssu^
3300

^%\

called the H;^ sai^ ts'ang} It contained catalog the small seal

characters which
no

/h^
the

hsiao^ ckuan*.

invented U? Ssu^-characters before which


use

with

symbols but combined /Thus the creation of phonetics.


as probablylong before that,

primitive picture
characters ceased

new

200

B.C. and

renders unnecessary

the invention of
was

new
"

phoneticprinciple, was in symbolicelements,


the
"

in 800 B.C.
not

Li' Ssu'

deceived

by
to

the

odd characters the

and of

as

he

had

enough

ancient documents

ascertain

meaning

many

INTRODUCTION

'

^-/" characters.
We
can now

symbols he fixed wrongly the meaning of many


correct
some

of his mistakes.
new

In the
were were

Li^ Ssu* many

characters As there
no

combination. phonetic and dialectsprevailing and


seven

of literary enthusiasm following period invented by the easy process of centers with different many I'terary
or

standard
were

center

of

useless control, c^pMtlesi


was catalog

characters duplicate

formed.

Li* Ssu's

reedifed

times untilit contained

7380
The

at the time of

Christ and

two

hundred
Kan g
are

years

laterover

ten

thousand. 17 17
has

modern

standard

of dictionary

Hsi

finished A.D.

40,000
2000
common

characters. Of
more are use. surnames

these 34,000

monstrosities and useless doubles ;

and doubles of these 3000


are are

little use,
that need
some
rare

leaving 4000
or

that

are

in

\ Of

all

be studied for

etymological purposes, although there


are

also

obsolete characters that

of

and etymological the still

historical useful

interest.

the 3000 ancient primitives are Importunately who

most

characters and anyone

gets

mastery of them

and their combiriations

will have
no
one

of literature, j Let magnificent vocabularyfor all departments

be

appalled by
or even

the

popularmisstatement
are

that there in the

are

80,000

characters

by the fact that there


and

40,000 but

vocabularies of Goodrich Chinese

Soothill have

The dictiohary. 10,000 and the larger

willfind Englishdictionariesbut 14,000. ) One who masters^'^QOO, well equipped for public himself fairly speech. Dr. Goodrich afterhis many is surprised but 4000 colloquial that he can catalog decades of experience

characters.
^

Besides the formations for

of characters there multiplication


in
or writing as

have been many

trans-"^

ease

condensations

for the sake of speed. Many


first the metal

\ of these changes occurred


on stylus, writing

materials changed. (At writing uniform strokes Then

wood

made
common. some

equally easy

in alldirections.on

Curves

and circles were


and writing used
on

the wooden

used pencil

silk

caused, poor
hair brushes

' finfepointed peculiar changes. Finally

paper gave

greatpower

of

and speedin shading^

cution exe-

further distortsthe but still The


are

brush reduced

has
to

of the classicsmall seal characters. \ shapes curves-^ in which produced the modern |f ^ ^'ai^ i3u*, and angles, and the grass characters, lines straight ^^ \

ts'ao* t0u*,or forms.


Other

running hand

which

still further obliteratesthe classi/!

transformations
on inscriptions

are

due

to

abbreviation for
or

moro securing

space for

small

piecesof bone, shell

metal,as Mr. J,

VI

INTRODUCTION

Mellon

Menzies

has

pointedout,
"

and
'

these abbreviations have

become

for permanent forms. precedents About


1 20

A.D.
the

there

(B.C. 86).

It

was

of Hsii' Shen a posthumous work printed and etyof genuine archaeological first mologica publication
was

studies. This
and exteisively

father of Chinese

had archaeology is the

travelled

studied Li' Ssu's catalog. His great work It contains

Shuo* Wen"" Chieh' Tzu*.


under

10516 standard

characters

^%M^ arranged

534 to

544

radicals. All

of our 214 primitive symbols which are the^o:rigin Chinese dictionaries claim to be based upon the Shuo Wen,
show

thoughthey often
with Lissons

it. Our

quainted of it and few scholars to-dayare acignorance mologica Etyis based upon Wieger's Character Analysis

which

is drawn
our

from largely

the Shuo

Wen.

Our But

referencesusually m;an
it is not

that

is taken explanation Wen


as

from
well

Wieger.
as

alwaysso,

for the

Shuo original

the works

of

Chalmers Chalfant,

and others have been used. and

have been made suggestions

at least modern or Original usuallyplaced after the reference to

Wieger.
Shuo
Wen We

In

Wieger'sLessons will often be found in Chinese justifying the explanation.


use
a

the

trom quotation

the

/^
are

shall

few technical

which expressions

are

best

by explained
characters
pound. com-

the ancient classification of characters into six divided into the On

All categories.
the
two

^ wen"' or
or

and simple figures the?e composition


i.

f^ t2u* or
classes
are

the basis of form

each
may

divided into two be either

other classes,

The

wen'

or

simple

characters

or (i)pictures ^ hsiang^ are

imitative symbols,! -^I^ksiang'^ hsing^, Wen


; or

of which there

364
The

in the Shuo

they may

be

(2)indicative

^^ symbols
125 of these.

chiK" shih*, to pointing


2. compound

affairs. The Shuo Wen has things, characters ^ are divided into (i)logical

combinations, '^M. ^^'^ A


has
are a

in which each

component part of the character

meaning relevant to the meaning of the character as a whole. There 1167 of these in the Shuo Wen: (2) phoneticcombinations^^

also called f^^ hsief^ sheng^, in which (formand sound), sheng^ hsing"' one meaning and the rest points out the pronunciaparthas a significant tion Wen Shuo the ever explains only. Of these 7697. We should note howof these phonetic combinations the phonetic that in many part was chosen because its meaning had character so that may
some

of suggestion

the

meaning of the

combination class and they incline towards the logical be called suggestive phonetics. e.g. f^ -wer^to ask has P5 ^^n!- door

INTRODUCTION

vH

for the

and " k'ou" mouth to signify the meaning of ask,but a phonetic in a doorway certainly mouth weif' to suggests asking. So too in |]fl at a crack in the door, the phonetic an ear hear, P^ is suggestive.

givethe following examplesof the four classesmentioned above, such as yj^ yi^, right hand ; Y" 1. Imitative symbols or pictures lefthand ; P^ mer^,door, of the Chinese two leaved style with projecting
"

We

pinsat top and bottom for hinges.


2.

Indicative
as,

symbols,that suggest meaning often with


above
sun

the idea of

motion
or

|
,

kutl'representing from suspension


above

or

action of force

from authority
"

downwards

the H. tan'',

above just

the

horizon 3.

the meaning of morning. suggesting which the


sults meaning of the character rei^ charC is a mouth p k'oil,

in combination, Logical

from the

meaning to
so

meaning of all the elements, ///,a diviner or ask, under a ["


means

the lines

on or

tortoise shell,

the whole character

to

consult the diviner

simplyto divine,
with the

i.e.to ask the tortoise shelllines.


4.

Phonetic

compounds, in
to

which

one

part has

to do

ing mean-

and the other with the sound the water

shu? radical i^H

to moisten, ha^ only. \^ chart'' naturally suggestmoisture and has the ^ chan^ for the

to phonetic,

indicate the sound.


to that

In many

cases

the

has little ness likephonetic


a

in sound

of the character of which


if
one

it forms

part. Such discr^.


custom

pancieswill

be

understood

remembers

that the Chinese

that only the requires

latter part of the sound

of the

that of the character whose


a

sound itindicates.

for pari^
were

and g for^ t'ang^, perfect phonetic of the phoneticcombinations Moreover etc. ^ p'atf' many

shall be like phonetic Thus sidered '^ shang*is,confung^for ^ chung^, ^

invented in parts of the country where

from the dialect varies greatly

that familiarto the student.

These four classes are


The based upon

based

on

the form

or more

of the characters. composition


classes of characters

Shuo
use.

Wen

two distinguishes

5more

is ^'" chuaii chu^,

extended,or

or even figurative, in [" pii the original meaning seems to be a horizontal and a perjnstance pendicula in a heated tortoise shell, that is, line from the lines appearing the diviner or one what the diviner consults ; then by extension it meant

of a character in a meaning acceptation derived, generalized, metaphorical, analogous, adapted, to the original inverted and opposite meaning. For
an

VJii
who

INTRODUCTION

consults the lines. of the

^ wan^
a

is

of picture
any

net. fishing
or

By

tension ex-

primitive meaning it means


catch with

network, cobweb

late reticu-

design ; also to
wrap, to

net, to catch in

to envelopeor general,

^ gather.These meaningsare gottenby turnings


of pictures usually of
"^

of interpretation.

Primitives are
are

concrete

extensions usually

concrete

characters.
a

meaningor ^ /""is a

turns

hand

objects. Abstract ttr ns of thought from the original holdinga stick of authority,
the

therefore,' father, by
6.

extension. metaphorical

-Igfachluc'chieh^ or
a sensa

false

borrowing, refers

to

use

of

character in

which

is not its own

character it for another existing substituting which has a name in the spoken language but which an object
no

either by (i)error, originally, signate or (2) by convention to dehas

written

name.

e.g. to take the character for

some

trarily obsolete utensilarbiSee No.

to stand

for some
As
now an

new

idea for which the former other

a
we

symbol is wanted.

4-

"ffl.'tf yeK'.

example of

of have in the firstchapter

the Analects

but

sku(^ meaning to speak, places in this place ahvayspronouncedyueft*, meaning to rejoice.YHek to

|^

pronouncedin
a

is written \^, but rejoice


was was

scribe

once

wrote

for 'f^by mistake,and it

not

corrected

out

of respectfor the classicaltext.


to mean

^ ko^, to sing, by inverting

taken

by

convention

elder brothers.
of
one

Another
an

method interesting
to make
a

formingcharacters was
of

old character

new

'^ ksia* below


of

is the inversion
means
an

opposite meaning. For example of Jt shang^ above ; ^ Vi^, an inversion


child ; ip
t'a to go
on,

tzil', son,

unnatural up ;

is

only,jh

chif^ to stop,turned bottom

pt^walkingis a combination of the both stopping and goingowing to the advancing two preceding containing of the feet in walking. ^ jet^ and stopping inverted is {^ alternately to change. hua*,
Some either characters
are

almost
as

and trebling other characters by doubling the meaning, to emphasize as an ^ yao^the finest thread,^ yii^ invisible to or filament, or reduplication tion multiplicaexpress simple " k^m(' mouth
sen

formed

and

no

hsuan

clamor

of many

voices

^jcmu*

tree

and

forest, ^ y^'lir^
This book

many

trees,green, many. After the student has


We
commend re-

a thousand characters. explains

studied these he will have learned about


that he ia

1400

useful characters.

proceed then

to

read

lessons Wieger's Etymological


"

order, and

to learn to write all the

list of

340 -Characters selected

INTRODUCTION

fX

from

those

Lessons

which

do

not

occur

in
write

the
the has

First
"

list."
second in

Then

study
selected

of

Wieger's
characters

Phonetic
"

series,

learning
all the them

to

thousand

will

place
remember
in

student much

learned

phonetic study

groups'

enabling phonetic
the write.
course

him

to

more

easily.
or

The

of

the

groups

Soothill's increase

pocket
the

dictionary
numbers
ot

in

Wieger
the

throughout
student
can

will

rapidly

characters

-J""5-

SUGGESTIONS
FOR

TO

THE

BEGINNER

WRITING

CHARACTERS.

If the student order


ease

character beginswith the first


comes one
or

and

studies them

in

he

very

soon

to

very

symbols. complicated
on

It will
as as

his task if he takes and

two

lessons

simpler forms such


the book

the numerals

simple characters occurring earlyin


the
a

below, in designated
It will be

first lesson. suggested

found

pleasingdiversion
a

to

under practice the


same

the forms

guidance of
that order

teacher with

Chinese
one

pen

and

red copy

schoolboysuse.

In this way

will at the follow.


at
as all,

time learn the

of the strokes which

the Chinese

It is highly important
a

to learn this order ifone

wishes to write

habit regular character is


a a

ed form-

by

the

hand

in

making

the strokes of each The

great
table
in this

assistance to

the memory.
of strokes

Language School
first 150

also has

givingthe
book. order in Mandarin
In

order

for the
can

of the characters

From

this the student

of acquire the principles easily


the Introduction
to

in writing. Mr. Bailer's suggestions

his

Primer

will also

give the
or as

same.

P.

xxv.

with writing in order Each of

either pan
to
secure

rules the following pencil,


much

should

be observed
I. possible.

of
,

proportionand
as

styleas
matter
are as closed en-

character

should occupy
those
2.

a nearly as possible

square

space

equal size

with

above The

and

below,

no

how

many
"

strokes it may

contain.

elemental
3- Where

strokes space

follows

^'XTILL-i/Jbottom,
be

is

the
at the

perpendiculars slopeinwards, making


at the

the space
the

broader
middle

top than

4.

in Perpendiculars

of

the character
to

should

upright,but absolutely
the reader's

the horizontals tend

slopeupwards
We

toward

hand. right

for the suggest the following

FIRST
,"

LESSON.
first

J* One, representsthe
in the series

primordial unity. The of numerals,it represents the source


to

of

all beings. It is the first radical. In

composition

make

up

another

character

it

has the

following symbolic meanings.

SUGGESTIONS

TO

THE

BEGINNER

FOR

WRITING

CHARACTERS.

xi

1.

"

i^ at the top of any


roof
or

character
in

means usually

heaven,a yi^ rain.


2.

any

cover

as

t'ien, heaven, ^
surface of the of
a

At

the
or

bottom

it

means

the

a base, earth, or

foundation.

peiftrunk
sun a man

tree

base

H. tar^,morning, the :ft ^


.

justabove
-j^
on

the the

horizon.

li^

to

stand,is
hindrance

ground,
"

3.

barrier

or

as

in

"5^ch'iao,a

difficult shian^
a

the breath. breathing, ^ representing P^ bolt to a door. 4. Something contained, as


a

^
"~*

shao^

spoon

with The

somethingin
of the It

it. because earth,


it

erk* Two, makes and the The


a

number

pairwith heaven.
In

the signifies

masculine

feminine

principles pj(yang^ and


of two it has composition two as in fn fet^,
as on

[^ yin}. It is
three
men,
uses. i.

7th radical. meaning


2,

love each

other.

Two

extremes

in
a or

2
of

wi^ five
^.

ko^

sheep-skin Y
form
e.g.

stretched

frame

3. An

old

of J:,

shan^ above,
is the

hsia* below.
7c

revelation a shih^,

from
on

above.
man

y'uan^,

head, that which


tH^ heaven

top H
of

JL.

san^ Three, the order


and earth. the The
one

humanitycoming after
3E commonly explain

Chinese
who

wang' king,as
man.

unites

heaven, earth

and

-|"
in

Ten. shil^,
of the
two

The

number
a

that includes all the rest of


extent separation,

simplenumbers,
It is the

symbol
the

dimensions, and

cardinal
-^

24th radical, e.g. the kernels of grain^". It means separating


compass.
out

pointsof the is a -fml'',


threshed

grainbr

any such substance. numbers study the following For


more

For

the rest of the numerals


to

in the

book,
these

29

ZZ,

inclusive, 58, 59. 6, 14, IS, 35, 27,


well

easy

characters first

study No, 57,


one

I, 5,
as

19, 12, 2, 3, 4, aftermastering

may

begin with No, 7

and

go

on

in the order

given in the book.

iVS

cv

ANALYSIS

OF

CHINESE

CHARACTERS,
PRIMER.

FROM,

BALLER'S

MANDARIN

BASED

MAINLY

ON

DR.
AND

t.

WIEGER'S
SHUO

ETYMOLOGICAL
WEN.

LESSONS

THE

(W. with

nnmber
column

and
means

letter refers to that it is


a

these

lessons.

comma

after the Romanization form

in tbe first

coilcqnial character.
the seal

The

given at the

rightis

writing

of 100

A.D.)

BALLEE,

LESSON

I.

^fc

/^

*^"*" To
f^

have

children

tea* under

one's
to

roof

mien^.
nurse, to

Logicalfcomposition,
bear.

shelter,
it refers

to

By

extension
or

to

the

characters
the

produced
^,
either

bom

hj
pound com-

combining

simple %

wer?, into by

characters,

logical

composition #
f^ M
also
W.
94

orjphonetic combination,
Page
6, in

(See introduction,
A.)
the

Wiener
a

"^^ "^

tztf, The

radicaliof
child visible.

character,
so

picture o"
its form it has

newborn
are

swathed
In
an

that

legs

not

ancient
it
means

'^

the

hair.
sage

By
or

exte:nsion
teacher

disciple,
emperors

then

because

the them

honored
sons.

the

sages

by calling
39th

tzu^

or

It is the

to radical, reli^-ting

children.

(W.
of
a

94

A.)
a

^^^

f\

mien^

Picture is the

roof,

shelter,

house.

It

4dth radical (W.


36

of characters

relating to
^
m

dwellings.

A.)

Called

pao'

4^ 30^ "iXi,

Xm, wo', I, me.


wards each
me.

Two

spears,

^
two

ko\ pointingto-

n^.-^Y^

each

other,

other, and

rights opposing right, extension my 1)3'is the radical. -yi,


a

(W.

71
says

Q.)
it is

Williams
spear,

hand

grasping
I.
or
a

defending my
of
a a

rights,therefore
with
a

"%^

ko^. Picture 7^^


on

spear

hook

crescent

top,
at

crosspiece
handle

below

and 62nd

sword

knot

the

; the

radical, of
and
pons wea-

characters

relating

to

spears

generally. (W.

71

F.)

f"5t
^, TK

ni\
erW

You.

Aien^
is
a

man

9th radical, is (picture)

the
you,

radical of n?. contraction


for
a

of

81 the

classic

^
o^

character

you.

It

is final
or
"

expletive
now

equivalent to

full stop, of
a

There
the

!"
is

(At
drawn

the in

end

phrase

voice

of breath Aju", and the reserve The J is separated, A pa', sent forth. for 5''ou.) (W. 18 is borrowed character

O, and

35

L.)
is the jet^,man with j'e/i'', also; therefore he. (Man A also -".) is a picture of an ancient

ita

t'a^,He, the other, she, it. radical,combined


the other
man,

'til, ^ veA", This

character

utensil, either vessel; borrowed

funnel for. the

drinking also. conjunction,


or

a'

(W,

107

B.)
of

jPj

meti',

Sign
words

plural

in

pronouns

and

other

The indicatingjjcrsons. A, called :3rA 5i or standing

radical
man

is

when

written

at

the

left of

character.

acters

relating to textile
A

matters.

0^
Used

92

A.)
surname.

^, R

sbih*,A

family,clan, sect.
surnames.

in married
a

women's

Originally
ramifies
itself by
a

floating plant, that fixes and finally branches


to

and
root

the

bottom

and

develops

greatly.

Therefore

tiplicatio mulby extension, development, of primitive ; a wandering horde times, a clan, family. It is the 83rd used
as
a

radical, here

pure

phonetic.
on

(W.
Silk
paper

114
was

A.)
used
for
;

writing
hence
out

before radical
on

was

invented

the

^.
water to

The

plant spreads
the fitness the character

flat

the ^

; hence

of this element

form

for paper.

^^

sht^fTo

pH LH jrueh^to

a w^rite, writing, a book. speak, is the radical. No.

73.
"

The
or a

'|S"

mouth word
;

k^ou^

exhaling a
by
A
as more

breath

therefore

extension,

tion, emana-

exhalation. exhibits
over

ancient
a

form cloud

the

breath

the

mouth

yu*

stylus (seeNo. While jueh is given


Kang
M
No.

(W. 73 7).

forming A.)
as

the

radical shows

by
that

Hsi, yet the

seal form
a

it historically

is but

contraction

for

che^, phrase
270.

W,
or

159

speech, document. B.) A book "


El of
a

(See
is the

emanation
10

speech

pen

^
9

;?a

cAe*,This, here,

now;.

This

at word

gods M.

^
^

W
^

cho* is the radical,No. 162, to


from
and

run

and
the is
a

to

stop

|L. Uj

?f

ch'e\ to step
a

with

left foot,
tation represen-

.ih chih^,to of

stop, which

foot

standing, heel
ankle
In

at

the

left,

toes

at

,the right, and


and

above.

(W-

112

E.)
The
P

combination

ten ^writ-

x_, is called

%. %.
mouth k'oii^, with words
radical

Words. J'en*.
"^

73

issuing fromj'iit. 149th C.)


in

(W.

11

^O 3J1J
vT^ P_^
"

na^,

Where?,
tone.

third tone;

there,

in fourth

i*,A city. The


The
P seat

radical, No.
|5 and of El chieh'

tion 163, in combinaat

w^ritten

always
town,

the

rights
The O

authority.
and

represents the walled


a

the Q

is

seal i

or

stamp
is
a

^.^

The

74 C.) authority. (W*. SKiodification of ^ by the

scribes.
natne

Tke
a

'^isrhole character

S|5 was

the

of

city west
wore was

of

Szuchuari, whose
means

inhabitatl'ts

furs borrowed

ifif.It also
for the

weak,

And

meaning

there, that.
12

(W.
to

116

B.)

_B "^*-''^

shih*,Right, exact,
the jihf, "rp cheng*,

be, yes.
a

sun,

is the
"

radical. No. 72,"


limit and

picture,

from

i^,one,

Jh cbil^ to

Stopping only at the proper limit set beforehand, upright, correct. (W. 112 I.) The B sun exactly IE on the meridian,
stop.

right,straight":;!:.
13
__

ch'ien''. Money.

"^

chiV, metal,
"

is the

radical, No.

167.

chin^,
No-

present," is phonetic. 18.) db t'u^, earth, bearing in


now,

(See

its bosom
In earth
^'

two

nuggets
there
are

r\o{

gold

or

metal.

"

present

-4* two

nuggets
The
The

of

gold ^. db *'"'" earth,


i
that

is

the

32nd
all

radical.

earth

produces
the

things.
|
the

top

line

represents
rock
or

surface, the low^er line the

subsoil, and
it

upright, the
81 A

things that
K.

produces. (W.
to

and

14

^
^

T.)

chien^ To

exterminate,
w^ork of two

destroy.
many spears

The

mon com-

or

^.
of
of

(W.
which

71

R.)

Most
a

of the

characters the
sense

this fonns
mean
or

part have

small,

to

ruin,

as

cbien*

cheap, Jg

chien* trample, ^ "

ch'iett shallow.

^, f h
'y

wai*. Outside, foreign.


bsi^ Evening.
the half
moon

The

radical.No.
which
appears

36

represents
ing. even-

in the of M

One
moon.

line is lejft out

yiieh, the
25th cal. radi-

p* pu^, A

soothsayer,

to

divine.
and the

The The

(W. 56 A is by looking at
heated
a

F.)
veins

divination

tortoise

shell,and

appearing in a the f pu* represents


horizontal
the the
a new

perpendicular and
a a

vein.

^1- outside, is :^ i. e,,


person

diviner, b in
must

evening
diviner

consult

outside of

hours, before woi'king

day.
No.

''".^

sheng^.Grow,
100.

beget, produce.

Radical

plant
was

that

grows to
a

more

and

more.

whorl
Otliers

added

"

Z..

(W.

79

B, F.) dt i'"*

make

it

combination

of

and (c^arth) earth


16

]/JcA'e* (grass). That


dfe grass
to

is,the

"

produces

iU.
to

6"3

^^C

f^ ^y^

yiid\ (l.oins, waist),

want,
as
a

wish.
a man, wo-

written Originall^'^
with face

pictureof
hands bust

^,

two

y,
It

and
-was more

figure
taken
marked but with

w^itli for

enlarged
that

($.

waist,

part

being

in woman's in
the this
sense

figure than
it is
now

in man's

written M.
The the
to

^ 70H* radical added


is
nov\r

primitive meaning
character is borrow^ed
want.

lost, and
the

for

meaning
taken radical in

"i,", M

hsi\ West

(W. 50 M.) (radicalNo. 146)


by

was

trarily arbifor his

Kang
of

Hsi the
No.

as

the

classification

character

dictionary.

(See
a

26.)
The 38th

3C, rS,\$.

nu'-i woman,

is

picture character.
a wotnan

radical.

Originally
! w^riting
woman
"

standing
to

in
ease
'

respectful attitude,
in
What Western

altered China
a

/f for
"

\srants

the

"is

convenient

jnnemonic

tor S-.
to act

jg)^
^

so^i To
is the ,J\.jen^

make,

as.

radical. No.
purpose,

9.

'^

ku^, Cause,
man,
we

old.
man

Combined
as

with
that

have

cause,

is,

doing, making.

t^

ku", Ancient, that


ten

is,what

has
or

-f- shih-, mouths

passed through generations, ri

k'oti^,(pictateof

mouth,
radical.

30th

cal.) radi-

(W. 24 F.).

J^j^^
18 ya^

p'a^ To

tap, rap.

66th

From
a

a.

X
h

yu'^ (hand, 29th

radical) holding

pu* diviner's

rod.
chant. To in

iS"

To Biefl*,

read,
a

to

think,
the

'L^,hJ" hsiV,

Heart,

picture
It lobes In 1'.
up

61st

radical. the

shows and

the
the

study. seal writing. pericardium


to

opened,

aoita
at

below. the left

(W.

107

A.)
is made

combination

it is written

't' c/jiflS now,

of

triangle^, chi

tion meaning union, and T chP, an abbreviaof ^ meaning contact, up to, (W. 19 The D.) (a hand % holding a man A). combination is thus tautological. (W. 14 be K.) The idea of the character may
that all past

time
to

unites
or

in

the

present.
to

Therefore

^
to

read mind

think, is
jC?.

make

present 4*
19

the

-r^ ?P,S

puS

Not,
there
"

negative.
to
a

Primitively a
sky""
not

bird
to
"

Jfi get
f the

flying up
for

the

able

mnemonic.
as a

The

radical, sky,
and
at

is often used

limit,or

the
1 B

top of
20

character.

(W. Sign

133

A.)

"
hsiehl,A little, some.
here.
on

of

comparative,
it
"

several.

Jmj te'u^, This,


turn

Originally
heel
Jh.

meant

to
"

one's

This
is

is

borrowed
man

ixieaning. (3 pj^
A,
to

an

verted in26
A

turn.

(W.

112

A.)

erb*.Two.

The

number

of the

earth

because

it is paired with of the two

heaven.

Also the number

i^ yin^ and principles


The

^ yan^,
Zl

(W.
The

A.)

radical of ", the 7th.


of jJfc this,and t'^a*, this and

combination
means

erA*, two,

sign of
PpC

pointingto plurality.
who
; any
one.

that,

shuP, Who

"a

j^en* is the

radical, the
pE,

149th.

i", ^

chuP^ Short-tailed
radical.

birds
168

the 172nd (a picture),

(W.

A.)

nation. combipTionetic

22

tun^.

To

understand. 'f and

The

radical shn

is ^6, here

written

c",lledM
61st

"" As/n*, vertical


lead

heart, the jj

radical.
rule
or

tvm^

To
on

lead
to

or

to influence,

ple peo-

With

right ways. j" heart meaning


or

to

influence

the

mind,

to
a

understand.

-H* t'sao', grass,

picture,the
It is written
-h-

140th

radical, is
ing stand-

its radical.

Pi when

composition. chuTig*, Heavy, important. Composed by fH tun^, superimposing t^in^ i. upon the two oblique strokes of the latter being
reduced
to
inan a

aloire,and

in

horizontal

stroke.
at

^ ^^ t^ing^ is

place the earth on j;, the earth denoting the business of life, position. The positions
a

standing

his

on

the

east

of

the

thi-one

were

the

more
bination com-

important and
with

honorable, hence the


"M.

important

or

tun^, east, to (W. 81 D.) heavy.

mean

10

ys tang^,The
in the

sun

shiningthrough
the horizon where

the

trees,

?fcma* i.e., on

it appears
120
roots 119

A^,m
23 -H,

morning,so, east. (W. ^"*' Tree, a picture of trunk,


branches, the 75th radical.

K.)
and

(W.
?

A.)
^

tSi

^ESJ
P

what shetP\ Very, superlative,

Before

read- sheri^.

0
,

'kan\ sweet,
from in
"

the

99th

radical is the

radical,
held

k'ou^,mouth, and

something
taste,

it, i.e., agreeableto the

sweet,
whole

^, ^

(W. 73 B.) To pair,a pair. It is a half of the p'i", which is representedby H ssu*. A
satisfaction.
more so as

little,

than
to be

half of the character

is retained
42

recognizable.(W.

A.)

Therefore
As

ift means

affection for the mate.

this is the strongest affection, the character


comes

to

mean

superlative, very.

24;
sort ; a interrogative particle, also used, These are borrowed ironically. meanings. The primitive meaning is small,, from jSttns? hemp fibre, and ^ delicate, (W. 90 A.) yao^, the finest thread. ma?, Hemp, hemp fibre, pockinarked ; the l/jiljj

ma^, m"y

An

radical ; it is the radical of this ing: character. It is made up of the follow200th

/K p^an*

strfphemp^ from A paS to divide the fibres from the ^ ch'e*, (12th radical) firom "fcmn*.) When stalk. (Distinguish textile fibres. doubled it forms ^ p'ai*, When the stalks are soaked and stripped stored in off and brought under cover or
To

12

composed of ,P weP, an enclosure, (the 31st radical)and """ka^, ancient (see No. 17) as phonetic. Only when written with the Wchu^, as radical has it the meaning
ot bamboo.

balijER,
29

lesson

II.

kH,7r

ssu', Four.
into

An

even

number the

halves

by

easily divided pa^, to divide ; all


wePy
No.

around.
used
42

The

radical is O
to relating

31,

in words

enclosures.

(W.
32.

A.

The

old

form
For

sion represents the diviA


see

into halves.

under

No.

JDL,-^

wa^

Five. and
n
a

At

first written
or

center,
and

five ; then
ss

being four Unes placed between


dual
powers

heaven

earth,

the

yin^

and

iifyan^,
is
the

elements, 3" ^
The
31
-j^

begetting wv?. hsitig'.(W.


,

the
39

five

A.).

radical The marked


even

"

7th.
that

(Yn
/iV, Six.
four the
even

^"", 7\;

number with
a

comes

after that all

dot.

Note

*k:

written so as are digits their divisibility, H erh*, tw^o, pa!^, eight. (W. 42 A.) The is A,
12th.

to

show

and

radical

32

""T^,

ch'?,

Seven

lines, in

old

writing.

All

the

digitsare found written in this stylein old inscriptions, with the nurfiber of i.e., lines indicated by the digit. (W. 33 A.).
Radical is
"

/*.

13..

An
33

pa^, Eight

; to

divide.

The

meaning
Also

is indicated

by the eight lines


radical.

form.

written
The

with
12th

in the
18

(W.

angular form. A.)

ii.^

chiu^,Nine. A meaning.
nine lines.

numerical
An

sign without other originalwriting contains

Radical is ZL i* a hook, the 5th.


The radical is ^^

34

cbp, Few,

nearly.

yad.

(See No. 24.) It is a guard J^ sAu*,of soldiers on the frontier w^ho are watching the slightest
movements

and
"

are

attentive

to to

the least

things

jv^.

Therefore

examine,

subtle,hidden, small, few.

aK,66 J'u\ has


very 90

the

mcxining of :5C ya"

reinforced, i.e.,
invisible.

small, slender, almost

(W.
man

^"C

(See No. 24.) from A uYL^^^' ^" guard the frontiers; * carrying a ik^ko^,'spear. See No. 2. 25 D.)

D.)

(W.

PW" Prl

An liang^.Two. a a ounce, pair. From pictureof a standing scale rtlthe upper stroke having been added in modern times The to indicate the beam (or equilibrium). idea of a pair may have been suggested by the balanced scale pans. (W. 35 H.) y\., /\ ju*,is the radical,No. 11, meaning to enter, or
to

put

on

either
roots

pan

of the

scales.

It
A

represents
the

entering the

ground
up.

opposite
a

of {i} ch'u^ to go

out, which

represents
15 A.)

plant growing

(W.

14

36

-^ ^
'^'
'**

pen".The

trunk

of

tree.

The

line

across

the

;^ mu\
the root, Books.

tree, represents the

surface
to the

of the

ground, drawing
tree

attention

part of
So

below

ground,
natural,

the

roots.

source,

native ;

capital.
is the

(W.

120

A.) TfCmn*, wood,

radical, No.
37 3fl!

75.
; to

jen^,To

recognize ; to acknoiwcal. tzu* p^ang^ is the radiledge. h" ^ "g^ j'CK* Words and No. .149. patient i"jeti',
know

well

_"

(phoneticcombination).

(He ,

iSi jetf.Patient, to
harsh.

bear, suffer,endure, patience, j" hsin^ is the i-adical. 71-jea\ a

of 7J tao^, w^ith a formed cuttingweapon, stain on the edge, Or something being cut

Tap^ 73 is the 18th picture of the Chinese razor by


heart

it.

radical, f)
or

cleaver.
to at

vinder
52

knife-edgemeans
In

suffer,

(W.

B.)

composition
that of

the

right

73'is written S
the

(1. A heart

has

endured

monotony

continual

practise

knows 38

w^ell its lesson


"

flSsays,
"

^^, J^l

n^

|g]

map,
"

To

buy.

Mencius
"

net

|J^ the

^,

"

gains T^ ^j ; better explainedby to -wrap a thing with its pricein up cowries K in a net 1^." (W. 161 D.) shell. These used for were pei*,A cowrie
money

market

in the

early times.

The

seal character
It is

shows
the

feelers of the

live shell.

No. 154, of things relatingto radical, values and trade. (W. 161 A.) radical No.
122

R^ wang'', Net,
ssu^ tzu*

(called V^'-^U
modi-

pu* by

because the vvriters,

15

to look like a fiecl

when szu*'
some

used at the it is written


39

top of characters) ; in
X 39 331
or

pg. To

To

entangle. (W.

C.) recognize.

gmr

shih^, chih*

keep in mind, know,


radical,No.
to

^^,^

7^n^, word
chih^
A

is the

149.

sword,

office, official
Ancient chiefs

clay ; gather ; jjotters' M,). duty (now written


or

officials. These
the

held

:5cko^, when
and ed to
_ _

they gathered
their will

announced

people ^ ^; i* (shortenof
"

^y;V).

(W.
180th

71

t3.

sound, is the yiti^,

HJ) formed radical,


a

"a

yetl^,utterance, and

"

sound.

The
a

is

placedin
or

the P mouth

to-

represent

word

and in the seal character issuing this line is the only difference between 'a yeii^ and # ym\ (W. 73 E.) '^When the words could people^" repeat the m said of the officials ^ to thej"-were sound
"

know."
40

MPf fsao^
The This
tzu

ch'a',Tea.
for

t^ou^ is the
like for
as a a

radical. tree, TJc


nic, mnemo:

(SeeNo. 22.)
man

plant W
taa.y do

Athe in
wen

but

etymology
li.

is

follow^

^^ yir'I,

me,

F^rom

pa*, to

tinguish, disbination com-

and the is

-^ sAe* house, in wliich


P at

the bottom the 7v

acter of the char-

pa^. Chinese custom one requires enteringa house any call out himself from and to distinguish bj^ saying, "It is I, so anj' other person
replaced by
and
so,
come

for such

and

such
one

pose." purto

Silence

renders

liable

16

J.

f5.

suspicion. In ^ it is a pure phonetic combination, contracted. combination, she* A shed, booth, house. It is the joining^
chp of n
form
a

walls and

of the thatch

roof Y to

house.

(W. 14 C.)

To write. hsieh^, the

Primitivelyto

set in

order

things in a house, *** raien^,is the 40th. radical, By extension, to set in order one's ideas, to write. The lower pari is a phonetic only. of jfe yeh* A magpie. It -is a modification niao^, with a specialhead given it. J^ niao^)is a long-tailed bird, a picture,the 19'6th radical. (W. 138 A. " C.) The magpie is a bird of neat, trim appearance,
which
42 may

suggest the

idea

of order in

the combination.

wan^, Basin,

cup,

howl.
a

piece of rock n fallen from cliffT Aaa* (27th' a radical). It forms the 112th radical. (W. 59 D.) j^ iSfo R" vt'a/i* Good behavior in the house "^j ^e y'iiat^, to of others, comply with the demands therefore the derived meaning, to bend, to cover ^b" to turn in bed, ; yield. Fuan' a curling up, dignity or modesty H chieh^, It during the night,d^ bsi^ (See No. 14) is not to lie decent," says Cohfacius, like a pine (jfc Stand, like a corpse." n* ia ju"U satJg^;) Sit like a bell (^ tso"^ Lie like a bow iaju" it cbung^;) (g\ jvo* in like the Walk wind {^ tsot^ /n" ^ kiia^ ;) 4n ju^ m. fengK") These are models of
.
,

^^ /o

shih^, Stone.

It is

"

"

"

17

behaviour.

From

yuat^, comes
behaviour in

l3'ing down, by extension to mean good 64 D.) general. (W. modesty


in
say

ti,^

A seal. chielf, has

Some

the form

where
4

one

slept. It is one half of the cliaracter seal. One half of the seal ?^=5P ch'iag'^ or is kept at the yamen and the other given
to

the

individual

concerned

in

the

case.

(W. 55
to 43
secure

A, B.)
order

The

phonetic ^
Wa
are a

has the
means

idea of order, and in

bowls

eating.
the phases
covered

^,Pi

Tu^, To
it.

have.
moon

it meant Primitively

of the

/I
say

as

if

hand

eclipseof the moon, with the same interpretation. To have, is a borrowed ineaning. (W. 46 H.) To have the hand the moon be on might_v.'eU called possession. M ,^ yiieh*, the moon, 74. A pics the radical,No. ture of the crescent ble moon completely visi(compare ^ hsi\ No. 14), (W. 64 G.) ,^, ^ yu^, The right hand. The fingersreduced to three for ease in writing. It is the 29th radical. It means also,again. (W. 43B.) The right band returning repeatedly to in eating suggests the mouth again."
the
"
_

Some

44

^ i^"

W
,

/*, Intention, thought. ^t^hsiW, heart, is the radical. No. 61.


or

The

heaii:

mind

jC? of the

soitnds ^
means it.

that

by the speaker is known he utters. By extension


that

also the thought gets from


73

the

mind

of the.hearer

the words

/^ of the

speaker.

(W.

E.)

18

^
iS^, c^ B3, ^,
"

yw\

sound.

(See No. 39.)


wish
61.
cover

ssu^,To
Asin* The
to

think ; the

of the heart.

j" is

No. the radifcal,

skull,the
the

of the brain

(altered
one

look

like EH t'ien\

field).

"

When
Wen.

thinks, S,
acts
on

vital fluid of the

heai-t j"

the brain

\^ hsin^."

Shuo

|I|.-"s, ^

To cA'u',
to

forth,to go out. Toissiie, tobeget, eject. Primitively it represents stalks


go
out

growing
of A
grown In

of the
35.

ground,
leaves.

the

opposite
plant has
78

/V,

No.

The

*f small

another

pair of

(W.

E.)
The

combination is U

often I'cduced to db.

radical 17th. 47

/f'an*,a

the receptacle,

^^

ch^i*,Vapor,
air.

the

ch'i* or
^

fiunes rising from

fermenting
the radical

:JftmP

rice ; in

ether, breath,
use use

It is substituted

common

for

% and

is in much
aura or

in

philo-

sophy [i, "^ ch^i*, vapor,


^

for the

primal

vital fluid.

is the

radical. No.

84, meaning

from curling rising vapors forming clouds. Ancient


sun

the

ground
show the

and the

forms

13 and

ik.fire which into

cause

vapors. to

Contracted

-" ch'P it

means

beg.

(W.

98

A.)

mP, Kice
and four
means

after it is hulled ;

qther

small
It

grains
+
often

things small like rice. grains "; sepai-ated-p.


separation toward

represents

The

tlie four quarters

North, South,
122 A^ It is the

East

and

West.

(W.

119th

radical.

then
the
^

be confused
at

with

-^

the

bottom be

eighthRadical, being the test); 3.


the

both other
"

parts may

changed by
character also is

fusion -with
when

parts of the

split,
changed. un-

e.g.,

MM^.
top
or

It the It

placed
a

either at

the

bottom

of

character

skirts

picturesthe sleeves, and hanging-belov^'. (W. -16 A.)


for the lower

the

"^^
W,

shang",

Clothes :^
a

part

of

the

body.

is the radical

(see No.

51.)

shang^,is
'S' or

to phonetic here. -^ is contracted in composition, meaning when ropf a it represents the ridgepole and a house,

sides of the window


d

house added the

as

in
a

***

mien^, but has

and

that wind and

dicating paf, divide,inridgepeople divides the

water,
at

or

shuP. M. ^JC ileng^ ends


is
means

This
last

ridge raised
all,and
so

both

placed
to

of to,

the

character

add It

still,elevated, noble, superior.

is

suggestivephonetic
house
or
cover

as

for the

clothing is a body. (W. 36 E.)

the

5ti

classifier of pa^*^, To take hold of, grasp, Read things held in the hand. pa*, a "To handle, pa^, a handful. clap E" the hand ^ on something." "^, vp shou^, The hand, handy, skill, workman. It is

the side

radical, No. exiled Ji ^


of
a

64.

When

written

at

the

t'i'sbot^. X
of the

^ is the picture
^ is the

side view
In the

hand,
the

full

palm. A.)

the

ancient

writing the ^
palm.

represents
48

lines in

(W.

21

pg JB pa*,A kind of boa, short and thick. It is reits tail. It is found on o presented raised
in the south is used to
; its flesh

is eaten

and its skin


55

cover

L.)
51

it also
The

means

" pa*. (W. guitars, a slap, clap.

1m

T*, A chair.

radical is ?jcma*, the 75th.

^,
'"

(See No. 25.) ch'P, Unusual, strange, "^J"


J
causes men

rare.

That

which

"K to exclaim
37th

in admiration

nT.
and

~/\.ts^. Great,
means

radical, in

combination
arms

man,

head, representing

Pj, r

legs. To send JSr'o',


1

forth from

tion breathing of approbamouth

the

n,

to

express

to be willing, satisfaction, permit,admire.

Logical combination Chinese, being used


heels,or
so

flat
more or

on

the

(W. 58 I). The to sittingon their the chair seems A'ang-*,


as

much

comfortable

to be

prising sur-

strange thing.
a

55

;je

chan^,

To

draw^

bow,

stretch,

extend.

Classifier of

things of
forms

extended

surface.
57.
A

^^

Q
^

kun^,

a.

bow,

is the radical, No. also


87

picit

1^^

ture.

Ancient
or

represent

bent

vibrating. (W.

A.)

"^_ -^
gg

'*'

*,To grow, chaag-^ form represents The primitive Long. ch'ang'^, be locks of hair so long that they must With and a hairpin Y. tied by a band added, it K, an inverted or changed man,
"

excel,senior.

means

manhood,

grown

up
means

so

the hair is

long.
or

By extension
to

it

long in time
modern
form

space,

grow.

The

is

22

an

ai-bitrfii-Ncontraction.
113

168th

radical.

(W.

A.)
yic mu*
is the radical.

"f^
"^,^

cho\

Table,

(See No.
represents
and
a

25.)
cAo', Surpassing, high elevated.
a

It
a

mast
an

surmounted
ornament

by

globe

flame,
are

of which

the Chinese

fond.

It is imitated

in the yainen A

staffs.
as

(W.

143

P.)

table

flag being high

compared with chairs and stools, this phonetic meaning high is selected appropriately.

BALLBK,

LESSON

III.

Ff^ ^^

cAuH^, The middle,


the The

among, pass

in.
an a

to hit C/ian^g*,

-?

mark,

attain,
the center

examination.
square
arrow.

character

represents

target
The

piercedin
form

by

an

of the

target is lost in this modem

but is retained in M yung." (W. ivriting, See No. 225.' 109 A.) is the kutf, A down stroke, a perpendicular, radical. No. 2. It has a symbolic signification

in many
in i^

characters,
;
an arrow

e.g.

the trunk

chung^; a spindle running through tw^o objectsin to stringtogether ; a bow " ch^uan*, i.e., stringin ^1 yjn^,to draw a bow, to lead ; a man standing in ^ shen^, to gird one's self. (W. 6 A.)
mn*,
tree

in 4*

58

W
,

pai',One

hundred,
is

many,

all. Thef
"

unityot
one,

hundreds

by represented

i\

and

23

paP,

"white.

It

Is

combination,

fi is

(See No. 6.)


69

(W.

88

purely a phonetic the radical, 106th. A. and B.)

1^.4-

Ten + hundred chVen^, Thousand, many. very (but the W pai^is not here). ~r* shih^, sions, Ten, symbol of extension in two dimen-

i" the
for A character.
60

radical, No.
is

24.

The

at

the top of the character

is the

tion abbreviathis

jen^, which (W.-24 D.


;
an

phonetic in and k.)


indefinite

wan*,

Ten

thousand

number,

wholly, emphatic Ft!it is the Indian swastika, symbol of Buddha's


Written particle.

heart, dlso meaning 10,000.


in

The
-"f

radical

Kang

Hsi's dictionary is
has

but t'sAo'^,

the character

nothing to do with that radical ; originally it being the picture of a scorpion, 65 being the feelers, ") " Vl the legsand the being the head, and tt\. tail. It was then pronounced ch'ai*, but there were for scorpion it other words as borrowed for the meaning 10,000. A!vas (W. 23 H.)
-"-

61

^ -^y

lin^, Small rain, or last drops of a shower, residue. a fraction, It reprerain, is the radical, the 173rd. yii^, sents of The X law of water rain drops is to come in drops or showers not in thus this is an appropriate deluges, symbol for a fraction. (W. 14 I.)

^,

I' A tig*,

law,

an

order,

to

command,
of
A

your

honored.

It

is formed

chP.

the

24

assemblage, being the joiningof three lines (see No, 18), and P Therefore chieb^, a seal (see No. 42.) order, is the urdting -^ of the ^ an written document and the P seal, ^i.e.,
notion of union,
"

the

stamping
CJ

of the

order.
we

when
an

k'ou^,is added,
or

(Note that have "^ ming*,


of mouth,
14 A.

order

command

by word

and
62

the decree of

heaven). (W.
from
or

1.)

Is iBjf

^"'^' '^*^ return


A
an

to

or

time.

medan. MohamIt
presents re-

turn

revolution.

eddy (likethe curlingclouds of smoke, or whirlpools in w^ater) or an objectthat rolls,turns on an axis ; lience the abstract idea of revolving, return. we? is the radical, twice P written. (SeeNo. 28.) (W. 76 G.) Also written [g.
63

^ jlPl

P9

to request, to engage. cAfng^, To invite, is the radical, the 149th. (See No. "q yezi', 10.) also blue, cA'/n^,Thegreen of sproutingplants, fn

black,

gray,

white

of

an

egg.
up

The

174th

radical.

It

is made

of

plants,and
the makers

their color :W-tati^,


of the

sheng\ if as (red).,'
color
mercury
ore

character
a

were

blind,
ore,

-p^tan^ is cinnabar,
-the
was
""

Ted

represented by

for the sublimed

in

crucible /K where

it

by

the

alchemists in search
stone

of the

for 115

(W.
with

turning base be D.) p{ may


hole red

philosophers' metals to gold.


stove

the Chinese with fire.

the round

25

64

M.t;

The radical is A lap, To come ; in the future. a primitive jen^. It is formed of ;f\, representing and of ears a grain plant M. or hanging from it ; a sort of bearded barley, "used as food in the Chou Dynasty. The Shuo Wen
says

it

means

come,

because

the

from heaven. conies by men It is more meaning probably "i borrowed without explanation. (W. 13 B.) logical

gtain eaten

65

wen*, To ask, inquire. The radical is B k'ou^, mouth (radical No. 30). The " placed in a P5 metP, door, is a suitable character for the meaning, t.oask (SeeNos. 5 and 9 )
.
.

66

SkM

To tso*, The
M to

sit down,

to

rest, to

place, to reign.

radical is i

the on sitting talk. (W. 27 D.)


go.

Two the 32nd. men t'u^, face to face earth " t'"',

67

"^ "jEfc,

-|^ ^U

To cb'ii*.

i" ssu\ is the radical, the 28th.

It is made,

however,
U

from

of pictufe its
cover

an

empty
hence

vessel the

ch'iii^and

";
with

meaning leave, go, all being the removing of the


its contents.
the modem The

of to empty, ideas
cover

to remove,

connected of
a

vessel and

top

resembles

"

t'u' in

writing,
a

and

iz ta* in the old.

The

bottom

but here stands is like M, ssu^, basin.

for U
68

ch'a\

(W.

38

F.)

J
'

y
"^^
"

hao\

A child in

^^,No.
''

swaddling clothes. (Compare 1.) This character being of no use


for the time in
a common

was
"''"'

borrowed

suffix to
or

denote

past

verb,

the end

of

26
a

sentence,

clear. conclusion, intelligent,


is the

(W. 94 H.) J kun' perpetidicular.

radical, No. 2,

^^

*^^

tui^, Opposite ; parallel sentences

on

scrolls

hung opposite each


to, to suit,mfitch, dative.

other

; to

correspond
;

agreeing -with
41st,
the

sign of
sure. mea-

""J

t'sun*,inch, is the
The dot
an

i-adical,the
inch from

to

represents the pulse on


hand.
often for

the In

wrist

about

composition used
45

^ hand.

(W,

B.)
Luxuriant

vegetation, being a representation of its branching into manj'' twigs from a single stem ; emanation, multitude, faggot. (W. 102 I.) ~f^shih*, A scholar, gentleman; the 33rd radical; all things i* and -f-shih^,because from
tsao^
"

^p

are

comprised

between
an

the numerative

one

and
a

ten, therefore

affair (same

as

^),

n [^

thing,and bj'extension a sage, scholar was (W. 24C.). Before 100 B.G.'n Jfc'oa' in the place of " shih*. Tui^ therefore to apply a measure means -^ fsutx* to -the
luxuriant emanation

^ of men's
testimonies.

mouths

"

men's k'ou^, i.e., Wen

Emperor
the

Ti, in 100
P

B. C.

changed
not

writing
men's

to "" shih^ to remind

his officers that


be

testimonies

must

believed, but
alone

only
70

the words

of the "" sages, which

deserve

to be examined

-^. (W. 102


P

I.)

kad^, A,state, country.

From

a boun^vei^,

AsiYj (theradical, No. 31)

and

28 72

^a"
"^
_^

shao^,

To

talk, speak,

converse,

sayings,

doctrines.

"^ yen\

(See No. 10.) To speak, to rejoice, j'iieA*, i.e., good words -j^ 51 that dispel A griefand rejoice ft the This is made hearer. up of 56 (huan^, ancient pronunciation, mouth a P on top of a man }L, or to speak authoritatively ; pronounced hsiung^it is the oldest brother exhort his brothers) and A to who must divide it into or dissipatethe breath words, to speak. By an arbitrarymodem borrowing the character is read tai*, and means exchange. (W. 29 D.)
Words, discourse, a language. Words "" /jua*. of the "S"sAe', tongue. (See No. 10.) yet^,is the radical.No. 149. she^. Tongue, is a pictureof the tongue protruding
*

is the radical, No. 149.

73 a*L

pl^
Q

^ ^

from

the

mouth.

(Compare @
back into the radical.

hatP, the
mouth 102
74

tongue

drawn

S.)

It is the 135th

(W.

C.)
swallow, to eat the radical, No. 30.
to ; to suffer.

h"
O
/t-

To stutter, ch'ih^,

k!ou^, mouth
cHP
To

is

beg. It is a contraction of g ch'i^, breath," the 84th radical. (SeeNo. vapor, 47.) In this fonn it is borrowed for ^ kai* to mean beg. (W. 98 A.)
To
stammer

the mouth ng is to fill

with

breath

"",and make no progress in speech. In eatingone the food as in stammouths the breath, hence to eat. mouths one njering

29 75

/Qif^

fan*,A

meal, cooked

rice (the chief dish of

"^

^ Ja

meal). shih^, to eat, is the radical, No. 184, relatingto food in general. It is formed of -^ ^ % to collect (see No.' 18), and chi^, boiled grain, the sweet smeH of hsiang'-, the WL fan\ It is a picture of the bowl 6 and its con tents and a (^ pi^, to spoon, ladle it out. is the 21st ^ pp, spoon, ^ the radical. (W. 26,C.L.M.) Gather family to eat -^ the rice S. fan^, To return, turn back, turn over ; oppo"

"vova.%yu*, hand, and^r* a representationof the motion of the hand in turning over, a {f ban*, is a cliff, No. Radical 27.) (W. retreat, shelter. In eating the hand returns 43 E.) again and again Jx.to the mouth with ^ food.
site;
to

rebel.

erh^,A male

child,a
the 10th

person

with

the fontanel.

les of the skull not

yet closed

JL jen^,inan,
The

radical, is the radical of


the like 1^3chiu*',

this character.
upper

part is written
it is

134th

radical, but
open

really |Sl hsin^,


as

skull,written
in
77 |"fe
an

above,
29

the

skull is

infant.

(W.

B.)

bright,to understand ; i.e., a high and bright ^ sun H with is the radical combined 0 jih*, sun, ^ yao^, eminent, lofty. From ^ yad^, earth, heaped up (three" earths) and % wn*, a J^ !^ high base, level on top. ^ Yao^ is the name
hsiao^. Dawn,
.

of

famous

ancient

emperor,

2300

B.C.

30

(W.
one

81
can

C.)
see

When

the

sun

is

high ^

and

understand

^.

78 ^

To te^,

get, receive.
take
a

^
^

'f

ch'ih* to

step forward
It

with

the

left

foot, to w^alk

(60th radical) is the


was

radical

(W.
^,

63

A).
to

added

to

acter this char-

W}

te^ to

superfluous. obtain, original writing of the character, # and in the seal w^riting its etjanology, shows viz.,to get.the hand
get, is the
on

late,and

is

-^
The 45

that

w^hich

one

has

in
to

view

^.

M. chien*, see, is reduced

S.-

(W.

E.)

See No.

85.
69.

"^
79

t'sun\ Inch.
mo'^
or

See No.

raeP, To iserish ; none


central the

sink in the water,

to

dive,

to

of, not, least,without.


radical

7K,$

shuP, Water,
others

is the stroke the

(No; 85.)
a

.The
of

represents

rivulet, and
the surface

rippleson
12

the water.

(W.
to

A, B ; 125

A.)
oneself

^^ ^

mar

To

dive, while turning tH hiiP, on


order

in

something under the The 12 haP, water, the head being below. is changed bj'^scribes to 7J. (W. 76 I.)
get X
sentence.

80

^
P
/-"

chu^,A.
rt

k'oti', mouth,

is the radical with

from a pno^ to wrap (the 20th radical), up, of a man to picture bending over envelop in his apron an object ; therefore to enfold,
a

bundle,
used
to

to

contain, a whole.
a

The

mouth
or

form

whole
for

O phrase

tence. sen-

(\Y. 54 A,

pao^.)

81

^^

Tfe i-l*

tsai*.To
powers

be

in

or

at ;

to i.e.,

exert

one's

oil the earth :?"t'saP,

in
one's

place i activityt " ^s the rad. (W. q6 D.).


a
"

dh ; or presence manifested is by fu*,


?r.
It is

A.-^.

t'saP, has
grown

been
to
a

modified

to

tree
now

size for timber, materials, force

written

;^ t'saP; then
substance

of expansion,

natural

activity,mental
of
a

talents, the
96

capacity, tiling. (W.

A.)

^^. ;^

liningof clothes ; inner, inside ; to the left (in rules of the road). is the radical.No. l-iS; (see No. 51.) 4x. i', clothes, is the phonetic, but being placed Jg IP,a village,
inside
the the radical

/i\The

for clothes

it suggests

meaning of lining or inside. (W. It is the 166th 16 G.) radical, of a few It is made incongruous characters. up of pElt'len-, field,the (102nd radical), being a representation
of
a

furrowed
common

and field,

of of

it tUf,

earth. one-third

Its

meaning
of the

IP,

or

of

an

English mile,

comes

from

tlie ancient

custom

smallest

being composed of the ninth families being arranged around a publicfield with a well representedby the # ching^(thedot being character pictorial
the

village fields of eight

well.)

One

side of the square the custom

was

one

IP in length.
of and
use

When

went

out

the character

retained

the

lost the dot ching^simple meaning of well.

being easy to write, is used to objects. (W. 149, A and many liresent
E9 t'kh^

re-

D.

32 "^

"f^ ^^ 4^' him

weP, To

be,

to

make

wei*, for, beqanse, in


prone

" i-"

order to.

"^

f'^

cbua^, chao^, claws, radical (No. 87.)


The
seal character

the

hand, is the
mother its head acter charIn

represents
one

with monkey, sitting and


the other
at

hand

at

the bottom

of the

mixed the middle

up

with

its tail and character for

feet.
man

is the

because and show


says

of the

the

monkey's likeness to a man, for breasts character to primitive


a

that it is
that

mother.

The

Shuo
"

Wen

of all animals

birds (iiteratlly
prone
to

")

the female

monkey
as

is most

claw

"^ M J^ and

therefore

the

character There is

Jfi chao^, stands


an

its symbol.

ancient

of writingconsisting solely
The

tWo

claws

^^.

character has lost its primitive


now

meaning, and
to

is borrowed
49 H.

for

be, because,

etc.

(W.

BALLEE,
m

LESSON

IV.

nin TYt^,

m.

ch'aan^, A bed, couch, sled. cViang^, is the radical (No. 90), a heavy slab, a thick,Sitrongplank. It is the lefb
half of the 7|c ixiu* as form

written

in the^seal

(W.
A

127

A.)
of

^ mo*. /fC^
85
n
n

Wood.

bed JK is made

strong pieces

yf of wood

:^.
This is the 147th

^tu,S,

To chien*.

see.

radical, {of

characters

to sight, perception. relating

35

Wieger explainsit as an eye U mu*, ow a man A (W. 158 C.\ But Chalfant finds a ancient than the seal writing writing more ^, which is a pictureof the eye emitting Chinese believe that light. The light of normal out it comes a eye, enabling^
.

to
/%!"

see.

An ti*,

order, series

before

number

it]^foniis
radical.

the ordinal.

Ti

chu", bamboo,

the 118th

is the radical,

(See No. 7.) It is chosen perhaps because of the graduation of joints in a bamboo
stalk.
_

Kepresents f^ ti*,
a

thread

or a

strap wound
catch
on

around
and
a

spindle having
or or a

top
a

catch

winch

below.

It is
means

bobbin

reel, and

primitive sion hj extennow-

succession
Ai-ounger

of brothers, and

only
the 87 87

the is

brothers.
for
as

This

tive primiis also

appropriate
Yi used

as series,

bamboo,
E.)
A

its radical.

(W.

-^. ^

.:^

chnn^\

strain
or
an

in music
easay
;

or

chapter

book,

rules.

J^

to establish, stand, (the 117th //',

radical) is
the

taken arbitrarily

for the radical ; but

etymology
sound, and
Therefore of music
a

yin^ (See No, 39), number. + shih!^, ten, a perfect


is from

ten ; and
or

-f- sounds
the
an

"m make

strain
to

meaning

is"extended

chapter,
To

essay.

88

^J,S^

tao\

arrive at, to reacli.

34

Tj

tao^, knife,is 37.)


well.
But

the

radical (No. 18- )


it has

(See No.
force
as

here

phonetic

"3t,it!cA/A* To
133rd

go,

to

arrive
It

at

The (classical).

radical.
to

down flying

represents a bird therefore the earth,


"

"""
to

arrive; reach.
and pictorial
89

(W.

138

B.)

It is both

indicative in its composition.

^J^

^w^

^.

^
m

hung^, Red, lucky, pleasant. ssu^ or mi^ is the radical (No. 120.) (See No. tereste silk, in8.) Textile inatters, especially
the Chinese hence the from

ancient

times ;

ments importance given to these elein their writing. /" "b sst^, the in which 28th radical,is a single cocoOn the worm hiinselfup, caring for wraps nothing but self; therefore the meaning, selfish, separation. (W. 92 A.) private, is purely phonetic. Work, ZL,-^ kttng^f workman, time of w^ork. It pictures the ancient and so carpenter's square, by extension means work, skill, or ornament quiring reany

skill.
Red it

(W.
work

82

A.)
color of silk ^
of the

In

not

being a

natural X

requiresthe
red silk.

dyer

to

duce pro-

""M.m

hao^ Good, right,very


From

hao\
and
are

to

be

fond

of.

ic nu\ woman, Wife -k and child dF fond of M.

tzu\ child.
one

what

is most

*g^
"

(Or the fondness of a woman for her child.) See No. 1. ^"'' ^^ *^^ Radical,No. 38. It originally was a woman attitude standing in ceremonial

#1 Ijg^

To sung*,

escort, to
accuse

see

guest

out

; to

give

1^^

gift ; to

at

court.

^
x^

c/20*going,is the radical. No.

162.
as a

cheti^A fire that planks for a


charcoal.
A

can

be
or

handled,
to

to bend

boat

caulk

boat

torch

iK carried f^
is
a

to

escort

guest
of

out
no

^.
value

to

phoneticand suggestive the beginner. (W. 47 J.)


bar

W^
P^
*^ %%

kuan^,
*

cross
a

the gate,

gate, to shut or bar custom-house barrier, suburb.


a

of

tnet^,door, is the radical,No.


kuan^ To
pass

169.

(See No. 5.)

threads The

shuttle.

through a vyreb with 9, ssa' (contracted into i!fc)


The down
the
to

represents the
in the

warp.

strokes
shuttle
form
sion extena

lower

part represent
thread
Nos. to
8

carrying the
woof. it

through
and

(See
means

24.)
fix

By

join,to

transversely.
of tlie gate

(W.
passes

92

G.)

The

cross-bar

like a

through the slots and iron loops shuttle passipgthrough the warp.
serve,

^pc, ^p{
^
,

To shih*,

office, affairs, matter, anything.


It is from
a

J kou^ is the radical, the 6th.

sj shih^
9

shows

recorder, to
the chih^,

^ holding a stylus. A record. In ^ the top is ili=:5:


it.

hand

pronoun

An

event

^,

record

* it ;^ faithfully.
*. mi

To ch'uati^,

bore
to

5t with
on

the

teeth

:^-,to
; to

forate; per-

put

clothes,wear

thread,

A.

string. A cave, hsiieb^,


to

hole,

any

a dwelling,i.e.,

37

"!*. ^

by the removal /V pa^ of the earth ; to dig through, here. The 116th radical. (W. 37 A, D.) ya^, The teeth, the grinders or molar teeth, hooks. It is a picture of the grinding
room
or

space

r^

made

face of
holes

molar. The

teeth of rodents

make

which thoy gain access. through

mt^

To chiu*,

go

or

come

to, to
soon,

follow ; to make

the best

of; then,
No.

immediately.
radical under
man

/ti. /C-w-an^ radical


which ic who

43, is the

it is found in the dictionaries. A

puts his weight

on

his

rightleg; to

spring ; lame, crooked, also written ^t. an (W. 61 C.) This classification was etymological error, however, for it comes
from

jC. rk y^y
a

"which

in

the

seal
ears

dog

with

its

__

extension,attracted (W, 134 C.)

to,

writing pictures By pricked up. surprise", strange.

^,

The capital ching^. high,elevated ; ; originally being a contraction of Jg kao^, high,the bottom changed by substituting j for n, adding the idea of elevation, and by reducing TJ to -'^ ; it has nothing to do The with /j" hsiao^. capitalis the place

^yhich the people go ; hence towards. attraction to it something Wt Admiration or


to

^__^

high i^ therefore to go towards, follow, consequently. (W. 75 C.)


Chalfant
finds
an

to

'1^

ancient

form

of
.

the gate tower of a walled picturing with the opening in perspective.

city

38

99

gtft i^ ^"2l^

To i^i^g^j

hear,

to

to listen,

understand,

to

allow.

Jf
.y ^

erA',the
earth

ear

(see No. 71.), is the R., No. 128.


full ; from
a

Good, t'/fl^

man

standing on

the

in his

official

fi-om

tinguishe position(to be disis the phonetic. 3" Jen"),

(W.

81

D.)
Therefore
we

^, ^

te^ Virtue.

have

as t'ing^

the

practised by the ear 1^ ; i.e., hearing,to obe3'. ^, te^,used for the is usually Christian term character, virtue,
virtue ^
written f^, with
the ^

adding

the idea of

going out
heart
;
an

to

others,action.

Its

is of iS chiW,

upright,and

composition j5 hsit^,

upright heart, tal a horizon"g"jg"chih?,is composed of l_ representing and a perpendicular, + ten and @ eye. Before the days of square and plumb-line,
ten
ness

eyes

were

called frame
to
a

on

to test the
a

straightThe

of the

of

house.

L is

often

changed

is often written strokes.

single straightline. It fi as if of two incorrectly

(W. 10, K.)

'"""IJU
h^
'

-db

^
'
*

wisdom. perceive;chih^, dart, is the radical.No. shiK' an arrow, the point above, notch It is a picture, chih^ To

know,

111.

and
that

feathers has
come

below.
to
an

Therefore

an

action
as

3^

end, irrevocable,
the
arrow

an a

ancient form man's


United

shows

fixed in

body.
with
P

(W. 131 A.) mouth, k'oi"',


one

we

have
can

the

knowledge possessedby

who

give

39

his word,

speed of
arrow

with the priecision and opinion, an arrow. Knowledge ^ is an mouth


at

^
go

P.

101

m
.
_

tao
,

To

the

head,

to lead ;
;

road, a
of
a

'"

~^cAo*
,

doctrine path, principle, speech, to speak. is No.

tl^e progress
to

the

-R., the
is the

162nd,

go.

(See

10.)
the

^
m

the head, shoti',

Hj

with

character. 185th
To

H sAoo*,head, pritaitive heir added, being a pictorial is not (" ch'uan^,streams,) {Ill
sS,is to go
It is the

radical.

lead, road,

at the
not

h^ad,

'^.

(W.

160

A.)
walk
move

w^y
but

only

for the feet to

in ^
in.

also for the

thoughts '^
102

to

To k'ati*, is

look, to

see,

to

regard carefully. It

0
,

^ ^

composed of ;" is the radical.No. 109), a ma*',an eye (wliieh picture(compressed and often set upright to save room), (W. 158 A.) and the eye or shading it. the hand, covering shou"',
"

For,"

says

the

Shuo
to
see

Wen,
and

"

one

shades

the eyes the


rays
"

in order
of the

better, cutting oflF

sun,

light
103

from

the eye.

gathering the (W. 48 C.)

na^, Hands'^
a

united

'o-

ho^ ; to take, to sieze ;


when

sign of the
noun.

accusative

placed before
64.

the

^
"^

hand, stiou^, 53.)

is the

radical,No.

(See No.
Form-

unitin Z union, hgnmiony. ho^, joining,

40

ed of

union, being three chP, a triangle, lines united (see No. 18), and P k'ou^,
.^

mouth.

Three

or

many

mouths

mony. togethershows good understanding, har(W. 14 A, B.) ^ requiresthe the hand take with To
,

hand

to

come

in

contact

w^ith -S"the

object.
104

iJM,
to^ edge of a precipice, between fall in and disappear ; a bank the fields,margin, edge, boundary, i.e., place where the thing disappears. (SeeNo. cho*,to go, is the radical,the 162nd. 10.) ing writIn modem yen^ Disappearance, absence. the fnl (doubleco^'er) has been changed of: to ::;"" arbitrarily.It is made up tza*, a picture of the nose ; a starting point, origin, beginning, evolution ; the nose being,according to Chinese embryology, the starting point in the development of the body ; self, I, my behavior, to act ; the nose being the projectingpart and in a

To walk piea^,

on

the

"

e,"

way

the characteristic of the radical


cave,

person

; the

132nd

(W.

159

A.) and

yV

hsueh"
a

storehouse, and

(f^

double

Therefore
one

meaning invisibility. that # jen^ is an object at was


cover

time
on

tzu* in

storeroom

and

Therefore JS is to ffjl. disappeared g, on the disappearing line #" ; the edge. (W. 34 K.)
walk 105 iSiS The head, t'ot^, the end of
a

later

beam

or

street,

41

etc.,the

beginning ;
page,
man. a man

classifierof afifairs,

etc. cattle,

Head, yefe*.
face M
__

pictureof ahead
It is the

or

upon

X.

radical,

(W. 160 C.) A sacrificial S, .S. toit*, was a dish in which, meat dish, served ; beans, (beingused for S ton*) The It is possibly 151st radical. a suggestive skull The phonetic in this character.
__ .

the 181st.

encloses
and
a

the brain

as use

dish its contents,


the

the Thibetans
a

skull bone

for

dish,on

tripodstandard.
a

(W.

165

A.)
M ^
cating indi-

106 A box, hsiang^, hsia^ tzu.) chest.

(Larger than

Tj

chu^,batnboo,

is the

the 118th, radical,

the material.

"TO

to examine, hsiatig^,

to

(See No. 7.) inspect. It may


from the
eye

be
a

MfQ
^

from

aiu*, to
;
or

watch

behind @ open

^
in

zna*, tree
foes
or

to
s6
as

keep
more

the /fcwoods beasts.

to avoid
common

danger

from

The

abstract said

etc.,is meaning of mutual, reciprocity,


to
come

from H

kind of pun,

both

elements,
It

::^and
is

being pronounced alike,rau*.. purelyphonetichere. (W. 158 B.)

BALLEE,

LESSON

V.

Hw

vi'an\Late, evening, sunset, twilight,late life, tardy.

in

ter 72, as the characjih*, sun, is the radical.No. has to do w^ith the declining sun.
a man

^, f^ mien?,

whose

sides

are

swollen

out

42

with

his
to

effort, and
prop

whose

spread out
or

himself

legs are to fight firrnly


it
means

ward

off

some

evil ; therefore In

to

avoid,

without. 106
a man

it is

purely

phonetic. (W.
Chalmers is jfe

A.)

by drawing
to

in to
sun

avoid.

The

According to Mr. self trying to hide himhis clothing ; hence w^ithdrawing M, it

is late Rfe;

""l".t

To advance, forward, ch'ietf,

to'ward, before,

formerly.

/J tao^,

is the

i-adical,18th, arbitrarily fixed


reference to the
-i^

without
upper to

etymology.
of
a

The

part

is

contraction

Jh, cA/A',
of
It

^,t^

chot^'
a

stop, and the M is 137th boat, the

contraction radical.

is

pictOre in the seal writing of a boat with high curved prow, a/ ^eck supported by one of the partitionsin the hull,an oar
in

front

and

rudder

behind.

It

is

straightenedand placed upright to save room. (W. 66 A.) A boat M advancing


m

into the harbor


66

w^here

it will

stop

ih.

(W.
109

D.)
of

jkU
iTv

T'

cheerful ; promptness, spirits, rapid, sharp, quiclc. 'L^ shu*.hsiti^, is the radical, the 61st, meaning
..

A flow k'tt^i*,

heart.
y\^,

See

No.

18.

chiieW
a

To

divide,to partake,a hand


a

holding

cbung^ or objectof any kind, that may be equally divided. (W. 43 O.) Chalmer's explains it as a hand drawing about let the arrow to a bowstring and
^

half of

44

wide separation; It indicating

has

been

confused
in this way 113

with

writing they are


must

because in the modern identical. Loads carried


be

widelyseparated.

^V "^

t'ien\ Heaven, superior


over

the

celestial ; the

sky, a day, the,weather, Emperor, great, high,any inferior ; moral ority. superian

"^

ta*,great, is the radical, but the meaning of


the character it is often

is not

the

one

"

great iz, as
one an

translated, but the


man

sky

"

which

is

over

M
not

',

thus
a

it is

cative indi-

charaeter,

(W.
The chieh^. nodes

60 C and

tion. combinalogical l.C)

jointsof the bamboo, any knot, verse; a feast day; temperance. joint, 71* chtP,is the radical, No, 118, bamboo. (See No. 7.)
or

up, ^

chP

To

eat, that

which

is done

as

soon

as

the

fragrance

of the

cooked

No. rice ^ .(see


a

75) is smelt.

By extension
in

P ^
,

meaning consequence equivalent in wexz common use. (W. indicates order, thieh^,
either 26th P
or

conjunction general, being the


"fc cA/a*
of

li of the
26

M.)
in

IP,

It is written

'". (See No; 42.) It is the radical,meaning joint^ (W. 55 B.)


73 tao"^ clothes

115

^^ ^^-5

:?:

^^'^'^ '^^
to

cut

out

begin making
first.

garments,
to

^ i^ ; i.e., which is the

first step in
at first,

civilization;

beg^n, the

4"

is 71 tao\ knife, No. I'S see


116

the 51.

radical,the
^
The

18tb.

For

3t^

first thing in 71.

clothes :^ is to cut out

(W.

16

making B.)

^
7n

To Aei*,
to. out.

give to, to let, allow, for, instead of, Read chi^, to receive, to afford, to give
120.

ssu^ silk floss, is the radical,No.

-^

.To join, "10*, union, harmony.


To is
a

(SeeNo. 103.)
Silk

ogfet
117

give is to join -""silk threads ^. popular present.


to

1,^
chiao*,To call, to tell, to cbmxnand,
the cries of the birds and termed.
cause

animals

; named,

S\-^

k'ou^,mouth, is the radical. No. 30. tou^, Measure, ten -f-sheng^or pints^.
of the peck picture
scoop measure, ; 68th
measure

It is a
a

said to be
R.

with

handle
out

(W.
i|-.

98

B.)

is to call lEI118

P the

^
I
,

yA\ "I-

"l

pan*, To divide in two ; a half,a largepieceof. in the standard shih^, ten, is the classification dictionary,the 24th radical. It comes from A, to divide, and 4=^ etyniologically an ox. (See No. 50.) To divide A an ox halves as butchers ^ into two splitthe beef dow^n the backbone. (W. 18 D.)
kuo*, To
cho*
to

119 ^la

ara

-jS^. "^|B]

pass

by,
is the

cross

over,

to

pass

time,

to

exceed, sin of ignorance, sign of past time.


go,
a

radical, the

162nd.

The

f^

phonetic. See No. 10. suggestive A wry mouth, hare lip or cleft palate kttei^, It is from P k'ou^,mouth ; and
rest is

46

fO^kua:\ Skull
o
'' a

and

bones,
a

bone, dislocate
defect.
*

strip oflfthe flesh,to skeleton,broken, and so


to to

The

go,

means

action and action is sin

1^ kua'', defective;defective m.
120

(W.

118

A.)
press

cbirf,To bind fast,to


From

portant. tight, urgent, imradical and

"n

the 120th ssa^,mi*, a silk thi-ead,

^^ 5^

chiei^, firm, solid.


servants

To

have
a

hold
servant

^ of one's

g,

S ch'er^;

bending
(W.

before
82

his master,

the 131st

radical.

E.)
of B
or

121

as

A form 7^,

J\^ is rad.

preceded i'o*, could,it is equivalentto can be, by pj" be. It is a very ancient primitive presenting remay
E. already.
the exhalation virtue of any of and

When

breath, the
so use

its use, object,


no

until

exhaustion, tp end, to be already. It is -written


modem ". it
85
122
means

more,

passed,
Avays

in

four

in

times, S B i* JSi. When


use,

written

by, \yith, by

means.

(W.

B, F.)

Q Jg
e

Sun shiningforth,morning. ch^etf, No. 72. jVA*, sun, i" the radical, A day, time, the* 161st cA'e"l^ radical

; 7

to
are

A.M.,
to

the

heavenly bodies.

These

borrowed

meanings ;
a

the

originalmeans
who

be pregnant,

woman

bends

ward for-

^ jeT^ to conceal
"

%
says

mien*

her pregnancy, Wen.

her shame,"
.

the Shuo

^, ^

(W. mien\ A

30
woman

S6f) Purely phonetic here. (See


sitting, is the girdle, at
"

the

47

left is the
that

seat, at

the

right is an

apron

hides the front of the body, the nancy, pregthe Therefore says the Shuo Wen.
to

meaning
123

hide, conceal.

(W.

112

L.)

n/^
H

tso^,Yesterday,time past.

0 jjh*, sun,
I\ [^

is the radical, the 72nd.

14- wariff', A
to ju*,

primitivexneaning to hide, from enter, and L a hiding place.


"r

^, ^

cha*,is I5t plus

which

represents
to

an

obstacle,
;

that is, to seek to hide and therefore the modem

be hindered of suddenly,

H^

meanings hastily, unexpectedly. (W. 10 F.) yesterday has passed suddenly put

of

existence.
124

qcg Z^

The hsien*.

glitter %
; at

of gems,
once,
now.

IS. ; to

appear,

to manifest

3",'3" a gem, j^ii*,


half

No. 96), jade, pL-arlj-, (theradic3.1.


stones.

translucent

The

cliaracter
gether, to-

represents three piecesof jade strung


the dot being added
it from M^ 125
tA to chien*,
to

distinguish
83

wang^i king. (W.


of.

A.)

see; the appearance

(See No. 85.)

1^. O^

Q^

shih-,Time.

Q jih\sun, is the radical,No. 72. "^ ssu^,temple, is the conventional


the modern

phoneticfor
"

writing. "=;2l chih^ is a small plant 4* issuingfrom the ground ; to development,continuity. Standing grow, for the sign of alone it is borrowed now in the the genitive or possessive case inch, rule, classic language. "^- t'stin*, the ^ ssu* or Hence law. temple is the

4S

place

where

the

law
79

stantly -^ is applied con-

:k.

(W.
tune

B.)
of

The

ancient the

writing

meaning
under the

the influence of

", sprouting of plants the sun, or perhaps


of ^

shih^, was

continuity ".= ::^ periods. (W. 79 B.)


126

of

the

solkr

l!
yv

To hott*,

wait, to expect,

to

a inquire,

time

or

period. is the radical, the jerP', written w^as originally


and

9th.

The

character
a

^ meaning

man, noble-

read /zou^.
was some inserted,

'^, ^^,nr

hou^,The uprightstroke
to

say,

diiferentiate the

meaning
is

of

wait, time,
of

etc.

Others say it is the archer's attetidant.


character origina;!

The
arrow

composed
beside
the
was

^
the

(see
man

No.

100),
a man

stickingin

target above
The
to
means

r* with

it ^.

is reduced

to f and

target
the

:i.

Shooting at a target of selecting for oflicials,


have
means an a

the!

good
the the it

shot

mast

uprightheart, so
nobleman. another
as a

character

With \
added

f reduced
means

to

|
59

and

to

wait

target marker

does. *"

(W.

H.)
;

PJi.e^ ming^. bright,


;

the dawn

evident, open

ligent ; intel-

illustrious in virtue.
No. 72. radical,'

tl jiii*, sun,
moon

is the

^ yiiei*,
moon

(see No.
are

43.)

The

sun

and

tlie The

the

two

brightest things.
the character
sun.

qS
'

seal earlj'^

characterhas
of H

Q for
idea

vsrindow

instead

Here

the

49

of

brightnesswas

from

the
42 A

moon

shining

in at the window.
128 "SJUi S

(W.

C.)
man

1^."{III|t'sung^,To
^
ch'ih^ is the

follow, obey.
often
that

walking
s^ to
present re-

after another, and idea.

written

No. radical,

60.

is two

men

j^k.

walking ;f and stopping Jh together, ue:., to follow,obe3^ (W. 27 A.) In the seal
character ^
the ;f and .ih are 10.

vinited into

cho*^, going.

See No.

VOCABULAEY

I OF

BALLBR'S

LESSONS. W
;
a

129 3"|

mL

c^^^ '^"o remember, being composed of


and
to

word,

succession g, self,
tell B" the

; to record

sign ; (See

succession
the

EL of facts. the 149th.

"q

yen-,

words,
No.

is

R.,

10.)
a

in ^."C chP, self, ^i,

i''

on

and the

writing represents threads of the warp, loom, two horizontal, of the woof, perpendicular; hence one meaning of succession ; the 49'th R.
to
mean

the seal

It is borrowed 130
"."

self. {W.

84

A.)

maii',Remiss, rude
eas3',

; to

treat

haughtily ; slow,

sluggish.
the
No. shu* hsin\ is the radical.
are qualities

*^ hsin\
or

called
as

61,

the

those

of the heart
109.
or

mind, the

cf '"fc k'uai*,quick.No.
to

wan-

phonetic,means
with
cap

draw, extend

pullout
hat
or

the hand,

long. (=|mao*
"

is a

l^resentthe

tore(pictureR with a ^ mao*, to rush on head). /")

50
or heedlessly

with

the eyes

covered.

The
room

is written

for the 131

to make horizontally hand, which pulls, (W,


.

34

J.)
,
.

JS.

,7l

ch'ang^.Long. The 168th radical, used m traction matters relating to hair, as it is a conof ^S piao^, bushy hair,the 190th that it seal writing shows radical. The
is hair
so
"

long
and

that

it must

be tied with

band

pinned with a brooch y. It the when also means growth to manhood is read hair is long, and chang', for the meaning growth. It also had the inverted man placed below \^ to indicate change or form is an arbitrai-y growth. The modern
,

contraction.
132

(W.
inn.

113

A.)

m
)-,

A shop, tien*,

an

I yen*

roof, being half single slope shed of "^ mierP, or roof; a declivity or slope ; the radical of this character, the
A

53rd

an

outhouse

or

hut.

(W.

59

I.)

(See No.

24.)
p

cS chan^, To
a

ask

about

some

enterprise by
Y
',

ing heatIt is

tortoise

shell

divination.
we

purely phonetic unless


diviner lived in
and
a a

think of

that

the
or

sort

public inn
was one

shop,
the
same

diviner's house
of

of the

first kinds

shop.
as

(W.

56
or

B.)
where

has

sense

fi^to usurp
for

to occupy,
one

hence

well used
room

in fjjtien^ inn
fi

occu]}ies a
133

consideration.

Face. lieti',

P3, v

jou*,Flesh,meat,

made

up

of -^ pao^, a bundle,

^ ^

is a ching^ of the
but
as

pure

phonemic
^.
"

here.

It rcspreseaatts '^le sttrface

the streams

flawing under
,

S
seen

ground t'7H^Vand
in

ktmg^, is of phonetic force onty, the seal writing. (W. 12 H.)


the
sun,

and

the X

is not

^^^i^^

A^aH\ The

drying effect of to dry, "?lean.


Read
powers

dry,

hausted, ex-

by
f

contract.

Adopftedas a son c//'/efl", theolowd^-sky,


of natwre, fiather.

heaven, the
1

iS

one,

stem, curved, vapor,


A

is the radical,the

5th.

redundancy,
H

however.

^i\, ^

kail* is the

and penetratingthe junglejjp*^ low drying up the vapors -that were 13'iing the ground "S" The lower -part of the ?" on t/^ is suppressedto give lylaceto, the "5 the idea of evaporation, It has vapors. sun rising,etc. With the fogs lifting, adding of ZJ to form ^ ch'ietv,the idea is intensified, of risingvapors and the character means the cloudy' sky, not blue firmament. It is used for kan^, di-y, bj'a license instead of $2 in whi"ih ^ represents tlie drying effect-Tli of the sun (W. 117 D.) ujion dampness.
sun

138

Cip
V

^^

Jc
,

Cold, chill Jeiig''', j\ ice. T" freeze, jP^"i"^'


that form
on

It represents the

crystals
ring refer-

the surface of

water. freezing

It is the 15th
to

radical ice.

of characters

cold and
an

(W.
to

17

A.)
your

g^
'

^"^ling*,A
ice.

law,

order,
seal
or

command,

honored.

The
14 I.

evidence

of cold is

(W.

See No.

5i.)

53

jo*,Hot,
Here

to

warnii

fever.
86. space.

is the huo^,fire, j/l^

No. i:adical,
save

(SeeNo. 47).
to.

written ^"^to
grasp,
to

^,^
^
"ji$i
^

to c/j/A*,

to seize,

hold, to attend

It is

nieh*

composed of :fc (changed man


an

to

")
'"''

who
or

ted commit-

oflFence T

twice

repeatedly,
a

a i.e.,

criminal; (^ Jen*, is
102

second

"nr Iri ;
-ii"
,

offence.) (W.

F.) and

tL chi* to hold, to keep. A pictuVe ^ of a land It is changes! grasping something 1 in composition frequently to A and Jl )L. 11 Hence the meaning of ft (W. E.)
.

chib^,is
grasp

to

sieze %

criminal
102

#,

or

to

anything. (W.
when
you

G.) Jo* %
^
fire ^.

is

the sensation 140 w9B

grasp

shen^, Deep, profound, ardent, intense


tinted.

deep

7K

shui^,is the radical,the


shen^ is the Chinese
cave-like
the hole
yC

85th.
or

(SeeNo. 79.)
stove,
the
or

hearth

small

under

kettle;, (or in
-^^ pokes the

k'ang*)in which
dark

the hand and

fire jy. It looks

deep, therefore lire the meanings deep, profound. The into and hand ^ have been transformed
ic and
the dot
on

the

has "X hs'iteli^

heexy
bined Com-

omitted arbitrarily with with


or

^/ water

by the scribes. it means deep


it
means

bined com-

^ hand,

to

fathom,

probe fil t'an'\


Moist,
wet,

(W.

126

B.)

7JhL

shih\

damp,

low

lyingground,

dejected.

Hi

^V

shuP, water,
No.

is the

radical, the
"
"

85th.

(See
sun

79.)
silk threads

hsien^,Two
a

exposed

to the
so, to

where

thej^ become
appear,

visible ;
of the
'"\

be

visible, to

remar-kable, evident,
character
92

bright.
contracted
The
water

The

bottom

is

In another
"

and

the

E.) 7K appears ^. in a w^et placeWkw^riting ^ the 0 is replacedby -"" by " fti^, giving the meaning (W.
earth

from

W" to

of the
'

"
92

v^rhere

water

7jt ap-

"

pears
.

jgs- (W.

E.)

1^ J"l

kao\ Lofty, high,eminent, noble, high priced,


excellent. The 189th radical.
In it coraiJosition

is variouslj'contracted, overturned

and
It
presents re-

mingled

with
a

other

elements.

a high pavilion "* on lofty foundation H, and w^ith a hall O where the people sit. (W. 75 B.) See No.' 98.

^ff mRV

^ girdle, a zone ^^^*' sash, belt,

with
to

one

as

if worn

at the

along to bring, girdle,


; to

take

take,
a

to

lead, together w^ith.


-~

It represents

belt

with trinkets
robes

it 'U*, and
over

the

hang^g from ^ one fallingbelow


lower

the other.

The

part is made
one

rjl

up

of two

chin

characters rtl is itJ


a

outside
pended sus-

the other. from

Chin^
a

handkerchief

the two ends hanggirdle, ing the 1 also down, meaning suspension. It is radical No. 50, relatingto cloth. (W. 35 A, and W. 24 Q.) rfl chin^ is the

radical of this character.

55

1**

/^ *^ -^'^'
''*'

k'uan^,Large, broad
to
^

to forbear, gentle, slow^

"^

(See No. 1.) "" huan^ A chamois with slender horns, +"" T the hciad, kuai^, (W. ] 03 C.) % represients legs, and tail, (often omitted). % may broad becattse a spaciousenclosure is mean needed for the breeding of these wild animals. (W. 106 D.)
"

enlarge. mieti^, roof, is the radical,No.

40.

145

^,1^
/V

chaP, Narrow,
hsiieh' cave,

contracted,
No. radical.

the

opposite

of

k'uan^; narrow-minded.
is the 116.

(See No.

97.)
"p
To enter a hidingplaceand be hindered i.e. cha*, ing crouching.Therefore w^e have ^ ^ crouchin a J"tcave, down ^ narrow. (W. 37 G, and 10 F.) (See No. 123 for cba'.)
, ,

At

UiL

tsou^. To

walk,
156th

to

travel,to hasten, to depart.


The
man

The above

radical.

seal character

represents a

bending
therefore
is Jt

over

to

walk
bend.

rapidly^,
The
to

and

means

to

part underneath
to bend

chih^,a

foot at rest, or tion maj'


inean

stop ; hence the coinbinathe

to walk. i.e.,

Williams.

legand to stop, (W. 112 A, D.)

WC" "0n
^, ^
-t:
tr-

To put "iitig*,

pasture, to let go, to put ; to set free,disorderl3'. loosen, liberate, is the radical, p'u^to tap, to strike, oversee,
out to

No.

66.

hand
an

with
open

stick.

(W.

43

D.)

"^"-"1 isLi^^i A. square,

space,

the 70th

radi-

y^

cal.

Two

boats

lashed

togetherforminga

56

square. The X indicates that they are cut apart and allowed J:o proceed on their several ways; (W. 117 A.) 148

chian^. To converse together,to preach, to explain. is the radical,the 149th. Wi ye.T^, of the timbers ^ kou* is a graphicrepresentation
in the roof and
framework of
a

Chinese

building ; hence its meaning of a network, bined Comin order, a combination. a setting words with g" it means setting s in order to explain,to converse. if, i.e.,
Compare
of
a

% wood

if,set in order, the truss

roof.
says

(W.

1 04

B.)

Tuan

shih's Shuo
work net-

Wen

this character

represents a

of 149

ditches. irrigating

tso^, To
appear

act,

to

do,
arouse.

to

make
It

; to

arisen to
to

; to

refers to

things, while fit refers more things. is the radical,the 9th. jer^, J!^ man, ^ cha*, Suddenly,to excite. (SeeNo. etjanologyis given for f^.150

doing inaking

123.)

No

chia^.To

to assist,

rescue,

to save

from

wrong.

J^
^, ^

p'n*to tap, is the


147.)

the radical,

66th.

(SeeI"Io.

to ask, is the phonetic. Its meaning of c/i'iu^, is found in the supposed to ask, pray,

custom

skin with

sacrifice and taking the offering in the hand, to present of the offering character reprethe petition. The
of

57 vSents

the hand

s^ holding the tail

or

skiu

f\^. (W.45K.)

p-u*, A

shop. Correctly written


is the radical, the the

If with

cZi/m*for the radical.

15", o" sAe-, tongue,


of

135th.

ture pic-

m,

ffl

the protruding mouth. (W. 102 C.) (See No. 73.) It is, however, really composed of -^ she' (See No. 40), cottage, and # A" as a pure phonetic,it is aptitudeMyung^ (an arrow hitting a target) for founding a family,

tongue

from

manhood,
manhood

and
or

then, the
a

name

assumed

at

given by

friend.

(W.

109

D)
152

Older brother. kci^.


W

i^'oa^ mouth, i'o*,To


to

is the

radical.No.
a

30.

^f

o|

send forth

breathing 7"
Doubled
borrowed stroke
a

of approba~ it
means

tion from

the mouth.
It

sing.
the
way,

is

for

brother. the

When other

lower

"^ is curved

it is

cry,

or

difficultbreathing.
58

See No. 153

258.

(W.

I.)

m.

^^

t?. Younger brother.

^ ktm^,
to

bow, is the radical,(the57th) according

Kang
see

Hsi*s
No, 86

arbitrary classification.
87

But

for the

etymology.
154

(W.

form primitive E.)

and

A hand cbih^,

bird #, ^ holding a single

not

pair as iri% shaang^; hence the meaning by itself,a numerative. of single, one

53

individuals of sliips, animals, birds, single or sets, as things in i^airs arm, eye, shoe,

'^,j^
%

G.) chui'^ short-tailed birds,


etc.

(W.
The

168

is the

radical, No.
it to be
a

%, %
155

piccf. M niad*, tvtre of a bird with a short tail, bird with a long tail. (W. 168 A.) (See No. 41.)
172. seal forms

show

*r
^
],
I

To tei',

strike,to beat
here

doing

in

shou', hand,

called the

general. t^P shot/, is the


the hand
and the

radical,No. 64-.
is that which tino^,a nail (a picture) ^ strikes. Therefore the hand nail

togetherform the verb to strike (the and the objectof the verb). (W. subject it means 57 A.) Read to nail. t/ag*
156

hsi',To
must

wash.

The

radical is 7K shui*,water.
In

(See No.
5feseeNo.
157

79.) 27.)

order
water

to

wash

86 you

first ^

have

7K.

(For hsien^

|JL^
il2i^

wan^^,

To No.

cal. forget. j" hsin^, heart, is the radi61.

CT,(^, ^

vrang^ to enter to ]jerish,


The

A
run

hiding place L
to cease. to

to hide ; to

away,

(W.
that

10

E.)

mind "^.

ceases ijj.

act

gets is, for-

158

tttt

lU^

yen', Eye,

hole.

@ 'mvi\ eve,

is the
a

radical,No.

109.

(See No. 102.)

J^ M, ^

kcff^ firm, is 138th


to

K.

suggestivephonetic It is the meaning also,perverse, obstinate,


S mu*, eye, and K hua'

stop. It is from

so

ch'e*

(the reverse

radical of the

is the 5f). ff As/ng* characters relating to motion,


the middle.

of

phonetic being inserted in


63

(W.

C.)
appanages ; from

kuev, Lands, feudal


doubled. soil,
the "when

"

t't^,
of

By
or

extension

it is used

sceptres

batons

given the nobles


with their 'fief.

thej' were (W. 81 B.)


A
to

invested

162

shvang^
2

pair, a

match

an

equal
172.
one

; to

go

with,
chuP

be matched.

birds,is the radical, No.


154.)
make
a

(See No.
hand

Two

birds

held in
168

pair M.

(W.

G.)

163

Shoes ; also written ^. hsxeh^, or ko^. To skin, to skin an officer, degrade him
from skin

office, leather.
of
a

sheep
between

represents the (contractedfrom ^)


It

stretched hands

two
on

bars ZI with
scrape

two

"5 at work Radical


No.

it to
177.

off the

3^

(W. 105 A.) No. 161.) Leather A"er^ is the phonetic. (See ^ next to the land ^ ktteP, is a proper sign for shoes, ^.
BALLEE,
LESSON VI.

wool.

164

IP, An

acts of worship, which particularly w^ill bring happiness; ceremony, propriety, good manners offeringsrequired by ;

act,

usage.

"J\ shih*,is the

radical, No.

113,
a

written

^ in

composition. It means or unlucky)

revelation
heaven.

picious (ausThe

from

61
-

two

horizontal

lines

are

the old fonn and

of Jt

shang-*, high, superior ;


sun,
moon

the /]"" sents repreor

and

stars,

heaven
to
"fg-.S
men.

which

reveal transcendent

signs in things

Ji* A

From a. tou* sacrificing. (see No. 105), a vessel,and LI l"!an\ a above it,ornamented with two receptacle ft feti^, symbol of plenty. (W. sprays 97 B.)

vessel used

in

Revelation
teach 165
_^

^ is needed
to

in abundance

to

how

worship IB..
; to

sha}.To

mow

grass

kill. cut, shear, slaj-,


a

J3C shv^ the righthand

making (W.
22

jerky motion,

to

is the radical, No. stick,kill, a strike,


^

79.

(See Nq. 71.)


^a},
to

D.)

^^ ^
^

shear

off the

heads

X tI^^

^^ Shears,

the representing

grain,to cuttingblades.

of

kill.

sAn", Millet, the

^V

glutinous kind with loose drooping heads.,the' seal character being of it. (Also another writing is ^ picture hand separating three grains, hence a parate.) glutinous millet, requiring effort to seOne dot is omitted in the modern

writing ^. So we have for sha^ ^, to cut oiFX tl^e heads of the millet #, and for of the the whole ^ sAa*, the addition of striking, radical gives the strong motion the idea of to kill. (W. intensifying 39 B and 45 J.)
166

^^ ^^
l

ch"ng\ Upright, correct, exact,


dox,
etc.

proper,

ortho-

fi2

jjUchih\

(See Nos. 10 and 12.) To stop Jh at the appointed limit without going astray is correct !". (W. 112 A, and I.)
77.
"

is the

No, radical,

167

:^ i^ ^hF" ""

ch'un^.Spring,pleasant, wanton,
is the radical.No. y jV/z*, has been 72. The

lewd.
seal

writing

strangely modified by modems. It represents the budding and growth "" ot" plants P} under the influence of the Sun fj (W. 47 P.)
.

168

-j^ ^ :^^, ^

variegated, large. The first great dynasty. ^V chib^'* to follow,is the radical, No. 34. ^ yeh* A man, head. A man ^ who walks ^ with his hands folded hanging down
,

hsia*, Summer,

O
the

as

farmers
grow

do

in

summer

when
In

croiDs

by
M

themselves. is contracted.

the

modem 160

character

(W.

D.)
harvest.

*w%" Ani

cA'/aS Autumn,
No. 115.

^, ^
!K., A

is the radical, bo^, grain (growing) (a picture), is the Aao*, fire (picture)
autumn

86th

radical.
season

fore Therethe

is the fs*:

when

is grain ^ standing in the fields, whitened and ripe (W. 121 "K, i.e.,

burned
C.)

""^.^
y

tung^,The
store

last
up.

or

winter

season

; the

end

to

see ping, ice (picture,

No.

138)

is the radical,

No. 15.

yC,,^ chung^ End,

fixed.

(To

be

from distinguished

63

radicals 34 ^ and
66

chiH\
the end

35

X
a a

sm\
skeiu

36

hsi\

ji.p'u^.) It is
at

of thread

fastened The

by

spindleor tie.
is the
sun

frozen

v'

end

4C of the year
An

winter
H

season,

^.
it

older form had of the the action


sun

meaning
sun

the cessation

of

#
171

the

or

might
F.)

mean

fined. con-

(W.

17

the end chi^. Tender, the youngest of brothers, of


a

series of months

or

season

; the four

seasons.

"T* tzt^, son,

is the radical, No. from M the

39.
most

^^

ho" is contracted

chih*, the
children of

cate deli-

Ji among

the "?, i.e.,


a

last; then
and 172 To /a*, the
season

the

last month itself^.

season,

(W.

94

A.)

dry meat, (see

the

12th

stice. month; winter sol-

^ ^
,

jou*, meat
130.

No.

133) is

the

No. radical,

Heh*

Hairy, bristly, disorderly. It is a hairj' "" head ", hsiz^ and M shu''rat, contracted into ^. It has the legs, head whiskers and tail of a rodent. (W. 40 B, C.)

^^

'S, 3^
^

J^h\ Night. hsi* evening (seeNo. 14)


The

is the that

No. radical. it means

36.

seal form

shows :^ at

what

evening ^, that is, his side ^ aiftd on to lie down sleep ; then The modern form is by extension, night;j" A a man a quaint invention of the scribes, at evening i^. (W. 60 I.) under a cover ju
is done

by

man

64

174 ^A
"^

far,

To

cai-ry

on

pole,to

elevate.
64.

^
_":"

shou'\ hand, is the radical.No. t'aP, A mouth


P

exhaling a breath X". This is for the form J an arbitrary contraction which is a high place i^ "with the topmost point changed to i and M chih* (underneath in place of P), birds alighting there. (W. 75 B.) (See No. 88) ; to elevate.
-^

175

k'ai^,To
menr,

open,

to

begin ;
door

to boil.

two-leaved
Two hands

is the

radical, No. 169.


radical. The hands

-44-

^un^^

folded,the 55th
two

character
away

represents
bar
"

H- taking

the

firom

the

door, that

is,

it. ojiening

cf. Fi shuan^, bolt.

(W.

115

C.)

176

J3^,'^ ^

shad'. Few

shao*, young.
radical. No.
is
42. To

^'^hsJao^, small, is the


p'ieh^A
/

left

stroke, to diminish.
which

diminish /h ; few^,

that

already

small

less.
177

(W.

18

M.)

A bell, a chung^,

clock.
R. No. 167.

chin\ metal, is the

(See

No.

13.)

unmarried, a "un^, A boy under 15 and slave boy, a originally spinster. It w-as like 2^ c/j'/eAS slave girl. It is from ^ a A grave Asin*,crime, and fi chujug^, grave. crime committed by pa,rents caused the to children to be, reduced slavery. The
slaves
w^ere so

forced

to

remain

vmmarried,

and

the

meaning

spinster, bachelor,

virgin,and then concubine and catamite, used as such. A slave might for thej-w^ere be beaten just as a bell. (W. 120 K.)

65 ^^"^

fit

A black spot, t/en',


as light,
a

point, to punctuate, tO' lamp; to count or check off, ap


a

hour of time.

^. ^

the 203rd. ^^'^'' l^l^ck, soot, is the radical,


soot

The

JH which

the

fires jfe leave

around
The

the vent

where the smoke \35?


contraction
of ^

escapes.

j^ is

yen*. (W. 40 D.)


|",to

1^ chan\

To

ask

diviner

divine.

It is

purely phonetic. (See No, 132.)


excite, to begin. tung*,To move, of A picture Strength,muscle. "fi jS ]i*,
its sheath.

muscle

in

It is the radical of the character,

No. 19.

(VV. 53 A).

chang\ Heavy.
When

(See

force -fj is
move

22). (W. 120 K.) exerted on heavy things


No.

W., thev
180

Wl.

k^o\ To

cut, to

carve

a a

quarter of
knife.

an

hour.

7J, ij tao\
"^ 5K
181

the

Rad.,

No.

18,

hai*

9 an horary character, purely phonetic, It is a pictureof a pig, 11 P.M. ^ sbih' 69 K.) with a tail added. /vV. minute. a Fen*, Ten',To divide, distinguish, duty, share.
"

73
rt

tao\ knife,is the radical, the 18th,

pa^,To
A

divide. knife TJ that


divides make

to divide. iJ?" to mani-

182
'

^^
*^

The p/ao*.
fest ;
a

outside,

to

known,

watch, indicator.
the 145th.

:^
^

clothes, is the R., i^,


mao-,

originally Skins, furs, hair. Clothes were skins with the hair outside, therefore this
character
means

thie the outside of clothes,

66

manifestation
to

of the

person,

tiierefore,
the dressed
of

manifest

^.
16

AAratcli manifests The


emperor

time. his

(W.

K.)
in ^

huntsmen
to

diflerent kinds

skin

indicate

their ftinctions in the

chase. 183

1^
P^

chien\
a

space,

interval, division of
169.

house.
sun

meii', door, is the R., No.

falhas the

shiningthrough the opening, therefore See No. 5 interval. the meaning, space,
and
184

12.

^,^
^ :5^,

to^,Many, much,
hsi*

too

much, reduplication.

evening,is the K., the 36th. Because easy to write it was repeated for the meaning like the, Perhaps it meatis many, many. another follow one without evenings-that ceasing. (W. 64 A, E.)
I,
we.

185

j]^
yV

tsan''

To'

tsan

when,

sometimes

written

n".
; "

is the radical /en'', written

k'oir* is the radical when

Bjl.
an

^'

tsan^. I, w^e, is
for
a

arbitrary modern
or

tion abbreviaing mean-

^ which
to

is jfctsaii^ doubled,

brooch

meaning
186

hairpinand S yiiehadded, murmur, 5^ (W. 26 D.)

hou*, After, behind, to ijostpone ; posterity.

:^ ch'ih*
"{/yao'
A

step, to march,
fine thiead. march

is the R., the 60th.


8 and

(See No.
The

24.)
fine thread follow is

To

;f while

a stretching

ii out

behind.

^^ chih^. to

g^ g

is ch?, self,

the

R., the 49th,

The

original

writing of this character S S is nowin four forms B /" B JSl. It is a found .symbol, to represent the Tfery ancient exhalations of the breath, the virtue that its action, its use, springsfrom an object, then, use until exhaustion, to end, to pass cf. ^ {" -g"(W. 85 B.) away.
192
lAr

JJPr
/

tso*,

raised

seat,

throne,

numerative

of

houses. mountains, cities,

shelter, shed, is the R., the 53rd. covering, j'e/j' tso*, To sit down, to rest, to place; to reigjn. Aj^"tjA each other, It is two -*^ seated, facing men the ground db. {See No. 66.) on radical /**indicates largerthings, The or in a house, so a. seat M. men sitting (W. 27 D.)

^H^

A city, a city wall. cb'eiiff',

J2
iJfe
'

is the R., the 32nd. t'u', from


a

fJt cVeng^, is made


a

nail,a boj-and
^
Ao* is the
to

battle

axe

jf^ \vu* in which


a axe

radical.

When

boy

is

big enough
up
or

wield
The

a a

battle
man,

he is grown

pleted, com-

i.e.
means,

ch'eng^tiag^, jg; -f.


completed,
earth
to

character
to

come, be-

finish.

When

dh is built
iS.to

it has attained wall M citj' its liighest usefulness. (W. 71 M.)


into
a

^^

dt-|

territory ; to appoint to office a fief; to seal up, to blockade, to. over stamp, an envelope. ""}* ts'un\ inch,is the R., the 4rlst. (SeeNo. 69.) ^B^\
A

fief, a

69

is" according to "^ kueP^,


land
of
a

the

seal character, the the rule

"

and

crops

\J/ under

"+

landlord, that is a fief. Such


He

is the

Chinese explanation. Wieger considers it


erroneous.

thinks

it
to

tree

}^ on

mound

i
or

in the eenter

indicate the feudatory

-.fadded
195

imperialpossessionof the land, indicates rule. (W. 79 E.)


believe in ;
a

Jt^
IPS*

ivS

7|S

to hsin*, Faith, sincerity,

letter^

w
yV

arsenic.

j^^y

is the

radical.

man

A standing beside
-

his word

e", that
are a a

is, faithful. Some


man

cient ana

forms heart
from

and

mouth

; also

and

word

; that

is words

coming

the heart,; sincere.


BALLEE,
LESSON

(W.

25 H.)

'Vll.

-^* ^l\
' ~*
*

tsai*,Repeated, a
n

second

time, also.

Ip

is the radical according to the chiung^ a limit, dictionaries,the 13tli. But etymologicallyit is a brium liang^' weighing instrument or scale in equiliand erA*, n two, added to indicate second a twice, w^eighingor repetition, etc. (W. 35 J.)

sui^, Year, liarvest,age


that

the planet Jupiter,


an

indicated
or

whether

attack

was

to

be made

not. R.

1^1 chih*, stop,


a

is the

of the

the dictionaries,

77th, but the combination


step,
a

M is from

# pu*^
"-

and planet,
a

/^ J^^

hsii^ which
The

is

spear

jX vru* arid its wound

"

lower

part of the

pu*

^P is enclosed in

7Q

the

J^ hsu\
of

at

the

bottom.
was a

period period used bj^


great
year to the twelve

twelve the

years

Jttpiter's cj'clical
called
a

Chinese
It [was and

and later

:^ ]^.
months

used

adapted commonljstop
with
and the

forayear.
"^

ffi" A step. pit^,


the
same

It

(W. 71 P.) is composed of Jh


underneath

to

reversed

A step ^, is oppositemeaning, to start. the starting ^, and stopping Jh of the feet in walking. (W. 112. F.)
198

To count, s/ju* a number. shti'',

4i

p'u^to tap, to govern, referring perhaps


check

is the radical, the 66th,


to

the

habit

of

men

to

fingeras thej^count. and so approjDriate lou^ Troublesome, frequent, in the character off. It meaning to count of i)C nu\ women is composed ^ chung^ enclosed in ^rwu*- the -women's and prison, has the meaning, idle,useless,troublesome, so repetitious, frequent. (W. 67 N.) to govern J^ these originally H^ shu* meant women :^. prisoners
199

off w'ith the

teTig\ To

compare,

an
,

order, series,class
118th,
see

such, like ; to wait.

Y^

chu\ bamboo,
and cf.^

is the ti* No.


the

R., the
86.

No.

^
200

ssu\ Temple,

place w^here applied jt ik classed. (See No. 125.)

the rule -sfis stantly conand

jjeople a,re

at

TO

ts'u\ Coarse, rough, vulgar.

is the R., the 119th. m?, rice,

(See No. 4^)

tsu^

(archaic for chieh^) is


stool
n

picture of

chi^ and

with

the
It
was

legs

brace rungs=to the standing on groun"]


two
"

boirrowed

for

the

and,
No. 228
on

moreover.

ffl

as

junction, important contSee (W. 20D,) character showing

contrast.

201

m.^

/js/\Fine, small
yfi s'su,
or

; soft ;

carefully.

mi'^a

strong thread, is the K., the 120th.

(See No. 8.) field, was trj t'ien-, originallywritten ji]As/n' or skull open above, meaning the fontanelles of a child,tender ; so appropriate for,fine, tender M, like the silky^ hair around the
fontanelles
202

^.

Bn

^^ ^
m

sheng^,Wise, holy, sacred. (W.81 H.) er/2^ ear, is the R., the 128th, a picture* (W.
146

A.)

j",

To speak p k'ou^, while standing in ch'eng', A at ones place of office "" t'ing^(a man the his place on ground i.)r therefore to ones lay before ch'eng^ means g to notify. superior,

^
who

shcng^jen\
them

or

wise
P

men,

are

those
become 22.

listen 1^ to the

information and
^
see
so

of those

under wise.

in office 3"
81

(W

H.)
create.
to

For

No.

TEL

^"
"^

tsao*, fo build,to
cho*
or

tsou' chih*,
From

arrive at, is the R., the

meaning, to arrive at, the meaning to accomplish, to build x" is derived and the ^ Jcao* is purely phonetic
162nd. this
.

72

"^ "^

^^^*' To impeach,to indict


the mouth his horns.
P

thatis^ to do with
ox

what

the

does
to

with tell.

(W.

132

By extension it means B.)


to

Jig

huan^, Also, yet, stillmore,

give back.
^

^
^
M-

^ho*
huatr

to go

is the R., the 162nd.


eye

The

g, horizontal, and
that

yiiaii^,
walk,
a

trailingrobes,

hinder

ones

gait and hesitating

timid look.

^, ^
^

yiiarr is made
ch'uarP To
an ox

up

of ^
to

attach,

long robe and of trail, being a picture


P
a a

trace 205

yoked up and attached by to a ring. (W. 91 E. H.)

single

".#
^

dear. Jcvei*, Honorable, costly, pel*,cowries, preciousthings, is the R., the 154th. with
money It is

feelers down

of picture out. They


a

the cowrie
were

shells for

used then used.

to 300

B.C. and
them
were

brass

of representations IGl

(W.

A.)
a

-^,^

k'ui* a basket, is
A

picture. (W.
full of

Ill

A, B.)
is
a

basket

cowries

high

dear. price, 206

JL4.

3ct

hsin^, A

surname

of

clan. and

ni?, woman,
born.
to

is the R., the 38th


Woman

shen^,
dates
were so

bom,
when
"

"

possiblythis
mens'

the

time
but

mothers
"

known
woman

not

their fathers the


name

and the

the
or

gave

to

clan

family. (See No, 15.)

jl^^^

huahg^.Yellow,
formed of

the color

of loess.

201st

R.,

73

jg

t'iea\field, 102nd rowed of furradical, (a picture and of an old form of kuaiig' fields) it light, A carrying a torch iJi)(a man 31 huan^ is the yellow lightit from the fields HI. (W. 171 A and 149 A and No. 696)
pur,

208

a, 6

White

; in

vain.

Radical

No. 106.
sun

The

seal

character

represents the
horizon

just
so

the appearing above the white light at dawn. No. 209

and

(W.

88

A.) (Sec

6.)
very.

^.%

Jaa^, Venerable, old,


man

125th

radical.

whose

hair

mao^

changes tj
and the

hua* to white. A
210
are

modern

(See No. 20.) The ^ contracted arbitrarilyby scribes. (W. 30 D, E.)


owner.

",^

cbvP,Lord, master,
a

It

is

of picture

above it. So lamp and the flame rising who a spreads light, by extension a man other men lord. The prince rises above and is seen by all as the flame rises above "'"he lamp and shines out to all. (W. 4 B. and 83 D.)

chu^
211

dot

is the R., the 3rd.

M,(^9t pi*,
SK

mean. Rags, unworthj'-,

";^' J^ p'u^to
The

tap is the R., the 66th.


shreds whole
of cloth.

pi Broken

sepat-ated pieceof cloth rj[| ^^ riddled /\ withiioles by the action or of tapping J^. (W. 35 F.)
is a
212

f-fY B3

nan^, Male

of the human

species ;

son.

fieir,the land,

is the R., the 102nd.

74

~h

5j ii\Muscle,
The
man

a pictureq^ strength,

muscle

and

its sheath.

The

19th

radical.
one

J| is %he

who
.

exerts

his

strengthij
213

in the,:field |H

(W.

53

C.)

^
^

To chi^,

ai'range,

to

narrate,

disposition.

ssu\ silk is the R., the 120th, see No. 8. is a picture of the pi chP, self,the 49th .radical,
threads of
a

weft above
below
;
so

and

of

one

thread
and

in the shuttle

sorting out
xl thrills

threads ari'anging

; boVrowed sort

for self.

^
214

chi*, as

whole

is to

^.

(W.

84

A.)

kgp.";^^"
^""p3^,77t f^\
^

To

shoot

an

arrow,

to

send

forth,any
It

expansion or
is two

manifestation.
to back.

^
,

"

po* Separation ; trampling ; back


jt chih^ characters It is the K., the 105th.

back

to

back.

^ kun^,
to

bow, is the 57th

radical and

the ^ shu^,

kill,was
so arrow

formerly
^ from
112

w^ritten
meant to

^ ^

shih"

arrow,

the character

separate
i.e. to

the yife

the

bow

shoot.
215

(W.

H.)

m
ffi

A piece, i'u.i', lump. is the -|t^'"^ earth, R., the 32nd

see

No.

13.

^
'

iaer, devil,spiritof
rad.
The
man

dead

man,

the

194th

fv*

head, the fy represents the spirits


and the the

^L is
where

/" is

tail

or

the

swirl

demon

vanishes.
40
a

Purely
the the

phonetic here.
A -person

(W.

becomes

C.) spiritfg after


and

body

has

in death stiffened

when

76

the

bottom

is combined of the

with The

the lower

stroke
the

chi!^ g.
is that
a

logic of
rectitude

combination

moral

iitchihF acquiredby

change ^ haa* and


is true,

raising% wu* of the moral nature genuineM chenK (W. 10 L.)


219

YS

-1^

fin^, The

top,
hat.

very

; the

button

on

darin's man-

^
J
,

yeh*^, man,
see

the head, is the radical, the 181st,


105.
;

No.

"P

t/u^, A nail, (picture).It


But the button
on a

is of

force. phoiiietic hat called of


a

mandarin's

^$Sl ting^ tat*,looks


Chinese nail and
or as

like the head


it
were

though

nailed

into the hat


220

head.

-^

Jp[,iP^

}^

to betray,to vaunt. sell, the l54th is the radical, cowrie, precious, pel*,
to
as

mai*,

in %

map,

see

No. 38. forth.

The springingof plants, ZtT'^fU,^^ to put cA'u*,

map,

to

buy.

Therefore

is the K tnaP, to sell,

oppositeof H in that it consists in putting out {ij goods, and netting or obtaining % peP. (W. 78 E Rq the cowrie money and 161 D.)

'"^.^

family,a profession or class. r* mienF a roof, or house, is the rad., the 40th. 31 shih^ Pigs,the 152nd, radical.
*

chia^, Home,

The it is

seal character
a

of 100

B.C. shows

that

pictureof a pig, the upper line for the head, the left side showing the belly and legs, the rightside the back and tail.

77

It is

suggested that when placed under a '^ roof,it means ^ family because pigs and dogs lived in the house with the family. (W. 69 A.) But earlier forms of various ^ show objectsunder the roof
t^.

One
a

of

the

earliest is three
a

people
and

under

roof, for
a

man,

woman

child make
222

home.

Chalfant

XIX.

In disorder, ts'o*, wrong,


a

mistaken

; to

polish;

"

stone, a file. polishing the 167th. c"/fl\ metal, is the radical, (SeeNo. 13.) ^*'^^O^*^'ancient,fomierlj'. Dried meats. It is forjnedof dt contracted from the seal form ii representingstrips of meat hung and to So the H jih*sun. ing meandry up is old, dried meat as compared with fresh meat. (W. 17 J.) Old ^metal ^, makes most a scrapped, disorderly place.

223

An

"|^

hen', \ er3'.

ch'jh*

step, is the radical, the

60th.

In the

writing J^ the radical is ^ or it the 94th radical, ch^uan', dog (classical)


other

j^ is

the

form

used in combinations.
of @

^^ g

Aen'' is composed
turn
or

rau* eye and {j hua*, to change ; so ^ keti^ is to turn or

fiance; looking in anger, destubborn, hard. (W. 26 B "L.) of phonetic force onlj' in \^ hett'. It seems In the second wi'iting one a, might say dog's a defiance,or obstinacy in holding g, change the'ej'-e
"

on

is

verv

Wk extreme.

78 224

1^
A^'

^3

'^

p'P, Skin, leather, bark, wrapping, the case around goods or the tare ; the 107th R. it to be a priiiiitive The seal form shows the skin } meaning to skin, representing a hand (W. 43 H.) ^ and a knife D
.

225

/-|5 f^
,

yung*. To
form

hit the centre, to use,

with, by.
the
same

It

is the 101st
as

radical.

It is from

to hit chuti^ which also meant i showing the part of the target and an that did not go through. By the arrow extension the capacity of the archer, the

t^

"

the effect,
226

use,

the

means.

(W.

109

B.)

-gg- ^

ken^, To change, keng*,much. the to speak, i^ the radical, yiieh,


is

73rd.

This

It is by convention in the dictionaries. of the following,according reallyformed


to

the Sbuo^

Wen":
A

l^,/51l bright. ping\ Fire,calaiiiity,


with
flames

fire in

house

above rising interfere with

the roof.
the hand

p'u* To tap, to
a

holding
sent reprefire R.

stick.

Therefoie
fire on
on

kmg^y change, may the hearth. Fixingthe


were

tljehearth, the coais


is

covered 41

by

ashes;the change
227 ^

great. (W.

A.)

fljffl
^ -^

animal sheiP, Spirits,

spirits, gods.
R., the 113th, used in

shih*, to

reveal, is the

characters
is formed and /J^ =

things. It denoting spiritual of H crh Jb shang* heaven


"

the

sun,

moon

and

stars,

or

signsin

the heavens
to things

which
men.

reveal

cendental trans-

79

Hi sh"n\
a

To

extend,
and

to

stretch,to explain. The


two

seal

wiitingshows
so

rope

the idea

by the explainedas a man standing and with both hands t^ The tbrni girdinghis body | with a sash. of writing feji. easier way tj3is simply an (VV.50 C.) The combination #is probably the have idea of but god may ijhonetic
.

the rope scribes and was


Later

stretching of stretching, expansion. was straightened

hands

some

connection

with

an

increased

or

^, ^

^spiritual revelation ^. Chalfant, however, finds earlyforms representing forked lighting. He thinks, probably the sign for rightly,that these became dread of lightdeity from superstitious ning ^g tien*. It gradually took the form added to ^ and tt: was distinguishthe and rain, was meaning of God jjiji, ^ ,v"f' added the meaning lightning to show ^. VII and XXVI.) (Plates
extended
,

^'#.PI
M ^,^

k'eh\ To

be

to flexible,, pliant,willing,
^s

assent.

Jo"*"
In

^^^^

^^^^

opposed

to

the

skeleton

^yo"*,is the R., the

130th.

No.l33.) (;See

A'ua\ early writings of ^ /e'en"the i^t at the top of the character. skeleton, was
As this ku^ forms the

character

for

bone

by jh
The

the upper part fi was replaced and thus the etymology is lost.

pliableas compared to the bones ^ (changed to ") and hence to self, the derived meanings to yield ones be compliant, to assent. (W. 65 A, C.)
flesh is soft and

In "
two

t'su^,we

have

another

example

of

objects of opposite characteristics joined to represent the adjectiveapplying


to
one

of them and
a

i.e.IH. t'su^ coarse

is :^ fine heav\'
two

grains

large object, a
JL.

ranged
929
10:$

stool

(No. 200.)
chia* leave
of absence.

iBJC

chia^, False,
is the J^ jeti'-,
^' ^

to

borrow,
borrow.
Zl

radical, the 9th.


to

False, 03 ga chia:',
shows
or a

The

seal

writing
skin,

two

skins j", that skin


"

is,double
ones

borrowed

over

ti-ue

skin,

false. disguise, (W. 43 ,1.) The

hsia^,
sheds another. 230 ^gjw

uses
one

this
skin

sheep'sclothing." for shrimp Jg, character suggestive phonetic. It gradually while growing
Wolf

in

'^J
Q
A
^
-Sk

hui*, To

meet,

to

collect, a

procession, a
(See

society, able.

yiieh^to speak, is
No.

the

radical,the 73rd.

9.)
collect,(see
To No.

ch?

To

18.)
more.

tseng^
chr

add,
the

still

The when the

words
meet

H A

that ]:)eoplc yiieh^, say


at

they
smoke
in

fire under

hole IS

in greeting or ch'uang^, and more. fiddingmore

A
The

parting,i.e.
A

pa' at
D

the

top is modified
A

in

the

combination

with
and W.

chP

to

form

hui*.

(W.

14

40

D.)
; to

231

4^

'IJr

shih^,To

cause

order, to send,

messenger. officer

A. i^n"' is tlie rad.,

the

9th, with

|^ li* an

81

kN^^

shih^ A
96 ;

hand
a

grasping a stylus,see
j^ who
shib^ and
were

No.

historian, scholar.
of the scholars
set
over

5^

Those ii*,
"

(= Jh) the administration.


of
man

The

meanings uniting of A
232

come

from

the

J^ the

officialof government.

(W.

43

superior M.)

'^ ^

ch'iang^, Strong, firm, determined,good ; read to rob. chUian^,to fonse, kun^, a bow, is the radical,the 57th, a picture. As the character was " ch'iaagf^ originally
-

written
over

^, it meant
fields and

bow

^ that shoots S

two

their boundaries

that is, a strong bow, and bycbiatig^, extension, good, firm, determined. Being Itard to write the M chiang\was replaced by ^, an insect that bends like a bow and it falls on its springs into the air when back. the head of Xv changed to p was the insect.

^, ^

in the seal writingrepresents insect, an ch'ving^ cobra, called huf^^. a snake, probably the
now

written used for

Jg.

It

is the

142nd

radical

and
meant

which |"i ch'titig^, with

anciently
means

but now legs, the smaller animals, as frogs, snails,insects. (W, 110 B.)

animals

worms,

233 A tub, bowl, p'en*,

basin.

jj^mia^, a
Zk

dish, is the R., the 108th,


the

/e"\ to divide, is
/iiSHusband,
man,

picture. phonetic. (SeeNo. 181.)


a

231

^M

workman, is the R., the

man) ta*,great, (incomposition,, "J^i^

37th.

It has

stroke

added
the

in ^

fn^, to

represent the when,


grown the

pin 'in
to

hair
at

used

only
of

manhood took
as

the age

twenty,
an

boy
name

cap,
as

and

received
a

honorable

well

used

pin. hair-

(W. 60J.)
235

"^

pin^,

cake, pastry.
food
;

to eat, shiif,

ssu*^to feed,to r^ar, is the


of
characters
to relating

R., the
food.

184th,
^^^^

(SeeKo. 75.)
represents
two
men

3fp, XT P"'^'

marching side by side, or on a level ff cb^ien\ therefore ^ the meaning even, together,harmony. ch^ien} is two poised scales, or shields side by 5f*J* level. Pin^ is phonetic,but side, even,
^^^

cooked

grains % united A combination.' logical (W.


236 -jfi^

form 115

cakes

ff

B.)

J^

ho^, A
m/n*, J1J[
^Afc

box

or

dish, with
the

cover.

dish, is
A

R., the 108th.


unite. P ; join,
a

bo^, Shut
the

the mouth So

103.)

^ ho^ is
and

covered

(SeeNo. dish," join-""

dish M

its

cover.

'

J^
^ ^

hat",A child. ^
hai* is pure twelve
9 to to be stems
P.M.

tzu^,is
10th

the

R.

(See No. 1.)


12th of the i.e. horary cycle
It is said tail

phonetic
;

It

is the

of the

11
a

The

10th the

month.

(W.
238
__ _

69

pictureof K.)

pig

with

added.

A plate, tray. p'an^,

dish is the R., the 108th. HHfl',

paT^y

To

make

boat

move

along by

chien' To

destroj',narrow,
A small

small.
is
a

(See No.
cup

13),
^.
243

^
a

dish M

shallow

Thus

it is

phonetic. suggestive

r"

is the'R.,the 86th. A lamp, huo^, fire, ifi ttng^, (See No. 169.) To ascend, to elevate. (SeeNo. 214 and ten^*, for to phonetic 240.) This is a suggestive elevate ^ fire ^/c is a good designation for a lamp M:.

244

juzf

WB

mao\
B[

hat,

or

head

covering, to
R., the 50th.

rush

on,

"PI
M

rash.
a napkin, \\lchiti^,

is the

G|

mao*,
is

a a

It hat, is the originalwriting for l|lg.

mao^

(to

cover

thing" somefj chiung^

the head within. ) and "indicating writers The modem change 3 to [^ and be distingaished H so that it cannot from reference to the seal 0 yueh without
character.

M, mi

"^'^*" ^o rush
g covered
character.

on,

to heedless,
,

act

with

the eye

is

natural

^ M #f ".
liESSON

meianingfor (W. 34 J.)


IX.

the

BA-LLiEE, 249

"^

An account, a bill. chang-*, pei*,cowrie, precious,is the R., the 154th. (SeeNo. 38.) is a phonetic and also chan^, to grow, senior, the 168th R. (See No. 131.) A long or growing ^ list of predojis things M is a gg cbang*. The character invention to take the place of is a modern

85

the radical M. beipg il^,


to

more

appropriate

the

meaning than

Ift.

246

'JJCi

chao^.To seek, to find,to pay a balance. hand is the R., the 64th. ^ sbott't -^ Ao*, A spear or halbiprd. (See No. 2 f^, from
which
the character
must

be

guished.) distin-

The

in seeking

mind
must

Tay
have

the

inventors
a

of

this character
an

been

search for
It is in the

enemy, often used

with
now

spear

:^ in hand ^.

for

seekinga

man

of spirit 24f

revenge.

^
M* AV

To saaii*,

to plan. reckon, calculate,

chu^y bamboo,

is the radical, No. which

118, because
of bamboo

the abacus, upon


are

mathematical

culations cal-

made
a

is made

p^ -H*_

a primitive, picture of the suan* p'aif. abacus, which is called ^S katjg^ The hands held up side by side as in presenting anything to another person. hands Here it is the two f^ working on is made of bamboo "^ the abacus g which and so ^ means to cipher. (W. 47 G.) tion iV kaug^ is the 55th radical. In combina-

often, @

is

it is modified

in several ways

as

^ in

tsan^

/\

"

ping^ ; :*:in :g^chii*and

248

|g^

/W^

chieh*,To
9th.

borrow,

to lend.

Jen"

is the R.,

^
249 ^^

hsP

Old, purelyphonetichere, (SeeNo.


^

222.) (See

rung". Brass.
No.

chin" is the R., No. 167.

13.)

86

With; together,like. ^ t'ttH^,


ma"'
a cover

Phonetic.
the
n

It is

H
a

fitted to

mouth

of

vase,

thus
etc.

meaning agreement, union, (W. 34 I.)

gether to-

250

J^. ^)

An animal's horn, a projecting chiao^, corner,

pod
and

;a

dime,

a a

quarter.
be
a

It is the
a

148th

radical.

It is

pictureof

striated horn
of

is also said to

combination

strong yj /? and flesh 1^joii*. (W. 142


251

B.)

-lA

huan*, To change about


to

with
R.

exchange.
To be
on

The

the hand, i-emove, is 4* i'^'^ shou',the

64th.

^;,^

huatf

the watch

for,to examine.
w^hich ^ ch^iung^, of
a cave

It

is from and
a man a

two

hands

f\ (contracted to
of

-jz)
is
'/Z

contraction

standing at the door hsiieh^,peeringout g, with a


A
hand Thus

stick in his
or

4^==:^,that is,to watch,

examine.

]passingan object from hand p to band ^ while examining it ^ to avoid deception in the exchange. It is
means now^ a

written radical 37

with

another

hand

added
man.

as

i%, the hand

of the other

(W.

F.)
mend
; to

-^H
^ :^

to pu^, To reimir,

patch, to substitute.

i\ clothes,is the R., the 145th.


fu" To

(SeeNo. 51.)

ffi.S

honorific an begin, great, just now, It is capacity|g for founding and name. governinga family,manhood, the age at which an honorary name was given to a Phonetic combination. (W" 109 D.) man.

a?

Y^ ""^

y^i^g^,The ocean, foreign, European, vast. y ,7K sAh?, water, is the radical, the 85th. "^^^ ya.vg^,A sheep, a goat. It is a pictureof
-,

j^

ram

seen

from

above

with

and horns, legs

tail.

The
to

tail is often left off in combinations make 103


room.

tion. Phonetic combina-

(W.
254

A.)
82nd

%%
Ig* fedd
:3^r?, JAi

mad", Hair, fur, plumage, (Picture). The


radical.

(W.

100

A.)
abanka

255

p'iao*, A signal, a ticket, a warrant,


note.

,.

1^1
"***

For

mnemonic

take

"

bankbill This is

is a'^Wegtem

revelation ^

".

untnie

however.

is the R., the 113. shih\,a revelation, (SeeNo. however the ^ is a 164.) Etymologically

modification Chalfant })l,

of the seal PI. X

writing
a

of ik.fir^,

shows
in
a

beautiful

gin ori-

of the character

fire ^

with smoke
four

rising from
hands

it and
"

manipulated by
an

|==1. This

was

ancient method

of

signalling.The
is

explained as below ik.kveP hud'',


head
"

writing of 100 A.D. ignisfatuus " being an


seal is the fire %, and Efij
on

top^
No.

the

and

hands

the line in the

middle
16.

is the 50

waist.

Compare

(W.

0.)

256

rP,

/n

market. a place, is the R., the 50th (See chin^,a handkerchief, fjl No. 143), a mistake etymologically. The that it is a broad seal shows place n with chiung^outside the town, overgrown

sA/A*, Market

88

jt
257
ij^

people go to get 7 what (W. 34 D.) they want. is the 13th R. a limit, an P3 chiung^, space open "jrchp, To reach to, to get. (W. 19 D.)
grass

ik. chih^,where

ti*,Base, foundation, low,

to

settle ; bottom.

J^ yetf
^^ ^^
t?,

shed, hut, is the R., the 53rd.


rest

(SeeNo.

132.)
The

of the character

is

of R
that and A

shih*,(See No.
branches sends
a on

8), a
to

development floating plant


water

the surfe.ce of the

root

down
to

the

bottom^

line is added of the water.

below
So

tom represent the bot-

meaning to sink, the bottom. (W. 114 A.B.) tlie JK t? with the ^ yen^ radical means foundation, base, of a house etc. JB".
the

hao*,
a

To

cry

out,

an

order,
name.

signal ; a mark,

label ; honorary

y^,(^ bu^

"2r

is the R., the 141st. This is a pictiger, ture the stripes the tiger's on representing skin. (W. 135 A.) cb'iao^ Difficult breathing,sobbing. It represents the breath i fightingagainst an obstacle rT No. 152. ) The Shuo Wen (cf. KWi^^".mn-^^b^M~mm. says. bao* is the mouth P sendingforth cries interrupted by sobs T- (W. 58 A, B.) -i'.Pffi'?
" .

"

"^, f^ ^"*"

is /g hu^ with feet like a man's tiger, Ji added below. This character enters jen^, into sevferal compounds meaning cries,
^

clamor.
mean

Thus

both

sides of the

"| bao^

outcry..

89

259

^rtt
^^

tin^. An ingot of silver. ^ c/iin\metal, is the R., the 167th. (SeeNo. 13.) To ting*. fix, td settle,certain,quiet. It is (S| order jE chen^ (See No. 12) in the house mien^ (see No. 1) i.e.peace, quiet. (W. "^ 112 1.) An ingot of silver ^ is therefore certain ^ lump of metal ^. a fixed or

260

AA"

fcB?

"'a*, Rule, law, model ; means. J^,7K sbaP, water, is the R., the 85th. (SeeNo. 7".) To go, to remove. (See No. 67.) -^ cA'tf*,
The
far fetched mnemonic
"

has
a

been

gested sug-

the

law,

or

model

fi fa'^is
w^^ater

intended :?fC, by fa^


to

to raise the moral

as level,

removing ^ vices." the aijcient character Historically


was

for ?i
A

written
iE

which

means

chp

adapt

that cheng* rightly,

is law,

rule. 261

IJK
fv^

or mst. Weights for money goods, wharf. shil^, stone, is the R., the 112th. (See No. 42.)

/na', horse, is the phonetic. The


shows
mane,

seal

writing
the R.

the

head

turned tail.

backwards,
187th

legs and (W. 137 A.)


value is the of
a

It is the

262
__ _

chisL,The

thing,the price.
as

^
^

^yy jexByman
^

R., the 9th.

chis^,kt^

from a distinguished merchant ^ sban^; from %,pei* travelling P5 hsia*. preciousthingsunder a canopy Pi.shopman, A
cover,
a

(^ As/a* ffll,

canopy.

The

146th

R., often
41

confused with

ffi hsi" West.

(W.

C.)

90

263

J=^
"^^
""

,S^
'

Head, principal, origin. It is made up yiiarr. of zl, or _t, and )[ijen^ That which man. is uijon Jc.man ^L is the R., )l, the head.
the 10th.

261

^L
*"**

pao^, A

gem,

valuable. coin, precious,

miet^, house, is the R., the 40th..


^^^
Earthenware of
130 C.) have 3E
a

"05" ^^

vessels in

(See No. 1.) general,the picture


121st R.

covered

vessel ; the

(W.

^C pad', is to
house.

vu*, ^

gems

or

jade,^-^/ba*in the
t'^'

earthenware

and
w^ere

pel*money
the

These

ancient

valuables.

(W.
265

130

D.)
chin^ is the R., the 167th

yin\

Silver. ^
No.

(See

13.)

,^
266

ien* anger,

hard, firm, is the phonetic. (See No. 223.) Silver M is hard S metal ^.

fp
ipa
"
'

t/ao*. To

suspend,
written
bow
a

string

of

1000

cash.

1^
^C

."'oa^ mouth, is the R., the 30th.


When

^ it means^
is the

to

condole, and

^
man

Aufl^
A
to

with

It is a R., the 57th. bow^ over his shoulder, coming

helpkeep the
the

birds and
w^as

beasts away
rot.

from Hence

the corpse

which

exposed to
condole.
do
The
not

meaning

of

to

The

Mongols
aw^ay
to

but still expose, the beasts and birds.


comes

keep
the

meaning

suspend
was

from
over

the fact that the

bow 28 267

slung

shoulder.

(W-

H.)
aid ;
a an duplicate,

glj

fu*. To

alternate, a pair.

92
tei- was

invented

to

represent
of
a

tion connec:

between
are

members branches

text

above

two

crossed

to

represent the

"=" a precedingmembers ; in the middle tza*, from, represents the point already arrived at, the starting point for what follows ; and the "1 at the read"r's right is of the discourse. (W. 159 the continuation A,B.)
271

ho^, To

drink ; to shout.
is the
or

k'ot^, mouth,
ho^ A

R., the 30th.

who speaks, beggar fisJ^Aai* to ask the w^ay or beg ; to ask, g yiieh^, ? why ? ? where how (W. 73 A.) ^.'^ kai*.To beg, a beggar. A wanderer ^ who The ^ seeks to enter lih A. ja* a refuge L" it covers formerly stood at the side, now the Ki. (W. 10 G.) cf. No. 145 ^ cha*.

stranger

272 ,At

-j^ xS\

=^

ko*, Each,. every,


kou^ mouth,
a

all,various

apart.

the is the radical, person

30th. It represents
for calling
'

and following
to go

help,
ko* ig.
means
on

ones

way

without

heeding the calls n or advice of others following,V, therefore,apart, separate, each. (W, 31 B.)

^w, ^"
_^_
^

a^*"To love, delightin. ^6 hsin^ is


61st. It is formed go

the

R., the

of ^

ai* to love and


is

^ suP^ to
c/ji* The

slowly.
part of the
character

"^.xi
*

upper

strangely contracted

from

56

chi*, to

93

breathe
comes

in,

to

swallow.

The

meaning
both

from

reversing
out, to
of ^ and be
as lacking,

^, ^

to breathe ch'ien*,
are a

made

up

the ^ being Jljen^,


are

reverse

of

^ ch'ien*. Both
^

synonyms

of % with ai*. To

ch'i*breath. if^it forms

is the 71st R.

Joined

swallow into radical

down

in one's
to

heart jfi. ; to is added

take The form


as

one's

heart,
suP
to

love,kindness.
to

walk

the

at*, primitively meaning the same radical ^ but now used exclusively

in the

Move
274

meaning to love. It suggests that is an outgoing virtue; (W. 99 E, F.)


exert
ones

pan*.

To

strength;

to manage,

to

arrange.

fj

^,W

is the R., the 19th, (SeeNo. 212.) li*, strength, hsiti^. Bitter,punishment, criminal, the 160th R. It is made
to

up

of ^

kati^ (see No.


V

110.)

offend, with two and repeated offence,


;

dots

-^=_t

a indicating perior shang* a su-

that
a

is crime

an

superior ;
bitterness.

against a brings punishment,

offence

lf#

Two pieti*,

cusing facingand mutually action. another ; passionaterecriminaone (W. 102 H.) the ^ li*strength of the officialis When the two ing accusparties interposedbetween

criminals

each

other in court

we

have

ment, manage;
or

to manage,

to arrange,
a

|^

each all

criminal in such
his

recrimination

exerts

strength :fy.

94 ^^^

"^

ifJi jL,^

^^^'
90

"'" " stand

stage in

journey, 60

to

F.
is the

to stand /^'*' It is
a

R., the 117th.

pictureof a man ground". (W. 60 H.)


(5 chan^,
to

(SeeNo. 216). A standing on the


is the [" ,

consult

O to

the diviner

netic, pho-

chan*

seize,invade.

(See No.

132.)
276 "^'

k'ao\

To
on

be

dose

to;

to

mutually
^
That i.e. to to, and For

oppose,

lean

; to trust.

It is from

kao*

to

inform tell,
of and be No.
so

and

# feP'not.

is to inform
oppose,

non-agreement,
to

be

opposite
to

then

to
see

next

to,

rely
two
so

on.

"^

203.

^,fln^^^' ^

primitive with
other and

sides

to opposite

each

the abstract

notion

ot

hot. opposition, negation, wrong, gives j^ its meaning of oppositionand

It

the

idea

of

nearness

is related to that of position, opidea that the of opposition (note


It

is in 170

also).

is the

175th

R.

(W.

A.)
of time, now,

277
TH

present, just now. mi*, is the R., the 120th, commonly called ssij, ts'aP, Adverb
Ian* chiad' ssu^.

ch'arf rodents,
It

is the
is

gnawing of two pictures


or

animals, crafty.
rodents
; the
one

lS ^

above

ch'ao*

an

animal

-likethe hare the


one

but

larger, (a useless character) ;


is
It is

below

iS

A t'li*, fi| "^

hare.

with ting,

of picture tail perked up.


a

theihare

squat-

(W.

106

C.)

96 278

p|3
-^^

and emphatic .particle, twitnP, Interrogative sound. tering

j^ 7^

i'ou", mouth, is the R., the 30th. tic nP, To stop; a nun; ni* near, familiar. Phoneforce

only.
of two|
men

It is formed

in contact, 44th R. and

one one

seated P

sbib^, the

reversed, fc pP.
Jra"
a

(W.

26

F.)

kind. ^ road, ;'a lESl ^H*" way JH S tsu*"The foot, pictureof


a

foot at

rest, the

rest as opposed to indicating It is the R. motion ; enough, full, pure. the 157th. (W. 112 B) cT. jh chilP sec No. 10. Motion is expressed by ". ko\ Each. (See No. 272.) The way % /u^ is that through which each one # Ao* goes JS. tsu^ (W, 31 B.)

circle above

Jhi,""

IC

Light,bright ; honor, naked, smooth ; J^nan^', of a distinguished the presence person. "b" The fires^. twenty Ancientlyit was form is a man JL bearing alofb a modern fire or torch i'C.A- " the R. (W. 24 J.)
ts'aPf Vegetables,herbs, greens, food, viands.

^"
-"/-

is the R., the 140th. ^s'ao^, dnli firuits or To pick flowers /r\'^ ts'ai*. ; ; variegatied
to

gather objects. The upper part is ^ form of flCV cAaoS *the contracted modern or reaching down, the righthand prone Normally at the top of the paws, claws. of its meaning and because character a a tree ;fc meaning to pick here it is above

96

fruit from
a

tree at

jjc. It is often written


side ^. With
grass

with

hand

the

radical it means

the small

?|g. vegetables,
4 verb
liary auxi-

(W.
282

49

B.)

ch'P, To

to begin; after rise,

an

denoting the beginningand


of the action.

ance continu-

^
""
283

tsou', to walk, is the R., the 156th.

(SeeNo.
"'

146.)

is the phonetic. (See No. 191.) chP, self,

yang*,

pattern, kind, model, manner. rau*, wood, is the R., the 75th, as
A
are

patterns
character

often made the


same

of wood.

The and

has

meaning

pronunciation

without

the R.

3R.^

yang*, A risingor

unceasing flow of water (same as ^ yun^ w^ith i^yang^ added as mod^, pattern, phonetic); uniformity,,
tediousness. is

^. 'iiC y^^^j

unceasing flow

of w^ater

in

veins in

^
284

perpetuity. It is a of 7jc shuP, adding foam variation and ripples. (W. 125 D.) yatig",Sheep, (seeNo. 253). (W, 103 A.)
Fish, j'u^,
the 195th
to R., relating
names

thfe eai-th, duration,

" JW^'

and

parts of fish. It is a picture of head, body, fins,scales and, tail. The four dots
below stand
not

only
%

for fire 3^ but

also

for tail,and

feet in %

niao^ bird, ^ wei^ monkey.

ma*

horse, ^, kao^ lamb


142

(W.

A.)

'97 ^^

'0^

JHan^ Steamed
y.

"S

dumplings. sA//J^food, to eat, to feed, is the R., the 184th. (See No. 75). (W. 26 M.) * wa" Long. @|| resemljles closely hooded heads (See No. 130) (W. 33 J.)
or

bread

286

lang^,To
comb.

grasp,

to

collect ; to

push out,

4^,^

shott\

hand
A

is the R., the 64th.

lan^, f^,^|,^\

the 212th dragon, imperial, glorious, from R., contracted a picture of the

animal'.

The

modern

form

has

on

the

^y^

right a contraction of jH /eiSto fly or the of a crane W. 11 A.) wings (picture flying and on the left at the bottoin is ^ ^ joa*
"
=

meat

or a

body,

and

above
of ^

it ^jr li*, said

to be
as

contraction
This

phonetic.

slave boy, t'utig^, is probably an artificial


'

of a conventional tion modificainterpretation of the picture. (W. 140 A.) JH is a hand :^ on or a dragon f|, able to grasp wings, tail and all. gather together legs,

Phonetic. 287
_"

isung', To
sura

collect and
to
a

tie up

in

bundle
manage

; to

up

unite ; to

comprise,to
it makes
a

;
sertion. as-

before

negative

strong

mi*, called MW^


the 120th.

^^^ cbiad' ssu\ is the radical,


restless. ; excited,
or

J"".^ts'ung^To
ones

feelalarm mind

When

j6 is excited

restless,one
windows
of

looks

anxiously through
makes
a

the

j^
pro-

ch'uang^,and

forecast

98

bable 40
288

outcome

now

written

W.

(W.

D.)

Phonetic

combination.
jT yen^,

^t^

r/|"

su\ To

tell, accuse.
To
to

words, is the R.,


abbreviation of

the 149th.

ch'ih* J^,J^,f^

attack;
attack
a

a man

modern

J^
5M

jfri*,in liis house r


scold.
Wen
to

yetf ; to
.

to expel,

"^

1* is said

by
so

the

Shuo

be =f-kan^, an

offence doubled,
and
as

though
No.

in

having ^ jen',See

the idea of

completely, repeated offence 139. (W. 102 D.)


not

vJp su* is to 289

attack
.1

J^ with
nail.

words

3".

^J

iy-t

A nail ; ting tmg chin^, metal, is the


,

"

to

R., the

167tii,

material "No.

of which

the nail is

beingthe made. (sSee


57

13.)
nail with

~r, ^
4""

ting\

large head, (W.

A.)

t'u",To

go

on

foot ; foot soldier ;


;
a

disciple, aponl\-,

]5rcntice ; coinpanion
futile ; to banish.

low

fellow ;

ch'ih^ to
is the

walk, called H
R. in the

shuang

1^

}^jea-,
; but

originally it

the dictionaries, was ^ cho*, the

60th

character
was

being written
moved
To go
over

^.
under the

Later

the jh chilf

the ". t'w* (SeeNo.

10.)

on

of $^. 291

ground ", (W. 112E.)


the trunk
; the ;
ones

is the etymology

^t'

shen\

The
;

body,

self;personal
life; the 158th

pregnant
seal form

whole

R., used in characters


The

is

to the body. relating human figurewith

m
VOCABULARY
TI

OP

BALLEE'S

LESSONS.

^SL

yenP,Salt.

"

/u" Radical rude.

No.

197.

Rock

salt ; salt

land ;

L,

and ^ij' Composed of iS=Bff West four grains of salt,as rock salt comes from the West. (See No. 26). To watch, prison. The\S is a suggestive chien^, phonetic (W. 82 F.) as the Chou Dynasty (1122 to 255 B.C.) appointed- officers to
"

have

control

of salt and

salt lands.
and

The ing reclin-

chier} is E cWcri
man

(seeNo. 120)
ineans

^, which
and

to recline

or

bend-

over,

"SL hsiieh, a jfJL

vessel of blood.

One

lows explanation of this phoneticis as fol:


"

an

ancient

times the

an

oath

was

taken draw

by having
blood
a

contractingparties
it flow
Wlien the radical for

and

an

official watch

togetherin
salt that have 295
^

vessel.

fe,nd is added
salt is w^atched
been

the
over

idea

is conveyed
those who

by

appointed to this work.

Pig. chal,
ch'iian^ Radical
This
up

.^ f\^^

No. modem

94,

dog.
and is made

is

character radical and is here


a

of the above

ch^, (See

No.

270) which

simple phonetic.

"^m ^,^

.^

ch'iiaif Radical

No. 94

;J,:^,a dtig.
No. the

Jp) chu*, or AoaS sentence, (See


.

gestive phonetic, as
his barli. This is
a

80) is a sugdog guards by


character.

modern

101

;^L "^

^ua*,

To

suspend; anxious; classifierof bridles.


64
; hand.

f ^
.

+r
'

shou\ Radical No. Wf^kua*. The # is a

combination

of

kuep,

sceptre, (Sec No. 161) and

|"pt^, (SeeNo.

and it means to divine ; or a diagram. 14-) agram (W. 56- E.) ^ is said to represent an hexand

thus it has

no

connection

with

the
two

jade sceptre, but as the writing of the it is classed under scepare identical, tre
^. If
we

suppose

that the charts


were as a

or

diagrams of
then
we

the

diviners
this

may

regard

hung up suggestive

phonetic.
298

itB

"^
P

ch'an^. To sing.
Radical k'ou",
The ch'ang^, The
upper

No.

30, mouth.
73

phonetic; splendid; (W,


part
sends is the
sun

A).

and the lower


The
as

is to speak, emanation.
the
sun

idea is that the mouth

forth
"

rays

puts forth words, f^ A


more

refined

suggestivejshonetic. quality of voice than


a

ordinary conversation.
299

a^

tsang". Dirty. Radical No. 188, /fu', tsang*, to bury, is


^

^^.

a a

bone.

(See No. 292). tic. suggestive phoneloathsome

What
a

could be

more

than

fill

lished body after mortification is well estaband the bones appearing? It is composed of -"* ts'ao^ grass, (See No. 40) is composed of and JE sztiP, to die, which ^' ^^^' calamity and A jeif,man ; the

calamitv

which

comes

to

all

men

"

302

death.
of
man

(W.
as

26

H.)

The

present writhi^
is unfortunate phonetic

in this part of the it has


but

slightresemblance
of HBji
reed

to

X-

Beneath The

is :flcontraction a
were

grass. mat

dead
"

tied up

in

$!?. The

is the rope.
; to
a

300 B" To c/^'^^

ride horseback

sit astride.

Radical No. 187, raa,'^

horse.

"^ -^

cA'i^ The

phonetic; (See No. strange. This phoneticis also


character for chair.
;

(SeeNo. 261). 54) wonderiul,


used

in the for sits


on
a

chair ^ is used

sittingon
on

in

riding a
as

horse,
for

one

the

horse

he

would

sit

and chaii-,

in the

character is

riding 1^
horse

radical 7|c,wood, radical.


that have
as

replaced by the
not
a

There
a

are

few

cllaracters
that
are

of similarity the above

action

formed

by

change of

radical.
301

^^

eh'mn^. Poor, thoroughly


Radical */^ hsiieh*, Caves
are

exhausted.

No. used

116,

cave.

(SeeNo. 97).
are

those bj"-

who

reditced

to the last

^ Jg; H

kung', The bod3' forward


to

extremity. phonetic, (W.


and

9a

t)

; to

bend

the

cause

the vertebrae
was

stand

ptit. The with

character

formerly

written

/ti*on
has
been

the

tight, but
a

bow ^ kung'^, a

substituted for
bad
bination com-

JiP the back

bone.

This

is not

to stand

for poor.

^i^

RH

Empty, k'ung^,

leisure ; the firmament.


No.

9i

hsueh-*.Radical

116,

a.cave

(See No. 97).

103

nr. /vun^V, The


This
used

phoneticis
may
caves

labor, (SeeNo. 89).


have been
a

character for

made

b}'man;

originality placemade

empty
303

by

labor.

(W.

82

A.)

Thread. hsien*^.

7j^mi\

Radical

No.

120

but common^

called lan*^

chiao^ ssu^ ; silk.


The

(See No. 8).


chiet^ small,
is made
narrow.

phonetic is ^
13).
of silk.
; firm

(See No.
strands
304

Thread

of mintite

^M
^

ssu', To

die ; death
No.

; closed.

tai^. Radical
death
;

78,

bones

fallen

apart

bad,

perverse.

Ij jerr,Man
This

inverted.
is
an

old

character

which
and
we

came

into

existence
were

before

radicals
hence when

phonetics
say
no

adopted,
radical
but is

that

the

"^F taP there


we a

is

pancy, discre-

when

say

that

the
as

tic phone\
has

is X
no

it is /eB'*

misnomer

phoneticvalue.
Death
to
man

(W.

299).
comes

JE is the

) (SeeNo. calamity ij that


26
H
.

^
a

305

chet},A needle,

pin, a probe.
167., gold, metal.

it

chm\

Radical

No.

(See No.

13).

cher^, is the
but

correct

writing

of this character,
is very

if- cheri^ is shortei' and

often

used.
The hsiet^, ^. j"|
to

phoneticof
wound

the with

correct

writing is
mouth.

bite, to

the
a

hsu" is to wound"

with

weapon

jrJc ; with

104

the

addition of p A'ou' to the above, the


means

character
71

to

wound

bj'biting. (W.
up
as as

P.)

The

needle takes of cloth is no

it were,

littlemouthftiUs
way

along.
way
;

There

biting its etymology for the


character.

if

short
306
_ _

of

writing this
;

xnan\ Full

complete
No.

pride;

Manchu

7K ^

shuP, Radical
man^
The

85,
The

water.

people. (SeeNo. 79).


M
are

is M equality, equilibrium, phonetic, 35. M.)


the water scale pans
even

(W.
when
the

even

is

with

the brim

of

vessel, then it is full. (See No. 35). The part of this phonetic is, b\upper

supposed to the two as equality,


some,

be

horns,
are

to

indicate
to be

hornS
it is

apt

similar. beam
pans

By

others

supposed to

be

which
are

indicates when
"

the two' scale

level.

367 "tt

Chicken. cAi'S

'^

chui

Radical
No.

1^2, a
a

short

tailed bird.

(Sec

21). long tailed,bird.


a

niao",Radical 196,
The

phonetic is H hsP, to spinning in.


top
is fllchao^, hand is ^ character

woman

demned con-

official
; the

prisons.
of

The

center

the

silk, contracted,and
adult. Some

the lower

an part is iz ta*,.

think thatit
f^

was

not

ic ta*

but originally the 4*


was

/h the

lower

part

of ^, and

5
^

changed to ic ta\ M The hand working at a were spinning, spinster. These women
condemned
to

this work, and consequently


from
their

got

no

benefit

labor.

The

103

great Ijulk of the


goes

eggs

that

chickens lay
the

to their owners,

appropriateness of this phonetic. (W. 92, C.)

thus

308 Iron. Vieti',


yK

chm\ Radical 167, gold or


The it'c/j'

!^" ^^

phonetic; to
comes

This

from

(SeeNo. 13). to pick. scrape, to speak P _" ch'eng^,


metal.

"while

standing at

one's

post z"

with

the

addition in
a

of i^ ko^ it. is read tieb*, to notify menacing manner ; with the addition
now or one

of :fc ta* man,


means

reduced

to
or

-+-shih^ it
stab.
or

to

scrape

pick
can

The stab

metal
best

with
is

which

scrape

of iron,hence the appropriateness the phonetic. (W. 81. H).


a

'Bnu,

^R
Mi

cVin^, near,

relative ; self.
see

Radical 14"7 ; to chien*, now chen^,The phonetic, Hazel


shrubs
grow

perceive.
to

reduced
in

" ; hazel.
characone same

clumps, this
persons

,ter is used
sees

for those
"

which
the

constantly: those family, relatives. (W. 102

in

H.).

IPl B^^
"*-"

kuan^,

An

official, public.
40,
a

mietf Radical
This is conform
an

roof.

(See No. 1).


w^hich does not

old

character

governingphonetics.The is ^ tui^, races, terlower part of the character ramparts, city. The f^* hall of the dence referred to the resig city. It originally of the officialwho governed a city. it stands for the officer. (W. 86. C*). Now
to rules

The

top stroke

is left oflffrom the ||.

106

311

^g

To tai*,

wear,

as

hat
a

or

J^ ko^,Radical
This and is

62,
an

spear.

to bear. spectacles, (See No. 2).

old

character
are

and

the

radical

phonetic
do
a

"^

foundation
to

of the

separable. The character is ^ ts^aP,


not
a

damage

with of

spear.

The

shiti^
or

is

contraction

^ "saP, property

matei'ials ; ^ the
,

(W.

71.

H.), to plunder with


47.

use

of weapons.

i\ To

different. (W. disagree,


fietf is
a

R.).

The

modification

of ^

/u*, devil's
money

head, but here used for the


w^hich is placed on
a

earnest

table 7C wu*, hands*,


as

pushing the money it is not acceptable.The character away, After a placeis plunW. is explained thus. dered divide the the marauders spoils of men, the accoi-dingto the number articles are placed in order, one by one the several piles on ing ; thus the idea of plachead is. the on, as the hat is placed on conveyed.
f^
are

represented

312 To feng^,
sew

a crack, ieng*,

seam.

^ ^

mi\

Radical

120, silk.

(See No. 8).


to

The phonetic, means 1^feng^,

pickones way (to wood, walk slowly) ^ through ^ "n^, brushto meet. (W. 97. A.). The i_ cho^ the idea is a i-edundancy, ^ suiVconve3's as to this silk is added of walking. When phonetic the idea is that this silk thread, threads its way through the cloth as a man picks his way through brushwood.

108

317

"v"

.^

31 la
I.M

/"S Father.
This
The character

is

the

88th

radical

holding a wields rod, the hand which authority. The modern writing failed in bringing out this idea (W. 43 G.)
is' a

seal character

hand

318
"..

chia*,Frame,
Radical "Ju*, yfC
"hn

staging,a rads,
75, wood.
; to add
to.

to

support.
M
muscle is

Phonetic chja*,

To- add

:fj to

violence. persuasion fcl,

Muscle command.

^ iJ J'*,O

k'ou'^,indicates
wood

(W.
this
frame 319

53.

D.). When

is added this is

to
a

phonetic it
on

indicates
can

that be

w^hich articles

added.
of

Hang*, A

classifier of

wheels, the

carriag^Sj a. pair important part of a cart.


"

cAV, Radical 159, a cart, a barrow:. The phonetic, "jSa two, (See No. 35.). liatig^,
This
two

is

an

appropriate phonetic as
of
a

the

wheels

cart

should

be

pair,
is

equal in
cart

size.

With

the

addition

of the

radical

the

numerative

of carts

completed.
320
A donkey. lu', md', Radical 187,

ahorse.

lu^ The

phonetic; a might have been


is small from
means
a

(See No. 261). This phonetic hound. selected as a donkey


very

and

not

different in size also phonetic


It

large hound.
a

This
pan.

vessel

or vase.

is from
now

;"

hu^ and

ft tzv^

This is it has

made

but like EB t'/enSa field,

nothing in

109
common

with

it.

ELaiitf,added (W.
135.

later,
and

is

redundancy. (W. 150 A).


a

D.)

32^

ctien^,To ride,to Radical 4, a p'ieh},


This into is
a

mount,

to drive.

stroke to the left. which


does
not

character
and

divide

torial phonetic. It is a picchariot in of a war representation the seal writing (^'. ch'uaif 31. E.) 4b=^ baifek to back. The sitting" represents men chariot has an A the men. awning over good symbol for ridingor mounting.
chair.
a

radical

322

cbiad*,A sedan, cAV, Radical


the 75. i,ch'iao^. Phonetic

159,
;

cart,

barrow.
a

something high,as
bends
forwards. of
a man

tree,

top

of which
It is

^W.

B.).
^

composed
Yao^

X. y^"^y^^^

kao^.

his head

(W. 61 bridge,i^
may

bending forward getting ready to jump. B.). ^ ch'iad' is the phoneticin


and
as a a

5c is

sedan

chair

when

carried looks
be the

like
reason

moving bridge,this for using this phonetic

in sedan

chair.

BALLEE,

LESSON

XI.

l\U iij,

pP,

To

compare.

This character
Two
men

is radical No. 81.


if comparing

standing togetheras heights. (W, 27. 1.).


reach to, to
come

324

^^,1^

chP, To

up

to.

110

yu*, Radical
The

29, the righthand.


of this character is A which
When that
a

part

is not the
hand

the

radical

ie^-,
the
19.

man.

radical is added

it indicates

has caught
hold of him.
has
no

up

with

man

aiid has

laid

(W.

ter D.). This characwith

connection

Ji naP, but.

iR,ff^

;"-,

Like^as.
a woman.

]5f nu*, Radical 38,


(W.
woman

r| k'ou^,mouth, is the
.

phonetic. (See No. 10.). like a 67. D). To speak p Jc'ot^, that is, appropriately to the -ic,

circumstances.
326

n^ "
P

tsuP, A

bird's bill, the mouth.

Fou", Radical
tsuP
The

30, the mouth,

^ J^ t S'
327 iCa

phonetic is ^ tsuP, egret


142
P

of 3. heron. the

(W.

radical

this n horn, with B.). jtfc inouth. A'oa" is a bill, or blister.


water.

To soak, p'ao*,

^,7K ^ (^

sAaP, Radica,l 85,

pao', The phonetic; to wrap up ; primitive meaning : ^gestation.With Water added this we to have, water wrapped up, a
"

blister 328
^^
"

(W

54.

B.).
to

paP, To place,to put,


,

spread

out.

"1

shou'\ Radical

64, the hand.


an

f^ pa*, Phonetic,
wang^, an
law
; to

officer ; ^ officer taken

nen^,
in the

acble and

^
of

the net

of the

discharge. With

addition

hand, which
character

usually indicates that the is used as a verb, the idea of

Ill

placingarticles in order securing the dismissal


must

is of

conveyed, for in
an

officer

one

set forth the evidence

; here the hand

is

articles in setting figSee No.


357.

their proper

position".

For
329
_"^

^ ^

to exceed. yiieh*, Radical 156, to walk. tsou^, The yiieh* phonetic; a lance :^ ko^ with hook ". (W. 71. L.). jS yiieh is

a a

halberd

with

an

additional
is

hook

thus

something
addition character
330

extra

itiferred. With I'adical it forms

the

of the

above

the

for exceed.

fn,^
D

Ao*,Harmony k'ou^,Radical
ho^. Phonetic
one

; with.

30, the mouth.


;

grain and

mouth the

are

to

the

other, hence

adapted meaning of

harmony.
331

Sin, crime. tsai*,


pit

|j^wang%

Radical

122,
not

net.

Phonetic, ife?,

right.

With

the addition

of

that transgression p5qwanj^ the idea is convej'-ed # /ei\ is caught in the net of the law
was

and

it is called sin.

ter This charac102.

formerly w^ritten ^ tsui*, (W.


A

H.).
the

malicious

scribe

substituted

the and

character

M. huang^ for this character

forthwith Emperor Ch'in-sliih-huang changed the writing of tsui* by Imperial decree former
to

its present form

and

tabooed

the

writins:-

112 332

jh^
*

pei\

To

increase,fold,times.
to rebel.

Originalmean-

ing was jen\ /\,^,y\


Radical

9,

man.

-^

t'on'

speaker short by him in his speech, (W. 133. interrrupting The older writing is "f pu^ above A).
to

Phonetic,

cut

mouth k'ou'',

and

little stroke

on*' top

chu^, which
of

is said to. represent The

expression

contempt. character "fi^ seems

present meaning of the


to

have

been

given

it

without et3'mological reason.


333 "agg

cho', or chao-, Kight, to just hit,after


the

verb

sign of
is

the

success

of the action.

Radical yatig^,
This
a

123, sheep.
modern
character and The it

is

written which

in several .ways.
can

phonetic

best be

is explained
to

che^,This SA'mbol.was
clauses of
a

invented which

represent the
nected, beingcon-

sentence

w^ere

the
on

tzu* is the central


are

part and
w^hich

either side hold

branches

or

arms

take

of the
159

clauses

and bring them

together. (W.
331

B.)

an Like, resembling, hsiatig*,

image

of

man,

Radical 9, yS^,-^ jen', Phonetic, elephant. ^ hsiang*,


man.

This

is

tive, primitop is

the animal. representing the

On

trunk, then
tail make

are

the tusks; the body


up

and legs,

acter. the rest of the charex-

(W.

69.

L.). It is difficult to

113

plain why this symbol taken for an image.


335

have should*

been

kai*. To cover,

cover;

to build.

No. ^'.Wts'ao\ Radical,

140, grass.
covered
^

'^,^

^^^ Phonetic
not

; a

dish filledand
the for

why

With is used

addition of
the

the character
any
cover.

roof

or

The

ifiili ts'ao^,indicates
was

that

where
'

ithis
were

character
thatched.
336

coined, housed (W. 38. G.)


to

ffi
^^

cAuS

To

dwell,
No.

stop.
a

''

"

"i,\j^n^ Radical

9,
a

man.

cAu\ Phonetic,

lamp with the flame rising. (W. 83. D.). By extension,:a man who sheds forth light. (See No. 210). With the addition of the radical, the character stands for, to dwell, as if the inference
was :
"

those who

who have

can a

enli^ten others
permanent
abode.

are

those

337

|=i

^s

-wu^,A

room,

house. No.

p* shih^, Radical
or

44,

corpse,
a

is the usual
person

definition of this rad., but


down sitting "^'^'^*i Phonetic, to character
no

I ac

and

lying is a better explanation. This is an old at. s^rrive is called phohelic has what

The M represents a bird phonetic use. justalightingon the earth ; thus a room and is a place where can come a person recline. (W. 32A, G.). (See No. 38.) 333

tK, Vw

szu*,Resembling.

Radical yen".

No.

9,

man.

114

ni

f Phonetic.

This

is

very
to

ancient

character

and

is

supposed
the

represent the breath


without

leaving
as

niouth
or

obstrnction

from

asthma

other
85

impediment.
dition adthe
the

(See No. 121)


of A
man

(W.
same

the idea the

has

F). With the is conveyed that hmg capacity as

normal
339

individual.

IP, Reason, iDrinciple.

3i yu\

Radical

No.

IP, Phonetic, the


is

(See No. 124). smallest countrj"- village. It


96,
a

geni.

composed
(W.
3i the be
a

of EH t'ieir and 149

". t'tP, tillable


is the 166th

land. radical, of the


must
as

D.).

This With

No. 82). (cf.

the addition
a

idea is conveyed that

gem

cut

according to
to

fixed

rules

just

field has that


cotton

be

divided
be

into furrows
use.

in order
""

it may
cloth.

of greatest

^ ^
^

pa*.Cloth,
chin\ rjl

Radical

No.

50,

napkin. (See No. 143).


This

fa*,Phonetic, father.

cognizable phonetic is not rein the modem writing,but it is distinct in the seal writing. (W. 35 C). but some 3C is probabl3'' purely i)honetic, it implies oyder. In weavthink that ing must one proceed according to a

fixed

order.
was a a

The

material

used
or

the bj'^

ancients is

kind of linen

flax.

ton Cot5C is
*

modern radical.

development.

Fu*

the 88th
341

(See No. 317).

fang^,A

house. No. 63,


a

hu*,Radical

door,

window

(No. 5).

IIG

345

-^1^ ^
^

meP, Beautiful, excellent.


No. 123, ^ yac^,vRadical, slieep. (See 253). it meant originally "4^ta*,Phonetic, large,"but
a a

(W. 103 A). A man of a sheep,mild disposition


man.

who
and

has the

gentle.

346 a a s/h'AS
song
or

hymn.
149,
a

"^
JiL ^

j'esS Radical

"^

'

(See No. 10). ssu^ Phonetic, a court or temple. (W. 79 B.). the law -*fis pfdlniilgated. The placewhere continually ". (See No. 125). The ing cbih^,a small plant issupart is ili, upper from the ground, conveying the idea of development or ; something progress
No.
"

word.

which
the

is continual.

With

the

addition of

radical
a

M song.

it stands The
as

for

prolonged
from
ears

words,
throne
the

words

the

should

be

music

in the

of

people.

EAL1.ee,
Z"

liESSON

XII.

mm
-p

nan', South.
shih\ Radical
This
a

No.

24,

ten.

(See No. 47).


be

character and

cannot
a

broken

tip into

phonetic as it is an old sjTnbolfor south or the place of ^ Jen", the luxuriant fj are vegetation. The the boundaries of- a place or field and forces its way them over by vegetation constant growth += f. (W. 79 G).
radical

'"*,jiR
t

peP, North. Radical pr*.

No.

21,

spoon

inverted

man.

117

This is another reduced to


27
a

chatacter radical and

which

cannot

be

phqneticf (W.
men

G.).- It represents
back
**"

two'

ing stand-

to back

in the seal

pare writing; com-

ts'ang^to follow.
is toward

The

custom

of

the Chinese is to face the


the back 319

south, therefore

the north.

chih-. Straight.

@ -p

mu\

Radical

No.

109, the

eye.

(See No. 102).


K.).
What
ten l

shih\ Phonetic, ten.


eyes must

(W.
be

10

declare
be

to

without

deviation

straight. (See No. 99).


towards, towards.
No.

"^mM.
-"

wang^,

To

go

cA'/A* Radical

60,

to

with step''

left foot.

^ ^

wang^ Phonetic, luxuriant vegetation which springs from the earth in tufts here and there ; rambling, (W. 79 D.). With the
addition of the radical it
or roam means

to

strax'

about.

This with

phonetic
^ chtt
a

has

nothing
or

in

common

lord

w^ith 5

wang^
the
same

piinceas

In its modern

ing writingit is confuswritten

it is not

always

from a mad dog comes A'aaafg^, this phonetic, but the top dot is left off. This is a suggestive a mad as phoneticin Jfl about aimlessly. The idea dog wanders these tufts of of aimless is suggested as -vegetation spring up without regard to
w^ay.

order.
351

^|i

/r. To

leave, to separate

from, distant from.

118

chaP "fi^

Radical

No.

172,

short-tailed bird.

(No. 21).

^. ^

it', Phonetic,

yak

or

elk.
above

(W.

23

E).
was

Thi.s merly forverj-

phoneticplus the
used for beautifitl
the

radical

Chinese

a oriole,

yellow bird now Ir. According to Kuei haatig^


Wen, when
the

called ^ ^ Shih
or

Shuo
seen

this bird

was

heard
summons

in

the spring,it was unmarried daughtersto roof for the Thus home

for the

leave the parental future


leave
"

of their
"

bands. hustached at-

the idea of

to

itseifto the character, and

another

^character ;.Yas adopted 2^1, ^


To cfi'a*,

for the bird.

diifer ;

disci'epanc^'.
48, work.
This
is

Radical ~r kting^,

No.

doing
the

violence to the construction

of the character

to^say that X
X

kun^

is the rad., as

is only a part of :"

left hand. tso^,

(No
E.).

89).

^,^, /vfe ch'ur, Phonetic,


This

to

hang down,
^
has

(W.

13

(See No. 387).


chtiracter
The

undergone
left hand
are

many

changes. C).
and The

oldest form and

is f^ (W. 46
not

right
other

working
the

in unison, one

is directed upward downward. The idea of

the present

writing is that the left hand is thus hanging down, not doing its.-part, there is a discrepancy.
A

^^^

^
^

cA'uanS

boat.
No. 137,
a

chou\ Radical

boat.

(SeeNo. 108).

119

\^

/fl" j'e"" Phonetic, the ravines in through which


IJ.). Tuaii
?"
thd torre'nts

the niiountains

flow.

(W.

IS

Shih
He

Shuo
says

Wen that

expUiiiation.

gives a bfcttcr th" phoneticis

wibulclhave this coast ; thus wc a _vei2"S character taking the place of our English

word,
build
coaster

coaster,
boats
w^as

as

the

Chinese

did

not

for

a crossing the oceans, their largest vessel. SoniQ

have

tried

to

prove

that this character Chinese


up P

indicates Noah's
ark

that
as

the

knew

about and
is

it is made A Pa^

of

boat

eight
write

persons.
to

k'oti^. This

only useful
the

remembering how- to character, as it is of modern


aid in
not

construction,
ago
"

much

over

2000'

yeai's

long

after the

deluge.

354

A^-

i^

A large river. chiaiig\

7K.^

shuP,

Radical

No.

85,

water.

(See No. 79).


This

kdng^,Phonetic,
have

labour.

phoneticmay
The river

been originally Tzu

tribute. % ktwg''
was

Yang
bore

Chiang

the the nine

which

the tribute

from

chou, iLW
Foron

to (nine ]5rovinces)

the

Emjieror.
were

merh'^ official documents

carved

tortoise shell and


was

the material

apparently
that
occaon

limited in

quantity, so
were

characters sionall3'
account
*

abbreviated
An

of
a a

lack

of

space.

abbre-

viation of
was

ment in an,_ officialdocufbr alltime and some i^reeedent character

characters have thus been

changed

so

that

120
/
f
'

it is difficult to

find

an

explanation

for

their present construction.


to pretend. pack, to fill, No. 145, clothes. (See No. 51).
a

355

chuan^,

To

i\ Radical
stout

Phonetic, chuang-*. !tt,tt


No.

stout

man.

The

idea of

is obtained

from

j:\ ch'iang^. (See


man.

84).

The 127

-i: shih* is

(See No.
an

69).
As
' -

(W.

B.)
was

this character
as

early used for


wore

officer and
.,

officers
are

their robes of
which

;"!!.'

office, there
have has the
to

many

characters

"f; r

abovfe

phonetic whose
appearance.

meaning
when the

do

with

Thus

the radical for is to

clothingis added,
be what
one

idea
or

pretend

to

is not,

to

fillfull.

7^

yuan

Distant. No.

i^ cho\
^^1

Radical

162,
a

to go.

^^"-^j^uan* Phonetic,
{W.
16 character has

long
There been

robe.

(See No. 10). (See No. 51).


that this ginal the orifrom

L.).

is evidence

changed

writing and the -present writing is when remembers not explained. If one going on a long journey long clothes are
worn

it may of the

assist in

the recalling

make

up

character.

357

^^

3(^

;"h

W.IfI

Able. iieng', Radical jou*.

No.

130,
and

meat.

(See No. 133).


be broken
up

This into
meant

character radical
the
"

refuses to

phonetic,

it formerly

large brown

bear," and be-

121

cause

of

his great

strength

he

was

sidered con-

extremely able. This indicates that

slang word has been incorporated into the language as the correct expressionfor is exable. plained (W. 27 ].). The character thus ; two g paws, ^ the body,
a

and
358

Jj,the head.
or

i"
L, J^
fA

chin*, Near, in time


cho* Radical
No.

place.
to

162,

c/hb', Phonetic, ax,


of the axhead. of 16
The way
dunces
or

(See No. 10). battle ax; catty. A picture It was used for a weight* cattj^ (W. 128 A).
go
to
to

character
for
a

seems

suggest the advance,


ax

proper
to

w^arrior

(to go

with battle),
near.

his battle
near

in his hand, i.e.

Both revolve

^ and jg far have


wheel.
159
;
a

this K.

359

luh^,To

cA'e', Radical (No. 136).


lan^ Phonetic,
l^er orrier
a

No.

cart,

barrow.

bundle
.

of documents

in protion the addi-

W. "(

1 4 G.

With

of the above
retained
as a

radical the idea of oi'der is have


the

w^heel must

spokes

ments docuarranged properly. The ancient and were slips engraved on bamboo tied together, shown in the seal w^riting, as consequently the phonetic is suggestive.
360

IP, Plums

baggage.
No. 75, wood.

wu*. ;ijC
jv^

(See No. 22). Hsi's dictionary tzu^. Phonetic, son. Kang affirms that,owing to the plum being verj^ it was prolific, by wood and represented

Radical

1-22
son

; the

character

son

is here

r-/""^rosent
-

ing the fruit on the tree. When travelling ones baggage should stick to him as unripe fruit clingsto the tree. Pupils are
sometimes referred
are

to

as

peaches
fruit teacher.

and

plums," they
their
361

unripe
from
the

receiving

development
engage. 9 ;
man.

To hire,to /c"*,

yV,

Radical Jcn^f

No.

f^
^

ku*,I'honetic, to hire. This character is written


in two for The
ways,
man

with
and

and

without the
same

the radical

it has

upper

part of the
Ji

..the 63
The

rad.,

door,

meaning. phonetic is ^ An* farmer. a famil3',


a

lower

part is jg chuP;
172ndFradical.
of the combination A

short

tailed

bird, the
radicals

pretation interlogical

of these two
bird.
In

would times

be, the farmer's


there
were

ancient

nine
arrival

kinds
of each

of of

birds called ^ these M. ku*,

ku*.
on

The

migratorj-expeditions was mencing regarded as the sign for comcertain lines of husbandry. Thus in early summer the quailwas when seen it set the farmers to harvestingtheir
wheat
;

their

when
crops

wild geese
must
means

appeared
be
to set
a

in the

fall, the
Thus
to

gathered
129

in.

the character

person

work.
.

Shuo
books

Wen.
; to

W. (cf.
pass

A.).
;

362

Classic ching^, ready.

through

al-

mi\ Radical

No.

120, silk.

'

ching^Phonetic, the

watercourses

"" under

the

124

found in the Shuo Wen. would

The the

combination
was

suggest
a

that

character which

coined for
up

wind blustering
as

licked

the dust

if by

tongue.

366^
U

shou\ To receive, to gather together.


No. ^, J^ P'ti\ Radici^l

66; to tap, to rap.


This is

(SeeNo.17)a

chiu^ Phonetic, tendrils.


which
was

primitive

formerly used alone, but in the


a

of characters rearranging
be written
one

radical had to

with

it,as the primitiveis not


The

of the radicals.

above 367

drils clinging of tenis a very suggestive symbol for the meaning. (W. 54 F.).

to pick up sbih^,

; ten.

^ ^
,

shou^, Radical Ao^

No.

64, the hand.

^^
'J

Phonetic, with.
seems phonetic

(See
no

No.

103).

The

to have

phoneticvalue
that
and

in

this character, but

it indicates the hand

things are
article
come

picked up when together.

BAIiLER,
368

LESSON

XIIT.

*^
"

ehang*,A
"

measure

of ten

feet.

Radical /'", This

No.

1,

one.

is

an

old

character

and

it

was

posed com-

of the

shih^, ten,
369

right hand ^%yu*, (a ten foot pole).

holding

;g5; ^3i ^3
H

electricity. tien*.Lightning,
No.

M yu*.Radical
^ 1^ ^

173, rain.

(See No. 61).


that this
was evena

sAenS Phonetic, Chalfant

says

which of lightning representation

123

became ttially combination


the

the

signfof

"

The deit:^-."

of the radical foi-rain arid

is npt an inconsistent for lightning sj'nibol (SeeNd 227). signfor electricitj'.

370 3

^^

W;

iu"S To discuss ; an essay. "^ j'enSRadical-No. 149, a word. (SeeNo. 10). in order. assembled y"^ /uM"^Phonetic, documents BB (See No. 359). With the addition of the above radical the idea is conveyed of in order so that the setting statements thought is made lucid. (W. 14 G).
*'^'' ^"^' instead
a

^^

of.

Radical yijeh^,

No.

73, to speak. The


was

idea of this radical

,..;,;

from the mouth. issuing has The no phonetic of this character two phonetic value. It was originally side by side, but it was jJ: li*characters ters, afterwards changed to two ^ fu^ characand the lower part^was g tzu, ^ thus
"

original to depict a word (See No. 9).

the idea
not

was

that the first man

li*could //"" did it

do

something, but
if the Both first
man

the second had

just as
@.
60

self clone it himman.

j5cand

mean

(W.

L.).
; lest.

^^^

1*6

To tear P*^*' i[ il"hsm\ Radical tfi par,

No.

61. heart. White


one

(SeeNo. 18).
heart
to
"

Phonetic, white.

no

age. cour-

Fright (See No. 6).


373 jm^
"

causes

turn

pale.

^
"

hang', 1

,.

"

^,

measure.

126

IP,Radical No. 166,

Chinese

mile.

(SeeNo.
was

82).
The

phonetic

of

this

character

lian^,but it is so modified in the present writing that it is of little aid 'to referto it. The etymology of the chara"iter is
difficultto trace
an

and

the

Chinese

have invented
once

hearing
to

it

etymodogy which after is difficult to forget: the


"

tance dis-

the

sun

H
to

has Ije

been
one

measured

^
the

and

it

was

found
H
sun
"

IP above

Earth.
374

one

^P-

*|L
5X
kou^. Enough, fully.

%!k^
'

kung', Radical No. 57, a bow. (See No. 55). It is proch'iieh*, /t'e', Phonetic, shell, husk.
bable that the idea
hollow
%
w^as

to

something
added
to

A'e**

strike ^ shu^ When bow is

this

phonetic the idea of enough


an

is said to be in

because sugj^ested

archer,

the full. to the bow shooting, draws He makes between a large vacant space the bow and the string. (W. 34 I).

375

tt

/^, f\

?^
a foot, a span. ch!ih', Radical No. 44, shih^, jF-* a

corpse,

person

in the

V^ 2i

reclining posture, an adult. Phonetic, germination; here it indicates the ''*' ing opening out of the hand in the act of maka

span.

The
.

p shiW

is said to be the

male, adult hand


character the been

It is probable that this contracted

has

been

and

thus has

part w'hich
deleted.

indicated

the

hand

In 'the ^

C/iou

dynasty the

127

unit of length measured


If
one

abc/ut^isyenty timeters. centhis it wiU


in the
measurements

reniembers

help

to

understand

Classics.

(W.

32

F.).

"'mM
Jl 5te ^

pao*. To

announce

; to

recompense

news-

p9,per.

t'a\ Radical

No.

32, earth.

who has committed -jfc a criminal, a man nieh*, crime ^,jen\ cf. No. 274 (W. 102 G., D.).
It

is unfortunate
the

that

the

scribes have

caused
to

left part

of the

character

be identical with

^, ^ ^,1^

hsing*, fortunate, kickj^ as it has a verydifferent meaning. shows fu' The right part of the character a about to stamp hand holding a seal,and for punishment. (W. 55 the order C.)
The

idea
to
an

of to

announce

is obtained

owing
^
377
t |" ^^ zs"

official tryinga crixninal case

and

publishinghis decision g,.

[qI
p*

chi?, an

a office, shop.

shil^,Radical
character into the

No. 44,

corpse.
cannot

This be

is another

which
.

divided

up

radical
character
a

and is

phonetic the R ch'ilf,


P

aj^'thebase

of

expanded
The
a

hand, shop
the

span

and

the mouth. k'oti^,

given explanation
one

is that

in

fixing up
to

must
must

not

onlj'use
also be

the hand

but

the mouth best

used

inquire

another which
may

is procedure. There explanation of the character

mode

of

be eaisier to

remember.

The

128

ch'ih^ ;^ is
P

a one

foot, (a
of the

square

k'ou^ is
A

foot)and the on a chess positions


a

board.

chess

board

foot square

is

largeenough and the squares are places for stopping or resting. (W. 32 F,).
378

igg

'iTO

^""

Happiness, prosperity'.
No. 113
; to reveal.

^
"^
'
-

-d"

'

'

(SeeNo. 227). fu* Phonetic, abundance. (W. 75 D.). The most satisfactory explanation of this phoneticis that it is a contraction of Wt the products a field, Aao\ high and fflt'ien', of the field piledhigli is a good symbol tor
Radical shih*,

abundance.
radical

With

the
a

addition

of

the

the idea is that has

superhuman
hence

fluence inthe

decreed

abundance,

No. 267). meaning happiness, (cf.

379-^

~^!^, ^^

-d*
-*-*

To receive,to enjoy. bsiang'.

t'oa^,Radical
This
radical
was

No.

8, above.
does
not

character
and
two

divide

up

into ing writ-

phonetic. The

ancient
one

iti characters,

upright
were
tracted con-

and

the

other
to

inverted, they

Hei-e is another tion illustra^. of the reversing the meaning of a character bj' inverting it. The upper

part -^ is w^titten in the


and
means

ordinary
lower

way

superior ;
and
means

the

part
The
"

is inverted

inferior.

in the seal form

is the

handed

up

to the

giftwhich is being superiorby the inferior.

(W.
380

75

D.).
rule
;

@C

To cheng*:,

government.

129

"^ p'u* Radical


rod.

No.

66,
is
a

to

strike

or

tap. The

seal character

righthand

holdinga

(SeeNo. 17). Tr cheng*. A govemment exact. Phonetic, right, ifcshould act :" p'u*in an orderlyand exact (SeeNo. 12). (W. 112 I). jE manner.
381

Mft

To t'ieh^,

paste.
No.

^
f*

Radical pei*,
An
"

154, precious. (See No. 38). to divine. cban\ Phonetic, to usurp, to seize,
old definition of the
to

character

5fi is

pledge." An article left in pledge is marked by pasting a written that it. It is possible statement upon is now the meaning which prevalent The above originated in this way. to divine, but the phonetic also means be to seems more meaning to usurp in this combination. (W. 56 B). logical
leave in
382

-p
m

Gg

mo*. Ink. Radical No. 32, earth. t'a*. writingof this heP, Phonetic, black. The]^seal
character lower

^*n,sins.

is

smoke vent^for^
two
one fires,

and

the the fires.

part is
the
vent

above
of

other, indicatinga
Around

succession

lampblack accumulates, hence a very appropriate symbol for black. It is the 203rd radical Mixing lampblack with earth " is probably the way first made. ink was (W. 40 D).
"

"^m
H

an*,Dark.
Radical No. 72, sun. jih*, Phonetic, sound. This is the 180th, radiei y^"^'

130

cal.

(See No.
which

39),
have
a

There

are

several
as

characters

this radical

their
or

phoneticand
obscure
been

have

of dark i^ieaning

; it may

be, that this meaning has


to

attached

this

phonetic owing
sun

to

the being invisible. When invisible it is dark. (W. 73 E). sound


384
M

is

fSS
m

en^tGrace,

to

show

favor.

Radical Jl^hsin^,

No. 61, heart.

Phonetic, because. yirH^,

(W.

60

B). The
cannot

ginal oria

meaning
man

of this
a

phoneticwas

confined
for

in
a

cell. One

but

feel sorrj^ If

prisoner thus

confined.

leads one to feeUng of sorrow hberate him, that is grace and it is represented by placing heart, j" bsin^ under @ this

yin^.

J^, ^

Kind, grace. hui*, "L^ hsit^,Radical No. 61, heart. This is supposed to ch'uan\ Phonetic.
an ox

sent repreto
a

w^ith

trace

attached
at

bar the

behind the horns


trace

; and

the

end of

there

is
are

hook

objectswhich
when his work
he

to

attaching be drawn. tension, By exfor is drawn into his better

ones

heart

is kind, he allows
enter
,,

to feelings 91E,G)..

into

his actions.

(W.

386

iBi )itt(

:"^,^v
nn

records. tietf, A dictionary, J^ pa^,Radical No. 12, eight.

-,.

-.lUL

ch'aP,Phonetic, books.
and
has
,

This
out

is

an

old character
use.

dropped

of

It,in

1.32 389 Xxi

Ikk
//./

district. chou^,A political

J*\. U\

ch'uan\ Radical
This break the old

No.

47,

streams.

(W.
and

12

E).
not

is. an
up

old

character and

does

into radical

phonetic.

In

writing it represents tracts of land surrounded by rivers. (W. 12 L).

390

A district. hsieti^,

mi^ Eadical No. 120,

silk.

(SeeNo. 8).
of
a

|B. ll. hsiao^ Phonetic, the head


up,

the With

hair is
the

hanging hanging down. (W.


of %

criminal

160

A).

addition

hsi\

modification
head

of ^

the idea of the mi* silk,

being hung up is emphasized. A resided official bsiea* was a placew^here an


rank enabled him
No.
to execute

whose

nals. crimi-

(See Chalmers
391 "dfe"

187).

|g

or hsin^. Sheng^,a province; hsin^, sheng^,

watchful.

mu\ Radical 109, the eye. (See No. 102). shao^,Phonetic, few. This phoneticis devoid
three There are phonetic, significance. of explainingthis character, but ways worth .of them are recording. only two The ^ is said to be the eyebrow frowning as if endeavoring to see more distinctly. The other explanationis that the /J? shao^ indicates a narrowing of the palpebral

of

fissure in order done

to

see

better.

This

quently is fre-

givesthem
392

by nearsightedpersons as it clearer vision. (W. 158 D).


is more than

lou^,Loft, a story, a house which


one

story high.

133

mu*, Radical No. 75, wood. (SeeNo. 22). -^ lou' Phonetic, the part of a palace where wo"^^ confined. men are (W. 67N). Women ^ in the # wu^,prison nff,enclosed 41 chung^, of the gynecium. With the addition of the w^ood radical it is the symbol for a house which is higher than the ordinary dwelling.

393

"fc=;

3^
"^

tuarP,Short, deficient. Radical No. Ill, a dart. sbih^, (SeeNo. 100). acter tou*,Phonetic, a dish. (W. 165 A.) The charfor short was formed by putting togethertwo of the shortest utensils of the dish. a ancients, namely, a dart and hair that The character for long ^, was so was long it 'had to be fastened with a brooch. (For long,see W. 113 A).
hsin^,New,
recent.

394

JX
^

(SeeNo. 358). chin^,Radical No. 69, an ax. chen^ Phonetic, the Chinese hazel bush. Rods
of this shrub
were

used for

nals beating criminecessary

and, for this purpose,


that brush

it was

they be
for
new

freshlycut.
ax or as fresh,

Thus

hazel the

^ symbol

cheti^ and

became Jf chiti^
the
ax

by the

side of the rods


cut.

(W.

102

impliedthat they were just H). The present writingof


like the above, which

hazel W cheii^is not is the old


395

writing.

out, fornlerly. Old, worn chiu*, ^^ ts'aq^ Radical No. 140, grass. (SeeNos. 22, 40), This seems to be a Phonetic, a mortar. Q chiu^,

134

chiwi, was

corpse coffins

used for j^ chim, a originally placed in a coffin. In the shops are euphemistically spoken of as
or

material for the aged %i^ shorn ts'ai^, old. This


usage
on

meaningof old

may ^ chiw^

have
as

stamped the
in the above in the

writingit represented the corpse coffin. (W. 103 C) (cf. 42.8.)


396

ruined. huai*,To spoil, ;^ t'u^ Radical No. 32, earth. m; huaP, Phonetic, to hide in the bosom, covered from the eye by putting in the breast. (W. 16 J). The upper part of the phonetic is
a

cover,

the

part which

looks like

w^ng^
space,

is

in mu* vsrritten horizontally

order that

it may take vip so much not the loAver part is the radical for
the cords which
are

with clothing fasteners


across

used

as

the breast of the garment

represented. Others
means

the eye
of
,

tai* explain that 5ji the eyelashesfall over to hide as side and hide it, and is here placedinthe ^ i.e. to hide in the clothing.
'

-,;

cf. No. With

82, ;X.
the addition of the radical for earth
"

ing have been, ifinstead of hidthe idea may buried the article in the breast it was
in the earth 397 To c/2'a^.

it would

be ruine'd. into.

examine,
No.
a a

to search

mu\ TfC
n

Radical

75, wood.

(SeeNo. 22).
a

ch^ieh^ Phonetic,
used here
as

chair,without

back.

It is

This charsimplephorietic.

135 acter

was

used originally and it enters

in

sacrificial

ceremonies
tioil of many
of
a

into the With

composition the addias was

characters. h
was

wood
name

used originally afterwards


it

proper

and of ^

written
no

instead

ch'a'. Thus

it has

398

etymology. Correctlywritten $.
distress. short tailed bird. in the
sun sun.

to cause nan^,Difficult,

chui' Rad. No. 172,


seal with

(See21).
the old
the loess

J^ Qt|/jan* Phonetic,

dried

In

writing the heiat fiery


With

is

and

shiningon drying out

ture. the mois-

the addition

of the radical for fowl have


the
are

short short where


up 399

tailed birds,(most water


the tailg)

idea is that when

pools
dried

these birds get their food


are

they
Radical

in distress.

(W,

171

B).

ts'ao^rGrass, herbs.
-tt ts'ao^ ljn|l_ M
No. 14Q, grass.
No.

*sao*,Phonetic, early. (See


character grass

111).
a

This of

originallystood
was

for

kind

which

used

tor

dyeing articles
or

black ^. it
now

With
means

the addition of the radical


any

kind of grass

herb.

(W.
400

143

E).

chiao^,To teach-;a religion ; to allow.

(See No. 17). ;^ ". hsiao^,Phonetic, to learn. The seal writing is (W 39 two X=i*, above a son ^. crosses and answer. B). If hete indicates question 5^ vao^ (SeeNo. 165). The character X has the it, meaning of influence from the cuttingof being it pictures. Here which shears
No.

v^ p'u^Kadical

66, to strike.

136

doubled it emphasizes the


teacher
on

influence of the With the tion addi-

the

pupil ^.

of the radical

:" the idea of applying

401

-y.

(W. 39 G, H). The is identical of this phonetic modern writing but it has nothwith ^ hsiao*,filial piety, with it. (W. 30 E). ingbut ^ in common
the rod is portrayed.

^*^^

chu\ To boil. /zuo^ Radical No. 86, fire. iK,*^^^ a suffix. (See """che' Phonetic, a final particle, be regarded No. 270). This phoneticcan
as

the pronoun

fire iK it ^.
402

etymology is" Boil it by puttingfireunder it.

it ; then the

"/^

To chin*,

in,to advance. cho^ Radical No. 162, walking and stopping. chui}-Phonetic, a short-tailed bird. It has no
enter

in this character. phonetic significance 172nd radical. (See No. 21). With the

addition advance

of the radical 5_ it stands


;

for to

this may
move

be

because

birds in
never

flying always flybackwards.


403 Jt"|.t

forwards, they

njfll

A time, an t^ang*,

occasion.
a

cA'eS Radical, No. 159,

cart.
a

(SeeNo. 136).

Phonetic, a shang*,

roof of With

house.

(SeeNo.
of the of
cart
"

52). (W.
cart

36

E).

the addition for the taken.


may

radical it is used
a

number The

times

trip has been


of

suggests that the idea


the number certain house and

have
cart

been,
to

tripsthe
back.

made

^*' Advantage,profit. JE mm^ Radical No. 108, a dish, (SeeNo. 233).

137

^V

The character is lying sAai^ Phonetic,water. its side, ance. abundon or indicating overflow, A dish M overflowing stands for advantage or profit. (W. 125 C). This is
an

old

character

and

antedated

the if

glazingof pottery. Unglazed pottery


made of sandy clay will not hold

water,

but pottery made of good clay will retain it. It would not be strange if pottery which
of
405

held water
or

was

taken

as

the

symbol

advantage

profit.

sao^,To sweep. shou^,Radical No. 64 ; the hand. chou^ Phonetic, a dustingbrush. (W. 44 K). In the seal writinga hand ^ is represented The addition of the as holding a broom.
hand 200

radical at the side B.C.

was

made

about

406 ^

a. "^

hsiao*,To honor parents, filialpiety. Radical "T^ tzu^, No. 39, a son. ^ lao^, Phonetic, old. This phonetic is

not

brought 30 E).

writing. (W. The chiao^ in phonetic in ffcfj; modern as # hsiao*, writing is the same with it in but it has nothing in common etymology. (See No. 400). Lao^ ^ old,
out

in the modern

stands

for parents is

and

the

^p tztP
reverence

son

should which
407 To ching^,

render that devotion and fitting


proper.

and

reverence.

j^ p'u^Radical
;gj ra

No.

66, to strike.
restrain
ones

chi* Phonetic, to

self. (W. 54
up

G). This phoneticis made

of ^

yang^

138

sheep, contracted, and


and
as
a

'^ pao^
To
ones

to

cover

k'ou^ the mouth.

stand words.

meek With
can

sheep and restrain


as

the addition be taken idea

of the radical which


the
one

here

w^ho wields pow^er


in

the of

is to

be

modest

the

presence

those in
408

authority.

A hall, a ineeting place. t'ang^,

i
-^

t'u^ Radical No. 32, earth. Phonetic, a house, (SeeNo. 52) ; hence shang*. this is a suggestive phonetic. With the
addition
an

of the radical for earth

we

have
"^

inclosure n

which

is roofed

over

but is

the earth is the floor, a condition

which

by
409

no

means

uncommon

at

the

present

time.

(W.

36

E).

A place, circumstances. ch'u*, ^ hu\ Radical No. 141, a tiger. (SeeNo. 258). c/z'u*, Phonetic, a place. Suggestivephonetic. ^Jjt The primitiveidea of this phonetic was and until tired, ^ walked to have sw}^,
come

to

seat

JL chP.

This
to

character the

had the

radical hu^ added


were

it when

beingput under radicals but it contributes nothing save difficulty in writing. To breviate the present day the abform
^

characters

is without

this radical.

(W.
410

20

B).

Constantly. ch'ang^, chin^,Radical |tj


No.

50,
a

napkin.

(See No.

143). [^ shang\ Phonetic,

house, (See No. 52) (W-

140

thus the meaning of generous gifts, is attached to this phonetic. The f' han* lavish is not descent from
414

cliff but
or

stroke

which

indicates
of the

the

above.

coming down (W. 75 G).

gift

/^ J^

ch'uan^,To propagate ; to hand down. Radical No. 9, man. ^ J^ jen^, Phonetic, singly, (W. 91 particular. -^ ^ chuati^, F). g ch^uan^ The upper part of this phonetic is an ox harnessed and a trace dragging behind with a ring for attaching
_
~

loads

which

are

to

be

drawn.

When

the

phonetic -^ hand, is for a writing added, it is the character tablet which was attached ;^ to the worn These tablets were worn by the -^ wrist. official scribes. A man A proclaims^
lower what is written
on

part of the

his

wrist-tablet

U,

preaches from

notes.

1^,nl^ A ^
^

to build,to cuMvalse, adorn. AsjV, To repair, Radical No. 9, man. jen^, ford a across way /p^ yu^ Phonetic, to feel ones

with

stick

^.

(See

No.

160).

This

.,"

__^

feathers, phonetichas added to it ^ shan^, This long hair, ornament. compound stand for phoneticand the radical for man to repair. (W. 12 C). ^ to cultivate,

"W'

pao^

An

herb of the mint


No.

family ; thin, mean.


grass,

Pr

ts'ad',Radical
with

140,
wide

is connected

the firstmeaning of S|.


a

i^ p'a^,Phonetic,
water

expanse

of

shallow
The

^Jc.

(For iT fu^ see

No.

151).
an

the hand phoneticM fu^,

^ of

adult,W,

141

broad, amplitude. From


the idea of breadth
runs

meaning through several

this

characters which
109

D).

Here

have this phonetic,(W. breadth without depth

suggests thinness, meanness.


417

YS ^ ^

hsiad^,To laugh at, to smile. chu\ Radical No. 118, bamboo.

(See-No.7).
of

J'^oS Phonetic, a
forward
more

man

in the act

bending
or

in order to

jump,

march

laugh

easily.With the addition of bamboo the character is used for, to laugh, because
when
the

wind

waves

the of

bamboo
a man

it
vulsed con-

resembles

the movements

with
No. 418
rst

laughter. (W.

61

B) (See

323).

Round. yiian^, |~|weP, Radical No. 31, enclosure. g yuan'. Phonetic, round. (W. 161 B). Originally this phoneticwas the full writing of the character, but " weP was added later.
The

character
as

now

has two

"

weP

cals radi-

the small square above is weP. The meaning was round


419

the ", pe/*

something

like a cowrie ^.

rPC

fp

lis.

An artisan. cbiang-^, I. /ang^ Radical No. 22,

log hollowed

out.

/T,

/^

'

"

(W. 51 A). chiii^, Phonetic,an ax. No phoneticsignificance. (W. 128 A). The seal writing is said to be a representationof the instrument. The little stroke to the right is thought This is the 69th to be a chip of wood.

142

radical.
for
a

No. 358). When the radical (Cf. it stands hollowed out log is added artisan
or

for The

an

the work

of

an

artisan.

hollowingout of trees to make boats vessels was or probably one of the first devices employed. mechanical
"'~^

The affections, the feelings. ch'in^,

1^ i^
^

Radical No. 61, the heart. hsin^, Phonetic, the colors of nature, (SeeNo. ch^jng^,

63), (W.
for

115

D).

With
^e

the

addition

ot

the radical for heart those


to

character
are

stands
pure
or

which feelings the heart


of
man.

natural
421

t^-""

solid. Real, true, really, sbih^, mien',Radical No. 40, a roof. kuan*, Phonetic, long stringsof cowries or cash. (W. 153 A). The upper part of

phonetic,which by the w^ay phonetic value, is two articles w togetheron a string ;"" kuan\
the
"

has

^no

strung
and the
are

lower part shows


cowries added
"

that

these articles

or

coins

pei*. When
it is available

roof is

the character
away

stands for real wealth for use,

stored
not
a

where

false pretense of wealth. become


up,
to

422

bsin^, to
wake

sober after being drunk,


startle.
164
;
a
*

to

^ yu^ Radical
_

No.

kind of jar which

was
"

,^

The fermented liquors. keeping shows that there is something in the jar, (W. 41 G). stars. hsin^, Phonetic,, (W. 79 F). The

used for

143

oldest
stars
^"%.
are

writingof
suns

this character

has

three

or

above

supposed to be the quintessence of sublimate


up to heaven, to

shen^. The stars formed ^ sheng^ from


^
matter

hsing^ is
423

rising i^ chwg^=tleSLi\ crystal." become headed after cle^r-

intoxication. ^

buo*, Calamity, misfortune. 7J", "v shih*, Radical


No.

113,

to

reveal.

(See

No.

1^

227). kaa^ Phonetic, a defect in the conformation of the bones of the mouth a cleftpalate.(See No. the above radical is 119). When combined with this phonetic there is the suggestionof divine judgment. If a child is born with a hare lipor a cleft palatej^ it is regarded as a calamity |^ sent from heaven^. (W. 118 A).
k'u\
To
cry.

424

k'ou^,Radical

No.

30, the mouth.


"

-^ ^ ch'uan^, Phonetic, dog,

without

phonetic
that The
or

remarked significance.Confucius of a dog. this character is a picture


two

mouths

ua

bsuan^ indicate
means

a or

call
cry

outcry, hence ^
after the
manner

to howl

ra

of

dogs i^.

(W.

72

C).

425

"v

7K,^

Shallow. cWien^, sbuP, Radical No. 85, water. cbien^ Phonetic, to exterminate, to

destroy,
of two
or

dangerous. The
more

common

work

(W. 71 R). (See No. 13). This phonetic always gives a bad
halberds.

144
or

color insignificant
water

to

the

character.
a

Shallow

is

dangerousto

sailor.

^"^/^

An age, a generation, shih^, thirtyyears. iS Radical No. 1, one. san^ shih^, Phonetic, thirty. No phonetic Jffk
"

'

(W. significance.

is the conO). j]\traction of three + shih^ or thirty and the


24

horizontal line below


"

in ifi:, is the radical i^


one

one.

Thirty years make

generation.

427

X,A

literature, wen', Strokes,lines, elegant.


Radical
No. 67.

This is it is

one

of the oldest

characters the

and

grain in wood (W. 61 F).

supposed to represent or rippleson water.

428

^
H"

ch'uan*,To exhort, to advise. li\Radical No. 19, strength. (See No. 212). kuati*,Phonetic, a heron. (W. 72 J). A short-tailed bird # chui^,with egrets,X or horns, which has a loud call "^ bsiiad.
The

sheep are taken to represent The the egrets. Wen has no Sbuo tion etymology for this phonetic in combinaa

horns

of

with

the

above

radical.
was

It may

be
to

that this combination the

used the

owing

great patience of
common

heron.

Its

Chinese

name

is

"

old waiter ",

iot lao* ten'^. It will gaze into the water hours without moving, in order to secure
a

fish.

If

we

could

use

the

same

patience

much in J)ersuading men vigilance hence it is not an would be accomplished, symbol for,to exhort. inappropriate
and

145 *^^

i^

P^
^

"'^*''^'^curse,

to revile.

P^,|^ wang^

Radical

No.

122,

net.

(SeeNo. 38),
No. 187. The

(W. 39 C). ma^. Phonetic, horse.


No.

Radical

(See
Wen

261), (W. 137

A).

Shuo

explainthis character ^. It seems of radical to be an arbitrarycombination and phonetic. Catch 15 in a net a horse
does not

1^ and
430

you

will w^ant

to revile

^.

-gH?
i^^
To provoke, to irritate. je*,

^H^hsin\

^^ ^
'

(SeeNo. 18). is to pick 3) sense jc*,Phonetic, the primitive herbs ft to eat P ; to select. (W. 46 G). The ordinary meaning is if. Just why this of radical and phonetic should combination
mean

Radical

No. 61, heart.

to

irritate is not

verj'

apparent.
"

If
who
asperating, ex-

the ^ is
over

one je^is regarded as selecting, in selecting is most particular to the mind or irritating

^6.

~fflc ^$rf"""' mm

wu^. Without,

none.

J^ AHo^

Radical

No.

86, fire.
as

Fire

...

was

arbitrari-

Ij considered
; in

the radical of this character

writing there is no such in its composition but # forest is element form for the -"". Chalfant sugthe original gests
the

old

that

this character

is made

up

of ^

.^"

ch'en^, primitive meaning, a warriors ter, and C wang^, lost. This last characcar is placedwhere the in an old writing, should be and the idea, according horses mentioned is that authority, to the above in the have the animals strayed away forest is representedby # The forest.

146

in seal writing and lin^,

the ^
trees.

placed between

the two and

fant Plate XXYIII,

W.

10

is virang^ (SeeChalI).

:5p
XK

A boundary, a limit. chieh*, H t'ien\Radical No. 102, afield. (SeeNo. 207). til chieh*, Phonetic, boundaries, the lines that separate

A With
the

pa\

men

/'enl (W.
of the

18

F).
for

addition

radical

field the idea

of field boundaries

is very

evident.
433

^^,^

lan^,A basket. cbu",Radical No. 118, bamboo. (SeeNo. 7). chien^, Phonetic, to examine, to oversee, a jail. (W. 82 F). (See No. 294). By taking
the

meaning of this phonetic as place of confinement, then by the


of the bamboo radical
we

or jail

addition
a

have be

wicker

utensil in which

articles may

confined,for safe
434

placed or transportation.

g
^

To sleep. shui^, mu\ Radical No. 109, the eye. (See No. 102). ch'uP, Phonetic, to hang down. (W. 13 E), (SeeNo; 387). With the addition of the

radical for eye the idea of the


down and

ing eyeUds com-

coveringthe eye naturally suggestingsleep.


435

is set

forth,

To perceive, to feel. chiieh^. chiao^'^, @ chien*.Radical No. 147, to see, to perceive. (W. 158 C). (SeeNo. 85). P^ hsiad' Phonetic,to learn. (W. 39 I). The two

148

ch^iang^.Thus it means, The scribes arbitrarilyadded top- (W. 127C). [jijl p)^" ping' Phonetic, the third of the ten
tI
in is a fire jJH
a

to
a

be dot

sick.
on

stems.

It

house

f\ and
a

thus

it is a suggestive
a

phonetic, as
sick person,
radical

feverish person,
41

is hot

(W.

A).
to

When this

the

for disease
a

is added

tic phone-

it forms
438

symbol fitting

for disease.

"^

m^

"^5*, j^l

Snow. hstieh^,

j^
-J,

J'^^ Radical

No.

173, rain.
a

ch'otr' Phonetic,

hand.

(See No. 61). (W. 44 A). The


broom,
to

originalphonetic was
it has been
use

but ^ izai*

contracted in

ch'ou^

and

there

is little

phonetic,save phonetic has J). With the


we

remembering the original to explainwh^^ the present no phonetic value. (W. 44


addition of the rain
can

radical
taken

have

the

rain '^ .which


a-

be

up
AQQ isa**

in the hand

or

swept

aw^ay

^.

good combination
i\
To heal. No.

for

symbolizing snow.
cordial.

yu^,Radical
No. i^ Phonetic, the
arrows

164, wine

or

(See

422).
to

take

out

ji shu^

arrows

^ from
these

CjuiverE
are

?.

The

idea

is that

to

be shot at the deinon

ease. of disas

The it indicates

cordial that
to

radical

is added

the
to

minister be adto are .spirits patient. (W. 131 C).


rear.

440

r^

yang^, To nourish,

"^

shih-,Radical

No.

184,

to

eat, (W. 26

J\I), (See

M9

yan^^ Phonetic,sheep, (SeeNo. 253). This is a suggestivephoneticas the eating -% of of securing mutton means #^ is one
nourishment,
*

441 -M-

3^V) TT

103 (W. ^

A).

yi^^i Brave, heroic;England.


-H- ts'ati"Radical
No.
a

140, grass,
man

(See No. 22).


of
a

yati^, Phonetic, H^ /jK


largespace,
man

:fc in the midst

rt

in the seal of
a

in.the midst
the

writingit is a jungle. (W. 60 K).


the

With

addition

of

radical

,h-

the

idea of
It

jungle is still further elaborated. bravery to enter a junglewhere requires


abound.
excellence.
a

fierce beasts 442

^fo

l^^

"eS Virtue,moral

ch'ih* Radical

No. 60,

step with

the left foot.

(SeeNo. 128).

te^ Phonetic, virtue,


heart. the under This
was

"" Asin* ig chihr' upright,


the of original w^riting it was finally put
No. i[See 99

character the 60th of

%., but

radical.

for

explanation
of the action
or

radical

phonetic). The impart the may


^
be
; in

addition
idea
to

of

going out
it must

order

devego

lope virtue
out to

exercised, and

others.

443

yuan*,A

court

yard

a a

publicbuilding.
mound.
In

B,^

/u^Radical

No.

170,

the

seal

with three F is depicted writinga mound steps # leading to the top of a terrace. (W. 86 A). done. (See No. 93). watf, Phonetic, finished, ings This phoneticoften has reference to buildand

with

the

above

radical

it indi-

150

cates

with large court surrounded offices (W, 29 H). or buildings, public


a

M4

|"j

Imperial; the sovereign. huatig^, Q paP, Radical No. 106, white. (SeeNo. 6). qrT wang^, Phonetic, king, ruler, royal. (W. 83 C ) Chalfant has the most likely explanation
.

of this character.

He

has

found

old

to indicate that it writings which seem of jade beads J ; as jade beads was a string covild only be afforded by the royalty,this the s^anbol which was was adopted to indicate the rulingclass. (See Chalfant, Plate XVIi;. The g paP is contracted from self,and thus the g tzu* beginning, character meant M huang^ originally a king by rightof birth. 445

m
^ ,^
g
S

A wolf, cruel. lang-,

ch'iian^ Radical

dog. (See424). Phonetic,good, sagacious. This phone77an^, tic has undergone many changes with the nature. varying ideas as to man's original The primary meaning was the nature of a man, giftfrom heaven, is good. The The gift is represented by ". coming down from heaven was representedby/*.
94,
a

No.

The
two

next

more

modern
strokes

form
at

is 1.. The the

convergent
and

top

are

heaven

the coming together, middle part of the character is the gift and the bottom part indicates that this gift be lost li, (W. 75 F). This seems a may most phonetic for wolf; tbe inappropriate explanation is as follows : The wolf is
"

earth

151

in knowing where extremely sagacious,


go to escape

to
can

danger
an

and

where

food

be obtained,he is best of the


446

expert g. dog, j^,

dog tribe.

^
~KtK.

^
^^
^

ii^g^i intelligent. spiritual, Spirit, yv?, Radical No. 173 ; rain. (SeeNo. 61). in large of rain ling^Phonetic, the falling drops, the large drops are indicated by
the three circles. These

circles have
as

been

changed
modern
conform that

into

squares

usual

in

the

writing. This phonetic does not in to the usual rule of phonetics,


the

it includes

radical and

does

not

contain

all parts of the wu^


later
was

character
added

except
to

(^

the

radical ; M
at
a

the

character
was

the it.

period. The rain something very earnestly desired for for supplication crops, and they made
The

lower

part of the character


M

is a
ing danc-

symbol
M.

w^hich represents witches

to obtain

rain ; the work


K and for
were spirits

of witches
W. 27

(W.

72 the

wu"

E).

Because

invoked
used
to

for rain

this character
447

has

been

represent

or spiritual. spirit

rit_

han^, The soul. of the dead. 7^,/S. kueP, Radical No. 194 ; the spirits tive (W, 40 C). The old character is a primia human representing beingvanishing
into the

air.

This

character The
a

has
upper

gone under-

several

changes.
of

part is X" is

said to be the head

demon,

the lower the


a

part is

human

being and

152

of representation demon

the

swirl

made

by the
to
mean

when

it

moves.

Phonetic, clouds, borrowed :2^ yiJn'', speak.


evanescence.

This

phonetic adds
The

the
not

idea of

spiritis

visible to

the natural
448

eye.

(W.

93 B

)
.

SJ^l

/e?,Thunder.

1^ yff, Radical

No.

173

rain, (See No. 61).


Without This with

Phonetic, [Tt t'ien^,


"
was

field.

phonetic significa
character
three
or'

(See No. 45). written orif^inally


a

four ig t'ieti' and

small

symbol
was

in the
;
as on

^y

center

which noise of

indicated of
the

reverberation
caused

if the
account

thunder fields VII.

Chalfant, Plate
449

impinging. (W. 149 F).

See

A story (ofa house), a layer. ts'eng', in either the shlU, Radical No. 44 ; a person the recumbent or sittingposture. A in ancient times, w^ho was, living person dressed to impersonate the dead, and was worshipped at the funeral. (W. 32

A).
to

still more, Past, already ; t"etig^, ts'en^.

add.

The

radical f

radical, a
is as follows
needed
one :
"

inappropriate explanation plausible


seems

shih^

an

the character houses


were was

"

story

"

was

when

l)uilt more another

than
room

story high.
wu^

This

M
No.
may

(SeeNo. 337)
the
the

added

tseng (See
room.

230) above
be that

ordinary
room

It
was

character

ts'en^M

written; i^ i.e. M originally

# added,

158

but

was

afterwards
form.
to

contracted

to

its

present
450

*a^,
To chih^,
cure,

heal, to
85
;

govern.

yy%
^

Radical s/zu?,
r

No.

water,
No

(SeeNo. 79).
phonetic sienifiname

Piionetic,I, ones
cance.

self.
was seems

This it

the originally
to

of

river and
to

have
to

been
cure

adopted
without

stand

for

the

verb

etj'mologlcal justification.
.451

"
P

ming^, A J^
hsf

name,

fame, reputation.
No.

Radical /f'oui,

30, mouth.

Phonetic, evening. No
In the
name

phonetic
call out
may

value.
p his

evening -^

one

should

^, in order that others

know

who

approaches.
pra3'', prayer. No.

(SeeNo. 14).

452

m
^ ^
S. J

tao', To

shih\ Radical known,

113,

to

show,

to

make

(SeeNo. 227). sAou*, Phonetic, longevity. (W. 144B). The part of this phonetic is supposed to upper represent a ploughed field J ch'ou^, and the furrows indicates constaiit repetition,
are

turned

over

one

after the other.

With

the addition of p k'oa^ the idea of is convej^ed. The inquiry added has hand, -rfts'un*,
P

repeated present phonetic by the side of

k'ou^,as gestures aid the petition.With


of the

the addition

radical this character idea for prayer;


be heard
"

the heathen fulfills

"for

they
much
453

think

the\^ shall

for their

speaking."
lion.

A shih^,

154

^ -^

ch'iiatP Radical

No.

94,

dog.

(See No.
Composed
vated, steps, eleor

424).
Phonetic, a pipshih^,
of leader
or

master.

^ tuf^ an
and

elevation

of two
"

chin^ and rfJ


stands

?, one

first.
of

This
the

combination

for the banner


first "banner

commander-in-chief, the
the fort

fjl over
.or

thus

the idea of leader

conveyed by this character. With the addition of the dog radical, the, idea is set forth that the lion is the king of beasts. (W. 86' B).
master

is

454

n^t A ch'iang^, wall. No.

^
^

Radical ch'iang^, 84).

90,

splitlog, (See No.

she* se*.Phonetic, grain inclosed in

granary,

;^

frugal, stingy. The present writingof the but phonetic has no phonetic significance, have wall and it may means a |g ch'iang^, been originally used the phoneticand as contracted to the present form. (W. 76 E). ^ She* is composed of hn^ "^ a place
"
to put in, putting: grain in,A" A jv*, and ^ tracted. (contracted) laP, grain, also con-

for

(W.
character
now

13

C), (See No. 64).


to

(This
The
m

means

come).
addition
of

represented bearded
the stalk. which
a

grain hanging
the

from

"With is
a

of

the

radical
we

symbol early

strength,
for

have Walls

good
were

combination built

wall.

around

.156
store

the proper

functioning of
as

tile body ;

restore
were

harmony.

isubstances YegetallDle

first used

niedicinefe.

BALLEE

LESSON

XVI.

^^
^ :^
tb

Bed-clothes, pei^,
suffer.

sign

of the

passive, to

i\ Radical

No.

145

; clothes.
or

p'P, Phonetic, skin (SeeNo. 224).


Its
use

(See No. 51). covering. (W. 43 H.)


radical.

This is the 107th


a

here

as or

for

cloth

integument
the
as

not

cal phonetic with the radiclothingis logical. The being sufficient* to keep

individual

w^arni,

blankets
The the
use

w^ere

garded re-

cloth
as

skin.

of this its

character
use

the
to

signof
suffer
are

passive and

meaning

without

logical etymo-

warrant.

458

J^ -yj^

A bridge. ch'iao^,

7^
m

mu*, Radical

(See No. 36). ch'iao^ Phonetic, loft3^ (See No. 322), (W. 75 B). A bridge is a high ^ structure,
often made of w^ood

No.

75, wood,

TfCthe

459

pa*, To

stop

: sign of finish, resign particle. interrogative

perative im-

", W\ wang\
neng; ]|g

Radical

No.

122,

net, (See No. 38.)

(W. 27 J). (See No. 357). The explanation of ^ by the Shuo Wen is ; an ofl5cer,gg able man, an
taken in the
meshes

Phonetic, able.

[^ of the

law

and

dismissed.

157 ^^0

i^f
-"^

^
.

^V

To cover, to conceal ; sign of passive. tnetig^, ts'ao\ Radical No. 140, grass. (SeeNo. 22). meng^, Phonetic, to cover. (W. 34 T). The part of this phonetic is D mad'; to upper cover something. The lower part is ^ Another a pig under cover. sA/A^, tion explanaof the is that it is a representation dense wistaria w^iich forms foliageand hides from view an\^ thing beneath it. ed The ^ shih''is not pig,but the vine twist-

and
461

coiled around

itself.
; to meet

M
^

p'en^. To'' strike against; to happen


with.

(See No. 42). Phonetic, together.(W. 115B). From jf ;4f;pfng^' shields (? scale pans chUen two or ) evenly is placedabove poised; in pin^ ^ # a man ^^ each pan, or shield, that the two indicating are going along together.When one comes
No.

shiW, Radical

112,

stone.

into collision with


462

stone

5 he is struck J^.

J^

t^sf^ v^

e^

To hstieh^,

learn, to study.
No. 39,
son.

"^
eJ3

(SeeNo. 1). hsiao' hsueh^ Phonetic, to learn. (W. 39 I). bination (See No. 435). This phonetic in comwith tzu' is a good symbol ^
for,to learn.

tzff,Radical

463

J5^. ^^

;ig^;^ J^
.

'^

shou*, To. receive,to


Radical
No.

endure.

3^ya\

29, the right hand, (SeeNo.


character
cannot

43).

This

be broken

up

into radical and is ;iv chao^, the the

phonetic; right hand


of
a

the upper part and below is


person,

righthand

second

(writ-

158

ten

in anotlier
one

way).

Between

these two

hands,
other
in
common

of which

is

there is receiving, the seal writing. This


occurrence
a

giving and the a boat, only seen


portrays
a

articles are
for

to

boat 49
.

and

received

brought shipment,

(W.
464

E.)

Ifei

,
,

miao

temple.
No.

r*^ yen^,Radical

53,

covering a
; to have
an

shelter.

(SeeNo. 132). f |l chao^, Phonetic, morning


with
the

audience

Emperor.
up

(W.
oi kaif

117

D).

This

(SeeNo. 137), and ;fij^ chou^, a boat, changed to ^ in modern writing. The risingof the mist from-the "7 through the junglei^ as seen deck of a boat, in the morning. By extension, morning ; the Imperial court, so held earlyin the called because court was morning. A temple is a place f where have one can audience with the gods. an phoneticis made
465

ponder, to hope. j^ hsiti\Radical No. 61, the heart, (SeeNo. 18). Phonetic, to examine, to inspect.(W. jjQ hsiang^, *" 158 B), (See No. 106). There is another explanationof this phonetic which is not, character which given under the 106th of its meanings,it is as follows suggests one
to
:
"

To think, hsiang^,

When

about

to

build, one
examines which g

goes

into

the

wood,
one

tjc and

mu*

the trees until

is found

answers

the

requirements. With

tl;is explanation

159

the

appropriate is brought out. In hoping, the heart longs for that which is considered appropriate, that which or
idea
of

is suited to its needs.


466

m.m
", B ^

The hsiang^,

?, Radical

countrJ^ No. 163, a city, (SeeNo. 11).

hsiaa^ Phonetic, cooked grain. (SeeNo. 75). (W. 26 L). This character is made up of the right, two ^ R 7 radicals,one on
written
on

in the

usual

manner

|S and
The

one

the left is reversed

% is written

between between

these for the country is the AArhere food cities,

region is produced.

y^, P'^
^

nung*, To toy with ; to do ^ kung^ Radical No. 55, hands joined. (SeeNo. 247.) Phonetic,jade. Without phoneticsignificance. X "^"*' hands are (See No. 124.) The toying w^ith a string of jade beads, a very natural procedure.
"

lAt
1

ne?, Within, inside.

/u*,Radical No. 11, (SeeNo. 35)

to

enter.

(W.
area.

15

A.)
(W.
dicates in-

ri

chiun^ Phonetic,
34 the

space,

waste

A.) The two and limits,


the

vertical strokes indicate


the

horizontal between.

stroke
When X
area

space

is is

added, the idea of going into this


set

forth,so this

character

is the

symbol

for inside.

-^j

Bitter, sorrow, A'u^,

suffering.

160

pu ^

(See No. 22). ku\ Phonetic, old. (SeeNo. 17.) (W. 24 F.) _f^ ^ This phonetic plus W, grass, originally
grass.

ts'ao^ Radical No. 140,

stood
sweet
as

for after

bitter plant which


It freezing.

became
ly mere-

is

now

used

the character

for bitter.
a

470

isao^,To

meet,

to
a

encounter,
had
sense

turn.

Gen-

used in erallj'-

of

encountering (SeeNo. 10.)


K.).
sat two

evil conditions.

J_ m

cho* Radical

No.

162,

to

walk.

ts'ao^ Phonetic, judges (W. 120

In in

cient an-

tribunals,
Eastern
to

t^?vo

judges

the

Hall, representedby
pronounce

acters,' 'M.charon cases

judgment
When
a

El

brought before
we

them.

\_ is added,
who
goes

have

the

picture of
the

man an

before the ordeal. with modern character

judges to

endure

unpleasant
The

Thus

character

ing meetim.plies

undesirable

conditions.

the arbitrarycontraction makes lose much of its original cance. signifi-

471

3i

To 2*,
_^

discuss,to talk
No.

over.

"^ jen^,Radical

^^

(See No. 10.) Phonetic, harmony-, righteous, 2*, public, (W.


71

149, words.

O.)

This

phonetic

is made

up

of ^

wo^
No.
two

(SeeNo. 2) and ^yavg^, sheep. (See


253).
its

(\Y.103
are

A.)

When

the above the ^

characters

combined,

wo'

has

original flict, meaning, namely, a contwo spears attackingeach other. the addition of ^ yang^, the two With combatants have changed and become
"
"

161

lamblike

"

neither

one

is aggressive, concord
the addition

is restored.

With

of 0"

stands for discussing yet?, this combination affairs in the spirit just described. Discussion in a righteous^ way.
"=

472

^^

To lead, to guide ; to receive. 7/ng^, head and body ; yeA*, Radical No. 181, a man but the meaning often is restricted to the head. (See No. 105.) Phonetic, an order. ling*. (SeeNo. 61.) With
"

the addition

of M, leader

man,

the idea is that of procedure.

this

man

or

gives the order

473

W
-U"

ts'un^,A village, a hamlet.

"fCrnu*,Radical
inch.

No.

75, wood.
;

(See No. 36.)

ts'un*, Phonetic, hand (See


for
No.

niodern

69.)

meaning" an the character Originally

ts^un^ ; but i^ has ffip, Avas village supplanted the former entirely. As there for using the is no reason etj'mological

present

character,

therefore

there

is

no

the explanation. In looking over logical China North winter, the plains in be nothing but little to villages seem clumps or handfuls ^ of trees :^,and by

keeping this
how
to write

in mind

one

can

remember

the character.

474

tt
^

^^fjf^

-r^

extra. Jing*, Separate, besides,

Fot^, Radical

No.

30, mouth.
break
a

This does not

it is as radical,
character

phoneticand primitive. In the seal


up
a

into

it represents

knuckle

bone.

162

extendingout from apiece of meat. (joint) it verj' closely reIn the seal wi'iting sembles
iWj7cua^ ; but
The meat it is not the
same.

knuckle

or

bone
as or

beyond extending
the

the

is taken is extra,

sj'mbol

for left

that
over.

which

something

(W.
4yg
-jy" -"sr

118

B.) consult,
No.
to

shang^, To
P

to liberat degive advice,"

k'ou\

Radical

30, mouth.
wrhose
the

This is a character
does
not

modern

radical

original tion composiThe H is a house, of the character. and " is words (See No. 10). Between of jen^ the elements the lower two sj'mbol A ju*,to enter, is inserted. This from gives the idea of being away consult can others, w^here two persons in private. In the oldest writing two H added, jih* (sun, day) characters are thus implying that the consultation took two place between days, at night. To trade do business is a secondary to or much meaning ; but as bargaining requires consultation it is logical.
agree

with

476

^
m

Silk. ch'ou', ssu\ Radical

No.

120, silk.

chou\ Phonetic,complete,(W. 109 C). This is a combination of ^ yutig*, and useful, 7 cbP, the old writing of ^. The idea of is an arrow ffi the target, ability, piercing when and R or 7 (which is now ed changto n arbitrarily k'ou^)is added, the

164

and

field

being

of most

value, all other

articles

are

the pavs-ning is that

because included ; and in value of the article or thing

of most

character

importance, therefore the stands for to be equal to," to


"

value.
479

^
,

E?3
f"^

J"^) To give,with. No. 134, cAiV, Radical is supposed character


; but

mortar.

The
tar mor-

to

picturea
not

the

is representation
was

ing. strik-

This and
has

radical

arbitrarily given,
common

nothing in

with

the

idea. original Phonetic, givingfood from a spoon; to give, f^ -p yii^ in it. with with. -^ indicates a full spoon that something is (at the top) shows from the removed i.e., being given away,
" "

bowl
was

of

the

spoon.

This

character
,

|a,

written originally

in this way But it has of the

5 and suffered

is stillso

abbreviated. The

great changes.

hands

giverfei

and the receiver f^ have

been

added.

Pk fyf^
S

so

that which, place, No.


a

whatsoever. leaf of
a

hu*, Radical

63,

one

door

by
In

tension, ex-

house.
one

(W.

129

.A.)

the

seal writing ^ is
No.
,

half of

P5 meti^. (See

5.)
axe

Phonetic, an JX /q chivvy
Sf
were

catt}'. It has
the

no

netic pho-

because significance,
was

character

made

before radicals and The


Shuo Wen

phonetics
sajs

adopted.
It

that

this character

J5|f represents the


w^ould be
more

sound

of

chopping.

to logical

"1G5

say

it represents the this

place where
was

the fuel
near

is prepared* As door
481
or

done
come

the
a

house

P, it has

to

mean

^ft. (W. 128 A.) place or building,

j^ ^^

YS ^

kuatf, To care, to control ; a tube. chu^,Radical No. 118, bamboo.


kuan\ Phonetic,an
No.

official.

(W.

86

C.)

(See
the
to

310.)
the addition
for tube
or

With

ft chu^,it forms
it is reasonable
the

character
suppose

; and
was

that this
that

and
to
care

for

was

ing, meanoriginal the meaning to control added by extension, as

or a

tube /fjQ

controls

the flow

of w^ater.

shao^, To burn, to heat, to roast ; fever. iK., jK.Auo^ Radical No. 86, fire. A pictorial representation of a flame of fire, in the seal
.

writing.
;

^S yao^ Phonetic
(W.
81

eminent, great.
The

(SeeNo. 77.)

phonetic is made up of ^yao^, earth heaped up, and % wv*, a stool or platform. (W. 29 K.) Thus the the idea of very high is set forth. When
radical stands
483

G.)

for fire is added, for


a

the

character

big blaze

or

great heat.

hung^,To cheat, to
P
|[. -t"-

deceive.

Radical /i:'ou^
old
as

No.

30, the mouth.


24

kung*,Phonetic, all,together. (W.


one

I.)
the

In

^^'^T|
r^

ed

four hands w^riting working in unison.


of
n

are

representdition adis If
same

With

k'ou^, the
from hands assist by

idea
to

of unison

transferred

words.

several persons

saying the

166

thing,deceptionis easier of accomplishment. (The seal writing is twenty "WPairs of hands. f=^.)
484 DO
"

To foUow^, the heel, and, with. keii^, tsu^ Radical No. 157, the foot. (W. The Shuo
Wen

112

B.)

says

that the

the

of this radical that

is O;

part circle indicates


upper

the foot is at rest.

When

motion
lower used

is

indicated ^, 7E is used.
to stop. .ih chih^,

The
now

part is
for the

J" is

the 103rd foot-in general. ^, /" p'P^{shu^),

counterpart of JE. The seal writing shows the *? on top of ih,a radical, was
the foot in motion.
;

The

use

of ik

seems

fortunate un-

stantly walking the foot is constartingT and stoppingih. The is a bolt of present use of /E p'i^ (shu-) This is undone cloth. by turning it over and of stopping and a repetition over, to walk, starting jtE- The character ;$ pu*, also represents stopping ih and starting
"

but in

?("'. The
to

reversed is ih chih^,

so

ing mean-

start.

Thus

of

stoppingand 112 C, G.)


223.)

walking is a repetition of the feet. (W. starting


obstinate.

kctl^ Phonetic, perverse,

(W. 26 L.) In of action, or it is not be persistence must The fixed or hard part ^ accoinplished.
of the

(See No. there following'

foot Jg.is the


a

heel KB.
to

"To

heel"

is the order to
485

dog
atone,

follow.

Hi

t^

sht^, To redeem,

to

to

ransom.

^ pei\ Radical

No.

154, precious. (See No. 38.)

yu^ Phonetic, to hawk,


The modern

to

peddle,(W.
to

79

J.)
is it is

writing of this character


K

identical with
from
a

mai\

sell ; but this

explains characters with this phonetic why so many have of a/. The phonetics a final u instead and M, mai* are used in onl3'M map a few characters as phonetic. The upper part
of this
a

different root, and

phonetic is ik ^ /u*,a
that

mushroom,
ic. written Below
zontally. horithe of
on

plant ^ ^

stands
a

as

man

the

there
"

is
'^

S
a

mv^,

eye,

mu*,
the

addition

of

With loving eye. radical K, the idea Hawkers look

hawking
their
way
w^ares

is set with

forth.

great regard, and

in this

they induce
the

purchasers
of
to must

to

give the

highest price.
With is the

addition

second

K pei*this
ing ransom-

symbol for

ransom

; in

the full value


486

be

paid.

r"I, Is)

mien*, The
Radical This

face, a surface,a side.


No.

176, the face.


is made
up

(W.
of
H

160

B.)
the

radical
a

shotP,
said
to

heg,d, and
of the
a

primitiveO which
The

is the outline be

face.
nose nose

fn, while
all
save

face, is
The

@,

the"dash

above.

is the

most

prominent

part of the face.


487 S**

g"
"^
-**

ka?, Should, ought,

to

owe.

yefl^ Radical
in
the

No.

149, words.

(See No. 10.)


P.M.,
69
"

hai* Phonetic, nine to eleven

sj^mbol

horary cycle. (W.

K.)

(See

168

No.

180)

When

com'oined

with

yen^

it has only simple phoneticforce.

^J^
J^

haa^, Flowers

; to

spend.
3

-H- ts'ao^ Radical No.

40, grass.

(See xNo. 22.)


fS, man
tumbled
later the

hua\ Phonetic,
heels
over

change. S ft, was Originally


to

(W. 30, D.)

head

; i.e.changed and

radical A
enters

The character added. was feti^ into the composition of ^ /ao^ old.

(SeeNo.
A

209).
is that

When
the

ts'ao\ is added

to

it forms ft /j"a*, flower

symbol
a

for flower. which from

part of
or

plant

is
the

different strikingly
other 489 ^1

changed

parts.
the

pp. That,

other, there.
No.
60
;
a

^
r^ ^

ch^ih* Radical

step,
43

to

go.

p'i^ Phonetic,
224.)
The here used
as

skin.

(W.

H.)

(See

No.

This

is the
a

107th

radical.

It is

simple phonetic. radical -t going, is chosen


,

for the

demonstrative it is distant

pi-onouri
and
one

"

that," because
go
as

must

to

it.

Jtbt'su^ here, has


one

_ih stop,

the radicalbecomes

stops and

that

object now

"this."
490

(cf491.)

ke^,To

IJ Jj

cut, to hack, to reap. tao\ Radical No. 18, a knife.


to

^ ^

hai\ Phonetic,
No. This

(See No. 37.) (F. 97 E.) (See injure.'


with
in

436.)
when

combined

71 tao^ is

as suggestive phonetic,

has

to

be done

to

reaping violence the standinggrain. To

169 reap
was

probablj'the

first

meaning

of

this character.
491

jifc. ^^
ih

t'zu\This, here. (W. 112 A.) chih^ Radical No. 77, to stop.
Plate
which

VIII.) Chalfant
represents
a

has

an

(Chalfant, old writing


from

plant withered

lack of moisture.

\^ (\ pP

Phonetic,
21st

to

turn

one's 26

self around

; the

radical.

(W.

B.)

The

modern

writing of this radical is identical with \^ ^ hua*, change, (W. 30 D) ; but they are quitedifferent in the seal writing. This is the place to stop Jh and turn li is Jifc and convenient mnemonic for jIfc, Jh a chiH' is a logical radical,as one going to distant object, a (" designated as that, now there,) stops on arrival and may say here Jtfc. (cf. this, 489).
"

"

492

iag-

1^^,

Convenient, advantageous. pien*, Radical No. y, man. jen^. y^ J\^ Phonetic, to change, to improve. (W. -^ ^ ketJg'^, from 41 A). This comes 0i| ping^,a fire burning a house, calamity. When ;^ p'u, a righthand using a rod, a sign of control, instead of being a de^ is added, the fire, stroyer, is a convenience, an advantage. (See No. 226).
When the

radical

for

man

is added
are

the

idaa is set forth

that

sol that
493 R^^

men

are

adjusted satisfied, get advantage.

affairs

nH

suP, To follow, to

accompany.

170

^\l^

^"* Radical
In

No, 170,

mound.

(W.

86

A.)

the seal

it represents a -writing
;

terraced

embankment

by extension

earthworks,

einbankments, etc. suP, Phonetic, to follow

(W. 46 D.). This phonetic has its root in |^ to*, to build earthworks about a city in order to besiege it. The tc left hand repeated indicates
the enemy is in great numbers,

that that the

and

the action is contrary to the action of

besieged. In Pf (meat cut up) one of the ;" tso^,is replaced bx" E jou*. This of the have been suggested account on may mutilation of the vanquished ! With the
addition
of
3l_

cho*, the character


the
to

indicates

following

around

in order

avoid

ramparts, perhaps being wounded,

(mutilated).
494

Ija

To add to, to increase. c/jiV, (W. 53 D.) Rad. No. 19, strength, muscle. 77 li^, (See No, 212.) While n k'ou^, occupiesthe place of the it phonetic, idea is
:

has

first

phonetic value. The give the order, P and if it


no

is not
495

heeded

follow

it up

with

ment chastise-

(muscularpunishment) ij.
To p'ao^,
run.

J" tsa^ Radical No. 157, the foot. ^ pao^,Phonetic, to wrap up. (W.
This is made
up
to

54

B.)

bending over
80).
to

With

the

^ pao^, a person enfold an object(SeeNo. addition of E S- it means


of O
was primitiveineaning

-w^rsLp up.

The

172

cho^ Radical

No.

162,
cart

to
or

walk.

cA'eS Phonetic,

No. 10.) (vSee carriage. (See Xo.

136.)
Without
says

force. lahonetic the character

The

Shuo
a

Wen

that

represents

string

of

carriages moving along as


the
'^

if connected.

Thus Carts

idea

of to

connect

is obtained.
a

moving

leave

continuous
of
a man.

track, not broken

like the track

;A|J^
3P -^

/an*,To transgress, to offend.

dog. The seal is a pictorial character of representation a dog. (W. 134 A.) (See No. 424.) li han^ Phonetic ; to blossom, expansion, eruption. (W. 55 K). (See No. 497.) This of radical and combination phonetic is could be more suggestive very apt. What of heedlessness than a dog in a flower bull in a china a garden ? unless it were shop.
No.

ch^uatf

Radical

94,

"

^^^

*aoS To

fall over.

Radical No. ^ J\^ jen^, tao*.Phonetic, ^Ij

9, man.
to

(See No. 88.)" The original meaning of this phoneticmay have been similar to the expression The wiU be his end liaugman's noose ; as a
arrive
at.
"

"

sword
is

was

used

for executions, the the knife descends.


have

man

prostrate when

The

present meaning may

been

acquired

by extension.
\Yhen
the
man

the executioner's A
falls

axe

73 arrives "

M-

173 502

1^ ""^

kati\ To
^

to affect. influence,

(W.

71

F.)
"

*t^hsin\ Kadical

No.

61, lieart.

j^

hsierf Phonetic, to

all).

A wound

(modern meaning J^ made by the mouth p.


a a

bite

(W.

71

P.) jr^wu*,
inflicted by
wound.

halberd.

is a //st?, jgJt
the

wound

halberd,
"
a

-dash,
ed inflict-

being the

Where

k'ou^ is added,
wound

the character

is used for

by teeth. This kind of wound is most it ;6 is added painful; therefore when forms an appropriate symbol for moving
the emotions. This is the character

which

is used
503

for

stimulation. physiological

^^

"^" f"Tl p'^^^f By the ^ i. jj fang",Radical


It is

pr:

side of,others,border, lateral.


No.

70,

square.

(W.
boats fonn
a

117

A.)

supposed to together so that


pontoon.

be

two

lashed
square

they

"^

j[ p'ang^ Phonetic.
The
two
-i-

space

with

three

aries. boundtlie

shang^,is
are

the top, and

lower

lines

the

side limits.

The it the
on

radical :""fang^,w^as
conveys
no are

added

later, and
as

additional
the

meaning,
M.

sides which
^"*

parts

of the

character

emphasis is laid. cf.

^^"st, certainly. (W. 18 ^\ )f}(pi'' hsiTi\Radical ^1^^


This
its modern No.

G.)

61, heart.
has been

(See No. 18.)


so

character

mutilated
of its

in

is lost enables A

writing that all ; but a glance at


one

logy etymoing. mean-

the seal writing


the

to

understand the two

forms pa^ eight,

and sides,

174
means

to

divide; between
The
arrow

these two
must

strokes

is

dart.
a

strike the
arrow

target in
shot
to out

certain

spot, like the


It
seems

by WiUiam
been
a

Tell.
an

have

strict order. under the

primaril3r interjection pointing The placing of this


radical for heart is

character
a

mistake.
even

505

suP, Though,

if.

^
^

chuP

-Radical No.

172,

short-tailed

bird.

(SeeNo. 21.) The phonetic of this


and

character in the

is not

mon, com-

is not
says

found
the

dictionaries.
is composed
worm,

Williams
of Pi and is an

character

weP, only, and A, ch'uti^,a


that it
was a a

lizard.

Others

say

it

insect iU w^ith has


now

head Uspecial

This
the

meaning
character
506
"

long since been lost,and means though.


on

.^

Yes JBii', hand.

still,nevertheless,

the

other

(W.
No.

65

G.)

huo\ "AC.'^^^

Radical

86, fire.

tt^ Jan' Phonetic, dog meat. i^ ch^uarf, dog. With


radical
was
now

(See Xo. 482.) From F3 jou^,and


the addition of the

for fire the

character

originally
it is
sequently con-

used for roasted

dog meat ; but used as a conjunction,and there is no logical warrant

for

its
507

use. ijresent

Am
.

chP, Since

sign No.

of the past.

wa" Radical lame


man

71, without.
who wartg^,

(W.
makes

61
an

C.)

"

eifort,

175

but

meets to

with
overcome.

an

obstacle While which

"

which

he is is

unable

the above
Hsi
to do

the radical under

this it.
or

Kang character, it has nothing It is ^ chi* (W. 99 E), to


swallow which
out

places
w^ith

breathe

in,

to

is the
;

reverse as

of ^
a

to breathe ch'ien*,

but

this is not

radical it was

placed under
rice.
"

wu^.

Cf. 273.
26

^ ^

hsiang^Phonetic, boiled
is U
a

(W.

L.)

6
;

kettle,and
is the
spoon

the dash

is its contents it is eaten.

with

which

(SeeNo. 75.)
This

is
an

an

endeavor

to

put into pictorial

form

is
an

fore condition, and thereintangible belongs to a class of characters which often disappointing ; but here v^re have The exception.The ^ is to swallow.
of the
or a or

remainder
a

character

is boiled rice, is
thing some-

mouthful

meal

swallowed

finished
as

ended, hence it is taken

the

sign of

the past.

508

"=^
.

.HL
__

^.

p
"J^
.St

Pleasure, joy. (W. 165 B.) /2si^ k'ou^,Radical No, 30, mouth.
chou^

Phonetic,

drum head

on

stand, the

the representing
are

of the drum.

Above
no

the ornaments.

This phonetic has

When k'ou' n phonetic value. it stands for singing. Thus the

is added
character

represents vocal
and ^"^

and

instrumental

music,

joy. by extension,
17

"n
P

H.) cA/eF Radical No. 26, a joint. (SeeNo. 42.) it is part as It has the idea of restraint,

to reject. (W. ch'ueh\ Yet, still,

176

of

seal,"a seal prevents forgery. The

have originated meaning of joint may owing to this being only a section of the

seal.

"^,-^

ch'iao* Phonetic, the upper lip; the flesh ^ the mouth above p Ivovi^. This phonetic
when one's

"P chieh^ is added


desires ; to

means

to

restrain

because nothing reject, We is desired. more speak of keeping a stiff upper lip when undergoing that which determination. requires
" "

510

E3
;,

;?

1^
I="

P, weP, The

tail of animals.
No. 44
;
a

(W.
person

100

B.)
the
"

shih^,Radical
The
773a

in

cumbent re-

postui'e.

(See No. 449.)


seal

phonetic
o^ inverted
it in the

in the
; but

character

is ^

the

scribes have in the

ten writ-

regular way
Inverted downward.

modern that the

character. hair
511
was

it indicated

growing

huan^. Pleased, rejoiced, happy.

'K
M

Radical ch'ien*,

No.

76,

to

exhale

; to

owe.

(SeeNo. 273.) kuan* Phonetic, the


When
a

heron. has

heron

(See No. 428). a just swallowed


a

fish

it

emits frequentlj^

scream

of
heron

satisfaction ; and

this may

be used

why
to

f
512 A pien*,

and

to

exhale

are

express

rejoicing.
queue
; to

plait.

(See No. 8.) Phonetic. Two ^f:hsin^,criminals (W. pien* a 102 H.) ^- hsh} is composed of ^ /er/,
ssu

Radical

No.

120, silk.

177

serious offence* and Jfc, ing) sbang*("^old writ-

superior. In the phonetictwo criminals are supposed to be another ; each mutually incriminating one
; to

ofifend one's

accusation other's

is met

with

retort

of the

deeper guilt. With


two outer

the

addition
is used
are

of the radical for silk the character the as for,to plait,

strands

across repeatedly thrown side. In all compounds action. reciprocal

to the

opposite

it has the idea of

BALLEE,
513

liESSON

XIX.

Everywhere, pien*.
cbo* Radical
No.

the whole.

(See No. 10.) Phonetic, a tablet,or signboard ; thin pietf. and flat ; an inscription hung over a door. the addition of i^ (W. 156 D.) With cbo*, the idea of universal is conveyed, as where seen will, the tablets are you go
162, walking.
over

doors.

514
to pardon, to overlook. jaa^.To forgive, (See No. 75.) shih\ Radical No. 184, food. yac^. Phonetic, eminent, great ; earth heaped a high base. on (SeeNo. 77,) With the the first meaning was addition of -ftshih^, Thus by extension of food the abundance has plenty g of food -^ to forgive. If one (the first article used in barter)he should
.

forgive^
515

debt

to

one

in want.

J4I

ma?.

To

bury

; to

lie in wait.

178'

Radical t'u', -jfarm

No.
a

IP, Phonetic,

82, earth. (See No. 13.) Chinese mile; old meaning,


'

land,Milage;' (W. 149 D. ) (SeeNo. is added, it is reasonable 339). Because "^uS


to suppose

that the firstuse These

was

trenches for
up

militarypurposes.
as

cut

the land
were

if for

farming,only

the

trenches

deeper and longer.

M
^
1

chun^,To allow, to permit ; exactly, certainly.


Radical piti^,
No.

%6, ice. The seal writing that form when represents the ice crystals is freezing.(W. 17 A.) water 7K,7^ shu?, Radical No. 85, water. (SeeNo. 79.) shun^ Phonetic, a falcon,which always comes
"

to

roost

on

one

branch

and

is

sure

in its

(W. swooping ipn its prey. ,168 B.) ?iisacontraction;of^. Thus* is taken as a shiin^, sign of certainty. stance level subWater 7jC or ice js the most in the worlds',' Formerly ^ chan^, used as a syipbol for weighing: the was scale pans were always {M shun^)even or level (7jC shuP or 7 ping^)- This old the and meaning is obsolete^ present br to allow. The meaning is certainly, meaning to allow came abo^t thus : when for pferiiaission to do a certain applies one
moyements,
"
"

he thin^,
to
,

must

assemble
reasons

reasons

sufficient this mode the desired

equalthe

opposing
obtain
''

of action before lie can

permission.
517

3ik

Ry^C
_^

t'anP, To chat, to

converse.

"^ yen\

Radical

I4^','^df d^. Nc".' (SeeNot..10.)

180

"" hsin^ added

the idea is :
use

one

should be

sparingin the (W. 17 J.).

of the

preparedmeat.

'"'M 3C4\

To forgive, to excuse. shti^, it^hsin\ Kadical No. 61, the heart.


"hn

Phonetic, like. (SeeNo. ju^. with womanly skill in circumstances, and


man

the

(SeeNo. 18.) 325.) To speak conformityto the of the disposition

(husband) she desires to wheedle. When is added, the idea is to act ifjf hsin^, in accordance with the higherimpulsesof sires one's nature, or in harmony with the deof the suppliant, i.e., forgive.

'"^mM
"^

fu\ To return,

:f ch'ih* Radical

repeat. (W. 75 I.) No. 60, a step. (SeeNo. 10.)


to return to

/u* Phonetic, to

quarters.

This

phoneticis derived from ^ ^ kuo^, walls, in the fortifications. The seal writing o is the city,and the two smaller center
circles,one
"

above

and

one

below,
"

are

the In

gates, each surmounted


" the lower

by

tower.

With
to the

are placed regate and tower file. by ^ chih\ to walk single the addition of ;f nothing is added
,

here
was

60th radical is meaning return to quarters a redundancy. To the original meaning.


; thus

the

523
-U
**
"

mu*, A grave. t'u^ Radical No. 32, earth. (See No. 13.) mu^ Phonetic, the sun setting ; to disappear.

(W. 7 8 G.) The sun is seen through the in the west. $+ mattg^ setting vegetation,

181

When
corpse

"'u^ is added, the idea is that the disappearsin the earth, is buried
"

in the grave.

^, ^

wei\ Not yet, not. (W. 120 C.) Radical No. 75, wood. """*" (See No. 36.) :;fC The phoneticis a curved line in the seal writing; and contrastingthis character with M^ mo*, the highest branches or be that in ^ the twigs of a tree, it may its full growth. tree had not yet attained the top or end is emphasized In ?fe In ^ it is small,hidden, not yet grown.
" .

525

1^ 4^
hS*

A^grave, a ieii',
Radical J2. t'"*.
No.

tomb.

32, earth.

"^

fen* Phonetic, ornaments.

vegetation,and
and shells
w^ere

^
the

(W. 78 F.) # huP, pei*, shells. Plants


first articles used in

decorating.
means a

When

dh t'u^,is added, it
When
or

grave.

the grave
526

is more

burying the dead less elaboratelydecorated.

-r^

^1^
^

a tombstone. peP, A stone tablet, Radical No. 112, a stone. (SeeNo. 42.) "^ shiti', (W. 46 E.) "^ peiSPhonetic, ordinary,mean. this phonetic was a Originally drinking vessel which had a handle on the leftside,

and

which
was

was

held with

the left hand

f^
.

There

the drinking vessel, this was used only for the sacrifices, dg: tsun^, hence its meaning, honorable. (W. 47 C). The^pei^, was a common, manent pernot thing, somethingonly seen on

another

occasions. sacrificial

Hence

its

use

with

182 ;
.

;^,

5
No.

to

represent

permanent

tablet, of.

477.

527 ;;j^

^p

/Isu^To. promise,to allow, perhaps.


"^

-C

Nbl 10.) yet^,Radical No. 149, words, (Seie ^"^' Phonetic, noon. (W. 130 A.) Chalfant 41 4n "^' ' of and Wiegergive different explanations this symbol.
more

Chalfant appears

to

form con-

by this
a

to the meaning imparted nearly phonetic.The seal writing sents repre-

noon

mark

drawn

from

the

ridge
the

pole down
shadow
noon.

through
coincides word

the with

gable.
this

When mark

it is

When

a" is added,

tlie meanand
one

words aSre exact ^, ing is that ones will be iulfilled," a prornise which fcannot depend on is no promise.

"

i^(^

kai^,Generally,for

the

most

part.

meaning
from
the

"

striker to

level off

Original the grain

^fcmt^, Radical

top of the measure. No. 75, wood. (SeeNo. 36.)


;

Phonetic, to swallow chi^.

(modern meaning "since, already). (See No. 507.) The striker pushed off all the grain which was
than higher
the

top of the

measure,

"

all

thg,tcannot

be held inside of the measure;


sum,

thus the idea of


529
'

general, average. F.)


see, to

^
^ i^,

custom. AueiS Rvtle, (W. 131 chien*,Radical Np. 147, to


,

perceive.

No. 85.),; (See;

adult. This should be ^ Phonetic, an fti\ arrow an s/w'A*, ^ee No. 100) ; but owing

183

writingof ^/a^ and 3c shih^, similar (a*^ fu^ ^ shih?) ^ was ;being very substituted for^. Neither of these phonetics has any as phonetic significance, is old, having been in -the character before the system of phonetics was use well established. The significance of the
to

the seal

cbmbiiiation original corifortn to

was

in order
act
as

to

rule

one
"

niust

when

M the target, archery, observe, practicing and adjustthe arrow quirements. accordingto reTo

watch
to the

the

workmen

^, and keep them


530

rules S.

m
7K,y
^ g"

huo^. Living,lively ; niovable. Radical No, 85, water. s^"'""'


iuo*
'

Phonetic,
114

to

hold

in

(SeeNo. 79.) one's mouth; (W.


to

C),

abbreviated

=S

she^.

This

frbiiia different writingof phoneticcomes Sk tP ^ pronounced kuo^ fixed ; (seeNo. kuo' the + shih^ is deleted. 257). In The idea is that something is permanent
in the

mouth.

When

water

was

added

This living. that the physicalconcharactier showed ditions studied : they observed were early that nibisture in the mouth was a sign of this formed
'

the character for

health
'

and

life. A

'

is an ffi lively
a lueh*. Slightly,
;,

7K tongue "S is easy mnemonic. in general,a little,


"

moist

P^

sum-

'

Original meaning boundaries that separate every # ko*,field H fietiK -""""" (W. 31B.) "59' t'/M Hadieai No. l02,a field"; (SeeNo. 82.)
mary.
"

""'

:"
f

ko\ PhohetiGJ eachj


The
.

every.

(See

No.

272.)

was originalme'aning of B" liieh*, logical ; but owing to the tendency of the farmers to encroach little by little on the land of their neighbors, it has obtained a new meaning, of few, slightly.

532

it-ff

H^

Alas ! aiS E:?clamation of disgust, k'ou^,Radical No. 30, the mouth.

3t

This phonea plant. ai*, Phonetic,artemisija, tic is made X ?


up

of the

two
+""
as

blades

of shears
It is

(W.

39 B) and A' ou*

ts'ao\
a

grass.

used here with


533

simplephonetic.

HJj
P

ya\

An

interjection.
No. 30, the mouth..
teeth.
It

k'ou^,Radical
the 92nd
a

arlJ"a^Phonetic, the
as k^ovi^

(SeeNo, 97.)
is used
here

It is

radical.

with

simple phonetic.

BALLER,
534

LESSON

XX. ; to

ftzL

jrj^

t^o

To

cast

to abandon off,

undress.

%,^
^

iou\ Radical No. 130, flesh ; (See No. 133.) yueh, tui*,Phonetic, to exchange, to barter. and give Original meaning, to dispelgrief pleasure,(See No, 72) (W. 29 D). The Shuo Wen does not explain this combination,
but if one
"

recalls

how

pleasant it is
it

to may

throw aid

clothingwhen over warm in the writingof the character.


covenant,
an

off

535

/|"V

J^

To bind, a yueh^,

agreement.

ssu\ Radical No. 12Q, silk,

No. 8.) (^See

18

Aj

shao% Phonetic, a No. 6.)


"

spoon.

(W.

54

H.)

(See

The

Shuo

Wen

is silent on

this character.
as

In order to aid the memory


one

to its

struction con-

should
of
a

remember

that

at

the

conclusion
are

treaty

or

contract
a

there

presents of ^ silk and


stands
;

feast. !

^ shad^,spoon,
536,
chieh^
or

for the feast.

To separate ke^,

divided

by

tion. parti-

Jp'. IS M
^
sT

Radical

No.

170,

moUnd.

No. 493.) (See


;
a

ke* Phonetic, a

caldron large three-legged radical No. 193. statesman; (W. it differed from A.) This being large,

155
dinary or-

a
'

utensils ; and -with the addition of it forms a radical ^vhich indicates lofty, which from the
or suggests separation
common a

character

removal

class.

^", ^g
P

shan\ Good, moral. (W, 73 D.) k'on\ Radical No. 30, mouth. This character, in its modern
not

form, Avill

break Hsi

up

into radical and used


P

phonetic.
It

Kang
root

has

k^oti^instead of b" had its

yet^,word,
in
a

for the

radical.

composed of two b yen^ characters, i.e.^ chin^, to dispute.


character
It is now

often written

j^ : and

when

#:

yang'' was
"

w^ritten above
or

ft it implied

that harmony

after

ed restorwas good feeling quarrel. (See^^ i*, ness, righteous-

471.) As this character was its abbreviated to complicated it was jen^ present form by the scribes. Onea
No.

186

has been is
538

discarded, and

the
one

seal

writmg
hate*

followed partially

in the

retained.
to

j^^

-gS-

Read wu*, it means o*,Evil,wicked. Radical No. 61, the heart. i^\hsin^, Phonetic, ugly. (W. 82 H.) P5 j'a',
to be to each two

It is supposed

hunchback
When

men

other.

heart is

talking added, the

heart takes the ugly characteristics, person's wicked. evil, i.e.,


539
-H-

-M-

^, Tnf^

cb'f,He, she, it. (W.

/^ paS Radical No. -y-ch'i Phonetic, a sieve, (W. 70 A.) The of is a pictorial representation phonetic
the

C.) 12, eight.


70

object.

In

the

seal

character

the

bottom

part of this character is % wtj*, a stand, and not A pa^. This character lost its original meaning, and is borrowed for a personal pronoun.
, _

540

rlfc?

Grieved, sorry, peP^,

sad.

'

Radical No. 61, heart. "L^ hsin^, Phonetic, not. fei", (W. 170 A.)
175.

Radical No.

in the explained Shuo Wen, but the etymology is not difficultto trace. It is something which is not ^^ /eiS accordingto one's desire j"

This combination

is not

hsin^ ; therefore it causes


541

sorrow.

'f ^
_

distress. sAangS To wound, to injure, Je^^ RiadicalNo. 9. a man. to wound. Phonetic, shang^, (W. 101 B.) To wound with a spear. ^ shang^, was the original writing. The ^ yang',

"

188

the with

which writingis identical) the left hand. with the The


drum

was

beaten
was

which
was

beaten thus

righthand
stroke

written
drum
-tA.

5|. The
c"

upper

is the the

head, the
stand. foolish. drum
A

is the drum, and


the

the

Observe

character

"^ tai^,
a

dog it is beside

himself when has

is beaten.

since lost its

this kind of

character has

long original meaning, owing to drum the being discarded, been.adopted for the above

As this character

meaning.
545

six
J^

dare, to venture. (W. 146 P'h^Radical Ko. 66, to strike.

^^"^" To
The

H.) neng^,

phonetic is
a

bear
the

^ i^. M

able, is
the
No.

right part of character represents the paws. (See are 357). But in ": the paws pressed supto make
room

bear, and

for the

radical ;
to

a a

person

who

has

the courage

strike

bear, therefore brave.


546

-f

cM, A foundation ; property. Radical No. 32, the earth. fu"", it. (SeeNo. 539.) ch'P,Phonetic,
The

Shuo

Wen
As

does not

treat

of this

bination. com-

"

t'u^ earth, is below


the inventor
to show

ch'P,it
beneath
or

may

be that

of the

character

intended it

that the earth

the

is the foundation, (a structure) place where the foundation must earth ^J^.
.'.

be laid ; its ^ 547


To tu^f
oversee, to

superintend.

189

g 0
qjj

mu\ Radical No. 109, the

(W. 158 A.) In the oldest writingtwo eyelidsand the pupilare represented; later the pupilwas suppressed.
eye.

M,, jft^ shu\

Phonetic,

to

collect ^

beans

7^. The

character is supposed to represent a stalk /h of beans with two pods attached. This

meaning
of
person

is now g

obsolete.

tion With the addithere is


a

mu* it impliesthat
oversees now

who

the bean is used

picking; and
mean seer, over-

the character and


younger 548

to

is borrowed brother.

for uncle,a father's

ktiai*. Strange,to blame.

*|* 't^, bsin\ Radical No. '?'"^ kuai^ Phonetic, to


over
.

61, the heart.


till the

The

ground, a hand % the earth ". (W. 81 A.) produce of the ground when tilled
Chinese
as

struck the ancient and when

remarkable,
"6 is added,
the idea

the radical heart is used abnormal.


to

the character of strange


549 Jdk
or

convey

1^

shu, A comb.

^
;*?

mu*, Radical

No.
a

75, wood.
child

"'u^ Phonetic,

'^^

being born, with long hair. (W. 94 F.) From :"C (W. 94 E); the birth of a child,head presenting : the favorable position. In the above, most hair is added, and it is the striking part
of the character. for wood
for

With

the

addition

of
the

the radical character


are

:^ ma*, it forms
as

comb,
^

combs
=

in China

made

of wood.

inverted.

190

550

-^^
^"

To givealms, to bestow, s/^e^

to

part with, to

^,

_^

reject.
T

shou^,Radical No. 64, the hand. (SeeNo. 53.) she*, Phonetic, a cottage. (SeeNo. 40.) is added, it the radical for hand When
forms
to

the character

to

give. Beggars

go

houses

in order to get food.


a

551

"a^, /tfK

PP, 0^
P

Ivife m/ag'*, ; fate ; destiny;

command.

(Wj

141.) A'paS Radical No. 30, the mouth. Phonetic, an order,a law. (SeeNo. 61.) lin^. the order When is stamped it is ^ order known P ; an published or made command or by w^ord of mouth.
ch'uaif,Entire, perfect, all,the whole.
15

552

"^Hh!

(W.

B.)
No.

Radical ;"*.
As

11,

to

etiter. (See No. 35.)


has been

placed under A ja*, it is not now to break it possible up into radical and phonetic. The more plausible explanationis that it is composed
of A

this character

chi and

kung^.
work X
a

ten It is also writhas been


or pleted com-

^ and
A..

^
In

the

making

chair
were

other

article,wheii all the parts


and
553

finished

put togetherA
proper,

the article is finished.

ji^

ying^-*, Ought,
Radical hsin^, i'^\

respond, fulfill.
written

61, heart. ying^,Phonetic, the falcon, now


Nb.

(V\

168
-

house

a J.) It is made up of r yen^, and domesticated here indicating


-

'^ cAti? and

jen^

'"

tame

bird

which

191
serves man.

These

birds have
game.

long been
With
means

used

for

hunting small
of heart
or

the
;
"

addition
to answer,

the character

iC"is proper.
the character

obey, to do what one feels This meaning is placed on


as

sire the dethe falcon fulfills in

of its master ^ij"


554

seizing game.

m
^

Buddha. fo^, Radical J^jen^,


No.

9,

man.

ft^ Phonetic, not.

bent D). Two rods or bows tied together that their so force is neutralized ; therefore they stand

(W.

87

for not.
may

This
been
to

combination

not

man

have

selected by the Buddhists

was emphasize that Buddha a supernaturalbeing. Another writingis Western man. ^=MMA

in order

555

m
S

yeh\ A final particle.(W. 146 E). ^ er^ Radical No. 128, the ear. (SeeNo. 71). tic Phonetic, a city. (SeeNo. 11). No phoneg /*,
value. bsieb^
was

This

character

is said to be % It

of

arbitrarily changed. of a cityin the the.name means Shantung. It now


At

originally
part

eastetn

depraved,
two

erroneous. are

present these
M

ters characas

distinct entirely final particle.

is

only used

556

:^ ^
'

su\ To glean,to revive. (W. 121 D). bo^,Radical-No. 115, growing grain. In the seal writing the ear head of grain is, or owing to its weight,hanging to one side (W. 121 A.)

192

yff, Phonetic, a fish. This (See No. 284); There is

is radical
no

195.

explanation of this character -which throws any light To its the on etymology. present day portant gleaningafter the field is reaped is an imaffair in the rural districts.
It is that formerly the fishermen left possible the small fish after they had remoY"i from their nets the largerones, but the present selves. is to remove custom every thingfor them-

fish ^ and crops $ when dying for lack of moisture may be revived

Both

M by water.

^
f"

ch'ieh\ To

cut, to slice.
No.

(W.

33

A). 32). This as phonetic


about
the

71 tao^,Radical
may

18,
seven.

knife.

cA'iSPhonetic,
have the

(See

No. the

been selected as

permanent, incisor teeth appear


year

the seventh teeth.

and

these

are

cutting

BALLEE,
558

VOCABULAEY
a

NO.

IV.

m
J[, ^

A p'ing^,

vase,

jug,a

bottle.

T^a^ Radical No. 98, earthen ware. A). Chalfant on Plate XIV,
radical.
He

(W.
has
a

145
very

of this plausible explanationof the origin

believes it to be
tiles
-""

pictorial
the

.,"

of the representation Originallywritten changed to ^


.

on

roof.

and

afterward

^'

" r

Phonetic, two ping'^,


side

men

with

marching shields,
united.

by side, even,
115

phonetic. (W.

B.)

(SeeNo.

Simple 235).

i9^
559

J^
^^'

Clear,luminous, bright. (W, "^o*- Jiatig^,


''*'
Ju

75

C).

t'ou^ Radical

No. 8,

cover

or

roof.

given a radica "which prevents its being divided into radical and phonetic. There is an old )l^, ^ and it is thus explained "writing : The men A at the capital, m ; those who advisers to the Emperor, are are more than other men. The present enlightened is relatively "writing of the character modem, the upper part is from i^ kao^, is to the capitaland man high, referring
This character
has been
"

subs-tituted for the lower

in kao^.

The

etymology is the writing.


560 r-;

same

as

that of the older

:^,

P?

f^H

military. (W. pin^. Soldier, pa^. Radical No. 12, eight. jf\^
iri

47

D).

chit^, Phonetic, an

(W. 128 A). The lower part of ^ is riot pa* but a contraction of H iV kuti^ thus in the seal writing two hands are wieldinga battleax or

battle-ax.

ax.

561

t'nfSTo push

; to

shirk ; to refuse.

;t shou% Radical No. 64, the hand. chuP Phonetic, a short tailed bird. Radical MU ^ No. 172. (See No. 21). The Shuo Wen the to is silent as etymology of this
character
; but

it may

be that it was

gested sug-

by poultryraising. When the feed trough is surrounded by those first on the spot, the tardy bird pushes and shoves until it reaches the desired place.

m 562

jb+ jfct
^
'

ts'"i', Material, stuff. ""*. Radical No. 75, wood. ts'aP,Phonetic,talents,power,

i^
J.

(See No. 36).

genius. This

used for material was phoneticoriginally suitable for building, but graduallyit was adopted for its present meaning. The
upper

horizontal

stroke

in the

seal

writing, indicates
of
a

the

large branches
stroke is

tree

the second

horizontal

the

ground (W. 96 A). A tree when of size for building is spoken proper purposes of as # t'saP, befiare it attains to that distinction it is referred to as ^^ p'i'
ch^afi,fire wood.
t^saP. Wood Financial
was
one

pow^er

is If

:^

of the firstsubstances

:^ worked
563

upon

by

man.

Wi\ ^vi,

shou^,Ripe ; experienced ; versed


intimate.

in ; cooked

^, X ^

huo\ Radical No. 86, fire. (See No. 47). shu^ Phonetic,who, which, what ; but originally,
a

lamb

of proper

size and

condition

roasting. (W. 75 E). The rightside of the phonetic%, ^ chi*, implies holding the animal. (SeeNo. 139) J, ^, Ch'un' is a lamb largeenough to be offered as a present 0, to a superiorbT. The writing
for
-

has

bfeen'contracted With

to

the present form.

(W. 75, ").

the addition

of

""

fire,

the idea of cooked

is set forth.

ae*^
.

^'

^
IC

ku\

girl.
No.

;l^'.-jc
J

^^^ Radical

SS, ^^vjioman.

"S.'S ia^rPhonetic, old.

(See No.

(See No. 16). 17). This is a

196

568

"M
''

S^ ^

to estimate. liao*, Material; ingredients; tou^,Radical No. 68, a peck measure, a dipper.

(SeeNo. 117).
used ylv, 7|\ mi^,Phonetic, rice, No.. of other

47). The phonetic has Grain is measured significance.


toif, but chaff and
their

grains. (See no phonetic


wjth
account not
a

i|of

straw, yalue

on
are

being

of

less

thus
up
are

measured.
this

According to
98

the make

of

character

materials of worth

liao\
569 7t Jll

(W.
;

B),

'Ctfc, 1^1 yt

?"\

kung^,Public pa^, Radical


are

fair, just; male.


12, eight. Because
old and construction the
two

No.

parts of this radical, in the


similar in

writing,
are

not

^^

earlyadopted as the symbol for separation. ^^^^ Phonetic,private. The ancient writingrepresented
a

united,it was

silkworm its
cocoon.

which

has

shut it

itself into
was

By

extension
89

used for

selfish. (W. private,


no

A).
The

This

symbol has
^

phonetic value.
for the

character
of

implies the rightdivision A


of benefit

private J^ property the public.


570

ftfc
n
,

fu'-'S To
_L,

to spit,

vomit.

tl k'ou^, Radical

No.

30, the mouth.

t'u^ Phonetic, the soil,earth, place,local. From P to the earth ", to spit, mouth A'an^, To hack, to chop No. 112, a shih\ Radicg,!
; to

571

m
^

throw

stones

at.

stone.

(SeeNo. 42).

,;197

^ ^

ch'ien*, Phonetic,to
This
stone
age

breathe out. date

(SeeNo. 273).
back
of
to

character] may
when
axes

the

wereimade of

stone.

If
.

so

the

combination

radical

and
ax

with phoneticis appropriate?;


'

the steel

often choppers
cult would used !

make
; how

audible much

expiration
more ax

with every stroke

diflfiwere

chopping be
dream.

if a stone

572

m^ng^.To
jfe "fi

dream
No.

Radical ^ ^ hsi^*,

36; evening.
of this

(See No. 14).


The g mu*

xnen^ Phonetic, dimness


at the bottom

of vision.

is replaced phonetic as dreams evening, by ^ hsi^, belongto the hours of sleepOr the night. (W. 158 F). Dreams are frequently hazy and indefinite,

consequently this combination


is not

of elements

inappropriate.

573

m
B

ts'aP, Property.
Radical S pei*.
No,

:*,t

154, precious. (SeeNo. 38). ts'aP,Phonetic, talents,powers, genius. (See


No.

562).

This

is

happy

combination the

of radical and

as phonetic

it portrays

in the financial line. idea of ability

574^^*

^^

t'an^,To

covet

; avaricious.

M pei*, Radical

No.

154, precious. (See No. 38).

y^

cA/nS Phoneticj now.


The the emotion presence

(SeeNo. 18). is excited in which of greied 4" of valuable M articles.


The

(W. 14, -H).


is the and

phonetic in
as

this character

same

in No.

18, ^

nien*^,

its rather unusual


in

meaning

of present,

is .the same

both

instances.

198

405

ifeC

mien*, Flour.

;,

'/" originally barley, (See


persists
and
to

mai^, Radical
was

No.

199, wheat, barley. This

radical is made the

laP, which tip of 3}S


character for who

No. in

so/',a man 64), and jfc of advancing in sjpite


This may
have

trammels been added

obstacles. indicate the

gradual development of
(See 486).
Its

the

grain.

l5 ^,
^Jr ^p^^
-u.

raiea*, Phonetic, the face.


here is as
a

use

sunple phonetic. "Y nj/eu*Phonetic, to conceal. (See122).


A form, sbih^,
a

pattern.
a

jj

i*Radical
looked of
in

No.
on

56,

dart.

This

radical is not
Some
are

alike

by

all scholars.
a

opinion that
a

it represents

nail be

or

peg

wall

on

Still another

countingor placed upon


pattern.
its

hung. for a tally theory was ordering ; when this tally the this article was article, an
of these
one

which

articles may is that it is

Each

explanationhas
comes

advantages, but no requirements. It seems the first explanation


dart,
as

up

to all
to
a

wise to adhere and

regard
very

it

as

these must
to

hare

been

plentiused

fal" owing
it is not
as

and the state of civiUzation,


were

improbable that they


as

talliesand

pegs. No

"Ttkung^,Phonetic,

work.

(W. 71, A). cance. phonetic signifi-

(See No. ,89). Here the most plausible explanationis:" a dart, used for a peg on which is suspended a pattern of
the articleordered.

id9
^^

KS

The y^flj^j

sun

; open,
a

front.
mound.

^^ g

/ti* Radical No. 170,


above of the

yang^ Phonetic,glorious, open


sun

(SeeNo. 493). out, a flag; the


vnt*,
a

horizon

fi tati.*^^
is

rays
578

light. This phonetic. (W.101,B).


marry.

suggestive

To ch'ii^.

5C,re ""*' Radical

No. 38,
to

woman.

Ga"

c/i'u*. Phonetic, an ear ^


.

take. hold

(SeeNo. 16). hand ^ holding


ear, to hold

To

by the

has securely. A betrothal in .China regarded as more binding than the


ceremony

been
riage mar-

in

many

lands.

(W.

146 579 *"^

F).
; to

(f^

Ilbll
^^^
"^

jtm^y Appearance
tniet^ Radical
*

allow
a

; to

endure.

No.
a

40,

roof.
a

ktt^ i'^

^,Phonetic,
is the 150th

depicts two
above the
a

valley. This radical. The old writing strata or ridgesof rock, one deep gorge,
and
at water

other

the bottom flowed.

mouth,

placewhere

This

valleyis open and one can see but in g jung^ there is a cover valley. Here the valleyis said the depths of the heart, the
which
the
are

all within,
over

the

to refer to

emotions Thus is

concealed
of to

from

others.
to

idea

contain

and 18

allow

given the
580

character.

(W.

E).

^35

faPf A terrace chih*,Radical

title of resipect.

No.

133,

to

arrive.

(SeeNo.
former

337).
is ^

The

phoneticpart

of this character

kac^ and

:t",}iL chih^. The

^00
is
on
^

changed

both

at the

top and
M

the top the

chih^ \j/i^

indicates the summit, and


the P at the bottom.

bottom, which plri.ced, chili'^ replaces


was

This character

,r

constructed

before
the

they
and

had

definitely
and

settled

on,

scheme

of radicals :^ ^

M kao^ phonetics, height but suggest"


nuniciation.

chih^ both
in
pro-

tieither aid

Mi

"o*, A cluster,a head, pendent things. "K, rK raw*,Radical No, 75, wood. (SeeNo. 36). of Ih /" shu^ Phonetic, a wing, which account on its being short, Tribrates rapidlywhile in flight. (W. 22. A). This is without
but phoneticsignificance
movement

flowers

suggeststhe of pendent and appearance The modern in the wind. writing


75 naP.

it

is identical with
582

A wife, ch'P^, nu^, Radical

No.

38,
and

woman.

(SeeNo. 16).
is not

The used

phoneticpart
alone #

of this character it is not

It is a hand
It is not
an

given a pronunciation holdinga duster.


The hand that

old character.

manages

the household is
a

affairs is the wife. contraction of


an

The present form


older
583 "
.

writing.

shan*,A fan ; the leaf of a door, hu*,Radical No. 63, a door, a window, ,No, 480). (. Phonetic, win^s; plumes. It is a yii^, of a pair of wings or two

(See
sentation repre-

wing

201

it is quills.(W. 62.;E), In appearance but without phonetic significance. suggestive, A


a

fan

or

the

leaf of

door

sembles re-

at

one

wing in that its extremityor side and

attachment has
a

is

ing vibrat-

movement. 584
_"

A window. ch'ttang'^, Radical No. 116, a cave. (SeeNo. 97). /y hsiieh*, There are-two Phonetic, a window. ^ ch'uang^ forms of the ancient writing, to one seems grn^ be partly covered by a curtain or shutter

and

the other has lattice work


make
up

w^ithin. indicates
caves

The
that

of this character

it dates back to the time when

and
585

dugouts

were

in

general use.

tz^u^, Compassionate. No. Radical 61, the heart. jQ*bsiti^,


''
"

(See No.

"' 18). of Phonetic, the fine velvetyappearance gg tzti^ luxuriant vegetation. All this disappears if covered by dust or if there is a shortage
of rain.
above

""'""' '-'./

With beautiful

the

addition

of heart the

transferred are qualities to the disposition.Compassion is that qualityof heart which is admired by all, and but is easilylost owing to the cares w^orries of life.
^^

586ift!6t
.

^
^

clever. Wisdom, quickof apprehension, ts'ang^, Radical No. 128, the ear. (SeeNo. 71). ei^, stirred. When ts^tttiU, Phonetic, the feelings A.t is fearful"of being apprehendedhe is lo jking out of the wind o w @ to constantly

202
see

if the officersare
the addition

coming. (W. 40, D).


the ei^,
same

With

of the radical ^

idea is to listen -with the that


a

vigilance

criminal The

uses

in

trying to elude
is fortunate but all times.

arrest.

combination

of difficult

at application

BALLEE

LESSON

XXI.

'"^"M^

bsiang^fIncense,

fragrance. Radical No. There seal writings of 186. two are The oldest is explained this radical. as the sweet odor of millet when representing The other represents undergoing fermentation.
millet held in the mouth the flavor is because

agreeable.

588 Jdl"

hen^,To pity. i^\bsm\ Radical No. 61, the heart. (SeeNo. 18). ^|" Phonetic,an ignis fatuus* This phonetic ^ ^ iin^, has been unfortunatelychanged so that idea is not portrayed by the the original present writing. It should be ^. The fields old battleto be seen on lightis supposed,
and
the blood

is tbe
of
men

result of the and horses.


one

of mingling is The light


fire above

indicated another.

by ^ ^
The

yen^,
two

battle is indicated
persons

by ^
are

ch'uan^,to contend, as
variance.
the

at

With

the addition of jfr heart,

character
one

represents the emotion


would
on experience

of

pity that
an

seeing
ed caus-

fatuus ignis
as

if he believed it

was

above

stated.

(W.

126

D).

204

J^

ni* Radical

No.

104, disease.
horizontal
a

This

is in the
a

ancient writing the


bed

of representatidii

v,ritha

line at the top to


person

indicate the posture of The dot


on

when

ill.

the top

of this line has been

^^:^

added by the scribes. arbitrarily tuB^, Phonetic, winter. (SeeNo. 170). This is a suggestive and very appropriate phoneticas the pain which is .experienced
from

cold is very who

intense and there are


not
,

few

persons

Pain
the

experiencedit. manifestation a beirig pathological radical is also a happy seabove lection.


have

594 Lame. ch'iieh^,

f" niS Radical


An

No.

104, disease.
inmost
a

cAiaS Phonetic,scabs and


is not
The

(SeeNo. 593). ulcers. This phonetic


modern
set

found

dictionaries. forth by
an

idea of

swellingis
swollen

addition
lame 595

chia^ of

flesh ^ and

are joints

jou*. Most enlarged.

The leg,the thigh, t'ii?. Radical No. 130, the flesh. (SeeNo. 133). M ^ JO"*. Sg jg^ fui*, Phonetic, to retreat, to decline. The
.

idea of to retreat
the

seems

to be

derived from

apparent
it

movement

of the sun,

^ each

slowly J^ ascends until midday and then slowly recedes. This is not like Wieger's description (W. 31. C). The 162 radical added to the phoneticis a redundancy it contributes nothing. The as limbs in walking go through the same
morning
"

movement,

each

one

is

one

half

of the

205

time

and ddyanci-ng

-one

half the time apparently,

receding.
596 To reward, shang^,
to

grant

reward.

Radical No. 154, precious. (SeeNo, 38). ^ pei*, meaning). ^ sbang*Phonetic, house. (Archaic
a

(SeeNo. 52). Houses, which includes real estate, and money ^ pei*are here used to
represent all that
would
597
nn

is of value
a

or

what

be

appreciatedas
to

reward.
to inferior,

tz'u\

To

bestow,

confer

on

an

give. pei\ Radical No. 154, precious. (SeeNo. 38). i*,Phonetic, to exchange. It is supposed to creature represent the house lizard, a which is agile and with moves great think that the idea of rapidity. Some "to change" is dependent on the creature's changing its colour to that of the objecton which it rests. The lizards in
North

China

extent, but
animal

this power to a certain it is not noticed when the have With the addition

is in the house.
we

of the radical

have

the idea of

giving,
If

that

exchanging articles of value. the givingis always on one side it sooner later ceases. or (W. 101 C).
598

is

"""

^^

tsai^, Calamity, divine judgment. \)\ buo^, Radical No. 86, fire. A representation i/^ of a flame in the old writing, It represents a ch'uaz^, Phonetic, streams. J||III which is formed stream by the union of small other streams " I chuan* is a

206

stream;
formed The

{{ T^ kuai* is

stream

which
stream.

is

by the union with another


of rivers is
one

overflow

of the great China


pro~ up

calamities of China. Fires


are

not

very

common

in North

but at times

they cause
w^hich
these
are

great loss of
stands

perty
the

; and

"" floods and iK fire make

character
as

for divine

judgment ;
sent 599

mities regarded as cala-

from

Heaven.

l^J

idle. hsien^, Leisure, P^ men\ Radical,No. 169, H Phonetic,the moon. jaeA*,

(SeeNo. 5). (SeeNo. 43). The moonlight coming in through the cracks of the door and doing nothingis taken as a symbol of idleness or leisure.
a

door.

600

A lesson, a task. i'o*,

"q ycH^
ra

Radical

No.

149,

word.

kuo\ Phonetic,fruit. (See No.


use s ones

(See No. 10). 411). To so

that the instruction opportunities ^ yen^ received may bringforth results,

kuo^.
601

chin^.To plough,to

till.
a

^.^

/e? Radical

No.

127,
a

plough. The
more

ing old writ-

resembles
it does
a

harrow
It

plough.
so

nearly than probably was a tree


as

with

branches

cut

to

scratcE fur-

roughs in the earth. .(W. 120 E). A very necessary yt ching^,Phonetic, a weU. .North part of a farmer's equipment ii| is requiredfor China where irrigation Breaking the niauy kinds of agriculture.
.

"

207

ground and watering is the symbol the soil. or tilling cultiYating


602
to halloo. Aa^^ "To call, k'ou^,Radical No. 30, the

for

mouth.

hsieti^ to wound Phonetic,

all. (Arby biting, chaic). addition No. the With 305). (See of another mouth the meaning is changed from biting to calling.
to

603 To ch'u^,
remove,

do

away

with,

to

tract, sub-

to discount.

% 1$ fu* Radical No. 170, ^ -^ yv? Phonetic,I,


me.

addition the

of the

(SeeNo. 493). (SeeNo. 40). With the radical which means lofty
a

mound.

meaning
by

of the the

character

can

be

membered re-

:" following

If one
to

extols
be

or

elevates himself

he

is

sure

counted. dis-

601

chun^, Seed ; a class or kind. ^ ho^.Radical No. 115, grain,grainon the stalk. (SeeNo. 556). Phonetic,heavy. (See No. 22). The M. chung*, heavy end of the stalk ^ hoi^is where the grain M is found.
905

Serious; a chuaag^,

farm.

^^ ts'ad" Radical
With

No. 140, grass.

(SeeNo. 22).,,
radical the
or

chuan^, Phonetic,strong. jfj^


,;

(SeeNo. 355).
serious.

the addition of the grass character is used for a \farm The

of explanameaning is difficult lajtter be

tion,but the firstmight

explainedas

208

the

strong
a

St" luxuriant
well ordered

vegetation, ^^

of ts'ao^,

farm.

chia*^, Growing grain* ^ /^o^ Radical No. 115, grain, growing grain.

(SeeNo. 556). cA/aS Phonetic, a family. (See No, 221). With the addition of the radical it implies, crops for the family or household.
,

607

^"1^ ^i

J\

"^

tenth of a' A measure to one equivalent sheng^, The old Si-\ ton* a peck, to promote. writing of this character is similar to the writing of the character for pecksave that the handle. it has an obliqueline across cate This line y (^ p'hh, is supposed to indithat
been
I
one

tenth
out.

part of the ton* has


98

taken

(W.
24,

B).
This by
some

Radical shil?,

No.
as a

ten.

is
tracted con-

regarded

contraction
.

of two

fives ^

Phonetic, a peck. This has no phonetic toti^, it only aids in explaining the significance,
ing. meaning of the character in the old writWhy shen^ has the meaning of to

promote

is not

easy

to

understand, unless

this measure,
use,

increase
608

or

mon being the smallest in coman change is necessarily any promotion. (W. 98 B).

F, A plough,to plough. "^ niu^,Radical No. 93, an ox. (SeeNo. 50). 7i*, Phonetic, to cut grain,(archaic) ; profit. ^IJ Standinggrain and sickle was adopted as the symbol for, to reap. The addition of

209
; ! iiUf:; OX

forms
was

the character used which for


was

animal the
use

plough as that pullingthe plough,


a

for

of

necessary

step

before

reaping. (W.

52

F).

BALLEK

LESSON

XX

IL,

609

^S"

Remainder. sheng*, pei.Radical No. 154, precious. (SeeNo. 38). with fire the planks cheng*Phonetic, to curve "p: for a boat BIn this process the plank was partialh' destroyedby the fire before it could be bent into the desired shape, but
that
was

part
now

of the

plank which
to

remaineict

adapted
the

the

By

adding
The

radical that

requirements. the K, precious,


"
been
are

idea is set forth

remnants

of
tracted con-

value.
610 To sheng*,

fy chot^ boat

has

to /3 in the modern conquer,


to

writing.

excel.

tj h\ Radical No. 19, strength. with ^^ cheng*Phonetic, to

(SeeNo. 212). fire the planks curve for a boat. (SeeNo. 60y). In the process of bending the planks the strength of the workmen's of the fireplusthe strength;tj
hands of the

f^

overcomes

the resistance with


the

plank,

thus

addition

of the radical
to

conquer

the character, strength, is formed. (W. 47 J). for

611

^pl*
^ "^^ ^

k'e^.A class,a series.

/2o^ Radical

No.

115, grain,standing grain.

(See No. 556).


tou^,Phonetic,
a

peck measure.

(SeeNo. 117).

210

It is without

phonetic value, but suggests


In each

the idea of the coiner of the character.

measuring 4- toi^ grain %. ho^


was

kind

stored in separate bins,and

thus the

idea of class is set forth.


612

m^

fe?,To fly. Radical


the neck
rests
on

No. 183.
a crane

This radical is in

of representation is folded
on on

itself and
The

flight ; the the long bill


seen
presented reare

this fold.
The the
11

pinions are
in

either side.

body and tail

by
center.

straight line

the

(W.
commit

A).
hand

613

^^^

To chiao^,

to, to

to, friendship,
that

intercourse.
-i.

t'oa* Radical
the

No.

(W. 61 D). 8, above. Kanghsi


"

says

meaning of this radical is lost. The cause above been given it behas meaning it is always used the top of a at chai'acter. The original or old writing
"

did not

have

this radical ; in the modem

introduced. writing it is arbitrarily Phonetic, father. This phonetic is also a /u*. modern innovation, having no connection with the originalwriting, w^hich represented a man sittingwith crossed legs, thus each limb is occupyin:"^ the placeof its fellow.
commit
to
or

From
to

this hand

the

idea

of

"

to

over

is obtained.

eK^_y;yj chih^ He, she, it


y
Kadical p^ieh^
No.

sign of the possessive.


4,
a

No.

stroke

ti

the left.

(See

176).

This

radical
it

given

bitrarily having been ardestroys the original

^12
617

"^J.

A plan,a device, all told, to chi*,


_^

reckon.

ST

Radical No. 149, a word. '^ yeti'i (See No. 10). of ten The oldest form Phonetic, ten. -p shih^,
seems

to

be

contraction

of two
was

tracted con-

forms

of five
to

contracted difficultto
the make
a

^ 4

; this

wards afterthis
was

and

as

it was

written in finally
This is
an

shape of
and

cross.

old character

the

idea without
a

person
are

can

they
618

able

phonetic only explainsan If aidingin pronunciation. count "a yexi^ up to ten -fto reckon, to plan. experience.
30, the mouth.
of the from

^*
To ch'ang^,

taste, to
No.

k'ou^. Radical 17).


This
as

(SeeNo.
fortunate un-

selection

radical is the

it is taken
a

-^ shang*, Phonetic,
This but should

house.

phonetic. (See No. 52).


character,

complete

the

important distinctive part is not or yet touched. ^ chiW, something pleasant to the H, is pleasant to hear, as tastcy that which the edict of the Emperor. The fc p?, and the be regarded as a may spoon lower part in the old writing is -^ kat^, something agreeable to the taste held
in the

in the present

instance the

month,
that

hence
few the

to

taste.

It

is

fortunate

characters

in their
new

transition from
have

old,

to the

ing, writ-

undergone
(W.
26

such

teratio destructive al-

K).

619

^ #
,

to pick up. chietP,To select, shau^,Radical No. 64, the hand.

(SeeNo. 53).

chieh^. Phonetic,
tied to

to

select,to

choose.

This

phonetic is made
or

"p of ;^, % shu*,a bundle

hung on a tree ; to this is added written, one stroke on either A paS eight, side of the bundle, to indicate that it is opened or divided. (SeeNo. 569). (W. 75 A).
hand With
the

addition

of the radical for

the act of

is more selecting

ally emphatic-

brought

out.

flj^ /^^^
Tftr :^

^
g

pai^.To ruin. No. 66, to tap, to rap. Radical (See No. p'ti^ 17). pei*,Phonetic, precious. (See No, 38). The is evident, yiz., objectof this combination
the result of destruction.

hammel"itigsea-shells is their

621

chian^,To

descend.
to surrender.
a

hsiang^,To submit,

B
j^
*

fa\ Radical

(See No. 493). chian^,. Phonetic, to subject. (W. 31 F). This is the 34th, radical ^ chih^, a man
No.

170,

mound.

overtaking another, written in two ways, above it is upright,the usual writing,and


below

it is inverted.

The

idea

of

the
a

combination
man

is,

suppliant overtakes

and

prostrates hiinself in token

of

subjection. The meaiiing ot to descetfd is inversion of the or set forth in prostration suppliant. The meaning of to submit is
the

above

idea

carried

a,

little farther,
or sur-

,,

'
,

prostration implies submissibtt reader. Wiegeirputs this character radical the 35th, .TAdicak The
i
,

under

fu*

214

added the

to

this phonetic simply complicates


and
as

writing redundancy.

to

etymology, it is

622^ tr
"

common. su',Vulgar,

Radical No. 9, a man. jez^, ku^f Phonetic, a valley, a ravine. ^,(ti\ composed of two A pa* characters
.

^'V

This

is

imposed super-

one
a

above
of

the

other

which

cates indi-

gorge

great depth, below


for
a

is O

k'ou

which

stands The the

water-course.

(W. 18 E). implies that


ravines 623 "ex"
or

addition
nian

of the

radical the

is

rustic from

mountains, uncouth.
;

OS

TM^ Like

undecided
No.

still.
a

^ -4^*:

ch'tian^Radical
In

94,

dog.

(SeeNo. 424.)
at

modern
a

w^hen writing,

used

the left'

of

the present form is used in phonetic,


to occupy

order

lessspace.
the

chiu^ Phonetic,liquor. A. liquorafter fermentation

dregs have If the settled,divided A pa\ Chinese, colorless liquor were placed before a to water thirsty dog ;;^the resemblance is striking, but the odor would him cause to hesitate " about drinking. (W. 41 G).
624 %f-

is completed and

JIJ

To t'o*^^,

support

with

the

hand

to

mission. com-

^ ^
rll

^t

shoi^,Radical No. 64, the hand. (See No. 53). t'o Phonetic, a plant just appearing above
the the cotyledons. ground befeiiring
seems

The

stalk

often too and

delicate to
on

these first leaves

support this account they

215 attract

attention

; thus

is set forth

by

the idea of to port supthis phonetic. When is added the

the radical for hand of to support is


the hand.
625

changed (W. 33 B).


a a

from the

meaning plant to

^
^^
]^

A rule,a pattern, c/ju', Radical No. Ill, shib^,

custom.

(W.
arrow.

82

dart, an
This is an

D), (See

No.

100).
instrument the X
square

chu* Phonetic,a square.

larger than
square.

kun^,
was a

The

building or
When

laying out
is added

ordinarythe guide when plot of ground.


the This

shiW

it indicates, appointed,

determined, irrevocable.

meaning
arrow

is derived from
one

archery ; after the


the skill of the

is shot
as

knows

archer,
cannot

be

the position on target tion changed. Thus this combinacustom.

its

is used for established


626

M"
The /a*.

hair of the human


No.

, head.

piao^ Radical ^ jgj^


locks.

190, hair, shaggy hair

or

^,

writing it is the same three strokes ^ as ^ cVati^, long, save these represent the added on the right, are No. 131.) long locks. (Cf. f^ pa" Phonetic, a dog led by a leash, by a strap
In the old

behind the shoulders

and Manchu
cues.

in front

of

one

foreleg. During the


were

rule,prisoners
This

led by their
been
as

practise
from the

may

have

handed Chinese

down
have

dim

long worn the as long hair,dressed in different styles The long braided dynasty determined.
past
the

216

hair

looks

like

leash

and
134

thus

the

phoneticwas
627 "SK"
A ch'iao^, sparrow

adopted. (W.
or

A).

small
,

bird. short-tailed bird.

chui^ Radical

No.

172,

(SeeNo. 21). of A '^,/|\ As/ao',Phonetic, small. It is made up The idea of to divide to divide. pa^ eight, is given to this numeral because in the seal writingthe two parts are identical arid they do not touch, thus they suggest
division.
is
a

Between

these two

parts there

vertical line. This


as

is

an

objectwhich
will make
it

is to be divided and

that

smaller,this combination
Add
to

is used for

for small. tailed

this the
the

radical

short

bird and
628 A bird. tiiao^,

family has an appellation. (W. 18 N).


sparrow

propriate ap-

Radical
a

No.

196.

pictorial

of representation

long tailed bird.

BALIiBE,
629

LESSON

XXIII.

Jfcfe

^
^

lii", To"ow, to drift. shuP, Radical No. 85, water. (SeeNo. 79). 7jC /^ t^u^ Phonetic, a fetus in the easiest position
for

delivery,viz., a
the

head

presentation.
a

This is similar to :fe "'a^ the deliveryof

child, save
:

a present phoneticdepicts

r.li

child with

long flowing hair.


or

With

the

".-

addition of the above is used

radical the character the flow of a

;'
"

"

current foi:, the; .river, (W. 94 F).


.

'

21.7

630

Jk"

"^

in. kuan*, Accustomed to* practised hsln^, Radical No. 61, the heart. vCi^

(See No.
ries, cow-

M,, ^

"" haati* of kuan*, Phonetic, long strings

to pierce, to string. The to tie, g.pei\

sea-shells
'

were

kept on

stringand
to do

only
so

opened when it was make change. Thus


heart
usage,
a

necessary

to

with

the addition

of

character
custom
as or

is formed

which

means,

experience. It having
or common

become

familiar of

to
was

one

as

the condition

being strung
A).

to

the

cowries.
631

(W.

153

tiao*,To

fall down,

to lose.
.

f ,^
^

shou\ Radical No. 64, the hand cho^ Phonetic, high, elevated.
It

(SeeNo. 53 ) (See No. 56).


.

represents

kind

oi

mast

w^ith

from the hopper shaped box half way ground to the top. Manj' characters with this phonetic have an ending like the
character under

consideration, and
has been The of these.

it is

probable that. the phonetic


from of the fall; In
hold 632
one

breviated ab-

tion addi-

radical

sbou^

to signifies,

climbing such a mast i^ if ones ^ is not good a fall ^ is inevitable.

-^
J

A gong. lo^, Badical Noi chin^,


;

167, gold
sieve.

or

metal.

(See

13). Phonetic, a |M *^o^"


No. made

net,

A net

of silk

ssu^ for tni*',

wang' catchingbirds
int

^
-

chuT^.
gong

These

nets, in! shape,resemble


the radical

and

vvhen

which

is

218

used

for all kinds for gong


to

of metal

is added

the

character
633

is formed.

(W.

39

D).

Broken, p'o*,

break.

Radical No. ^ shih', Phonetic, the p'P, ri^

(SeeNo. 42). skin. (See No. 224). The present form of ^ p^o* is quite different from the old writingand this accounts for the variance of the phonetic. (For old form see K'ang Hsi). Although the combination
a

112,

stone.

of this character

has been arbitrarily is not


contact

changed its present form in comes inappropriate: if one


"

with

rock

or

stone, the

skin is apt to

be broken.
634
.._

To kneel, to kuei*,

bow

down

to.

Radical tsa". Jg, from


order

No.

157, the foot.

(SeeNo. 484).
up
a

hazard. "j^ weP, Phonetic,peril,

This is made

f^ weP,
to

man

standing on

rock in

When B. " get a better view. he chieh^ is added, (See No. 42), it means his
movements

owing to the ing. heightof his positionand danger of fallrestrains With


of
one on a

the above rock

radical the emotions


a

footing precarious is given to the suppliant, self he regards himwith apprehension. (W. 59 H).
"'=

with

Bp -^

er*. Radical
The horizontal 164

No,

126,
stroke

but. and, yet, still,

archaic

meaning
is

is the beard.

The

tTie mouth.

(W.
forth

A).
use

The

of this radical have

as

above

set

is said to

from originated

the fact

2'20
"

JH^saH*
"

Phonetic, to pound J^ p'a^meat


the fibres separate, like shredded

until

hemp, jjijli

the hand is p'ait (See No. 24). When added idea of, to to this phonetic the scatter or disperse is conveyed. The' modern writing is quite arbitraryand it is only by consultingthe seal character that the etymology can be traced.

639

^-,

lies. to lie, huan^, To talk wildly, "g yen^,Radical No. 149, word. (SeeNo. 10). "fi: g* huang^, Phonetic, wild overgrowth. This is derived from ^ wang^ (See No. 123) an in of the rivers, ^^^ ch'uan^, an entering, overflow. indicates worthless When
*

When
an

-*f

ts^ao^ is
of

added weeds

it
or

overgrowth

vegetation
a" is added

on

wild

lands.

word

it indicates

wild,

worthless

talk

or

lies.

(W. 12J).

640

^
Jh

wa",

warlike. M^ilitary,
to

chih^,Radical No.'TT,

stop.

^i^

ko\ Phonetic, halberd.


some across

(See No. 10). (See No. 2). For


reason

unaccountable the handle the

the

'

stroke

of the

halberd has been


stroke
on

placed
The
1

above

horizontal

the left.

(W.

71K).'
stop Jh the
hostile

lancers
,

:3c who

incursion,thus

allowing the people to proceed with their peaceful occupation.


shave.
No.

641

J".

t'i\To

U 71 tao\
.

Radical

IS, a

knife.

ti*, Phonetic, a thread wound


No.

(SeeNo. 37). a spool. (See on


as;if it
were

86).

/.

The

hair

grows

221
"

beingunvvowild
the

from

hidden
was

idea of to

shave

and spindle set forth by

placinga razor phonetic.


642

7J tao^ by the side of this

,^
Clear, pure, cb'iijg^,
correct,
as an

account.

y,7^
R.
m.

shaP, Radical No. 85, water. (SeeNo. 79). Phonetic, light green, the color of ch^ing^, sprouting vegetation. (SeeNo. 63). As the tipsof recent sprouts are translucent, they are regarded as being pure and with
the

addition

of

water,

which

is transparent,

the character
643

for clear is obtained.

/aH^, Blue, indigo.

"H*,!''!' ts'ao% Radical

(SeeNo. 22). chien}, Phonetic, to watch. (See No. 294). This is a simplephonetic and consequently ^ has no logical explanation.
No.

140, grass.

614

tt

a quality. hsin^. Nature, disposition, '^^C^bsin\ Radical No. 61, the heart. (SeeNo. 18). J^ ^ sbeng^,Phonetic ; to grow, bear, produce. Radical 100. A plant that grows more
,

and

more.

whorl

w^as

added

to

ili 5l

growth (W. 79, B, F). showing increasing the When t bsin^, heart, is added
character

is used
or

for

the

natural

clinatio in-

desires of the heart.

645

I
"f,^
^

cbia^, Tools, furniture. Radical No. 9, a man. jin^. Phonetic, a family. (See No. 221). This chla^,
"^ is
found
an

unauthorized in the
old
"

character

and The

is not

dictionaries. what
a man

is : {explanation

only ^ jet^, sup-

ports his family M


furniture
are

cbia^ with

tools and

necessary

in the home.

m^^
4
,
"

buo^, Tools, furniture.


yv

Radical jen^,

No.

9,

man.

huo*, Phonetic, /^ "jt'^


of
an a

fire. A

flame of fire.
unauthorized
have

pictorial representation This, ik like No. 645, is


It is

character.

supposed
fire.

to

originatedfrom
ten
men

the
one

expression
mess or

-^rKl^^'X.
The
mess

make
the

includes
cloth

utensils for

cooking.

"^m

tying up bundles. ^^i". Radical No. 145, clothes. (See No. 51). This is comfu^,Phonetic, to hide, to stoop. posed of man first K and dog, it- It was
fif,A
square

for

used
man

as

the

character the
to

for,

to

ambush,
With
a

assuming
order
not

posture of the dog


be
seen.

it in

the
gestive sug-

addition

of I ?, cloth, it becomes

phonetic,because it surrounds articles inclosed, ^hides them.


"

the

BALLEE,
648

LESSON

XXIV.

^^t

exhaust. chm^. All,entirely,

M.inl rnin^,Radical

No.

108,

dish.

This

is

a a

pictorial representationof a dish with pedestal such as the Chinese often use
feasts.

at

^. W

cbiti* Phonetic, ashes


fire.
has
one

which

remain

after

the

This

phonetic, in modern
stroke
than
It is difficult to

writing,
in the account

less horizontal

writing. of ^ for the use

ancient

cA/q*

as

phonetic in

223

this character. has


says

^K

Kuei

Shih Shuo

Wen
"

the most
that
'X

plausible explanation:
is
a

he

contraction

of when

hsiii^

and fuel,
has
;

huo', fire. Thus


the

the fire

consumed

its force is expendfuel, ed


save

nothing remains
JDL min^
have been
a

the ashes. the


stove.

The
It

radical

indicates

might
649

brazier

for

holding

coals for

warming

the hands

of scribes ;$:.

A'o^ To

thirst, thirsty.
No.
to

sbui^ Radical ^,7jC

85,
ask.

water.

a'

jihd"

Phonetic,
To
ask

(See No. 79). (See No. 271). With


:

the addition

of the radical the idea is

for water

7jC because

one

is

M. thirsty
650

m
'

Vicious, depraved, hsieh^.

heterodox.

U g, i\ Radical
nl
a

No.

163,

Ja^ Phonetic,
hsieti', a
wraps

tooth.

conti'action

of

city. (See No. 11). (See No. 97). This is the original phonetic ^
like
a

garment
the

buskin

w^hich

The traction conlegs,a,wry. of a has deprived the character to phonetic. The radical added proper ancient cityin of an the name this was have Eastern Shantung. The city may bad had a reputation. Owing to the originalmeaning of the phonetic being,
awry,

around

M this character
or

has

been

used for

depraved
651

hetrodox.
to

delay ; suitable. A .\jen^ Radical No. 9, a man. (SeeNo. 5). This terrace. Phonetic, a pavilion, *^, ^ t'ing^,
To stop, t'ing',

is

224

formed person.

of W

a ^a6\ high, and T ting^, Ifi the combination, the lower p,

of the ^ao*
"

is deleted.
the
a

With

the
"

addition
a on

of the
man

radical A
comes

idea is :

When -while

^
a

to

pavilion^

652

journey,he

will stop, ff to rest.

M.l^M M. chien\ The shoulder. 1^^ jou\ Radical No. 130


Phonetic, a door. jg /zu*.
at the reveal it has

; meat.

(See No. 133). (See No. 5). A glance

development of this character will why ^ Au*, a door has b?eenadded ;

gradually
line which

been

substitiited for

curved
Because
one

this line

represented the arm. only used for this was


was

character, its form


first P

not person

easy

to

remember;

shih^,a

in the

ed, substitutor sitting reclining posture, was and afterwards it was changed to ^ velopmen ha\ that This shows early in the deof the written usual language, unsymbols were by graduallyreplaced
\

those

in

common

use

and

this

too

at the

expense,

in

many

instances, of logical

of remembering etj-mology. The facility oft recurring elements brought about these

changes.
about

The

represents the muscles

the

shoulder
to
as

joint. In
"

No.
"

361, P
must

ba* is referred

farmer and

ing ; in farm-

the shoulder
be and
may

of

man

beast

strong, the former for carryingburdens


the latter for aid in To the plow. This pulling remembering the combination.
vow.

653

yuan\

to be desirous of,a be willing,

225

"S

yeh*,Radical
archaic

No.

181,

leaf of

book, the
No. (Se^-

meaning is, the

head.

105). J/U Phonetic, a spring. It is represented ]^, yiiati^. as gushing out from a hillside f han*, or cliff. The littledot at the top a projecting of /t\ and the short horizontal line ch'iian^,
are

the

springsand
are

the other lines

are

the
125

rills which

fed

by them, (See
used
to

W.

F). ;^ yeh*
brain
or

is here

represent the
issues fiom

the soul ; that


are

which

the soul
654

desires and

aspirations.

1^ T^f

^ ""]*

To take, to hold. chiang^'*, ts'an*, Radical No. 41, an inch


a

archaic

ing, mean-

hand.

Phonetic, flPi, li".fl" chlaiJg^,


character

three

archaic

forms

of the its

under

consideration
The first The
one

show is
a

development.
block and
meat.

meatsame

second

is the

plus salt or pickle


The

and
brine

the

last is the first plus the for the preserving is the


meat.

"

modern

character

first of this w^hich the takes


meat-

the hand plus -^ ts'un*, and the meat places it upon block. (W. 127, B).

series

655

/tdt

^
-Fr.

Mf

for. To treat, to wait tai*, ch'Jh\ Radical No. 60, a step. (SeeNo. 78). Phonetic, a court, a place where the law ssu*.
_

.,

..

^^'

as -^ rule is constantly iH (continually

the

applied. (SeeNo. growth of a plant), phonetic 125). This phonetic has no


sets forth the way
one

value, but it

should

226 tr^at

others,viz

to 6onstantly%.ccordi

propriety. The appropriate,but


the character
same

radical is not
it
serves

to

particularly distinguish
which action. have

from

others

which have the

this

phonetic. Characters indicate radical generally

^J IT/)
IJ Tt
9^

To punish, punishment. bs'mg^,

Radical tao^,
""

No.

18,

knife.

repictorial

of presentation

the instrument. scale


pans.

ch'ien^ ^ "^"l"

Phonetic, balanced

The

writing represents the two objects This was not the original as being even. well is the archaic # ching^, a phonetic, for the prowriting and this accounts nunciation
seal in the centre well, was of a plot of ground divided into nine and farmed by eightfamihes,the squares central
square
w^as

The

farmed of the the


were

for the

state

by
The all

joint labor well being in pubUc functions

the

eight families.
w^as

centre,

where
to.

attended

The

knife indicates that


w^as decapitation,

punishment, generally

inflicted.

657

fa^,To fine,to punish,punishment.

^,

P wau^.

Radical
was

No.
a

122,
M

net.

There

mistake

made

(SeeNo. 38). this in putting


as

character the
accuse

under

wang^,
was
a

it destroys
or

phoneticwhich
one

^ li\to blame
fault
and To

with

thus,
this is of

entangle I^ wang^,
added
torture.

them.
is
an

the knife which

instrument

228

receives light from


is deleted and

the

sun.

The

E ch'en^
or

Cl

wang^, destroyed
This is
a

ruined, is substituted.
character

very

old

and leave

the absence
a

of the

radical
this

does

not

definite
was

phonetic;
in
use

is because the

the character

before

of principle

radical and
81

phonetic was

adopted. JQ2",ix^
"ft

(W.

G).

chi^. Anxious, hurried,urgent. Radical No. 61, the heart. i""hsin",


S

^''^

Phonetic, c/^J^

to

catch

up

(SeeNo. 18). with. (See No.

324).
This

phonetic indicates a person running after another and laying hold of him ; a with the situation requiringhaste ; and
addition the of the

radical
the

for heart
set

w^e

have

of feelings

pursuer

forth,he is

fearful lest he will not his


662
man.

be able to overtake

^
J^

To rest, to stop. hsieh^, Radical No. ch^ieti*, 76,

to

owe,

to

lack ;

meaning, to exhale, to breathe. (SeeNo. 273). ho'' Phonetic, why ? (See No. 271). There is old reading of this character an i^ as The obsolete. "i2o^" but that is now etymology is : ? breathingspell
"

archaic

why

not

stop

for

6B3

Sweet, pleasant. t'ien^,

"H*kan\ Radical No. 99, sweet. "^ she", Phonetic, the tongue.

(See No. 23). (See No. 73)^

229

This

phonetichas no phoneticsignificance. The old writing of this character was the idea The present writingconveys @. of sweet owing to the adoption of the above radical,viz., that which is sweet "fr
to the

tongue, "S".

664

i
^ ^

suan^, Sour, acid, grieved.

yu\ Radical No. 164, wine. (See No. 589). posed tsun^,Phonetic,to walk slowly. This is comof JiJl g P, the exhalation of the breath and ^L J^ jenr, man ^ yun^, to ;fc consent to walk ^ ^ sui^, slowly. ; and It is probable that the acid was obtained by a process of fermentation and as this is a slovsr, steadilyadvancing condition, the present phoneticis appropriate.
=

665

ifc

q"|V

mo^, To

smear,

to

rub

over,

to

wipe.

1= ^

Radical shoti',

No.

64., the

hand.

(See

No.

^^, n\ md^, Phonetic,


tree.

the

tips of

the

branches indicates
to ;

of

The

horizontal
tree

line

the

part
,

of the
character

referred

just
the
With

as

in

the

i^

pen^, root
the
same.

lower
the

horizontal

line does

addition of hand, which

motion, the character


formed.

indicates generally for rubbing Jfe is

f ^
^

to snatch or To take openly by force, ch'iang'. grab. (SeeNo. 53). shou\ Radical No. 64, the hand. This is a conPhonetic, a granary. ts'ang^, traction of ^ shih\ food. (See No. 75).

230

The

lower

part is deleted
store-room most

to

make

room

for P
granary

weP, the
was

for

grain. The
asset
was

the

important

which
money,

the farmer it all


was

it possessed,

his
he

his very

therefore life,

in guarding it. When diligence the radical for hand is added it implie^s the hand of a forager robber removing the or

used

grainby force.
667
to meet, ch'eh\ To receive, to

accept.

t ,^

shou^ Radical No. 64, the hand.

(SeeNo. 53).

^,^

ch^ieh\ Phonetic,

the

(Archaic). The This is composa concubine. phonetic is, ed of ^ kati^,fault, crime, against a Jt H shang*,and ^ ft hu* a girl superior
or

daughter of a culprit. modem meaning of this

daughter. Children of offenders were addiappropriatedby officials. With the tion


of hand

this

was

first used

for the the


now

taking of a concubine from among daughters of the vanquished but it has no restrictions and simply means,
take, or receive.
668

to

A screen. lieti^,
^'^

chu\ Radical

No.

118, bamboo.
roof and wall
From

(SeeNo. 7).
ol
a

Phonetic, the lieti^, ^, 11^

house,

frugal. (W.
roof
or

121

K).

T J'^"^^
corn

shelter,and M. ^
a a

stalks of chien^,

grain held togetherby bound together to form


radical
for

hand,
wall.

stalks
the

When
to

bamboo

is added the
screens

this
are

it indicates phonetic

which

231

made
"

of bamboo,

the size of straw

splitinto stripsabout and woven together.

669^

ym
iV^S
all at //iji^ Suddenly,
once.

'C^hsin

Radical No. 61, the heart.


staff.

(SeeNo. 18).
attached

^ "^

^'"^" Phonetic,a flagof three


to
a

pennons

Used
the

to

signal a
is added
not
was

negative
it indicates

reply. When

heart

that the action


670

intentional
101

but^nstinctive, sudden.

(W.

A).

ja^, A

slave

girl.
No.

koti^Radical
There

6, a barb.

is
to

no

owing
cannot
a

its

phonetic being an
up.

to

this

character which

old

symbol
take
was

be broken

Some

it to be
an

stick ; others think it abbreviation of ;4cHimu*, wood.


wear girls ped with

forked

Slave

their hair in two


a

tufts,wrapup

cord, which stand


the

from

the the

head

and, with

body,
a

resemble slave

character called
671

Y ya^, therefore

girlis

ygHjra^t'ou^.
out

^
D

To mete iiti^, A'oa^ Radical

words,
divide.

to

give a

command.

No.
to

30, the mouth.

fen\ ^ jjj[

(See No. 181). used with -^ As this Phonetic is frequently to ke?, to give,the phonetic itself seems after the division is made infer giving, ; therefore n A'ou^,the mouth, in combination the separation of with ^ /en* implies order from ordinary speech and giving an
Phonetic,
the
'"'

same
'"

to the person

addressed.

672

ntX^

'''''"';
'ia\ To
'

give a Command.

232

pl A'o"*, Radical

No.
to

30, the mouth.

/^

?)3

fa*,Phonetic,

give. This represents two the tightis only the hand the one on men, of a man "^ givingsomething, (thearticle to the man is not pictured), A on the left.
When
n

k'ot^,

the

mouth,
a

is added

it

indicates the

giving of
liESSON

command.

BAIjLEE,

XXV.
an

PJJ ^

Eh yin*, To .print, to stamp,


stamp.
Radical P chieh^,
No.
f?T~ )|^

official seal, a

No.

26,

or joint'

seal.

(See

42).
the

chad',Phonetic,

This is a right hand. of the right hand, representation pictorial palm down and restingon the tipsof the fingers. This is an old character and the value as such,- but it phonetic has no indicates a hand pressinga seal. It also of the imprint ot indicate the use may finger-marksas a seal. The Chinese have bank notes. on long used finger-prints seal we With the addition of a joint, or have the character for the latter.

674

-*i-

hui^.Ashes, dust, lime.

J(* Ul Aao^

Radical

No.

86, fire. A
a

pictorial sentation repreold

of

flame

of fire in the

writing.

^,^, ^

ya*, Phonetic, the right hand, (Archaic).It has no This combination phonetic significance.
was

first used

for
can

ashes ; the be

product

of fire w^hich is burned and

handled.
into

Limestone,

converted

233

lime and
said "when
675
to

this

can

be handled, but fire which with

it is

contain

is apparent
water.

brought

in contact

:^

^K
Tw
rH

^R,

P^^s^
M

To

a guild. help,a class,

Radical chin^,
No.

No.

50,

cloth,a kerchief. (See

143).

^ ^^ pan^.

region,a country. The ^ fen^,is a primitiverepresenting a the upper leafybough. The |5^ f* a city,
a

Phonetic,

fief, a

part is the officialresidence and part is the seal which


residence.
tracts

the

lower

is kept in the official


wooded

The

represents the

The

with

surrounding the official residence. oldest writing of this character was ^ po*, silk,wealth. From Q paP,
and

white

rlJchiti^, a cloth, a kerchief,or


are

rolls of silk which tender in the

stillused the

as

legal

Mongolia. Thus was recognized emperor

helpwhich

the financial

aid received from


676

his nobles.

J"L

IL

tnan^. Hurried, in haste, busy.

f i^
r*^

hsin\ Radical

No.

61, the heart, (SeeNo.


to

18).

'^

(A

Phonetic, vrang^, No. 123).


To lose
ones

hide, lost, to
because

die.

(See
of be the it not

senses

duties is the

etymology.
one

of pressure This would


remember
were

sufficientto enable

to

composition for "^"wan^,


the
same
"

of the
to

character

radical

being made up of forget, and phonetic ; in the case


the

of and

hurried," tC

heart

is at

the side

aid in recalling it may of the position recall the expression the radical if we :
"

234
"

Hurried of to

until he is beside himself."

In

case

forget:

"

.^"

"

That
The

has

dropped
has

entirelyout of mind." dropped to the bottom

heart

of the character.

,"Jf
^,^
R
Q

cbu\

To

aid, to help.
No.

U\ Radical

19, strength. (See No. 212).


a

tsu^ ch'ieh^ Phonetic,

small

stand

used

at

sacrifices (archaic) ; moreover, The lower


strbke

also. the two In the

is the
are

ground,
rungs.

strokes parallel
"

above dead
to

sacrifices for the is to


do
a

the

apparent

idea
aid

favor

the

departed, to

utensils J[.tsu^ and them, but this requires ;tlli* strength in order to perform the

ceremonies
678

rules. to prescribed according

pg
-,

hua^,A drawing, a picture. No. 102, a field. Radical t'ien^

pictorial

of a field. representation (See J"* Phonetic, to trace hues, to draw. No. 7). The radical and phonetic do not

compose

the "as

whole

character

in this instance
was

inclosed

formerly the EQ t'ien^ with a p weP, but this has


one

been the

reduced

to

stroke

and

that

is at

bottom
has
no

of the

character.

This

phonetic

phonetic value, it indicates how dravvingis accomplished, by showing a the boundaries of a field. pdncil tracing

679

chien^, Cheap, mean, worthless. Radical No. 154, precious. (SeeNo. 38). ^ pel*, small. Phttnetic,to destroy, narrow, ^ chiett^, (SeeNo. 13). This phonetic is generally

236

yin^, Phonetic, the lightof


^miSa
but but

many

(W. 126 little phonetic value in this symbol,


as significance

house.

lamps in a F). There is


to

there is much of ^
to

the

meaning
the

toil ; to

labor

night phonetic loses the ik. at give placeto 4;he radical.


with
684: Ji U \|l.fc

artificial

through light. This


bottom
to

the

SPt opj

A drum, i^u', No. beaten The


one

to

drum,

to

arouse

; it is radical

207

;
a

by

bulging. A drum 3. chot^, hand holding a stick J^ pW.


is not drum S

lower

part of cbou^
a

tou^,as
a

might think,it is
The

placed on
the drum

stand.

line above straight


all above
ornaments.

is the skin and


to

this line is supposed

be

(W.
^ skin.

165

C).

Written

the radical is

^^^ ^

^
A

san^,An umbrella, a parasol. Radical No. 9, a man. This 7e/i*,

radical

was

arbitrarily given as it has nothing to do with the original character, w^hich was a pictorialrepresentationof an umbrella. The archaic writing sets this forth very See Chalfant, Plate XIV. satisfactorily.
686

chan^, To swell,a swelling.

^ P^ jou\ Radical
^

(See No. 133). cAun^, Phonetic, heavy. (SeeNo. 22). This the idea of being phonetic also conveys large and consequently is a satisfactoryNo.

130,

meat.

combination
687

for

swelling.

P^
P

To quarrel,to dispute. chtao^, k'ou\ Radical No. 30, the mouth.

237

^
688 If 3^

sAao\ Phonetic, small.


mean

(SeeNo. 176). Small,


proper

talk is

very

definition of

to

quarrel.
a

noise. bustle, disturbance, n,^|" tou\ Radical No. 191, to fight,to grapple with an antagonist. This radical is made to lay hold of, jEL^ chii^, up of two to seize. (W. 11 H). (See No. 139). ni shih\ Phonetic, a market. (See No. 256). The market is place is where each man

nao*. To make

alert to his which


lead

own

interests and disturbances

altercations
are no

to

not

common. un-

This
value but

symbol

it does

phonetic aid in explainingthe


has

meaning
-'

of the combination.

rKE tsa^. Mixed, confused. \/ts' No. chui^.Radical 172,

short- tailed

bird.

(SeeNo, 21). In giving this character a radical the phoneticwas destroyed ; ^ chP, in the old writing is ^ a flock of birds on a tree, a collection or a coming together. M is the logical phonetic and the radical the latter is should be :^ i^, clothing ; but
w^ritten
in
an

unusual

form
was

and

sequently con-

the above
A

radical of odds of mixed

adopted.
ends of
or

garment

made

and

cloth, thus the idea


is set forth.
680

confused

chieh\ Elder sister.

^
R

(See No. 16). nu\ Radical No. 38, a woman. Phonetic, a square bench. It resembles jQ_ ch'ieh^,
a

chair

without

back.

This is a very

238
common were

article

of

furniture.
or

Women chattels
was

regarded
the make

more

less

as

and
not 691

up

of this character

regardedas humiliating.

A younger sister. mei*, 3C nii^, Radical No. 38, a woman. (See No. 16). ^_ wei*,Phonetic, not yet ; a tree in fullleaf and branch, but probably not of large size. (See No. 524). With the addition of the* for girlor woman the character rapdical

for younger
692 To contest, sai*,

sister is formed.
to rival.

Radical No. 154, precious(SeeNo. 38). pei*, sai^, Phonetic,to w^all in, to shut up, to cork. An empty space ^ H, is filled with bricks, men of the workX kung^,by the f=^hands a reward, ^ pei*, (W. 47 T). When is added, it gives the idea of competition
to

the

labor

; the

one

who

works

best is

rewarded.
693
**M.

4b

To ch'ietf.

depute, to
No.

send.
to
run

choi^ Radical
go.

162,

fast and

stop, to

S,"^

(SeeNo. 10). c/2';eH^ Phonetic, to carry earth in a ^]dui\ basket, for erecting a wall, g (W. Ill C). This being an important undertaking, an officer was deputed who had charge of the construction. The sending of a person is to have charge implied when the radical S- cho* is added to the phonetic. yu\ Prepared before hand, already.

694

239

^
"H" S

shih^ Radical No. 152,

pig.
one

(SeeNo. 221).
hand
to
other, an-

/"^ Phonetic, to
to

pass

from

give ; I, me. (W. 95 A). The seal writing depictsone hand be This may giving to another. of the act of passing just a repetition
down,
to

haiid

from

one

hand

to

another,

as

person,

at

times, will do

w^hen the unconsciously, mind is occupied. Add the radical plus the part which it an makes elephant^ and we have a symbol w^hich is suggestive of the archaic meaning, viz.,excursions back and forth, indecision. A caged elephant
goes

from

one

the other is all


695

for hours
to

side of the cage to without stopping. He


at

ready

escape

the

first opportunity.

yV,

pei*. Complete, to prepare. Radical No. 9, a man. j^t^, "t Ml P^^*Phonetic, to prepare, to make ready. ferentia deThis is composed of ^ ^ ching^, tracted, behaviour, (See No. 407) conthe P being replacedby M yviag^. the preparation The ching 1 indicates how
is to be made, with decorum, viz., is
and

|g

indicates that what

prepared is wanted for use. (W. 54 G). This phonetic was vised for the preparationof the originally
household necessities by the
many
women.

It

has

had

dififerent writings. The

addition
696
_
^

of the radical is modern.

Waste, wilds, desert. k'aang^, jih\ Radical No. 72, the sun (SeeNo. 12).

240

Fhonetic, broad, enlarged, a large Jiuang^, a shelter ; )" yei^,a covering, hall. From and ^ huang^, yellow, the hue of loess. (SeeNo. "'07). A yellow or imperial house is naturally made large,spacious. (W. 171 A). It is evident that ^ buavg^ was originally
used
as
a

synonym

of earth

or

and soil,

resembles thus J^ kuang^,a hall,


a

t'ang^,

(See No. 408), as they both are used for holdinglargeassemblies and both the floor. Kuan^ is the earth have as used for a hall, as not now t'an^ fulfills all the requirements,and ^ kuan^ is
hall used

for broad.

When
a

the

sun or

is added barren

it is the
waste.

symbol for
A

desert

the and

earth

hall, notwithstanding it has for a floor, is non-productive ;


the

^ k'uang* is
with
the

earth
sun

large,barren tract of sky for a coveringand the


a

only occupant.
a

697

yeh^,A

waste,

desert, savage,

rude,'^wild,
,

rustic.

IP,Radical

No. 166, cultivated fields.

(SeeNo.
one

82).

"^^ ^

yiP Phonetic,
hand
No.
to

To the

pass

something
to

from

other,
is
a

hand

over.

(See
Tuan

694"). There
Wen

reading of
^ ^^SC

Sf which

but it is archaic. is yit^,

Shih Shuo

has

of good description

this character

9\-mitm.
it is called

^f mit^M Bj'^m:tMM Beyond the limits of the city % ch'iad ; beyond the limits of
"

241

the

chiac^ it is called pasture, ft mw* ; beyond the pasture it is called KF yeh^."

pasture region was


cases

not

maintained

in

all
and

outside
cases

the

limits of the chiao^,

in such

the

yeh^ was

ly immediateThe

beyond
$P chiao^
with
were was

the

limits of the chiao^.


w^here

intercourse ^
was

chiao^, They

the
not

barbarians allowed

held.

inside the g, /*lest

should

learn

of its,vulnerable the
.

they points "and

thus attack
was

ter stronghold This characwritten ffiindicating originally

that

it

was

covered
were

w^ith forests.

After

the forests
was

cleared
to

off the composition


the for

changed
is " feudal
the

present
fields H

form,
t'ien^.
was

which

t'u^ land

During the given into


manage,
w^ere

times

the Sf

yeh^

charge
as

of the

militaryto
straw
were

and

timber, grain and


taxes.

demanded

There

grades of grain tax, one for farming for buildingsand another for land, one livingin the district in idleness. The ^ cupants j-r? indicates that the squatters or octhree

handed the taxes


698

over or a

to

the

proper

thorities au-

rent.

)5^ Jj^
^

sbih\ To

bestow.
No.

fan^, Radical, 503).


This
because
among

70,

square

(See

No.

radical has
the

been

acter given to the charclassifier is not original

the modern

radicals and
old form

it is

now

written

J^ yen^,the

is !^.

It is

242

banyan
and
many

tree

with

branches

hanging

down
has

striking root, A.

As this tree

here used

of these accessory trunks it is as a symbol for many. (W. 117

B). '^ yeh^,Phonetic, also. (Archaic,a drinking -{fii, indicates a vessel.) This combination at frequentintervals 1i^ as pouring out ifi, wine at feast ; or a something freely Mgixren, (W. 107, B).
699
_".__

haP, To repent, to regret. *t^hsin\ Radical No. 61, the heart (SeeNo. 18). *I* (See No, ^ ife meP, Phonetic, each, every, many.
,

of radical and 269). The combination phoneticimpliesthat mistakes or crimes committed are through thoughtlessness and
heart with
causes

when
swarms

one

repents it is because #
nieP his misconduct

his

(archaicmeaning)
and

the

thoughts of
regret.

him

700

=!/#

j^
p ^

to correct, another. kaP, To change, to alter, p'a^Radical No. 66, to tap, to rap (See No.

17)i.

Phonetic,
tion is

of breath. As exhalation

followedby mha immediately


as

exha
a on

this

symbol was adopted for,"to change." (W. 85 B and No. IQ^ )


camel.
No.
to

appropriat

701

'"^iJ

lo\ A

ma\ Radical

187,
go

a on

horse
one's

(See No. 261).


way

Phonetic, /fo*,

without

others. heeding

(See No. 272).

244

locusts,mosquitoes and silk worms. lice, of (W. 110 C). This phonetic is more
classifier than radical is added
sound
a

phonetic
the

and

when takes

the

character

the

of the radical. of multiplication the character


occurs
one

The
that

is

symbol indicates used for something


or

which
705

in

swarms

great numbers.

mi*,Honey.
Radical rfa cA'uBg^
No. 142. An
a insect,

worm.

(SeeNo. 232). silent,secret. mi*,Phonetic, quiet, close,still, Jj^


mien^, a sheltered place, and # When is in a one pi* (See No. 504). tween dilemma, or has to decide {i^ shoot)betwo, (A pa^ to divide),modes of action, a quietor secret place is desirable.
included are qualities here A ch'ung', phonetic. When
Both
a

From

'^

these

in the used for

bee, is added
The of
a

we

have

the

character

for

honey.
darkness

bees make hollow

their honey in the


tree
or

other

secret

place.
706

i^

wan^, To

draw

bow, bent, curved. 57,

Radical No. ^ kuag^. S|IIIluan* Phonetic, to oldest

(See No. 55). adjust, to quarrel. The


a a

bow

writing represents
three threads
were

hand
;

"Tt

entangli dis-

their lower

ends

contracted

into +

shih^,ten.

writinghas "b yen^,word, taking the place of the middle thread, as the of thread; it done in common,, untangling often leads to impatient words and re-

A later

245

the meanciprocal fault finding ing ; thus of quarreling was developed. (W. 92 D). In shootingan arrow the bending of the bow is very marked and so ^ kung^ is a radical for the character meaning, fitting

bent, curved
707

%.

mM
/I, S

to cbieW, To loosen, to explain, chiao\ Radical No. 148, a horn.

open,

to

untie.

(SeeNo. 250)
is made
not
occur sequently con-

? The
up

phoneticof
any

this character which


do

of two

radicals

together in

other
no

character

and

pronunciation. ^ ^ IS 3t gives the following explanation, 4^ :ft Dividinga cow's horn with ^ 71 f"l
"

it has

knife.'' Horn
this has A horn

is put to
true

number

of

uses

and

been

for thousands
it was
a a

of

years.

being hard
divide

difficult

operation to
which
as

it ; thus

symbol
is used

represents dividinga

horn A

the

symbol
from

made

for to open. the horn, ^ of knots.

bodkin, 73,
ox,

an

4^, and

used to untie M

H2

A mate, p'ei*, 35 yt^. Radical


j.n

^"^

pair,marriage. No. 164, a jug for holding wine. A woman Phonetic, imperialconcubine. fei^, Contracted -^ belonging to oneself B.
to
to

chp.

This

combination

of radical

used for the wine M yu^ phoneticwas drunk at a wedding feast M (contracted), the meaning of assumed and eventually.it or mate pair. ; (W- 84 A). and

246

709

rC||
'*

7i*, Gain, interest, profit,acute.


cut

Archaic,

to

grain.
18,
a

7J,IjtaoS Radical,No.
^, ^
In order to

knife,a reaping hook.

(SeeNo. 37). ho^,Phonetic, standinggrain. (See No. 556).


secure

the benefits fij//*, firom


necessary cut
to

the

ripenedgrainit was
wrords
to
.

reap

it, in other
^.

73 the

stalks'

"^J

i]
"^,^,^

^1*,/ei*. To to to curb, to restrain, Ic,^' bridle, force, li\Radical,No. 19, strength,force. (See No. 212).

ko\ Phonetic, hides, skins with

the

hair

on.

(See No. 163). Leather or rawhide is exceedingly strong, and w^ith the addition of ;^ /r*, strength,a good symbol for to
curb
or

restrain is formed.

To crack, to split, to rip open. lieh,

;^

7,

Radical

No.

145, clothing. (See No. 51).

Phonetic, to divide,seriatim. S[Jlieh*,


The

original writing of this phoneticwas M '^ll, a river,"", ch'tian" (See No. 598)
on

which

account

of

breaking

its banks

has caused

destruction ? taf^, ting by cutJgreat channels through the fields. 71, !lj new ? tai^ is ^ or A in seal writing ; these are the human bones as they are found after the flesh has decayed ; a symbol of misfortune. Rivers much
new

have

been

the

cause

of

misfortune
channels.

in China

ing by their form-

247

The

formed addition of the radical ^ i^,

character

which originally meant


a

the
was

nants rem-

of cloth leftafter
out
;

garment
was

cut

another

old

meaning

the

sound
used

of cloth ; but it is now tearing only for the meaning given above. of the
712 ATo be like. /ari"^.

Radical :^ c/z'/A*,
"

No.

60, to

step with

the

left

foot.

Qffi,"^.3^ fang"Phonetic, square.


This
the
seems

to

be

(SeeNo. 503). but simple phonetic,


that

Shuo

Wen

says

the tied

symbol
the

is

composed of two forming a square,


must

boats

together
boats

therefore

have

been

similar in

shape and
other.

size,
The

thus

they

resembled
have

each been

radical ^
a

may

selected because

ceeded step with the left foot is naturally suc-

by
713 4^

one

like it with

the

rightfoot.

Like. fu^,

^
^ ^

ch'ih" Radical

No. 60,

step with the left foot.

(SeeNo. 78).
/"* Phonetic, (See No. This

554).
have been

phonetic may
rods
are or

selected
are

as

the two

bows

which

tied together

equal strength and thus neutralize each other, consequently they


of
are

similar
see

or

alike.
712.

For

the

use

of the

radical
^^*

No.

-4^

"^o^^ dove,

pigeon.
No.

J^ '^

xiiad.Radical

196,

bird.

(SeeNo. 628). (SeeNo.

hd^, Phonetic, harmony, agreement.

248 103
1.

The

fact that
the

doves

are

not

relsome quar-

caused

selection

of

this

phonetic.
715
____

To urge, to hasten. ts'uP^, Radical No. 9, a man. yV jen^, ts^uP, Phonetic, very high, a high mountain ; This phoneticis made a surname. up of # chuP, a lU shan, a mountain, and

short-tailed
the low hills and
more

bird.
are

Grouse

do
on

not

live

on

hills but

found
as

the

higher
find

mountains,

they
The
may

there

seclusion and
radical

shelter.
man

addition
been
one

of the

for
the
a

have

suggested by
a

energy

required if
grouse
the

wrishes to follow mountain

flock of rock

up

; if this is tried

priateness appro-

never

composition again questioned.


animal,
a

of

the

of

fS is

716

sbou*,An

brute.

-J^ ^

ch'ixan^Radical

No.

94,

dog,

of the animal.

presentatio pictorialre(SeeNo. 424).

"^, W\ ^^""* Phonetic,


The domestic

the from

domestic

animals

tinguish dis-

yang", H
cow,

ch'itp,wild animals. animals w^ere ^ 122a', ^ nit^, chi",it cb'uan^ m sbih\ the
^

horse,
The then and
a

archaic the head

sheep, chicken, dog and w^ritingdepicts two


and below 23.
are

pig.
ears,

the hind

legs
was

tail.

(W.
w^hen

I) This symbol
the

sufficient to animal added


but

convey

idea

of domestic for

the

radical animals

dog

is bv

it

means

wild

chased

249

effectis unfortunately dogs. The pictorial lost 'in the modern entirely writing.
717

1^

IRJ

"

To szu*,

wait

upon,

to
a

examine,

to spy.

-q

/^

Radical jen^,

No.

9,
who

man.

I*honetic,to WI wl ^^"^' (a
man

manage.

This P,
a

is ^

hou*,
to

orders
a

prince,and
servant

by

extension,
orders.
The

princess) reversed
or

indicate the subordinate receives


the It

who of

is the

imprint

prince has informed his printed minister of his desire,impressed or imhis ideas on him, and the latter

prince.

puts

them for

into
man

execution. is added the

When

the

radical

character
dant atten-

represents the
"Piwho
718

f with his superior


upon

waits

him.

-fftt

^^
i"^^

virtuous. liehr, Burning, fiery, bao\ Radical No. 86, fire. (See No. 482). i|l(^ in order (See No. Phonetic, to arrange ^ii lieh*^,

711). With

the radical !k. we


to floods.

have

the

fierceness of fire added


719

wang^, A

net.

^
E!

mi^ ssB Radical

No.

120, silk.

(SeeNo. 8).

vvan^, Phonetic, a net, to capture with a net. The idea of capturing or taking is set forth by Cl wang^, to destroy, (See No. 123). Owing to the I^ wang^ being
written
in
an

abbreviated

form,

the

radical for silk is


720

placedat the side.

to diminish. shao^,A little,

250

^
'^

ho^,Radical
No.

No.

115, standing grain. (See


archaic

556). hsiao* Phonetic, like, similar. The to be like one's meaning was, not a degenerate. The idea of the attached to this phonetic as
smaller than the

father,
small

is

child is

parent.
"

small

piece

of the father's flesh.

chip
the

off the old


of

block."
very

When

bo^,a stalk
added

grain,a
character

small

thing,is

stands
721

for the above.

m
^

cultured. ys^, Elegant,decorous,polished,

chui^ Radical, 'gl

No.

172,

short-tailed

bird.

(SeeNo. 21). ja',Phonetic, a tooth.


There is evidence

(SeeNo. 97).
that

this character

was

written 51 but S hu*,reciprocal, originally being very similar to ^ ysf, the latter has entirely supplanted the old form and ^ ys?,hasfthe advantage of being a perfect devoid of phoneticbut, any suggestion of elegance, the ideas of S hu*, conveys satisfaction. A person is reciprocal who is courteous and is generally in high favor.
111

15

chao^. To

beckon,

to

to proclaim. call,

f ,^
;g

shon\ Radical No. 64, the hand. cbao\ Phonetic, to summon,


archaic

(SeeNo. 53).
to

call.
"

The
use

meaning
as a

was

to

^to criticise,

the mouth

knife 7J.

With the

the

tion addi-

of the radical ^ of to beckon:^,


that
a as

it has
the hand used
at

meaning
in
ing summon-

is used
in

act.

This
to

is a term
appear

person

court.

252 upon

precept

; line upon
a

line,line
little."
a

upon

there line ; here ai, little, 726 -M^

c"'uan^ Authoritjr, power;

the pee of

yard. steel-

mu*, Radical :7[C

No.

75, wood.
the heron.

(SeeNo. 22). (See


No.

H" Awan*

Phonetic,

428,

511).
At first

why
which

glanceit is difficultto understand tf is used as the phonetic of this


a

character, but
use

study

of the

characters
the

this
as

phonetic,plus
in the

habits Shih

of the bird Shuo

set

forth in i^ R, Kuei

understanding of heron its use. The is supposed to announce by his call the approach of rain ; hence he is possessedof great intelligence.
Wen,
He

aid

stands

by

the hour

in the

water

tionless, mo-

watching
reach, action
common or
"

for food ; when and


"

within His

is

name

prompt is ^ ^,

sure.

the old

waiter,"

patientwaiter.'' Probably the poised attitude suggested the use of this i)honetic with wood M^, (the steelyardbeam being of wood), as a fitting made symbol, for the pee the on steelyard. The string the long suspending the pee resembles neck and its shape is not unlike the body of the bird. The pee only indicates the the correct posiweight when in precisely tion, it is just and thus unwavering. For these reasons, authority and ability to give a just decision, are given to this
character

by extension.

253

;feff

ping^, Authority,a handle.

:^ mu\ Radical No. 75, wood pin^ Phonetic, the 3rd of "p^
to fire.

(SeeNo. 22).
the ten

stems,

ferring re-

(SeeNo. 437). Fii-e has authority over wood, hence the combination,to the Chinese mind, is suggestive of authority. Wood, in a sense, is the handle a by which fire can secure
hold 728
on

the structure.

m \^
V-p

wu\ Foul, unclean, stagnant


Radical shui', "^,7K
No. 85.

water.

(SeeNo. 79).
to

-^ "^ ~^_"^

k'ua^,Phonetic, to boast,
viP Phonetic, the
an
"

overpraise.

breath, 5 having overcome obstruction, spreadsin all directions.


"

It

seems

reasonable
was

to

think

that

this
i.e. #

character

written PH originally
the

yii^, a basin, a tub, with


water

addition
water

of

i^ ; it is the

symbol of

which

has

been

used for
to

w^ashing.
on,

UpJ

To fu*,

be near,

follow, to lean 17u,

possessed (SeeNo.

by.

g^

/u*/bu* Radical

No.

mound.

493).
fa\ Phonetic, to fij*
Tuan

Shih

character

give. (SeeNo. 672). Wen Ml ]^ Shuo explainsthis than the others. more fullj'
a

P -$.fou^ is
state
a

mound
to

or

small

hill. A
a

foothill looks up
must

the mountain, with

small

do the

same

reference to is obligedto
of the

large,powerful state, and


the
customs pay

adopt

and

usages

latter and

it tribute, if.

254
I

'^^^

"^t""

To put iaie/z*,

out

to destroy, to (as a fire),

exterminate.

shuP,Radical ^ 7jC

(SeeNo. 79). kill ; ^ hsii^ mieh* Phonetic, to extinguish or with a halberd l" yiieb, to wound I'S and iK.fire. This phonetic was originally
No. 85, water
"

the full character, but added


to

later

water

was

indicate

the 71

substance

used

to

fire. (W. extinguish


731
t'.

P.)

yxs

^^, ^

chaP tse^,

To

reprove,

to

punish, to lay

^^

charge on ; duty, to be responsible. pei\Radical No. 154, valuable. (SeeNo. 38). )^ tz'u* Phonetic, thorns. It represents a thorny tree. The modern entirely w^riting changes this phonetic so that no of thorns trace There are two meanings of this remains. character : 1. To to punish. or reprove indicate torture, and The thorns ^ tz'u*, indicates a fine. 2. The care and M. pGJ* of property, K pei*. The ^ "z'"*, worry, of property bringsresponsibilipossession ty. (W. 120 H.)
to levy. shrink, Radical No. 64, the hand. ^ ^ shoii', (SeeNo. 53). ^ yu^,Phonetic, from, origin. The old writing rj-i represents a sprout which is drawing its from the seed. strength and nourishment is another old writingof tt which There has ^ H liu^, for phonetic to keep,retain, ; when ^ shot^ is added, ^, the idea is that the hand is taking away a part, but liu^ ", H. something is stillleft,

gPl

ch^ou^,To

draw

out, to

255

^33

tNb
'

Ppr

To cben*,
ment

arrange,

to

form

into ranks, a

regi-

of soldiers.
arrange,
to state to
a

ch^en% To '/^
stale.

old, superior,

K ^
,

iu* Radical, No.

170,
two

an

elevation.

(See No.

493).
There
are

phoneticsin
One

ings the old writ-

of this character.

shen^. is ^ jS"

Chalfant

regards this as a symbol for a thunderbolt,something terrible ; the shock of their serried phalanx, the ancient warriors have been pleased to liken to a may The other form is 1^ ^, not thunderbolt. "M.ittngf, east, but two hands supporting to indicate or planting a tree. It seems the plantingof trees on a hillside, perhaps The acter a park. present forms of the charseem

to

be

combination
50

of these

two

old forms.

(W

H.)

734

fcn^, Leprosy, scrofula, paralysis, insanity. 22? Radical No. 104, sickness. (SeeNo. 593). Phonetic, wind. fetig^. into eight The Chinese divided the wind east, kinds,east, west, north, south, and northSome etc. were regarded as having as having bad influences. good and some
This
is not
an

old

character but

and

is not
sanity inbad

described
was

in the Wl %,

f
to

wind. the

supposed to be in dogs Rabies

leprosy or caused by
certain

is attributed kind

evil influences of

of wind.
735

alarmed. chin^,Terrified,

256

ma^ Radical,No. 187,

horse.

(SeeNo. 261).

chin^.Phonetic, to

(SeeNo. 407). The terror ": which a horse ^ experiences of that which he regards in the presence as powerful than himself. beingmore
reverence.

736

ya^,To
to.

wonder

at,

admire, to take exceptions


a

Radical "0 yeix^,


Et

No.

149,

word.

(See No. 10).

jaS Phonetic, a tooth.

(SeeNo. 97). Tuan Shih H K says that this character, w^ritten S, meant to meet, or originally
a

receive
person
now

guest

; when

one

meets
or

noted
It
at.

of awe feeling is used for surprised, or

there is a

fear.

to

wpnder

737

^""t

"^1^
^

Everywhere. pien*, p'ien^.


ch'Ih* Radical
No.
a

60,

footprintof

the

left

step with the leftfoot. Phonetic, flat ; an inscription hung pieif, foot, or
the door. Kuei Shih's Shuo
as

over

Wen the

^ R IS:
official

jfc explains this phonetic


of the register ^
f5J :#.

inhabitants

of the

Empire,
all.

Therefore addition

it must

include

With

the

idea of

going

of if ch^ih*, to go, the to every house in the land is

set forth.

738 To t^an^, lie down, No.


to

lie.

Radical shen^,

158, the body.

(See No.

291). Phonetic, a house. shatig^, "j^


This is
not
an

(SeeNo. 52).
character and is The

unauthorized

found

in old dictionaries.

mology ety-

of it is not

difficult. When

lying

257

dfo'wn ^
them
cold 739
to
or

persons

desire

roof 1^3 above

protect their bodies M from


stonns.
to pull,

heat,

fe
^

To la}. shou^

draw,
Radical

to

lead.

No.

64, the hand.


to

Phonetic, -^ //*,
No.

to set up,

(SeeNo. 53). rise, instantly. (See


was

216).
old

The

writing of
indicated

this character
the
as

Jft
of li* ;fy

7a', which
great
than characters

putting forth
the

strength, but
were more

three

difficult to
was

write

"iL li\ to

stand, the latter


its
use

stituted, sub:

explained thus exertinggreat strengthin pulUng one


to

and

is

in

has

stop and

take

firm stand.

740

^
^
-fr.

/d^.To

uphold, to help.
No.

shou'y Radical

64, the hand.


a man.

fd. Phonetic,, a

husband,
Shih The

(SeeNo. 53). (See No.


*, 5t *
husband
is
now

234).
Wt
a

Kuei

# K IS; 3t says
hand the of the

husband.

assists the wife and extended 741 "^B


to

meaning

any

kind of assistance.

"JQ
5_
'^

To t'u/*,

retreat, to decline.

cho* Radical, No.

162, action.

(SeeNo. 10).

to retreat ; to have ts'm* Phonetic ; to refuse, ?? all day long e, with difficulty walked

and

refuse to
on

go

farther, or

to

go

ward back-

account

of adof the difiiculties

vandng.

This

phoneticmay
the sun, each

have

been

because saggested

morning,
when

slowly ascends
indications
are

until

midday,

the
to go

that it will continue

258

higher; but
With for to
to advance.

at

noon

it starts

to

descend.
acter the char-

the addition

of L. it forms

retreat.

Compare

No.

402,

742

J^

^3i
'^^
To gather,to assemble. chii*. S er^ Radical,No. 128, the ear, Phonetic,to lay hands ]^^ ^^ ch'ii^,

(SeeNo. 71). (See on, to take. No. 578). The oldest use of this phonetic of for the cutting off of the left ear was them to the officer and presenting captives
; this
was

in command

evidence The

of the

meaning holding of pergraduallyextended sons three and thingsin general. When ^ cbung^axe. added it is the symbol men of an assembly brought together% by the desire of people to hear "S^ what is to be holds said ; thus the speaker, figuratively,
number of

captives taken.
to the

his audience
is not
as

by the

ear.

This

character

composed
characters

of radical
are,
as

and
the

phonetic
radical is
men are

most

part of the phoneticand the three


still unaccounted
has 743 /^
a

for, but

their presence
27

logical significance. (W.

K.)

sis

cbP, To assemble, to collect, a fair.

'^

cAui^ Radical

No.

172,

short-tailed

bird.

(SeeNo. 21).

"fCmu*, Phonetic, wood


was

or

tree.

This character

It

written /i^ three lines coming originally togetherat the ends forming a triangleafterwards was supplanted by a tree
on

with three birds


was

it,and later the


one.

ber num-

reduced to

(W.

14

A,

119

G).

260

^V

^/

shuP, Radical

No.
to

85,

water.

(See No. 79).


*"

chieh^ Phonetic, Tuan


Shih

to regulate. adjust, says

II ^

that
the

cb'i* in this

cutting of a bundle of hemp threads, thus making them of one that length and the ^ signifies they are tied up into bundles after having
been washed
748

combination

indicates

? and

cleansed.

ren^,Stern, majestic, strict, tight.


P
Radical /:'ou^
No.

30, the mouth.

(See No.
person

17).
'

1^ yea' Phonetic,
force him

to to

lay hold
move

of

and

forward.

The

modern

is quite different from the original writing ; shows hand that a strikingX shu' a bear M ^ (as in tfckatf see No. 545) in a )" yen^, accompanied with cave great hsiiat^. The modern outcries meaning of outcry, such emphasises the sternness is heard in the court the magiswhen as trate browbeats witness. a (W. 146 H).
"^

749 ne

cht^,To order,to enjoin upon. Radical No. the mouth. k'ou^, 30,

(See No.
This is

',

/IPsba^ Phonetic,a tail,an


made
up

appendage.

of M

wep, tail,contracted, and


;
as

"^ sha^,a silkworm


its thread

in the process of spinning the worm is constantly

moving during this operation,this iJart of the phonetic indicates motion. Thus
the
two

parts indicate

tail which

is

261

constantly wagging.
added
an

When
a

CI

i'oa^ is

it

seems

to

indicate
or

last

tion, injuncadded

appendage

command

after the business has been talked For


800. 750 3a_

through.
see

another

meaning

of ^

sha^

No.

chin^. Watchful, respectful.

"^ yen\ Radical No. 149, words. (SeeNo. ^^^ ciun^ Phonetic, yellow,M contracted and
"., potter's clay, loess.
When been
a"

10).
earth

(W.

171

B.)

yen^ is added
one as

that

have the idea may should be as careful and he


says
as a

watchful
is in 751

to

what

potter

shaping the clay.

Cautien, attentive. shin*,

i* "ll^ hsin\ Radical


.

No.

61, the heart.

(SeeNo. 18).
A
true

^
752
E^

cben^,Phonetic, true.
heart

(See No. 218).


and

is cautious

attentive.
to
caress.

mo^ ', To

to rub with the hand, feel,

^ ^

shou^ Radical, No. 64,

the hand.

(SeeNo. 53).

ma', Phonetic,hemp. (SeeNo. 24). Painters of hemp for rubbing oil into wads use

painting. was It is probable that this character formerly written H as M md', to grind,
wood and and
the character under

for

consideration

are

sometimes
been the the

have interchanged. J" may first used as the symbol for rubbing hands together,the hands actingas
upper

and
was

nether

mill-stones 5 for any


kind

and

graduallyit
rubbing.

used

of

26'2

753

^^
i=t

Evidence, proof. cheng*^,

yen\

Radical

No.

149^ word.
ascend.

Phonetic, to teng^,

(SeeNo. 10). (See No. 240 and

243). This phonetic indicates cUmbing to a high platform and M is to proclaim,from a' abroad. high platform,to publish
754

to. c//u*, Evidence, according

^
fi

(SeeNo. 53). to struggle. chii^Phonetic, wild boar, to fight, and a tigerj^ bu^ A wild boar fc, shib^, and neither one lettinggo his fighting, grip on the other. (W. 69 D.) With the addition ofiand the idea of holding firmly
shou^. Radical
No.

64, the hand.

is set
person

forth.

Evidence

is that

which
ing waver-

affirms and
of spite
any

holds without

in
755

opposition.
to

To display,to publish; to extend; jraiJ^,

w^innow.

^ ,^ shou\ Radical No. 64, the hand. (SeeNo. 53). Phonetic, to ex;pand, glorious. (See ^ "^ jrang^,
541) The hand placed beside phonetic indicates that something is in bright light in order that
No. may

the
hibited ex-

all

know

and

understand.

^P

To break, to destroy. ch'ai^,

^ ,^ shou^,Radical No. ch'ib\Phonetic, to ^ jS:


abbreviation

64, the hand.


attack.

(See No. 288)


means

an

of J^. This

to

attack,
means

"" 1* (itis T
that

katH^ doubled

and
man

it is

repeated attacks) a

in his

263
own

house

/** yetf. When


for to break
or

the
to

hand

is

added

it stands

destroy.

(W. 102. D).

PJK
^

wo^, To lie down. E man. cKen^, Radical No. 131, a minister, a states(SeeNo. 1 20). The Phonetic, a man. position proper i^jen^,
for
w^as a man

in the presence
prone

of

an

official
above

posture,and the symbol is used for, "to lie down." 82 F).

the

(W.

758

^
"~^

A mattress, a cushion. ;u*, :^ i\ Radical No. 145, clothing. (SeeNo. 51). Phonetic, to shame, to insult, to reveal fM /"*" 3^ condition, with the hand "sf^ a disgraceful to be pregnant M cA'efl^, (See No. to be a simple 122). The " 7H* seems phoneticand the radical 5K indicates that the mattress

is made

of cloth.

759

^
?ft

A cord, to chui*, ssi?,mi''Radical chuP, Phonetic,

let down
No.
to

by
to

rope.

120, silk.

'^

pursue,

(SeeNo. 8). follow. (SeeNo.


a

745).
The and

radical here the article

indicates

rope

or

cord the

lowering or
760
:=".

suspended follows of the rope. raising

^, (^

Tax, duty on merchandise. shui*, i2o^ Radical No. 115, growing grain. (See No. 556). *"'^ Phonetic, to exchange, to barter. (See

264

indicates the 72). The character giving of grain ^ ho^ to -the government for the privileges derived.
No.

761

"^ P

An //*,

officer, a magistrate. (See No. 231).


No.

k'ou\ Radical 17).

30, ,the mouth.

(See

No.

Phonetic, ten feet. (See No. 368). chasig^, acter In the seal writiiig the basis of the char^
is ^ it sbihP,a

scribe, a

hand

acter holdinga stylus. This is also the charit was the w^ork of for history, as the scribes to record history.'M H* has
one

stroke

above

the

tion ; this is a contrac-

of Jt stands
or

shang'*.Thus

this character
vsrere

for those

scribes -who

tors direc-

rulers of the literati.

762

Jf^

hsP, A mat, a table, a repast, a feast. c"iV, Radical No. 50, a napkin, a towel. rfj
No.

(See

143).
of the the duals (contracted) ; all the indivihouse the gathered about hearth
were

j^

shu* Phonetic, all

light of
times made
while

to

eat.
on a

In

ancient

meals

served the

flat surface

of stone, and

family partook

reclining.The J^ is composed of f^ yerP, the house, and ^ kuan^, light. of the fire was The light all the illumination chin^ was they had. The rlJ originally written " and is described as being a flat
stone
on

which

the

meal

w^as

served;
mat.

eventuallygave place to a shu* is a logical element rather phonetic.

This

^,
a

than

265

^63

^^

J|fe
p

healthy,delightful. jer/ Radical No. 53, a shelter. ("See No. 132). The phonetic is not easilyseparated,as it is only in the modern writing that /T ^ f^ keng^ (a jen* arbitrarily appears. in two of rice, pestle hands) is the hulling and ^^ is the same, that in the save
repose ;

A'an^SJoy, peace,

latter rice -M is represented. A grain of rice was firm and could stand the violence
to

which

it

was

subjected in

the

process repose,

of and the

hulling. The
satisfaction
rest

meaning of peace, is supposed to


came

refer labor

to

which

after

the
of

of

hulling the
102 V64
_. "

daily portion

rice. (VV.

B).

chien^, Strong,vigorous. Radical No. 9, a man. 'f J^ jen^, Phonetic, to write regulations ^ yii^ J# 2^ cbien*, k. %, yirf (See No. 7), for the march ^ cb'ih'^ lengthened (archaic ; longstrides, who was out). (W. 169 B). A man able to fulfil the regulations was strong and vigorous.
,

^"^

:^r;

chin\ To prohibit. Radical No. Ill, to reveal. (See No. ^^ shib*^, 164). jsk Ha',Phonetic, a forest ; indicated by doubling
the radical
trees

for

tree.

bad

omens

Ty:

The ^ (W. 119 M). when was seen regarded as a fevelation of divine or supernatural and disapproval, stands for prohibition. thus the character

from

#,

266

766

"gt^

A son, latig^,

bridegroom,gentleman,
a

secre-

g, R i^ Radical No. 163, city. (See No. 11). Phonetic,good. (SeeNo. 445). ^ liang^.
The of
a

character
"

^15was

formerly the

name

ing city a cityof excellence. The meangiven above -was an expressionof the groom, hope of the family in the son or bridethat he would bring benefits equal to that of a powerful city.

767

n^ |*pf

To p'ei*, match

entertain,to
; to

visit with, to
about the

aid,
roots

to

add

earth

of

plants.

-^,R /u* Radical No. *'o"* Phonetic, ?"\ "^,


indicates is
an

170,
to

mound.
a

cut

(See No. 493). speaker short by


dot
""

him. interrupting
the

The

on

the top

^.

and the 5 /oh* interruption, adverb of negation i.e.saying P no This seems like a strange phoneticto
in
a

be used

character

w^hich
when

means

"to

visit with," but persons constanth'

chattingare
another
ing, meanas

interruptingone
order
a

they speak, in
or one

to

get the real


terms

to

correct
on

w^rong

statement.

If the

is not

intimate

with

speaker this is not possible. Bhr

^||a
^
K
/S

/u^ To
to

manage

boat

to yield to, (archaic),

assent, to serve, clothes.

yueU, Radical No. 74, moon. (SeeNo. 48). y"^ Phonetic, to hold the seal,authority. has supIn the modern writing H yiieh^ planted and f^ chov^, a boat, consequentlj"the

etymology is not

apparent without

268

'^^^ ^St

7^ ^

I^^s-d of grain,ear. ^^'^" Ao* Radical No. 115, standing grain. (See No; 556). Aui* Phonetic, grace, kindly. (See No. 385) This is not
the

phoneticof original
it has
be

this

character, but
used.
It may

become
it
was

generally
used
as a

that

of the recognition in giving the t'ien^,


or

grace increase

of

heaven, ^
of the field;
The hand

the

graciouspart of the standing grain


where
the seed

is that

is borne.

a 31^^ sui'^, originalwriting was gatheringthe heads of grain.

772
To wei^,

escort, to defend,
No.

military station,
walk.

Tientsin.

^
"

Radical hsing^,

144,

to

(See No.

161). wei* Phonetic, refractory ; thongs, rawhide. A in oppositedirections Two men pulling an on objecto, or hide,in tanning it. "l
=

the

reverse

of

*!=. The

indicates

opposition, refractory. Compare ^ 4* f The refractory ch^iiarf, error. opposition, have v^rith leather to be bound thongs, hence the meaning leather. As leather is
strong and used
it is here addition
a

to

protect delicate articles


fi indicates
on

suggestive phonetic. The


radical the the march.

of the

guardingof somethingwhile
773

"^.^

ch'iieh^, a vacancy; Deficient, broken, defective. ibu* Radical, No. 121, earthenware. (SeeNo.

264).

269

"^ ^

c/jueF Phonetic, to divide, to break.

(SeeNo.
^

109).
774

dish ^

which /bu*,

is broken

is deficient.

In want, poor, weary. is?, p'ieU Radical, No. 4, a stroke


No.
'^

to the left.

(See

176).
a

chiU, PhoHetic, }iJ


who ih

"

i*\ chii^ written

wards. backperson

explanation is : a before reaching the stospped


The

line

"

The
has

inference is that
do

he

w^as

exhausted.

1^ the

nothing to 'ii possessive


"^

with

the

sign of

chiU.

775

Ww.^K ^r
n

^^^' Dearth, hungry. shiW, Radical No. 184, food, to

eat.

(SeeNo.
for

75). cAf Phonetic,


,

small table ; a contraction

ml.

ch?^\ Phonetic, little. (SeeNo. 34).


When is food -^ is scarce
When

small is

table
scarce

A.,
^

large enough.
a

food The
to

it is

time

of dearth

fL.
seems

character's have is
an

original meaning
dearth
as or

been
sion, exten-

famine

and is the

hungry
common

hunger

condition

during famine.
776

o*,e*, Hungry. Radical No. 184, food, to eat. shifi. (SeeNo. 75). Phonetic, I. (SeeNo. 2). This character vro^,

accordingto Kuei Shih Shuo Wen # K IS written H^ o*,fi) IC szu^y was originally
'^

270 to

feed,and

me.

It

was

contracted

to

the present form.


777

^P
"^ -^
778

k^t^, Dry, decayed, withered, (as a palsied limb). inu\ Radical No. 75, wood. (SeeNo. 22). hi\ Old. Phonetic. (SeeNo. 17). Old wood is probably decayed.
To k'uei^,
peep, to spy.

y\. hsueh*,Radical
custom. rule,

No.

116,
shoot

a an

cave.

kuei^,Phonetic, to 4if^

(See No. W\ a glancethrough an The present writing of M breaks up the etymology, as the ^ fu should be ^ sbib^. In archery the eye aims along the arrow shaft ; but here the eye shoots a glance through an opening.
779

(SeeNo. 97). arrow (archaic) ; To shoot 529). opening % hsiieb*.

To k'ung^,
to

rein in, to

draw

bow,

to

check,

accuse.

^, f
^

shou\ Radical 302).


This
have in

No.

64, the hand.


vacant,

Phonetic, k'ang^,

(SeeNo. 53). (See No. empty.


seems

phonetic plus the radical


been

to

firstused for
an

the draw^ing
one

bow

shooting
space

arrow

increases

the

vacant

and
was

the bow.
not

between the string k^ung^, it In prosecuting a person

at him ; shootingan arrow if the accusation the was substantiated, defendant suffered perhaps more than if hit by an arrow.

unlike

271

780

)m,l^\

^1 1^
p

chou^, Completely,to extend everywhere. i'ou" Radical No. 30, the mouth. (See No. 17). Here it is a modern replacement of
S
contracted
to 7.

This character which


cannot

is

primitive compound
broken
up

be

phonetic. It is ffl )ft yung-" (See No. 476) and R chP, reach to to, contracted, (See No. 324). Every bull's eye has been hit. Efficiency is expressedin this character.
781

into

radical and

weP,

To

surround,
No.

to

inclose.
an

p^

weP Radical

31,

enclosure.

(See No.

28). H^ w^ei^Phonetic, thongs, rawhide, refractory. netic (See No. 772). The meaning of the phomay

be

that

is

leather

case

protecting that which more probably it means


therefore when cerated."
782
^

precious,but 'M- and refractory,


is
"

it is in CI it means

incar-

iCi"*

cb'ou^, Grieved, sad. *t^bsia\ Radical No. 61, the Phonetic, autumn, ^ ch'iu^,

heart.

(SeeNo. 18). harvest. (See No.


often

169).
In the autumn

the

grain is
as

blighted
are

with

frost and appears


one's

if scorched with
thus

fire ifi. When it causes blighted, 783

desires

sadness

of heart.

Hard, obstinate. j^i/ig*, 7S sbih\Radical No. 112, stone. {SeeNo. 42). Phonetic, to change. (See No. 226). ketig^'*,
With

the addition

of stone and

:ff sbiB hard

the

idea is to

change

become

like

272 stone.

This refers either to

phyacal or

mental
784

change.
to

#
yv,

To stretch out, shen^,

explain.

Phonetic No. 9, a man. jen^, shen^.Phonetic, to extend, to stretch. (See who is taking a rope and No. 227) A man with his measuringoff a fathom, six feet, outstretched
to
arms.

man

who the

is able

explain or

out straighten

tangled

cord.
785

As?, Rare, seldom. chin\ Radical No. 50, \\}


The is

cloth. is not the


a

(SeeNo. 143).
character which radical.
It represents the

phonetichere separated from


the
texture

of cloth

:Jtand

ill

As the threads placed below. it conveys the idea of are clearlyseen loose as opposed to close ; thus by extension scattered,rare, seldom. (W. 39 G).

chiri^ was

786

"t

iu*.Statute, law.

if ch'ib* Radical
^
With

No. 60, to

step with the leftfoot.

vu* Phonetic, to write.


tlie addition is used the

(SeeNo. 7).
of ^ ch^ih^ the acter char-

for written

march, and

for regulations by extension,law^.

Jl^

A clan, a faction, an tang^,

associate,a cabal.

H hei\ Radical, No. 203, black. (See No. 178). Phonetic, house. (See No. 52). "^ shang*,
a

The

Shuo the

Wen

says

that

the

M indicates
all is that

that

raeffibers of this with


one

societyare

smoked

smoke,

that

they

273
room. They together in the same in the dark H, secretly, meet form a cabal. The '^ shang* here represents the leader

niieet

of the clan

or

association.
to

^f^ ^,
m

J"^^^"^To crowd,
embrace.
T

gather

in

crowd,

to

shou^,Radical No. 64, the hand. ^1 J^^^ Phonetic, a city; harmoifiy,union

; the

w^agtail. The
character,
a

first is the old form

of the

city "
""
=

with

moat

"^
is
now^

bracing em-

it,iDut the second

form
e.
=

in

general
With

use.

-"-

and

as

in ^15.
the

it

means

the bird that and

haunts

torders

of moats

ponds
express the
to

in harmonious 12

flocks, the

wagtail. (W.
used
to

phonetic is
action, and
radical ^
it

G). This harmony of


of
the
as a

with
means

addition

jam

or

press
arms.

crowd, and
789 tJkf

embrace

with
out.

the

To ebi',

crowd,

to

press

(SeeNo. 53). jt^ shot^. Radical No. 64, the hand. ch'P, Phonetic, even, together. (See No. 455). hands The ^ working together #, to crowd, to press ^.
iu^ To
stoop,
to

790

bow, 9,
a

to
man.

condescend.

Radical "f 7efl^ Jl^^


This
come

No.
a

/a',Phonetic,
into

palace. (See No. 388).


an

is not

old character, but The


man

it has

generaluse.
:

etymology is
comes

apparent
the customs

When

to

an

ofiBcial department }U to pay


of China

his taxes
to

#,

him require

show

274

respect and

reverence

to

the
to

official in
bow and

charge. Thus by extension condescend, i^.


791

A-j^
y V

To fall prostrate, to fall on fa*, in ambush


;
a

the

face,to

lie

decade

in

dog days

; to

subject. Radical No. 9, jen^,


fv is
attitude
to
a

man.

tion, representa"J^ ch'uan^ Phonetic, a dog, a pictorial

take

another.
792

taking the cringing of a dog i^ or compelling another it, i.e. to humble or subject (SeeNo. 647) (W. 25 E).
man

to make plain,glorious. Conspicuous, No. Radical 181, the head, a page, a yeh*^, No. man. 105). (See in a sunbeam, volatile, hsier? Phonetic, motes sunbeam 0 a minute, fibrous. When

hsien^

shines into silk

dark

room,

small

motes

hke

become M ssu^, fibres, in it. the When

visible M. floating

yeb^, the
was w^ere

head, is
that the

added

original idea
of the hat
is
now

decorations
The

very

a]Dparent.

character

used

for

anything

conspicuous.
793

7on*'/u*, Dew;

to lou*,plain,

expose,

to

disclose.

yu\ Radical No. 173, rain. (SeeNo. 61). lu\ Phonetic, road. (See No. 279). # ^ Kuei Shih say's" m ^"^^'^^mWm^ "Dew is the secretion of the dark, female pow^er
of nature,

dew
to

comes

from used

the

earth.'' "l!las

Z,u* 5"

seems

be

for earth

rain from

the earth

instead of the

ordinarj'

2T"

^
nri im

shoti%Radical No. 64, the k'un*, Phonetic,confined.

hand. There I.
a

(SeeNo. 53).
are

two

writ-

\Z'
^^.

it m

ings of
rest

this

phonetic
take

^,

to

stop and
a

bj^a tree, to
a

nap

under
in thus from

tree

II. M

tree
or

which

is hemmed

weP,

by rocks
in

largetrees,and grow^th, or wilting


This
last The is
an

restricted
ment. confine-

is the

one

which

is in

generaluse.
that
seems

addition
act

of band

there

of

implies repression. It
were

probable
one.

that

these

two

different characters

but
The

they

have

become for this

merged into view is, the


and seal

reason

two

meanings, viz.,sleepy
hemmed in. The first

cramped

and

is in accord w^riting to stop ll; under sleepy,


a

w^ith the idea of


a

tree

:^ and

take

nap.

It is difficultto

character had
797

should
from

have
one

it sprung

explainwhy this the tw^o meanings symbol.


a

tan^'*, To

caiTy

burden

on

pole,a

load

or

burden.

^, f
fe

shou^ Radical
ti).
This
on a

No.

64, the hand.

cban^ Phonetic, to

(SeeNo. 53). talk impudently. (W. 59


a

is from

f' weP,

man

standing
and
; to

dangerous crag f (See No. 634), A pa^,to scatter, and e" yerP, w^ords
scatter recklessly

indiscreet words.
the One

The

radical
was

indicates that
as a a

character who talks

first used

verb.

has indiscreetly
to bear

den heavy, dangerous burthis

and

eventuallyhas been

277

extended
798 -Hm

to

mean

burden

of any

kind.

(W.
A raiiao^

o9

H).

sprout, the
No.

sprout

of
*

grain ; wild (SeeNo. 22). 212).


the

tribes.

-H^ ts'ao'-, Radical

140,

grass.

i'ien^ Phonetic, a field. (SeeNo. The sprouting vegetation W of


field 15. That

vated culti-

which

is planted just
s.

appeai-ingabove
149 799

the

ground,

(W.

B).

Wjgl

g
^

shai^, to dry in the sun. Bright sunlight, jih\ Radical No. 72, the sun. (SeeNo. 12). ^'*^ Phonetic,elegant. This phonetic originally
meant

antelope,deer, jS etc., animals


lived in droves, but

which
on

the the

to

meaning of graceful appearance


part
with
^

early took elegant, perhaps owing


of the animals.
a

it

The

upper

is li*,

primitive senting repreanimals


were

decoration. decorated

These

horns.

jM In* deer

is

/^ of horns, body, feet and tail. picture hsi^, Phonetic, west. (SeeNo. 26). The westem sun

is much
a

warmer

than

the eastern,
to

thus

this is

suggestiveaddition
other

the

character, but, like the


without
800

phonetic,is

phoneticsignificance.

tu^.Solitary,only, childless.
ch'uan -^ :;^ -7^
.

Radical

No.

94,

dog.

pictorial

representation.
sAa* Phonetic, a silkworm

sjjinmngits thread. (See No. 749) (W. 54 I). If a silkworm it is working alone is spinning a cocoon

278

and

for

and itself,

when

this

phoneticis
idea
of

used -in
"

this
"

combination

the

solitary is derived from the above about fact. As dogs do not usually roam the dog radical is appropriateto in ijacks form the character for solitary alone. or

"^^, ycS^
^

ao^,The

southwest
w^ere

comer

of

room,

where

the Lares

ta\ Radical
This radical is

No.

mysterious. placed, 37, large. (SeeNo. 54).


cannot

character and

be The

broken

up

iiito

phonetic.
to

above

radical

arbitrarily' given writing. The Shuo


room

it in

the ^modern

Wen

says

thfe character
corner

stands for the south-west


the
one

of

the dark f\ ttiieti^,

corner,

w^here
hands

is

obliged to
to

grope

with

the

f^ in order
articles. 5^ ^ animal
the
or

differentiate 3^
the track

pien^ the
of
a

is pien^
w^ere

wild

and
one

these

easily distinguished,
them
;

from the other, only by hunters


who

those
a

frequently saw

thus

this is
No.

symbol for discrimination more or 837). As there w^as


such
a

(See
less

obscurity about
the character of
802 ^fi

corner,

by

sion extening mean-

acquiredthe mysterious. (W. 123 F).

has

divine. mi*,pi'^, Secret,private,

5fe^

spiritualijtifluences' (See No. 164). Written 4 with a pen^:^. ^ /^o^ Radical No. 115, standing grain. (See No. 556). il^^ Phonetic, must. (SeeNo. 504). pi*,
113,

Radical s/2/A*,

No.

279

was pi*originally god or deity and

used the

as

term

for

manifestations

of

his will must


another The

"^" be

complied with. |J5is


same

writing of the meaning of secret may


the fact that
not

character.

from
could

originated the will of the gods


unless
set

have

be
or

known
omen.

forth

by

revelation
803

day, briefly, temporarily. (SeeNo. 12). g jih\Radical No. 72, the sun. to cut in two. Phonetic, to decapitate, Sj?chair', with This chariot phonetic is a war It scythes according to the Shuo Wen.
a

A part chati*,

of

may

have

been
so,

used

to

exterminate
this
an inean axe

and captives, Df
came

by extension
may

symbol
tioner. execu-

to

mean

beheading by
character
a

The

to

w^hirl
128
U

or

brandish ^
the

battle

Jr. (W.
a

A).

See ilf(No.

812).
time

When

day

jih*is divided

is necessarily

short.

J^S

To pi*^,

press

upon, No.

to ill use.

"f"

J_
n

(SeeNo. 10). iu" Phonetic, abundance. (SeeNo. 267). The written character be should fg pi*. M
c/2o*Radical
162.

When

there of

is

an

abundance
press
one

of men,

crowd
and
ones

people,they
the for

another,
;
a

if the

throng is great, the weaker


pressure
very

suffer from

suggestive symbol
805

oppression.

]j^

To tieh^,

stumble,

to

fall.

ja
"^
rti

tsu^.Radical

No.

157, the
to

foot.
err,

(SeeNo. 484).
a

sMb^, Phonetic,
No.

lose,
error

to

fault.
foot

(See
J", a

566).

Am

of

the

mis-step, leads
^'^

to

fall !^.

^
T^
A

secret. s^m\ Personal, selfish, Ao^ Radical No. 115, standing grain. (See

No.

556).
%.

selfish. szn^ Phonetic, private, Grain the


was was

residue

(See No. 569). and used for paying taxes personal /.property ^L

By extension, selfiish.

807^
i^

yu*. Passion,
hsin^.Radical

lust.
No.
to

61, the heart.


This is long for, to desire. ^ cHiao*, (See No. 135) the

yu*.Phonetic,
made
upper
P

up

of

or lip,

the flesh ^
this

above

the the

mouth,

k'otf.
to

In

seems

be

phonetic regarded as the


The

upper

lip
a

center

of self-

restraint.

cb'ien*

indicates
allows

deficiencyof restraint which


to

desire

gain,the

master3\
for

When
or

;" bsin^ is lust. shade.

added
808

it stands

passion

yen*,To

screen,

to

hide from

to view^,

sbou% Radical

No.
a

64, the hand,


man

sfe. yeif Phonetic,

making

(See No. 53). long stride,

remain. quickly ; by extension, to cover, The old w^riting, depictsa man making a and coveringground the length of stride :;;*;
the

outstretched
No. the

arms,

fathom.
hand
or

e"|3 shenP,

(See
added
view.

784).
hand

When
covers

i
screens

sbou\

is

from

281

809

in private life. .Wffl^ iRetired,

|5,#./a* Radical
^

No.

170,

mound.

No. '(See

493).

V7I2* Phonetic, carefnl,care,

in, freedom
results of
^"

from
the The
one

work

taking an interest care enjoj^ the ; to X kung^ of one's


indicates
what he
peace

hands
of mind and

^.

*ij" hsin^

of

who

has

needs

nothing else (W. 49 G). The P fu* is a modern substitution, meajiing place, where fonnerl5^ written U a was hidingplace.
810

desires

H
@

ni3h\ To deceive,to
nm\
mam^
Radical No.

conceal.

109, the eye.

(SeeNo. 102).

Phonetic,equality. (See No. 306). When both closed eyelids are (equallytight),
then
one

cannot

see.

An
to

old

meaning
cause

of
It

this character
now means

Bji was

close the eyes.


or

to

hoodwink
eyes
to

to

one

to

have

closed

the real condition

of affairs. 811

ja^, To sprout,
-f|" ts'ao" Radical

to

bud,
140,

germ, grass

a or

shoot.

No.

vegetation.

(See No.

22).
a

^ j^.

Phonetic,
Dentition
is watched

tooth.
an

is

(See No. 97). interesting process


seeds seemed
to to

and

by those The sprouting of originatorsof this strikingresemblance


occurs

interested in children.
the
a

character
to

have

tliat process
of the

; it
new

at

the

commencement appear

lifeand

the

germs

like teeth

just

showing

above

the gums.

282

812

^ai

cbien*, Gradually, by degrees.

TK,V
*ii

Radical ^'^"^^'

No.

85,

water.

(SeeNo. 79).

chau?,Phonetic, decapitate,to cut in two. its way cuts (See No. 803). Water through great rocks but ages are required This impressed the scribes in the process. V and they adopted this process as a symbol
for

gradually.

813

^tt.

5[^

ku^, Grain, cereal.

^jXi
^^
^"
I

.^
^2
!

hd^,Radical
No.

No.

115, standing grain. (See


H and

556).
a

ch'iao^ k'o^, Phonetic,


tion

cover

vegeta-

d:, ^ chihi^. By

extension,the husk

grain, the shell of nuts' or of an egg. The 5: shu\ to strike, (See No. 165) is added, as frequentlythe husk requires
of
much harsh from
814

treatment,
the

before

it is

moved re-

grain.

^iL.

A kernel (ofgrain). li*, small ^^ tap, Radical No. 119, rice, grains,.(See No. 47). r,: to stand. ly /i*, Phonetic, to establish, (See No. be piled 216). Grain in bulk cannot up unless it is in a bin ; it is only a single
"

kernel

%t.that

can

stand

jt alone

mthout

support.
815

S
y^

^ ^^ '^j

of a tree. A branch chih^, mu*, Radical No. 75, a tree, or wood. (See No. 22). chih^, Phonetic, a bow, a branch, to advance
money ; the

65th

Radical.

284 819

j^^

^,

pao*,To

expose

to the

direct

sunlight ; violent,
(See No. 12).

^^Iv, /=Ri

cruel.

Q jih\ Radical
This and

No.

72,

the

sun.

character

does not

divide into radical

phonetic. The old writing shows the idea which the character definitely
w^as

intended

to

convey

; which

was

to H to

spread f^ grain M out HJ in the sun of the "strength of dry. On account


it has 820
come

light sun-

to

mean

violent

or

cruel.

.^iju
tjJC

poS

wave,

ripple.
No,
the

V',7jC shu^, Radical

85, water, (SeeNo. 79).


skin.

^
821

p'r, Phonetic,

(See No. 224). The and waves ripplesare like a superficial layer,^ p'P,of the water. (SeeNo. 832).

;jA

4^C
^

Waves, profligate. ^2H^*,

shui\ Radical 7J^ "J/

No.

85,

water.

Phonetic, good ; the liatj^, a thing. (SeeNo. 445).


It is the waves,
nature
waves

(See No. 79). of nature original


7jC to form

"

of water

the

tS

seem

impertinent,

rude, lawless,profligate ^.

I(JQ

chin^,A pillow,to pillow ; to sleep, yt^ mu*, Radical No. 75, wood, (of which
are

pillows
;
t-r

made

in
to

China) (See No. 22).


go away,
out to

^ ^

yin^ Phonetic,
man

withdraw
a

a
^

)L who

walks

of

space

(See
added
and

W,

34

E).

When the

wood

7|C mu"
for

is

it forms
is thus

character

pillow
is

explained : when

the head

pillowed (asleep)the man all over the world jfc yiti^

makes

journeys

in his dreams.

285

823

^g

"^
^

chtng^f Quiet,still ; clean. Radical No. 174, pure, fresh. (SeeNo. ch'in^, 63). (See ch"rt^. Phonetic,to wrangle, to contest. No. 315). This character W^ was originally used for thoroughly ^ blended colors # but it is now used for quiet or ch^iti^,
still. The
proper

character

for this

was

cessation at H*, of wrangling 1^ chitig*, a

cheng^; but

in modem is
never

compositionthe
used.

proper

character

824

",^

^"="

tan^,The

gall, courage.

^,^

Jon\ Radical No. 130, meat. (SeeNo. 133). oversee. -^ chan^ Phonetic, to talk indiscreetly, for this combination (See No. 797). The reason have of radical and phonetic may does indulgein indiscreet been : ^if a man needs he not to be a onlj'statements, in order to stand of muscle M jou*, man
"^
"

by

these
or

statements,

but

also

man

of

courage

gall.

The

gallbladder is'conof courage.

sidered
825

to

be the seat

jL-l*

J2C

Timorous, ch'ieh*, Radical f hsin', il^\


heart No.
to

cowardly.
61, the heart.
go.

Phonetic, '^ c/i'uS


826

(See No.
there is no

(SeeNo. 18). 67). If the


courage.

;" is gone

Afraid, to fear,to stand in cbii*,

awe

of.

AsiV, Radical )^\ i|"


HP

(SeeNo. 18). Phonetic, the timid look BB of the bird H, |# ch'ti'' needed to preserve life, looking to right hawk has caught a and to left. When
No.
61
,

the heart.

286

his prey,

he is
an

on

the alert while

devouring
him.

it, lest
With
the

enemy

should
of

attack

addition
the

hsin\ heart, the 'I'


is referred
to

timidity of
emotions.
^"^

bird

the

To ying^,

go

out No.
,

and

as receive,

guest. stop,

j^

cho'^Radical
No.

162,

to

run

and

(See

10).
A

aB^^ Phonetic, high,noble. J[p^jT5


an

high dignitary
seal

official who seal

holds for

the the

^.

Here

the

(See No. 42). The other part of the phoiietic is A li, a man facing the opposite w^ay is from the usual position. This man to lookingup to the official as if desiring
^
stands attain
to

official.

the

rank the

of the idea

latter. of

When

1_ chd^ is added

respectfully

tary going out to meet a guest or high digniis expressed.W yan^, to look up, has the same phonetic. (SeeW. 26 G)
,

828

-^ ^

tin ore ; lien^, chain. Lead a or lien^, Radical No. 167, metal. chin", (SeeNo. 13). Phonetic, to connect. //en^, (See No. j^po). This phoneticis suggestiveof a chain as it is used for thingsconnected. The chain
-

ii is made

of many

^ L,
829
one

like

nected ringsof metal ^ constring of carts, ^, going

after the other.

f^ ^"

lii^, /,'|\ Many times, repeatedly. Radical No. 44, a person' in the recumshih^, bent
posture.
lou^ Phonetic, the

(SeeNo. 449). part of the palace where

287

women

are

confined.

(SeeNo. 392).
is not
the

The

idea of the
as

phonetic here
lou^.
and

same

that in "

character

is a very old This M lii^ it by it is easiest to explain

commencing
contraction

with of M

the P
a Tvtt^,

which shih^,
room

is

337).
niP
are

wa^,
two

(See No. negative; 4",i", chung^


;

characters

used
an

in the

#
;

pa^ kua^, w^hich


and where
was no

indicate
that
were

empty
this
room

space

it indicates the
women

in

M,
The
a

confined, there
was

furniture, it

empty.
to
mean

character
space
w^as as

eventually came
opposed
to
a

solid substance

and

used

for the holes in the this the idea in


a

dows. lattice win-

From is

of

"frequent 'J
are

derived,as

w^indow

there

many

of these spaces. 830


A flock,a herd, a multitude, all. cb*uif,

^
^

No. 123, a sheep. (See No. yang^, Radical 253). It is composed Phonetic, a princely man. cbun^, and P k^ovt; a magistof^ yiti^, rate ^ who holds in his hand ^ authority

) and
As

who

utters

"

his decrees

or

orders.

sheep are orderly in their actions the above adopted with #. phonetic was yang^, sheep,for a flock of sheep. It now
means a

flock of any

kind.

831 A yiian^,
a

hem

of

garment,

a collar,

cause,
,

connection,because. szu\ Radical No. 120, silk.

(SeeNo. 8). I'

2.88

t'uati' Pho-netic, pigswith


"

bristles.
are

By

sion exten-

bristles accessories, as

accessory

to the

pig. (W.
it is used The

68

I).

When

silk ^ is
a

added

for the

trimmings of
pig
were

garment.

bristles of the

and regarded as decoration with his generalappearance.


832

harmonized

W.

A declivity, a mound, p'O^,

hill.

-\r. Radical t'ti',

(See No. 13). p'P,Phonetic, skin. (See No. 224). The use of this phonetic plus dt t'u^, earth, for a and plus v'sbuP, for a wave hill, (See No. 820) leads to the suppositionthat the characters two were originatedby the
No.

32, the earth.

same on an

scribe. the surface


on

The

w^ave

is
water

an

elevation
a

of the the

and
of the skin have the

hill is earth.

elevation

surface the

In
to

skinning an
lie in wrinkles its
use as a

animal
;

is prone

this may

siaggesttwo

ed

phonetic in

stances. in-

833

To piash ahead, ch'uaxtg^^,

to

bolt out

or

in ;

rudely.
men\
Radical No.

169,
horse.

door.

a1a^ Phonetic, a

(See No.
it is
a

but phoneticforce,, dashing forward ; if once the side of he will rush 834 To fotr', throw
ever a

(See No. 5). out 261). Withsuggestiveof


^ strikes

horse

door

P^ w^hen going through,


go

afterward

through

with

PS.

at,

to

give over,

to

join.

28^

^
jXi

shou\ Radical
^

-^

(SeeNo. 53). sht^' Phonetic,the righthand making a quick motion, to strike. (See No, 165). With the addition of shou^ i the hand, a good
No.

64, the hand,

character

for to
or

throw

is formed
mean

and that

to
one

give over
throws
as

to

join must
on

himself

the

mercy

of another,

the

prodigaldid in

the far country.

835

ch'iian^, Cured, recovered.

^
^

ni\ Radical No. 104, sickness. (SeeNo. 593). Phonetic, entire, finished. (See No. ch'tiaii^,

552).
This
character

is not
not

found

in the
see

Shuo

Wen, but it is
of its

difficult to
when

the idea

composition:
run

the

disease f^

tii^ has

its

course

the ch'iiati^,

patientrecovers.
836 A fountain,the source. yiian^, yj^i/ shaP, Radical No. 85, water. Phonetic, the origin,a spring. (See f^ yiian^, has f character modern No. 653). The shui^, water, added, owing to the present gestion writing of the phonetic having no sugleft in it. The original of water issuing character depicted the streams
'

from 837

under

ledgeof rock.

^
'

^ *

to translate. To interpret, fan^, szu\ Radical No. 120, silk. (SeeNo. 8). {an\ Phonetic, the tracks of a wild beast, discrimination. The ffi is the aborigines,

ball of

the

foot

and

the

rest

of

the

290

symbol is the imprints of the claws tR became No. 801). Hunters expert at (cf. of the various the footprints recognizing animals and could tell at a glance what
beast The made them. for
"

character

to

should be written
the carelessness of
some

late" transor interpret hnt through M fan^,

scribe ^

fan^

was

substituted. for
or

probably used first tribe the writing of some translating different symbols w^ho wrote person
It
was

from "

those

in

common or

use.

Observe

that

the uses investigate, same phonetic: the judge in his courtroom t^ # fan^ the testimony miet^,investigates and pronounces sentence accordingly.

shen^,to judge

838

Women's kaei^.

rooms,

w^omen,

female,girl.

men\ Radical

(SeeNo. 5). kueP, Phonetic,a small stone scepter or baton, ancientlygiven to nobles as a sign of rank. (See No. 161). The character ft
No.

169, door.

ioei^

seems

to

have of
a

been

first used
lord

to

indicate the door


from the

feudal

tinction in dis-

largedoor used by the 3E and it was afterwards wang^, the prince, used to designate the door of the women's and foi used apartment, finally wae m women general.
839

p
"^'

'^

To clamor, to cry out, to scold. jang^, Radical No. 30, the mouth. k^ou^. Phonetic ; to remove, to assist, to bsiang^ feet. It is necessary to study the

per-

old

292
means yeii^

aversion. disgust, the


retreat

han*

presents re-

from

the

place

of

842

feasting.(W.
r"

65

G).

^^

"

f'H

To reject, to discard. ch'i\ mu\ Radical No. 75, wood. :;fC

(SeeNo. 22).
not

This
and
a

character

does

exhibit

radical

phonetic. The
child in of

seal
a

writingrepresents
and
two

newborn

scoop

hands

in the act

throwing

it awaj^.

(W.

94

G.)
843

This

indicates

that

infanticide

has

in long been practiced

this country.

^
^, f
-Q

a cratch. kuaP, A staff, sbou\ Radical No. 64, the

hand.

(See No; 53).

Phonetic, (See No. 474). ling^, separate, extra. As a staff is something used by man in walking and is not a part of himself, this phoneticaids in explainingthe character
but is w^ithout

phonetic force.

844

No. i Phonetic, a (^ 7u*,

chUtt^, Dust, t'u^ Radical


On
are

the w^orld.

33, earth.

deer,

an are

(SeeNo. 13). antelope,a gazelle.


the

the

upper

part
the

horns, below^
not

the feet and

body

is in the middle.

The

was original writing of %. ch^en^ always the same. ^ indicated the a

dust

which
when

herd of deer
ran.

'

or

elk caused is
now

to
one

rise

they

There

but

deer. 845, fitl

(from the feet). tso^ Radical No. 157, the foot. (SeeNo. 484). Jg^ Phonetic, bushes with branches hanging 7^ tc?, with flowers. No. 581). When foot (Sfee
' '

To stamp, to*'^,

to knock

off

293

is added

there is the idea phonetic, of something hanging or adhering to it, which can be removed by a stamp of the
to

this

foot.

'"^
^

ytf, Oil. shuP, Radical y\i

yir,

(SeeNo. 79). Phonetic, from, origin. (See No. 732). This was of a river the name originally and it was adopted as the character for oil. There is no etymological ground for
85,
water.

No.

this
847

use.

-^ J^

A w^ife, a married fu*, nff,Radical No. 38,

w^oman. a woman.

(SeeNo. 16).
attached
to
a

chou^ Phonetic, handle.


C. used
w^oman

dusting cloth
in the

Invented

21st

century B.
it is

When
as or

in tivP, a woman,
the

is added
for w^ho
a

character
one

married
the

wife,the

handles

broom-stick.
848

(W.

44

K).

-^S

of. we?. To dread, to respect, to be in awe Radical No. 102, field. (SeeNo. 212). t'ien\ This

character and

cannot

be

divided

into

phonetic. Originallythe B3 6 ^ fu*,a demon's head, i'ierP field, was and ^ chao^, claw^, and )) A jen^, finally
radical
a

man,

frightened man,
head
and
a

was

added

as

tiger'sclaw^s are This to man. most objects fear-inspiring character has undergone so great a change in modern writing that the etymology is
demon's

lost. entirely

294

^^

^^

protect, to defend. yen^,Radical No. 149, a word.


To

hu\

(SeeNo. 10).
%
3C.

huo* Phonetic, to hold


to
or

bird H in the hand

protect it. This is a bird of the falcon


ha^wk

tribe, carried

on

the

arm

Accordingto ^R^X
Wen^,
the bird is
or

Kuei* Shih* Shuo^


to foresee

eminently able

good fortune
intimation
in

calamity, and there is an

that order

they were
to
secure

kept and

tected pro-

With

the

addition stands

of

good word, M yctf,the


protection or,
to

fortune.

character defend
850
.

for

JFu^ To float,to rove, to travel. 7^,7K shu?, Radical No. 85, water. (SeeNo. 79). of of the arms Phonetic, the motion y^"^ ife^
swimmer
;

of fluttering

netic flag. The phosw^immer.


a

is a contraction
The S^

oi'^yt^,a
698)
^
the

yen^ (See
here
means

No.

fluttering
ming swim-

motion,
indicates

overhand

strokes. that the

The

"^ tzv^, a
thus in

child,
are
as

legsof the swimmer


and

hidden
those The

by
of
a

the water

invisible

child wrapped radical

long clothing.
a

water

? shuP, is

recent

addition.
used
851

By extension this character is for the verb, to travel.

P, Stalks standingso close together that they


to require

be

bo^,Radical
No.

No.

to move. transplanted, 115, standing grain. (See

556). toS Phonetic, many. (See No. 184). This the meaning phoneticassists in explaining

295

of the character, but

has

no

value crowded

as

phonetic. When
and their

plants are

growth is thus stunted, the farmer often transplants ^ and so allows for development. room
^^^

^
i^^f
yf^

ch'Ja\ Timely. hsin\ Radical No. 61, the heart. (SeeNo. 18). ho^,Phonetic, joining, union, harmony. (See No. 103). That which occurs justat the right time or just when it is wanted, j5 is called timely. hsin^,
Skillful, ch'iao', lucky.

853

XQ

~p kun^,

Radical

No.

48, work,

workman,

time

(SeeNo. 89). in breathing, air ~^ ch'iao^ Phonetic, difficulty which has met with an obstruction. (See dicates inNo. 258). This is a phonetic which
of work.
curves curves

and twists

waves

of

air ; these
a

and

plus X kun^,
square,

sentation repre-

of

the used

when

brought
a

together,are
who
in his work 854
can

for skilful, as
curves

man work-

combine
must

and

angles

be skilful.

m
^

p'aP,To

arrange.

^, -f shou\

Eadical

No.
a

64, the hand.

(SeeNo. 53).

fej^, Phonetic,

sides primitive with two opposite to each other. (See No. 276). The objects are placedin a certain position
with reference
to

each

other

and the

with

the

addition

of hand

this forms

character

to arrange.

296 855

ij^
*=*

To shih^,

swear,

an

oath.

it?

yeii\Radical No. 149, word. (SeeNo. 10). In the ^^^^' Phonetic,to break, to cut in two. vt?! JJ"^ oldest writingthis phoneticrepresents an
ax

"

which

has

cut

branch
one

in two.

In

ancient times when


a

desired to
an ax

affirm
and that

statement
a

as

true, he took
the idea

cut

branch

in two,
a

being

he

expected such
was

ment retribution if his state-

not

true.

With

the addition is used

of for

word, this ej'efl^,


an

character

oath.

856

pa?, To break apart with the hand (as bread). Radical No. 64, the hand: ^ shoti", (SeeNo. 53). who Phonetic, a prince, a man nounces proJ^ jgSpi^p'i*,
n

the

sentence

on

criminals ^

(SeeNo. 274). The f chielf, seal,has been changed to P shih^, in the modern writing. As the sentence acter was generallydeath, the charalso means to killby cutting asunder.
When
open

hsin"

hand

is added the
hand
;

it
a

means case

to

break
the

with
of

where

materially reduces the original severityof the phonetic.


a

addition

radical

very

E^
m ^^
=p

a"*, The

bank,

the shore. No.

pictorial in the old writing. representation kan^,Phonetic, arms. (See No. 110). Here the idea is that arms T kan^, are used for defense. The radical llj shan^, a mountain,
46,
a a

shan^,Radical

mountain,

297

should

ako

include

T
and

han*,

projecting
the
of

clifif, as mountains
the
858
sea.

the cliffsare

guardians against the encroachment

^ ^ ^ (^ J ad-

yao^ To shake, to sway to and fro. shou\ Radical,No. 64, the hand. (SeeNo. 53).

Phonetic,an earthen vessel for cooking or keeping meat. (W. 130 C). There is no explanation of why this phonetic is
used the
must

with
verb be

the
to

radical

t hand, shod', for

move,
as

and
a

regarded

consequently simple phonetic.

it

859

iit

t
.

huan^, Agitated,apprehensive, to scare ; very. Radical No. 61, the heart. (SeeNo. *i^hsin\ 18). huang", Phonetic, barren,wild, reckless. (See ^ No. 639). This is a good phonetic and when heart 'I' hsin\ is added the condition
of the barren
to

and

worthless
It

land

is transferred

the
"

heart.
out

suggests the idea

of
860

being

scared

of one's w^its."

the i^ Phonetic, a monkey. ^ yvL^

stupid. Silly, yir', Radical No. 61, bsin^.

(SeeNo. 18). In the old writing that of a demon. the head resembles (See It has No. 447). a prehensile tail (W. 23 reason a monkey is E). For some heart is regarded as stupid,thus when indicates a monkey's added the character heart stupid.
"

heart.

861

m
f ,^

To cbji^,

grasp,

to restrain.

sbou\

Radical

No.

64, the hand.

(See No. 53).

298

"fel chu^,Phonetic,
admonisli
of i
to

sentence
warn,

(See
with

No.

80)

to

or

and

the addition

sbou^,the hand, to lay hold on one, nally prevent his going.^ cbii*is not origifrom

pao^,as

stated
,

under

the

but from 5 cA/V, a f cl^aracter, primitiverepresentinga creeping plant other and round twining over circling is here w^ritten 1 cA/V things. That like ^ pao^,to w^rap, is misleading. precisely 80th Because

the tendril 1 cbin^ and

the

placenta *J" pao^ both have the idea of to forms are or contain, the modern wrap,
often

identical and

they

are

used

changeably. inter-

862

Hb*

~ij*

shou^,To keep,to guard.


*-*-" mien^

Radical

No.

40,

house.
a

Phonetic, an -^ ts'un^,

inch,
It

measure,

hand.

(See
value

No. but

69).
it
'^

is without
use

phonetic

explains the
mieti^ is
the
an

acter. of the char-

The and and

ence official'sresid-

here

law

"^ ts^un*,is kept


of the
that
'^

used

in the

administration

office. raien^ is soldiers

Another
a are

explanation is
on

house

the

frontier
to

w^here the

stationed
encroachment.

protect

frontier from

XP^
j^

To i^,

bequeath,to lose,to give.


162,
to
run

cho^ Radical No.


No.

and

stop.
is from

(See
^

10).
This

kuei^, Phonetic, honorable.

k'uei\ a basket, (SeeNo. 693) and

K pei\

300

Zp -^ wang^

here Phonetic, vegetationwhich grows order. and there w^ithotjtany (See No.

350).
this

With

the

addition of tree

?ic mu*

irregular growth is transferred to the this is a symbol of a crooked, and tree unnatural or growth, a tree so wrong contorted that it is useless for building
purposes.

rIJX
0

To chieh^,

to caution prohibit,

precept,

yen\

Radical

No.

149,

word.

(See No. 10).

This to caution. rd^cbieh*,Phonetic, to warn, jjEand phonetic is made up of two h^nds fl" ^. It impliesan ocular warning. a halberd it implies a When b" yen^ is added verbal w^arning. (W. 47 E).
867

liffe

Ruined, fei*,
abandon.

house

in

ruins,

useless ;

to

r*" yitf Radical


house.

No.

53,
shoot

covering,a shelter,a
arro"w,
to send

^- fa^,Phonetic, to

an

forth.

explain this phonetic (SeeNo. 214). Some y^ po*,to separate the feet, to place as the feet apart as one does w^hen shooting
an arrow

^ from
arrow

bow

When

ing shoot-

the is the and

is sent stressed

away,

is lost ; this
;

idea when
an

in this combination
a

f yerf,

house, is added
house
or

it

indicates

abandoned

one

which
reasons

owing
cannot 868

to

its location

for other

be used.

chieb\ To
means

borrow,
of.

to

avail

oneself

of ;

by

301

Radical -H' ts'ao^,


"

No.

140, grass

or

vegetation.

(SeeNo. 22). n,%Q chi^ Phonetic,a field plowed by the Emperor,


an

#4i

appanage,
of

to

borrow.

This

is made

up

^, :^ leP, a harrow ^, "^ hsi^,dried meat No. 222). The crops


field
w^ere

used
up

is made

grain,and
meat ; in

the
a

(See No. 601) and old, ancient. (See from the Imperial in sacrifices. This phonetic of the productsof the field, results of the chase, dried
the articles used
as

word,

food.

By plantingand hunting one could himself w^ith these articles and the supplj' original meaning was, "to avail oneself extended to of," and this meaning w^as
"

borrow^."

It is

now^

w^ritten w^ith the


sense.

grass

radical when

used in this

869

Weeds hui*,

growing
No.

among

ungrain,dirty,

cjean.

^^ ho^,Radical
No.

115, standing grain. (See

556).
As
not

sui*, Phonetic,

197).
or

harvest, a year. (See No. ther Jupiter's phases indicated whea war was

to be

waged,
war was

it thus
were

decided

whether

the

crops

tIc ho^

properly cared for


carried
and
were on

; w^hen
were

being

the

weeds

not

removed

thus the fields w^ere


called away

from

the men as dirty, their agricultural

pursuits.
270

at
M ^
,

tu^ The belly.

Joti\Radical 133-).

No.

130, meat,

flesh.

No. (See

302

t'u^ Phonetic, -jcharacter and hence The 871

earth.
is not is

(See
found

No.

13).
Shuo

This
Wen

in the

"

tion. probably a modern invent'a^ is a simple phonetic.

if. careless, Aou^ Illicit,

-H* ts'ao\ Radical

No.
;

140,
out
,

grass.

(See No. 22).


a

kov^,Phonetic
entice ; to

curved, crooked,
from
a

hook

; to

cross

list. This

is

composed of 1 " cbiu^, a creeping vine, This (SeeNo. 861), and P A'o"^ mouth. phoneticis often written ^ kou^. Because vine extends its growth in any a creeping direction,it is regarded as being selfish, and by extension illicit. careless,
872
-.
.

To steal,to pilfer, t^ox^, secretly, stealthily. No.

"

'

-^v jen^, Radical

9, a

man.

'HU,^

yvP Phonetic, a small boat. (See No. 795). The original writing of this character fif and it has to be looked up % t^ov^, was in the Shuo Wen under -^ nii^, still woman, it says the vulgar writing is f^ where i'ovi^. It is evidence that the incongruity w^hen in the courts of using ^ nii^, and thieves ninety-nineout of a hundred jails and consequently w^as are recognized men, the -^ nu^ was replaced by { jen^, a of either sex. used as w^as Why -i; person phoneticis not apparent ; perhaps boatnotorious for their thieving women were propensities.
,

873 -fip;

Sp

tu*, Jealous,envious.

30S

-^ J^

n^^ Radical
No.

No.

38,

woman,

girl. (See

16). (See No. 480).


where
as women

bu*,Phonetic, a single door.


This
are were

is another

instance
the

maligned by
confined
race.

scribes

if jealousy

to the female

portion of the
says

human
tu

The

Shuo

Wen
women

that

5P

is the

the

jealousy of jealousy of men.


is ^ nv? used

and

^, chi*
?

If this is correct

why
The back

in both

characters
woman

present character
of
a

represents a

door

giving
seen

vent

to

her

jealousywhere
874

she is not

by

others.

cba},Sediment, dregs. ,i^ shm\ Radical No. 85, water. ch's?, Phonetic, a proper name.
It
was a a

(SeeNo. 79). (SeeNo. 397).


as

at

one

time

used

the character

for of aid

and also for railing of but none pillar, in the explanation therefore

the these of

foundation

meanings
present
be
to

the

combination,
in the class of 875 J.^

it has

put

simplephonetics.

i. ^

condition. A region, or a place; state cbing*, (SeeNo. 13). "u\ Radical No. 32, earth. Phonetic, the end, limits ; boundaries cbing*, of men the pronunciations # yin^, where the With ;L differ;only, nothing but. addition removed
of " from

t'u\ earth, the stress the boundaries, to


the

is
the

regionin which
876

language is the

same.

well-done. cb'u^ Painful,distressing ; orderly,

304

mu\

Radical

No.

75, wood,

tree.

(SeeNo. 22).
the lin'. in
a

trees. ag; ch'a^,Phonetic, a placeplanted A?v^itli the radical, This phonetic contains upper

part is
lower

grove

or

forest ^
the

The

part

is JE

shu^,
119

foot
It is

motion. difficult The

(W.

112

C,

N).

thing to walk through a thicket. been idea of orderly may have gested sugby
the

regular order

of the trees

which
877

were

planted in
to

the grove.
; to
recover.

"

Iirt
,

wa^,
31
"

To

awaken,
No.

discern

i'i|l^ hsin\ Radical


wti" five

61, the heart.


my.

(SeeNo. 18).
of S.
"

wu^ Phonetic, I,

It

is

composed
and

(See

No.
a

30),
verj^

k'ou^ the

mouth, #
for of all
n
,

wu^ is

lofty appellation
of my
to

it represents the creation as I, mj'self,

things3l, by
man

the w^ord been

mouth

but

has

ever

prone

elevate

himself and

with

the addition

of f the

hsin^,

w^e heart, consciousness,

have

symbol

for,to discern.

^78 ,)BBff
t^Tf^

To float,to p'iao^, No.

drift.

7K,7^ sAuf, Radical


1^

(See No. 79). ticket. (See No. a a Phonetic, signal, p'iao'^, 255). The old writing represents smoke in the air as a floating signal; when v' shui", water, is added, the floatingis
85,
water.

transferred from
879
____

the air to the water.


to

c/zeSTo
,,

cover,

to

hide,to
162,
to

screen,
run

cho* Radical
No.

No.

and

intercept. stop (See


If
a

10).
person

J^

sAu* Phonetic, all (See No,, 762).

305

left

or

went

away

from,
^.
he

5_

the light cbd'',


not
seen,
as

of the this
was

hearth

was

all the

lightin

the

house

at

night.
880

/g^

-^^
^

ts'aP, Variegated,
diverse colors. shan^ Radical
or

gay,

ornamented

with

No,

59,

to

adorn

with

feathers
to sent repre-

colored hair. feathers


or

It is intended

long hair.
pluck with
a

TIC,

ts'aP,Phonetic,
fruit
or

to

the

f^" fingers

flowers from

tree

:^ ;

to

choose.

(W.
to

49

B).

With

the addition
or

of ^

shan\

adorn

with

feathers
and

long hair, we
feathers ; all the natural
or

have thus

flowers

long

hair

the character

contains

articles for ornamentation.


881

-b^ Jpg^

taa^,

To

obstruct, to withstand.
No. 64, the hand.
be

^ ^
_

shou\ Radical
A

tan^, Phonetic, to
hand

equal to.
be it
can

shou^,must
M.

(SeeNo. 53). (SeeNo. 478). equal to "^ the


obstruct
or

requirements before
withstand
882

^h.

I^r

is right in a decides who That which jru*, a jail. quarrel; a prison, -^ cA'uan^ Radical No. 94, a dog, a pictorial representation The Shuo Wen explainsthis character as being two dogs J it ch^iiatf. The phonetic is W yen^ but though it has no phonetic the meaning. it assists in explaining force, The two dogs personate two criminals each who are mutually incriminating
.

306

other

J^t^,in
an

sentence.

and 883 To chia^.

is

lighter This is not a pleasant pastime apt symbol for Hades or prison,
order
to
secure a a

marry

husband.
a woman.

ir "u', Radical
^C
221).
and
a

No.

38,
a

(See No. 16).


a

cA/aS Phonetic,
The
new

home,
home

bride leaves

family. (See No. the parental roof


and

M. cbia^, is started.
of radical

This combination forms


a

phonetic
above

good

character

for

the

meaning.
884
To p'ieh^,
T

throw

away,

to

give up. (SeeNo. 53).


ruined.

.^

shou\ Radical

No. 64, the hand.


mean,

'raJC Phonetic, pi*,

(See No. hand the t shou^, added, 211). With which indicates of discarding the action out or clothing^^ throwing aw^ay w^orn have w^e a symbol for the verj' good above meaning W..
poor,

885

fsrti r^n.

Jp3^

A grand hall,a palace. tien*, No.

JSC shu^ Radical

79, the right hand

making

jerky motion.

(See No. 165).


now^

t'on^ The

phonetic is not
;

used
The

as

acter char-

the

buttocks. Shih

explanation
Wen

given

in Chu

-^ R

Shuo

is

as

follows:

^mmmm^mBm^^t
and

"a

thief is bound
The second

spanked

in the hall."
A

^ is here used
administration have

for M. tien*.

placefor the
seems
use

of

punishment
the chief

to

been originally
as

of the IS tien*, but

their ciYilization

308

j^

fad'. Phonetic,
seems

a a

furnace

for

pottery.

This

simple phonetic. It is a kiln ^ pictorial representation of a with ^ inside. (W. 54 porcelainware recent character, coined D). ^' is a
to

be

about

100

B.C.

An

emperor

of the

Han

Chang^ Dynasty in 138 B.C. sent m% Ch'ienS to the region of the Caspian Sea
on a

mission and
alfalfa and
w^ere

this

man

brought

back

grapes,

that
w^as

grapes

He saw^ large horses. and alfalfa good for men This


to
man

good
world.

for
a

animals.
route

also

established
the

trade

that

part of

tionary, (SeeGiles' BiographicalDicunder

Chang^ Ch'ien 3i %, and K'ang Hsi*s Dictionary under ^ t'ao^.)


890

ya^,To

press

down,
No.

to

repress.

:j^t'u^Radical
satiated.

32, the earth.


to

yen*,Phonetic,
represents
and
a

disUke,
w^hose

to

loathe,
This stomach

to

be

(See No.
man

841).

phonetic
tended is dis-

uncomfortable.

The that

addition
a

of db t'u^ earth, may


to

imply
earth

hole is

be

filled with

dt and

solidly
stomach

packed JE as an over-distended is packed with food.


891 A whip. pien^,

ke. Radical 492),

No.

177,
^

to

skin.

(See No. 163). (See


used No-

Phonetic, convenient, ready. ^ pien*,


The
was
an originally

ment instruas a

of torture, but

it is

now

w^hip for animals.

convenient

{M piece

309

of

leather

may
a

stimulate, in'

some,

recollections ot
892 Jt^^

sole. slipper
is
an authorized un-

j3$

You. tiin^,

(A politeterm). This
character.
No.
you.

Radical ^L^ bsiti^,

61, the heart.


The
as a

nP, Phonetic, (j"


of heart

(See No. 3). is intended jC?hsin'-,


Some

addition
mark of

respect.

think that

the

originof ^
ih the
to

nir/, was
and
893 A t'ang^,

from

i^^ ^
was was

nP

lao^ which contracted

spoken language
this character
sound. bath tub.

nirf,
new

coined for the

JUL min^. Radical No. 108, a dish or vessel. Phonetic, hot water, broth, M min^ and ^ t^ati^. "^ fan^, form a good character for the above ; also read tang''.
894

M
^
IF

Form, hsing^, shan^ Radical


No.

figure, shape.
No.

59, feathers,long hair.


shields of with

(See

415).
two

^T

ch'ien^Phonetic,

equal height.
decorations
An of
as common.

(See No.
in

235). Shields various designs were


decorated
or

article if not

lackingin

appearance

spoken shape.

is

1p0 y^^ "|


~'

7iV,Two,

couple. (An

unauthorized

acter) char-

Radical No. 9, a man. jeti^, Phonetic, two, a pair,an ounce. (See RJa ifazi^*, No. 35). It is probable that this character was used for two originally meri, but it is now of anything. used for two

310

896

J^^

ching^, Bright sunlight ;


circumstances.

view

; appearance

0 jih\ Radical No. 72, the sun. (See No. Phonetic, the capital. (See No. -^ ching^,
When then
or can one

12). 98).

the
can

sun,

H
a

get

is high, ^ ching^ jih*, view of the landscape


of the
roundings. sur-

learn tlieappearance

897

wo*, To
a

use

great effort and


strive

bend

the mind

to

to subject,

after ; business, duty,

must.

^ li\Radical, No. 19, strength. (SeeNo. 212). ^5t1^"* Phonetic, to display one's skillin wielding,
^ mao^, (a three pronged p'u^, arms, is a modern li*, halberd). The ;f3 strength,
3L addition.
898

/I

i\\

Boundaries chieh*,

w^hich

separate
who

men,
on,

one

alone; an
yv

one assistant,

waits

to

assist ; pett3^ Radical No. 9, jenP,

man.

pa^,Phonetic, eight. (SeeNo. 32). "/\^


phonetic pow^er,
but in the the seal

It has

no

writingit
of

helps
and The

to

explain
Man,
A

character.
the A

meaning is in the jerp,

the

center

pa^, separates him from meaning of to assist has been


sanction. logical
to
a

others. added

without
899

IQ

sbao*. To
hand

connect,
down
as

join,to
trade.

tie

together,to

7^
S

szu\ Radical No. 120, silk. chao*^, Phonetic, to summon, 722).


The

(See No. 8).


to

call.

(See No.
seems

originalmeaning

to

311

summoning, S cbao\ his son him to continue,^ and requesting szu^,the family trade or profession.
have
been
a

father

900

^.i|li
^

chP, Utmost,
Radical

very.

"tCmu\
chi*

(SeeNo. 22). Phonetic, haste, urgent, a strugglefor life.


No.

75, wood.
watches

man

who

for
"

the

favorable tages advan-

opportunity

of heaven
"

and is
seen

the

of earth.

man

in the seal
earth
H

between w^riting, (theradical); he


and With

heaven is

and

erh*

hand,
the

%,

to

w^ith voice n" striving gain his end. (W. 2 D),


of ;^ for

addition
stands tree,

mu*,

tree, the
the
very

character

extreme,

top.
heaven

The and

in its

positionbetween
to
a

earth, attains
does
man.

much

hiffher altitude than 901

m
@ X^

To p'aii^,

look

at, to hope for.

wa\

Radical No.

109, the eye.

(SeeNo. 102).

Ien\ Phonetic, to divide. (SeeNo. 181). When one hopes B^ for something the eye @, /^^^ is prone to spend a portion^ /en\
of its time

lookingfor

it.

902

niu

JlX.

'i'^e thighs, the haunches, the ^'^"'' division,share ; a band, a gang of


a

rump
;
a

strand

rope. No.

%,H
-^

iou\

(See No. 133). shu^ Phonetic, a long pole projectingbefore a war-chariot, a spear, to kill. (See No. to be The meaning in ^ seems 165). the the first definition given, taken from thighs are an extension of the body. The
Radical

130, meat.

312

idea of
to
come

strand from

or an

part

or

share
usage

seems

ancient
says

of the

word

the Shuo

Wen

that

the ^ shu^

is here

used for ^ between.

tinguish to disshu^, different, The fibers of


a a

rope

are cern con-

divided

into strands, and

business
number

is made

lip of

certain

of

shares.
903
A kung^,

mine.
No.

/g
^

Radical sbih^,

112,
broad.

stone.

Phonetic, kuang^.
Shuo
Wen Here says

(SeeNo. 42). (SeeNo. 696). The


be w^ritten

that this should

huatig",(See No. 207), is used for i, t'u^,yellow earth, with '^, Another A!\rritstone. shih^, metal-bearing ing is M.
m.

^,

S04

^ H

A thread, a clue,to succeed to. hsii*, szu\ Radical No. 120, silk. (See No. 8). che^, Phonetic, this,that, it. This character
w^as

invented

to

represent

connection
said and

between
what

w^hat has is to

already
The

been seal

follow.

indicates that
two

it reaches in two

writing directions,
is Q

crossed

branches, and
the Thus

beneath

tzQ*,contracted,
what

follows.

starting point for the composition of


to

the character

^ indicates the self @ reaching


find
a

in all directions in order


or

clue

trace

^ of the thing desired.

S05
f^t

A bamboo to abridge, rude. chien^, slip, ,11r cAu',Radical No. 118, bamboo. (See No. 7). ^ chien^, Phonetic, between, among. (See No.

313

183).
the

Strips were

made

of the

part

of

bamboo

yr between

fS chien^, the

joints,and on these sUps directions or written ; if the descripwere tion descriptions bound w^as were lengthy the slips up in book form, but w^hen the description was kept within the limits of one slipof bamboo it was regardedas abridged and eventually the above character took on that meaning.
906

ya^, The
4=:.^.^

bouse

or

office

of

an

official ;

tribunal.

hang^,Radical ^, ^^ hsing^,
act
; read

No.
a

144,

to

walk,

to

hang^

row^,

motion.

(SeeNo.

161).

wu^ Phonetic, I, my.

(See

originalphonetic was something to be dreaded


the

877). The ^, ya^, a tooth,


No.
; it

represents

in
are

hang^, a row, order, represents the underlingswho on standing at their placesin a row
official. The official. It is difficult

radical If

either side of the


to

explainhow
^
to

the

writing

was

changed

from 907
stA.

^.

^^

j^

The end, finally, only. cbing*, Ji\Radical No. 117, to stand. (SeeNo. 216). radical the the By using jt li*, as etymology has been destroyed. This is ver5' similar to ^ chatig^, character a chapter. (See No. 87) ^ yin^, sound,

should
man,

be

the

radical, and

below

this is
Another

M ching (SeeNo. 875). }\i,


indicates that

is,# explanation

this

man

314

JL and

was

when
sense

singing,he sent forth tones, "h we thought only of the melody # ; the song is completed ^ there is a of finality.

908
._

^ ^

To select, to pluck. ts'aP, shou',Radical No. 64, the hand.

Phonetic, to gather,to rj% ts'aP, 281).


909

(SeeNo. 53). pluck. (See No.


t, t'P shou\

The

addition

of the

contributes The hsiang^,


sum,

nothing.
of the neck
;
a

nape

sort

item,
of
a

income.
No.

Radical j'eA'', book.

181, the head,

page

(See No. 105). rC kting^, Phonetic, labor. (See No. 89). Owing
to

the

head, neck

and

back

forming
as

notch

resembling one kung^,X, this SAinbol


the above for the neck is

side of the
w^as

radical
the

selected

phonetic for
reason

character.

Another the
are

given
of the

selection is that
w^here

nape

burdens

carried, viz., where


done.
910 A ford, ching^,
a

work,

X,

kuti^,

is

(W.

82

A). ferry, a
narrow^s,
a

mart

where

boats
No.

stop.
85, water.

7^,7K shai\ Radical

(See No. 79). ju^'* Phonetic, a stylus. (See No. 7). This a formerly ^ chiti^, phonetic w^as stylus It was ^* jru*making marks ^. tracted conbe to to j'u*. There seems much evidence to the effect that originally written this character f^, a place was
"^

where

boat

w^as

sure

to

be

found

for

316

are

spoken
mouth
added
as a

of

as

having mouths,
a

thus

each
was

represents
he
was

dish.
to

The

dog
the

kept

clean up careful

dishes after

meal.

Another

explanation
of

is, the

dog

is watchful is

and

here for ; thus responsible be utensils must the dog implies that old writing H is an cared for. There

articles he

chH^, which
more

has

the
of

radical

-pffov^, porcelain,
is

instead

:^, chOiar^, which

but logical, it does


not

obsolete

owing to its being help in remembering

the construction 915

of the character.

pa jf^

chad", To

to. illuminate,according"
No.

m"J^
^

hno^.Radical

86, fire.

(See No. 482).


forth.
sun

ch.a". Phonetic, bright,to show

This

phonetic is composed
and
No.

of the
or

H,

chad^,
The

to
sun

call

summon.

jiit, (See
calls

722).
us

H is that

which

in the Wt-

morning ow^ing to its brightness is added, the When ik.huo", fire,


stands

character

for,to illuminate
semen,

M.

^W
^

Unmixed, fine,essence, cbing^,

vigor.

mP, Radical

No.

119, rice (See No. 47).

Phonetic, color of nature, green, blue, ch'ing^. black. in (See No. 63). As rice grows the weeds other grain w^hich are w^ater or
found
in
a

in w^heat

and

oats

cannot

flourish

paddy
with

field ; therefore
other used

rice is seldom

mixed

it is here

unadulterated.

grain,and consequently as a symbol of pure or is also a symbol ^ ch'ing^

317

of

purity
fine.

and form

these

two

radicals
for

when

combined
or

the character

unmixed

917

To connect, lietr,

to

combine.

5 ^

"r, Radical

No.

128, the

kuan^ Phonetic, to
web.
of
'^

(See No. er^,ear, one

(SeeNo. 71). threads run through the 95). With the addition
ear.

is inclined
was

to

believe,
for the
ments state-

that

this character

first used

of evidence, collecting combining the of different individuals.


918

Cheerful, quick,crisp. shuang^,


JC

J'ao^Radical

No.

89,

to

mix,
two
a

to

lay crosswise.
"

-4^ta*,Phonetic, large. (See No. 54),


phonetic force.
the lattice w^ork is and The of

without

^yacP' represent
and admit
room are as

w^indow
to

this

large, :fe,ta^, enough


air the occupants
and

light
not

of the

gloomy acting X
919

despondent. Or, a man with both arms. (W. 39 O).

-fz.

huo^, To catch, to obtain.

yC, ^
^S, ^

ch'iian^ Radical

No.

94,

dog.

Pictorial

re-

presentation. huo^ Phonetic,to seize with


owl

the hand With

X,

as

an

-ISchui^ seizesits prey.


the character
was

% cHiiam
chase with

added
used

probably first
in the

for

getting game

used for, It is now help of a hound. in general. or getting obtaining, (W 103 C). the
920

To tsti^,

rent

or

tax

in kind from

to fields,

lease ; taxes.

318

tI^Ao^
H.

Radical
No.

Mo.

115,
stand

standing grain. (See


used in sacrifice

556).
a

tsu^ Phonetic, archaic

(tsa^,

read ch'ieh^ pronunciation,now and chii^).In ;^ ^ i^ X is the following statement originallythe : il tsu^ was land tax B3 M, t'ien^fu*. It was originally rent was written M. tsu^. Land spoken of as the portion of grain ^, ho^, used as an offeringin the ancestral temple.
The
or

character
tax.

fflis

now

used for any

rent

921

after,to regard, to consider. Radical No. 181, the head, the page of yeh^, ka*. To
look book.

^
^

(See No. 105). Phonetic, to hire, to engage. A'u*, (See No. 361). With M yeh*,head, added the idea of,to look after or consider, is expressed. If a person heeded M the migration of these birds M as explainedunder No. 361, he took the warning to heart M yeh*,and
acted
on

it.

922

"g|$

hsiang Sound, noise,reverberatioa. jiV, Radical No. 180, a sound. (See No. 39). Phonetic, village, country, rustic. hsiang^, (SeeNo. 466). The Chinese divide sound, in to two nonmusical kinds, % hsiang^, a sound, and sound. ^ yii^, a, musical
,

When

sound The

comes

to

the

ear

it is M

etymology set forth in :" ^ ^ ^ is that M hsiang is the abode of people and when W yii^is added it stands for the home of sound or its origin. When

shen^.

319
one

hears

sound
may

he

may

go
was

in
a

that

direction and
and striking, 923

find it

clock

he will say

^M^W.

^
\

To decide ; tcrpass sentence chiieh^, ; certainly, i ping^, Radical No. 15, ice. (See No. 516). Phonetic, to cut off,to decide,to settle, -^ chiieh^. certainly. This phonetic is described

under
seems

No.

109,

an

additional

meaning

according to ^ 1^ |g S:, to split with a wedge. The of splitact ting is a log suddenly accomplished and done there is no of uniting it once w^ay again. With ice as the radical it suggests a familiar winter sight,cracks or fissures
in thick

reasonable

ice.
the

With

water

which
a

is also

used
a

as

it indicates radical,
a

break

in

river bank,
w^as no

condition

once

established,
its existence.

there
924 i^"

question as

to

chang^,The palm of the hand, to control. ^ shou^, Radical No. 64, the hand. (SeeNo. 53). '^ shang*,Phonetic, a roof of a house. (See No. is placed palm the hand 52). When and fingers downwards the act as pillars, the shape of a roof. palm assumes
925 A kuei*,
case

with

drawers,

chest, a

sury. trea-

'^

Tnu\ Radical No. 75, wood. (SeeNo. 22). drawers. with Phonetic, a case [S kuei*'k'iiei*, This phonetic is wearied. Read k^uei*,
made
a a

trough, log hollowed out, by extension,a chest, trunk, (W. 51 A), and ^, kuei*,expenup

of

\Z, iang^,a

wooden

320

sive, honorable.

(See
forth

No. the

863).

This
:
"

phonetic itself sets something valuable


case,

meaning

is

and

the addition

placed in a chest or is superof 7}v, niu*, fluous.

926

^M
-^

^"^'*' A cb^i, relative, grieved. No. rfe Ao\ Radical 62, a spear,

No.
out

The
can

(See 2). That which remains after taking the radical is not a regular phonetic. radical is not the regular"Si, ko^, as
a

lance.

be

seen

in

the

seal

a original meaning was it had ^ shu^, (contracted) to pick beans^ It may have (SeeNo. 547) in the center.

-writing. The battle ax C^, and

been

weapon

which

w^as

used

both

in

and so militaryand agricultural pursuits, always at,hand in time of w^ar or peace ;

hence w^ho of Wen

its
are

use

as

symbol

for The the ^

relatives

always at hand. grieved is explained in


thus
:"

meaning
;^ Shuo
weapon to arise

Owing
a

to its pang

being a
regret

of war, when 927

it caused
seen.

of

"A^
"

g^
-yT

ian*, To attend to, business. kan^, Radical No. 51, arms, a crime.

(SeeNo.

^,.^

110). ^arj* Phonetic, the sun H penetrating into A X, iV the jungle ^ and drawing up the vapoi 5. (SeeNo. 137). The action
of the has No. the
a sun

is transferred

to

man

who

kan^,
The

stick in hand.

(See
take

110).

seal

writing represents
about
to

overhanging

branch

.321

root, the form

with
as

the tree
from 928

;u*,to enter, represents rooted and separated


A

the parent tree.

^jbr:
Ian*,To

overflow, profuse.
No.
to

7jC, :^ shur,
1^' ^

Radical

85,

water.
a

(See No. 79).


prison. (See No.

Phonetic, chien^, 294).


When within but the

watch,
of

water

river is confined
it should

its banks

it is where
over

be,
a

when

it breaks who has

^, it is like

criminal
929

broken

jail.

k'uei^, Wanting, defective

/"

hti" Radical

No.

141,
be

grievance. tiger,a tiger skin.


a

(SeeNo. 258).
This
and
was

cannot

broken

up

into the the

radical

phonetic. Perhaps
coined to accord with

character

expression

acts hsing^ weP ju' hti^,"He who is not governed like a tiger," a man a by rules of propriety. The # chui'^, short-tailed bird,is used to impersonate a

ffMM^

man.

^,~5fyu^

is the Thus
overcomes

breath
the

overcoming

an

obstacle.
one

character
any
a

represents

who

and, like
and
930 I

compunctions of conscience tiger,forgets all kindnesses


or

does

violence to friend

foe.

suit. a law Appearemce, complaint, chuatig*, racter. "H^ ch'iiaifRadical No. 94, a dog. Pictorial cha-

Phonetic, the left half of a ti'ee. (See ch'iang^ Shuo Wen explains No. 84). The IS jJt,

322

this character
the

thus

"

There
more

is

no

animal

offspringof
in than the

which

strikingly
father
or

resemble mother

appearance

the

of dogs offspring

fore ; thereThe
one

the.selection of this radical. half of


a

log M

also has

blance strikingresem-

to the other 931

half.

^1

I fff,
/j

luan*,Confusion, disarranged, anarch3\ i^ Radical No. 5, germination, movement. (See No. 137).
luan* Phonetic,
a

thread hands

by
w^hich the

two

disentan^ being gled ^. The rack H on

the thread The

is suspended is L is ZLj

probably
sents repre-

loom.

iS which

the thread

B).
932

being draw^n out. (W. 90 (Archaicmeaning, to put in order).

^ j2^

ill will. To dislike, yiian^, t[^hsin\ Radical No. 61, heart. (See No. 18). yuan^ Phonetic, to turn in bed, decency. (See An No. 42). This character is explainedby the heart ; the feelings startingwith jC"hsin^, hurt and consequentlythe person are
turns away

hs?,

acts

as

if it
to

were

night, and has nothing more who chieh?,with the one injury.
933

do

E 11,
the

has

done

hui*, Converge, deposit,


money

draft ; to

send

by

draft.

r! ian^ Radical
out.

No.

22,

chest, a log hollowed


of
a

V^

AuaP

(W. 51 A). Phonetic, the name


and

large river
have

in

Honan

Anhw^ei.

It may

receiv-

324:

is

composed
This

of

^,

to

cut

wei*, r represents its 5fe

big tree falling. (W. 120


down
a

C).
used

character

was

used originalh'
it has S is

for another for

meaning, but
the above. into
A

long been a plot of


The

ground
tree

divided

small

fields.

is fallen and and


one

splitinto
can

small
be

ments frag-

of these

regarded

as

grain

937

BB

y^
P

a bill. odd, thin, onh-, but ; a list, tan\ Single, Radical No. 30. the mouth. (See No. A"'ou^

17).

This is
a

character

which

originally
a

represented
mouths,
and
or

quarrel "", hsi'ian^,two


an

assault

with
72

shovel

^
has

pan'
long
for

pitchfork. (W.

E).
and

It

since lost this

meaning

is

odd, and so forth. The single, original meaning of the phonetic is seen in the following characters, W tan^ a crossbo-w, a bullet,a shell,and W. chaif, to fight.
used
938

"

pao^,To protect. /f_y^;en^ Radical No. 9, a man. P. tai', Phonetic, an idiot. This was arbitrarilythis The to character. real phonetic given is ;^ ^ pao^. A bird spreading its wings its nest. to cover Another older writing is ^, a hen coveringher young to jarotect them. This originally did not have a i Sit the side. The idea was to protect jen^, as a hen protects her (W. 94 C), young.

J^^, ^

'*' To ief,^' often, weary. connect, to implicate, szh\ Radical No. 120, silk. (See No. 141).

S25

"'/e"^Phonetic,
was

field.

(Sec No. 212).

This

^ three articles conlei", nected originally of the tied together. Because or of writing, these have been difficulty the etymology lost. reduced to ffl and

The

was

that

which

held

the

articles

together.
940 A pledge,to chai^, pawn,

hanging

on,

tion. repeti-

Radical pei*,

No.

154, precious. (See No. 38).


a

aa' Phonetic, to go out for be written ^, to go out

it should stroll,

tU for relaxation
let out
to

M.
and

as f^Hg^y

animals
return

are

pasture,

will
the

With

(See No.

again. (See No. 147). of K pei*,valuable, addition used for a security 38), it was
of
a

left in the hands

person

froin

w^hoin

something has been borrowed. have The meaning of repetitionmay owing to the repeated entreaty originated
of the borrower
to
recover was

the

article

pledged before
941

the loan

refunded.

To conceal, to ts'ang-,

store

up.

-H* ts'ao\ Radical

No.

140, grass.
of
means

tsang^ Phonetic,
the

(See No. 22). good, generous, ance, compliministers.

virtue often

M ^
S

ch'i-

ang^,which
Ao\
weapon,
to atig^,
a

strength,and
united form When

";"

when

ch'i-

do

violence to.

ch'eni^,
violence

minister, is added

this force and accordance


of the

is

only

used
purposes

in

with

the

benign
watches

official who When


"""

and

defends the state.

326

ts'ao^,is added
grass,
to

it
up,

means

covered

with

store

to conceal.

Perhaps
to

this phonetic

was

chosen

owing

the

mystery attendinggovernment
942

action.

^
^

hao^,To squander,to leP, Radical No. 127, mad^, Phonetic,


The
a

consume
a

; bad.

hair.

plow. (See No. 601). (See No. 254).


the be

Shuo

Wen

claims that
should
not

radical of

this character

^ lei^but ^

/^o^
beard

Thus
or

the husk

grain threshed
the chaffy
943
"_^

the original idea was ^ of grain^, the chaff; and removed, nothing but

remained.

To overflow, an chang*,

inundation.

7K,^

shui^ Radical
increase ;
surname.

No.

85,

water.
a

Phonetic, to chatig^,
a

draw

(See No. 79). bov^r ; to extend,


a

classifier of tables ; paper,

(See No. 55).


7jC increases
and

Water
,

extends

3g

over

the surface of the land.


944

+"

^\\

k'ou\ To knock, to deduct, to hook buckle,to button, a discount.

on,

to

^, -J" shou^, Radical


P

No.

64, the

hand.

(See

No.

53). Phonetic, k'ou^,


for the

the mouth.

This combination

tU
a

was

(See No. 17). used originally


with bit and exerted

governingof
The
mouth

horse

bridle.
on

hand
P
or

influence
The
may

the
to

of the horse.
to

idea have

of

buckle

button

originatedfrom
the

the
the

necessityof putting
head
of

bridle

over

the

beast.

327

The what

bridle
the

once

on

the ammal

had

to

do
are

driver those

desired.
who have

Discounts
power

exacted another.
945

by

over

ii^
'rT

hsiang^, Fehcity,good luck. ^ shih^, Radical No. 113, to show, a (See No. 164). "^ yang^, Phonetic, a sheep. (See
_^

revelation.

No.

253).
#,

Most

of the

characters

which

have

for a phonetichave a good meaning. yatig^, stands for a Thus, this combination fortunate or auspicious ^ revelation ff:.
946

rh J^

tuan*,Satin. szu\ Radical

(See No. 8). tuan*, Phonetic, a fragment, a section. The left part of this phonetic is said to be a contraction of ^ ^ tuan*, origin, a plant which developsboth above and under the ground. The rightside is :x, shu^. (See indicates No. 165). This combination that the plant has been violentlytorn to
No.

120, silk.

pieces. It
in the
thrown

may

have

been

selected because
cocoon

manufacture into hot

of silk the

is

water;

the

the thread unwound, killed, the 947


cocoon.

is chrysalis thus destroying

yi^
^, ^
ra

A p'ei\

pendant,

to

hang

on

the

to girdle,

esteem.

Radical No, 9, man. jen^, The phoneticis not found in K'ang Hsi's all, dictionary. It is composed of T\ far?', and rlJ chit^,cloth, and is supposed to

328

represent the
from the

small

ornaments

chm\ ^ H, t^ girdlerft When D). a gentleman went the ornaments on always wore
oi-naments

hanging lU (W. 21
out

he

girdle.
he ter charac-

These

he

selected because

admired is
with
948
a now

them

b3' extension this


to

used
or

express

satisfaction

person

things.
profit,to
make
money,

chuan^, To

sell at

gain.

^ pe?. Radical No. 154, precious. (SeeNo. 38), Phonetic, to join together; together ^^ t^ cbien^,
with, both.
stalks of

This is

hand

grain, a
increase
^^"

hand

holding two binding sheaves.


M.,
to

(W.

44
to

I). The
*

idea of this combination the investment

i" is
^""^^^ 949

^^
Ph

huo^, To

open

out, liberal ; to remit.

^ ^

Au^ Radical No. 150,


hai* ho\ Phonetic, to
This character
:

valley. (See No. 579). injure. (See No. 436).


a seems

'^

to

have

two

planations ex-

1. A

person
or

has and

met

with

misfortune

hai*

ho\
hand

others

have

opened ^

for his assistance. liberally 2. One has a calamity ^ ho*, such as a the upper ^ ch'iao*, harelip, lip. A person who has a harelipis spoken of as a 1ST huo^ tzv?. (See No. 509). ^ ch'iao* not substituted. being a radical ^ ku^, was

ku^,their

^3^^ ^* "^

A bough, c/27A\ money,

to

prop
to

up,

branch,
The old

to

vance ad-

draw

money.

This

is the

65th

radical.

w^rit-

329

ing represents
from
a

hand
43

tree.

(W.

pulling a bough "). The reason


to express

why

this

character
money

is used

giving out

is because from
the

the tree puts


Note the

forth branches

trunk.

phrase ^%^%
who
moi-e

to^ huo^
the

ch'an^ chih^,to
debts
the of

generously overlook
have
money the
arc

clerks,
to.

borrowed

from

emploj'er
these

than
of
a

their wages
prosperous

amount

At
sums

end
not

year

collected.

931

ia

^ -^
,

.a

bringforward. shou\ Radical No. 64, the hand. (SeeNo. 53). out shih\ Phonetic, right. (See No. 12). WithTo take up H phonetic significance.
t'r, To
take
up,
to

suggest

; to

that
or

which

is proper

in order

to

teach

instruct.

952
to adorn, to paint, to ornament, pretend. Radical No. 184, food, to eat; ecHpse. shih^*, (See No. 75). is an exception This character to the rule, the radical is also the phonetic. In as it v^as animal an put before sacrificing afterwards the gods and eg,ten. This of "^ shiht', for the accounts use as

To shih*,

"^

radical.

The

rest
a

of
inan

the

character
and

is %.
is

The
a

upper

part is
cloth

the lower beast


a man

cloth ; liefore
a

the sacrificing cleansed

with

it and

thus

proved im-

its appearance.
adorn.

By extension,to

330 953

^,

an A Skill,

art.

"*^ ts'ao^ Radical


2*

No.
to

140, grass.

(See No. 22).


cultivate
the

Phonetic,

plant,

to

ground. This is from vfe /a*,mushroom. (See No. 485), and " t'u^ earth which form M lu*,arable land, M lu*,dry land, (mushrooms grow on high land),and % R utensil in instrument to hold or cbi*, an the first the hand. Working the soil was art practicedby the Chinese. (See No. have ts'ao^ and 5r yiiti' 139). The been recently added, S yiin',cloud, is composed of H shang^ (See No. 93), and ^ X" vapor, risingand forming clouds. Thus the character for farming is composed soil and of t he ife tilling vegetation, which S clouds w^hich give rain, without
"""

"*'*

all effort is vain.


954

^
*I?

A fine chisel ; to engrave. tsan^, Radical No. 167, metal. chin^, (See No. 13). to cut in two. chatf *, Phonetic, to decapitate,

(SeeNo. 803). A metal instrument used for cutting. This utensil M is smaller than the ordinary carpenter'schisel ; it is used in the manufacture of jewelry in the # fiishou^ shih* shops.
955

pa^,To

root

up,

to

draw

up

or

out

to

elevate, promote.

f ^
,

shou\ Radical 626).

No.

64, the hand.


led

(SeeNo. 53).
leash.
one

"fe

pa? Phonetic, a dog


This

by
at

leash around

enabled

(See No. to pullor


thus the

haul the

dog

will and

332 ^^^

;^ ^'"

^^'' To

add

to, to pileup.
No.

f ^
,

shou\ Radical
ta^

^^

(SeeNo. 53). Phonetic, vetch, peas, vegetation the branches of which get entangled,(W. 14 B). The pea vines and vetch extend, far from the stalk adding joint after joint and thus with the addition of" i shou^, a
64, the hand.
character
to.

"

is formed
character

which

means,

to

add

This

is unauthorized.

5^P
^ Jl^
^R
AS

no^, To

move,

to

remove.

shou^, Kadical No. 64, the hand. ^^*) Phonetic,that


wore

(See No. 53).


where

;a

place
that with

IS"

people
were

skins with
It may and

the hair out this the is is


an

ing. ^ for cloth-

be
thus

people
used, for

nomadic hand above

addition

of
the

the

character
It

meanings.
.

unauthorized

character.
961

chan*,A
mu\ "fC

storehouse. No.

Radical

75, wood.

(See No. 22).


narrow,

^^

chien^ Phonetic, to

destroy,
a

small.

(SeeNo. 13)
used

This character small


to

-!Mwas

for
camp

frame

originally platform
officer

built in the
while

from from the sleeping moisture of the ground. It was also used for a lookout during military operations.

protect attack, and

an

By extension
as

it is in

now a

used

for

house, store-

goods
secui'e.

are chati*',

ed suppos-

to

be

962

HPv, '9t

san^' ^ Miscellaneous,to
a

fall

apart

separate

powder.

333

p'u^ Radical -J^


rap.

No.

to 66, (contracted)

tap, to

is phonetic (SeeNo. 17). The original destroyedby usingp'u^as the radical for dictionaries. ^, H,

classification in modern

jou^, meat,
to beat

should be the radical and


to p'ai^

Iti'san*,
the

J^ hemp stalks tt
to

cause

threads

separate, is the real phonetic.

(See
added
meat

No.

24).
cause

When
was

the character
to

jou*, meat, is used for beating


into
now

it to

separate
of

shreds used
79

for

cooking. By

extension

it is

for the

separation

anything. (W.

H).
963

Ifn

J^

hsieh

To

lay aside, unload.


No.

chieh^ Radical

26,

seal,a tally.(SeeNo.
of this character
no

42).
is not

The

phoneticpart
and
upper

used alone
The

therefore has

nunciation. pro-

part is ^
twelve animal mth
stem

wu^, (See
the
one.

No.
stem

190),

one

of the

stems; each
and

stands

for

an

w^hich
horse write

is associated Mj than

4^ wu^, is the
is

ma^.
horse

This and

easier to tuted substi-

is therefore The Jh

for the latter.

to stop, chih^,

with
and

this stem

impliesstopping the
his burden. this is done The
at

horse

taking off
that
on

[]chieh?,

indicates

fixed intervals

the

journey.
article.

964

wu^,
d" ib

thing, an
No.

n/u^ Radical

93,

cow,

an

ox.

(SeeNo.
a

50).
wu* ^, Til)
do Phonetic, a negative,
not ;

flagwith
indicate
a

three pennons,

usuallyused

to

334

An proliibition.
most

ox, asset

4^, niu^, was


in ancient

the

valuable addition indicated

times.
may not
now

The have
to

of the

flag to the ox its importance it -was


"

be

disposed of.

This character

is

used for any


965

of value. article, regardless

Sugar, t'ang^,

malt 119

candy
rice.

; glazedwith

sugar.

(See No. 47). t'an^ Phonetic, boasting talk, a dynasty ; the "jgfe of men P working f^ in unison, as song in pounding (rice) M f^ keng^ with a """kan^. This phonetic heavy stone pestle have been selected as the preparing may of grain for malt candy requires that it be crushed ; in this process large stone have been mortars employed and may several heavy men manipulated the exerted strength according pestles,who of a song. to the rhythm (W. 102 B). the following makes Hsii Shih Shuo Wen chien^ yeh^, comment -liLmP tiieh*^ : ;^ ^ ^ After the rice has sprouted it is heated." WM^^^'^m. (Candy) can be made from from cane, honey, from millet and The from wheat." (candy) made sugar
wi' Radical
No.
" "

from

millet and indicates


200

w^heat that
B.
as

was

called
as

fp P.

This

early
the

the Han
were

Dynasty

C,

Chinese

making malt candy, but it was the writer as recent discovery, says that ^ fang^,is a character
added.
966

then

Hsii Sbib

recently

to p'?,To criticise,

arrange

for the purchase of.

335

4^
LL.

^
rfrf

sAou^ Radical No. 64, the hand. (SeeNo. 53). Two A characters pi^, Phonetic,to compare. reversed and standingtogetheras if comparing their height or strength. When the idea of criticising is t shou^, is added In criticising given to this combination. what has been done states one generally
and have

afterwards
been done

sets

forth

what

should
out
a

; thus

bringing

comparison.
967

^, ^

p'P, The spleen, temper. io"*.Radical No. 130, meat. (See No. 133), Phonetic, p'?, lassitude, pel'', pei\ base" p'l^pi^ low, vulgar,(SeeNo. 526). This phonetic been have given because the may The spleen is lax or soft in texture. spleen was supposed to aid the stomach of digestion.It is located on in the work and as ^ pei^, was the left of the stomach a drinking vessel v/ith a handle on the
left,this
for the
use

may

have

been

another

reason

of this

phonetic.
dental. acci-

"fK

ou^, An

image, a
No.

pair,paired; sudden,
9,
a man.

^, "f jefl%Radical

yiP Phonetic, an image, (archaic) (See No. 860). The origin of this phonetic is not the racter. of the phoneticin the 860th chaas same
The
two
are

identical in modern

writing and even in the old writing they frequentlyinterchanged. M yu\ to are writing for this dwell in, is the correct

336

character

accordingto the When an image of a


of wood
the

oldest
man

ties. authoried carv-

was

out

they believed
individual dwelt

that in

the

spirit of

this

image. The spirit. With


would
is
969

ii^

the

yii^,impersonates the there addition of \ jen^,


To
use

be

pair.

ffifor

"

sudden

"

arbitrary.
ride in
a

7|r!S
m

To chia^,

to carriage,

harness

; Your

Honour.

ma\

Radical

No.
to

187,
add

horse.
to.
was

Jn

chia\ Phonetic,
This

(See No. 261). (See No. 318).


for harnessing add
to

combination animals

first used

to

vehicle:

"

the 970

lioi'sesA!5to the harden

carriage.
as a

To chii',

by

pounding,
mud

threshing

floor,to make

walls,

to

build.

YS
Vli

chu-,Radical
This
have

No.

118, bamboo.
to
a

(See No. 7).

k'un^ Phonetic,
is
to
not

undertake.

(SeeNo. 518).
as we

complete phonetic
to
was

add
.

;^ mu*, wood,
It

it before it

is finished
or
'^^

used in

for the ramparts

fortifications used

warfare, and
wooden
to

the racks

chu^, was
from
to
ram

originally aa,
wall

placed on
enem3^

top of the

prevent the

is said
used
971
to

The Ticmu*, climbing over. be the short logs which were the earth into
a

solid

mass.

weP,

To

submit,
No.

grievance; to depute.
a woman.

niP, Radical -i/T

-q*

ho-, Phonetic,

(See No. 16). grain, (archaic phonetic ^ pho-

39,

stti*), (SeeNo. 771). This is a proper

337

netic and
etc.

indicates the heads

of millet

being gathered. This character has distinct meanings and two have may in differentplaces. originated 1. To submit. The heads of grainhung added to drooping : when -k nu^, was this it was taken as the symbol of the
proper

attitude
to

of

woman,

she

should

even acquiesce

unreasonable

demands

from

her husband.

2. The

and when had


972

grain ^ ho^, was given into the care


the male members business
:
"

stored
of the

at

home

women

of the household thus the


ing mean-

to leave

on

of

depute.
to
or

t?, To hand

transmit.

^
J^

cho" Radical

No.

162,

to go.

tf Phonetic,a beast like a


An
use common

(SeeNo. 10). with horns. tiger,


which that
to

examination this

of the characters

phonetic show
idea attached
to

there is no
It

them.
a

is

therefore necessary

regardit as
have
been

simple
used in

phonetic.
The

It

seems

to

connection with the sending of messages. J_ cho^,indicates that


have necessitated
a

might
973

it originally journey. At
to.

present it is used for,to hand

Inclined to one side ; partialprejudicedp'i'enS Radical No. 9, a man. \/f ,/V. ;er^^ door. a Phonetic, a tablet hung over p/en*
From bamboo

^ bn*

door

and 156

slips. (W.
are

inscribed ts'e'^, D). As these

tablets

always hung with

the lower

^38

the wall and ^dge against


some as

the upper

edge
taken

iiichesawajr from
the

it, they are

And
takes

inclined. straight, when -f, jen^, is added he man, this quality of deflection. on

symboFfor

not

-custom. 7/* Laws, regulations"; (tIJ yen^Radical No. 9, ^ ,}\.


a man.

^ij

7/eA*

seriatim,arrangejin Phonetic;to divide, order. (SeeNo. 711). This is not an old It is explained thusrifthe .'character. crimes 3?, of a man i jen^, are #ai', rated sepaland "placed in order M lieh*, "Jtao^, .andithe law is; administered accordingly.
-

975

t'un* To

swallow,
No.

to

gulp down;

tolabsdrb,

grasp.

A' du',Radical

30, the mouth.

(See No.

'^

17). t'/enSPhonetic, the heaven. (See No. 113). This character ^ is explained in two different ways : 5^ fien^,heaven, the sky, like a huge envelopes'all. It appears mouth about swallow to everything. The second explanation commences with and :^ta*, great or large, and i^,onej P A'bwVswkllowing in one big mouthful.
'

'

"

976

Used pi*, mine. JT

up,

deteriorated, vicious ;
Nol 55, hands

my

hmg^

Radical
"

joinedand

held

up.

No. 247). (Sefe

Phonetic, mean, pi*, (SeeNo. 211).

ruined,my, mine. The character ffs ginally oriwas writteitJI with % c/i'uan*, a dog,
poor,
'

A
j^

Radical jer^,

No. 9,

tnan.

cban^' ^ Phonetic,to

enterabout some inquire nation prise by heating a tortoise shell,diviNo. 132). Thei^ (See ; to usurp.
an

is

unauthorized

character Wen.
a

and
It

is not
to

described in the Shuo have been invented the two


*

seems

to make

distinction
ter the charac1st tone

between

meanings of

" chan^' the meaning of the


is to divine, of the 4th tone
981
to lm\ To lease, rent.

is to usurp.

Radical ^ pei*,

154, precious. (SeeNo. 38). pended Phonetic, a man carryinga load susjen*, /-p. ends of a pole I from the two When i jer^,is a load, a burden 5.
No.
"

added

the burden
the

is transferred to another
a

"A, hence

meaning,

trust, office.
of %

(W.

82

C). With the addition


an

pei\

there is

of obligation

money

which

has been contracted


982 To ramble, to kuang^,

for value received.

stroll.

J_ cho* Radical,No. 162, to go. (SeeNo. 10). Phonetic, mad, wild, raging. (See ^ k'uatig^, No. 794). The M is an uuauthorized chaI'acter.

The combination

indicates traveling

in any

direction the

fancymay

mine. deter-

983 ^

'%
:^

china ware. Porcelain, t''zu^, wa\ Radical No. 98, tile. (SeeNo.' 558). fzvi^, Phonetic, inferior. From ^ ch'iea'^, ficient. de(SeeNo. 273). With the addition of ::! er*, two, second, inferior. The

ail

firstis regarded as the best, the second is inferior. Formerly vessels were made of

crockeryware was substituted it was regarded as inferior. W. is an unauthorized writing.


;

gold, silver

and

wood

when

984

Tg:
i 3E
j^

play. No. 96, jade. (SeeNo. 124). yii*, Radical, yiian^, Phonetic, the first. (SeeNo. 93). Here this phoneticstands for the highest 31 yii^, quality. When jade, is added it impliesthe best jade. Cheap or inferior jade is not prized. Trinkets such as beads and ringshave been used to designate times and the rank from prehistoric first employed as the word 5c wati^, was
to term

A toy, wati^,

but is now for such articles,


or

used for

toy
985
^555f
.

plaything.
leaf of
No.
a are a

^g
^

The p'letr,

book.

^
B

chu^,Radical
These

118, bamboo
tablet. made

Phonetic, pien^,
thin in width.

(SeeNo. 7). (See No. 513).


of board their
and
are

'^

tablets

comparison with
With
a

length and
It
a

the addition

of bamboo bamboo

this is the character for book. These and


use was

leaf of made

books tied for

were

of

of slips

bamboo
came

into

together. After paper making books the same

character
986 flTf

retained for leaf.

To sport, to fence, to play. shua^,

er^.Radical jig

No.

126, the whiskers


This is

(archaic),
a

(SeeNo. 635). a "pC woman. ^"^ Phonetic,

modern

34Si

character.
use

To

play,to
and

act.

Chinese

tors ac-

false beards
costumes

and

others dress up
women.

in female

personate
the

Thus and

the two

characters

er^,whiskers, jjjj
character

-^ nii^, women,
act.

form

for,to
is
as now
an

character, by extension, handicraft used for practicing any


The
164

occupation. (W.
turn
over, to

A)'.

987

chuan^,To

revolve ; to forward.

Radical ^che\
^

159, a cart. (See No. 136). bent on chuan^,Phonetic, singly;specially, one tic object. (SeeNo. 414). This phoneplus cart ^ forms the character to
Nd. revolve
a

as

the wheels

of

cart

have

but

i.e.to revolve. function, single

938

j_
^

ch'ih^, Slow; late, steady ; to procrastinate. c/zo* Radical No. 162, to go. (SeeNo. 10). The f bsi^ Phonetic, a rhinoceros. shih),is

body and ^ is a contraction of used together mao^, hair. These, when W simply indicate that the animal has a tail. 4^ niV added places the animal in the bovine not class. (The Chinese are
the
"%

very

mals.) careful in their classification of aniThis beast when


not

enraged

moves

about with

move,

to slowly. Thus L. c/jo*, the above phoneticmakes a

good character for slow.


989

To care for, anxious ; to cogitate. lii^, Radical No. 61, the heart. (SeeNo. 18). i'^bsin^. This character,
cannot

be

divided

into
of

radical and

It phonetij^..

is composed

No. head and heart (See to think, sitiS 45). Whenj^ A^^ tiger,(See No, 25S), the is .added the idea is conveyed that turned to 'thoughts are things which trouble^tigersare greatlydreaded.

@. ^

999 ni^

mX,

To traffic, to deal in. fan^, Radical No, 154, precious. (See No. 38). ^ pel*, Phonetic, to turn. (SeeNo. 75). I^ faif, To is the turn ^ pe/*, goods into money
purpose

of

merchant.

991
____.

The nidtzaai*,

pulse.

^,M

jou*.Radical No. 130, meat. (See No. 133). Phonetic, water separatinginto smaller J^ ^5 p'ai*. This is M yung*, a constantly streams. flowing spring,reversed, the flowns still ".constant, hut as it leaves the spring it into- several,. streams. I divides (This up
'

character
,

is also

written

with

jfc. as

the

idea is that the pulse radical.) The small break,up into innumerable (arteries) distributed through the arteries and are
..flesh.

'

r"1

to chuan\ To love,-

care

for, family.
eye.

g
'^

(SeeNo. 102). cull. (W. 47 chiian* Phonetic, to pick and of ^ pien*,the K). This is made up tracks of a wild tanimal, (See'-N(". 801), to discriminatcj and hand"^ f^, i. e. to ihei hands. --Adding g mu*, select with
H3U*,Rkdical
No;

109, the

the

eye,

"

we.

have
one

"to

look
is

out

for

those, whom for.

loves and

responsible

In modern

with

the

tical writing^.c/iuaH is'idenphonetic bf No. 609 B

344

but sheng^
be from 993
" "

the seal

writingshows

one

to

huo^ and the other from 5S pien*. jJll

T^

'Wr

Bits, fragments,petty. sui*, shih\ Radical No. 112, a stone.


tsu''' Phonetic, to die. and ?, clothing,
the
a
*

(SeeNo. 42).
up

^ ^

This

is made stroke
wearer

of ^

/, a
the
swore

across w^as
a

back

to

indicate
a man

soldier.
a

When

prince or feudal lord he all free from as having died ; he was and he henceforth had previousobligation
no

to allegiance was regarded

will of his own,


him
a

he but

did what
a

his lord

bade
man, 994
o'^

he

stone

fragment of a is used for breaking 5 shih^,


was

^ 1^

crushing.

^
,

t'e*, Specially, purposely, only. ^ niu\ Radical No. 93, ox. (SeeNo. 50). rfe szu*. Phonetic, a court, a temple. (See

No.

346). This
that in

character times the

seems

to

indicate
were

ancient

the

Chinese

about particular used

quality of animals
color
was

in sacrifice. The
on

also

decided

by the
added
to

court

szu^. Thus
an

^ nia^, when

indicated

animal

which, owing
was

its

all requirefulfilling ments,


a

set aside for

sacrifice ;

now

by extension used for specially.


IJU -1

jiir, A trust, responsibility, office. an

996

a^
^

,yV ie"^ Radical No. 9, a man. ^ /en^ Phonetic,a trust, office, (See No. 981)this character was Originally used with""* *^^ ^ J^"^fei)^

F#1

chu% To raise, to hft

up,

to

introduce

to.

345

pi chiu* Radical

No.

134,

mortar.

(See No.

479). This is another character which has arbitrarily received a radical foreign to the original acter construction. The charis made to give,and up of H yii^, 4: ^ shou^,hand the meaning is, to raise,
to

lift up, etc.

997 ^

To try, to test, to verify. shih*, "^ yen^,Radical No. 149, a word. (SeeNo. 10). Phonetic, a form, a pattern. (SeeNo. ^ shih*, to imply 576). The m yeti^, word, seems that the
an one

who

is to undertake

to make

article accordingto the pattern is asking

questions before he undertakes the task, thus securing the experience of


others

in addition to the ocular demonstration,


as

his ideas thereby verifying the mode of procedure.

to

^p^

infantry. (See484). iH chih^ Radical No. 77, to stop. (SeeNo. 10). The phoneticpart of this character is not It is " chih^, to stop, invertused alone. ed, which indicates the reverse of Jh chih?, In walking firstthis foot is to move. or advancing while that is stationary ; then that foot is advancing while this is stationary.

pu*,A step, a

pace,

999
"

"

to leave behind. t/V, To cast away, to lose, (SeeNo. 19). iS Radical No. 1, one. to go. cA'a*, Phonetic, (SeeNo. 67). to go one once To go afecA'u*, I'S long
"

journeyand

not return

is to lose.

346

/^ ^^
J

A long time, long siriCe. chiu^, r:

Radical No. 4, p'ieh^ (See No. 176).


Tliis cannot

stroke

to

the

left.

be broken The seal

up

into radical and

pho"etic.
man

who

writing represents a is impeded in his walking by a


we

train.

Thus
as

have

the
to to

idea of
move

long
short

time,
and

it

requires him
is needed

slowly
a

much

bme

walk

distance.

7^i

weP,

To

oppose,

to

disobey.
to go.

ij^

cho' Radical

(See No. 10). vi'eP Phonetic, thongs, refractory,a surname. (See No. 772). This phonetic is suggestive,
No.

162,

when

3i_ cho, is added

it

implies

active
1001
,^

disorderliness. disobedience,

to drop. lo*, To fall,

ts'ao\ Radical l|ll|l -H*,

No.

140,

grass.

(See No. 22).


for

^^ /o*

Phonetic
water

a (Archaic),

trench each

irrigation,
#.
his
the Each

7jt used
field
was

by

-man

man's

separated from
; thus

bor's neighidea of tion addi-

by these trenches separation is conveyed.


of
of
"'''

With used

the

ts'ao^,it

was

for the falling


;

leaves

in the

autumn

they (W.

fall
31

when

separated from
Now

the

stem.

B).

this is used

for the

of falling

anything.

-"^M4^^-

ALPHABETICAL

LIST,

ALPHABETICAL

LIST.

349 647

CHUN

578 516 I
578 826
AN

EN ^

496

"lii"

I 45
(384

sra

^i^ m

/612 ft

/388
\672
388
790

\286
867

m ^ m
B.

201 785 762 724 508


988

CH'UN

167

CHU
/" ^

ER
-

m
f 20
FEN

^
M

563 563

1609 1992
992

m
181

672 (729

l9i
3 71 76

864

(!J" C71

1790
B^

HSIA

CH'iJAN
CHUNG

IF

^ ^
FENG

525 525

267 267 313

T
Wf

92
262 106 168 591

^
170 57
^ ^

500

^ f^
W m

fsoo
552

3 635

IS
378

\424 m
FA

"
312 312 312 164
"4,

^
604 686

835

774

^ ^ ^ ^
m.

^
^

1848

1215
1151
416 768

m
HSIANG

260
260

189
379 (465

^
CH'UNG

214 626 657

|734
734 48 194 164

^
232

S
E m f*

jli
H,

SI
FAN

m. m

768
847 522 522

1106
106 465 334 334 76

f704

\232
m
r 80
990

(496

CHU

|554
FO

m
3li

75
554

713 HAI

\861
861 377
625

500 837
FOU

587

m
"
FANG

il5
180 237 269 436 HSI

466 922 909

837

-gS
925

264

767

625

945 839 f 14

742
754 754 826

E
CHUN
^

[503 FU

"^

^
CH'UN

830

1104
341 712

(443 493

HAN

|493
H
W
FEI

841
42 500 343

|572HSIAO
26

/"
MX
^

627 435

826
996

830

/613 \317
234

222

'ft
m

520

(400

957
602

156 390 307

1406
417

CH'U

538 67

^^ i"

276 708

740

776

1/t

647

398

-'^''027

350

ALPHABETICAL

LIST.

77

390

;" ^
^
^,

258 258 134 669 590 590 849

HUI

121 525

126 27 122

KAN

288
439 450 439

110 23

62 674

HSIEH 20

J] m

37 37 37 995

1^ #

137

m
m

650 963 163 163

m ii m
HUA

699
385 230 933

137 927
343 502 545

35c

51 51 11

869

311 54

|995
139

"^j

41 342 662
'^

^
JIH

":

1158
488

HUN

44 447

K'AN

it

404 510

U
12

46 102 571

^t
HSIEN

IS
27
HSU

73

HUNG

471 89 471 597


JOU

^
^
JU

^
^
r*

678

"

1502
1305
770 124

dlfc 483

[730
527 904
HUAI HUG 5a

851
863

133

EANG
K'ANG

i ?|
*?5

1^

S
m. m

396 396 933


^

763 35

953

[141

|l [792 HSiJAN
792 599 390 303
""

(482 m
646 530 70 659
JAN

953

A
4,"

fX ?g

^" m f^^
JANG

P25

KAO 203 284 ^

M fel U
M
HSIN

|424
(428
HUAN

1521
758

506 506

" li
JUNG

758

HSiJEH
"X

^
M it m

251 423 251


-Mi

98

97 438 462 462

S
M

204 511 144

519 616

K'AO 839

^
KA KAI

579
9h

18 18

276

949 849
JAO

45 274

HSiJN
HUANG

919

514

EE

271
444 JE

m
m
HSING
i-

195 394

ill
HU

V25

28
2 23 28

2fc
430 430 139

700 487 528

639
-

J480

639

Px 19

639
859

165 576 137 191


JEN

335

272
498

"^

il61
391

f 30

723 723 ^21

X
Zs

(207

K'AI

163 175

^'

1696 a

iff

152

ALPHABETICAL

LIST.

351

490
m

536 536 714

%" ^ S
f5

871
871 148 374

K'UA

KUEI

483 903

LE

LIA 1002 1002 456 710 LIANG 196 .35

^
KUAI

728

m ^1
K'E

^
K'UNG

f^ ^ li ll

895

K'OU 54 152 944 364 180


KU

^
17

548 548 843

^ S
, '

302 779 518 518 LEI

"

g ^

'^^t'

319

f"
KUO

St

601
710 939 448

445 559

K'UAI

m109

411 374

1^
HI

17

'tfe
m

530
522 530

m M #
^

^".

817 373

600 813 611 649

28 17 564

215

939
LIAO

KUAN 310 481

K'UEI

119

LENG

411 f579

T '^
138

68 5e"

|G22
""

"^

|693
778 929
LA

51 70
LI

^
LIEH

KEI

#
116

292 262

a
95

^
KEN "^

m
95
-ta-

fl79

361
421
KIJN

|212M
739 172

711 718 711 172

361 921

U
It
57
LAI

216
814 360

f421 1630
630

\223
223 314

684 684 813

^l M t
LIEN

82
64 339

f428

K'UN

|726

484

as
K'U

902 K'UAN

Sa H

704 796 796


LAN

82
936 928 643 433 936 974 799 799

m
144
KUNG

-m.

K'EH
-J

fa.

228

M
^ ^ te
424
469 KUANG "777

^ m
55 153 301 175 247 LANG

KEN6

'^
56
280 696

351 821 766 445 164 761 351

^
^
KCTJ

1492
KUA 965

^h
J
670

297 297 119 119 365

^ ig

I?

m
g|5

982

"
LAO

X
K'UAUG

89 354
nh?.

164

296
871

"J

^S il

794
696

682

209

709 608

1 5^

569

^^

683

352

ALPHABETICAL

LIST.

NU
MI LIFG
-^

MO

NENG 79 665 665 991 24 762 752 ou


NI

16
357

474

^^
M

(138

61

{ {

213 47

658 658

968 278 278


PA 3

472 61 446 446

705

802
802 705

(593
^
,^

382

1437

LIU MU

31
MIAO

NIANG

629

^
MAO 254 130

H
^
LO

732 732

m m
MIEH

798 464

\581 m
269 NIAO

565

^ 0

fl02

1547 -^
79 147 NIEH

897
710 701 632 632

1628

^ M.
m
MIEN
^

13

244 244 244 244

730 730

ft

485
523 523

^
NIEN

139

1
NA |575 122

LOU
MEI

fl98

^ 269
79

^
11 103

110 18 840 840


188

[392
392

il5
575

15
m
a

575

793

345
691
5^

/S43 NAI
(107 75 f486
581
NIN

LU

979 485
953 MEN

620

1575
NAN

892 ifr".
NIU

328 856

953 844 294 279

MIN

212 347

ra

SSL

233
648

4. ^

{50
1118

P'AI

ii
NAO

398 NO 688

24

M
960

991 854

MING

793 320

MENG

451

m
NEI

m
NUNG

m
PAN

U
LUAN

460 460

127

931

572

1"

551
61

468

467

118

ALPHABETICAL

LIST.

353 23

744

239

te

751
344

238
274

837

^
P'AN

937
SHENG 15

^lO
09m
PANG

24

607
901

391 238 202


71 610

675 675 675 SHIH

609

i'
PANG
^

+
603

p. XI 59

m
PAO

503

f 69

"

[134
449 8

P
80

164

"1

[495 ;327
681

(227

1164
256 42

376

938 100 264 566 416

819

1H:

426

(221

1460
P'AO

^
327

576

m ^
PEI

997

ill
495

125 346 96

( 96 348

;ifc

1231

354 SUAN

ALPHABETICAL

LIST.

1S

231
75

^'

^it
SUI

247 664
TA

\m) B
T'AN

797 824

99

266 631

m
m

952 453 453 12 141 39 367 141 421

T'lAO

i":
993 771 170 771 493 493 493 505
T'A

54

^
m

574
140 517

T'E

^
994

160

fr ^

155 637
959 959

#
TENG

112

i^
TANG

^
^

TIEH

^
478 881 893 787

199 240
240

Wi

805
308

i
T'lEH

^
"#. M

698
"5:

240 243

855

308

869
SHOU 53

flfi 381
TAI T'ANG 711
'^

(197

T'ENG
TIEN

|869
SUN

396 655 769 956 769 SUNG 769


42

408 738 403 965 965

^
TI

593 132

Its:

366 463 862 101 101 716 563

f^ 1^
;i^
m

IS
257
257 Jfi.

178

1%

Jg J"

386 885

^^
^_

938
711 544 311

M il
TAO

893
893

ilii 187
^

m
T'lEN

369

94

1153
86 6 217 972

452
szu

^
37

^
ra

113

143
SHU

f 89
SHUO 34

u
72

1569
806
T'AI

37 88

m Iff

{20?
663

^ m 75

[71
876 581
165 547

M m
T'l

^
TING

972 T 155 219 289 259

[165
SO

29

501
101 452

f304
480

1299
(125

m
^
371

i\
m.
su

680

1346
338 717
1nJ

T'AO

680

^-"^

53

1951
041

f^
m
TE

889

619
521

^ilj
889
m

IS
292 T'ING

259

717
8 78 TIAO 266

762 749 749

622

288

(956

3"

22 99

556

1141

78

ffil

356

ALPHABETICAL

LIST.

WEI

877

283 283 440


577 577 755

788 788
788

42 932 ("636

"

28 634
634 524 216

877 964 964 193 337

1356
Yij
479 356

636
653

^4

83 83 510 848 971 772

640
538 431

^'

827

479
124

836 653
418 7

YAO 24

40 603

728
728 456 728
m

418

456 f417

70 61 284 694 694 728

I^

443

781

897

831

772
1001

ffc

897

1322

YA WEN 670 427 163 97

J 77 1514
77 16 703 858

YUEH

43

728
329

m
wo

65

860
860 968 807

w
m
2

5.33
721 736 811

m
^
m

329

858 958 958

{534
535 456

n
w

757

is

807 m 795

538
wu 906
YEH 4

795

t: ^ ^

77

IK

890

m
m

882 583

YUN

f527

173
YANG

it

664 953

1190
507
30

555 441 253 253 105 YUAN 447

%
5

^
#:
-m

m-

697 41
^

m.

446

1263

INDEX

BY

NUMBER

OF

STROKES.

letterc indicate that the character is colloquial.

Xc

89 92 54 368 98
77

600

""

Tc
:fcc

161
415

g"J^

S
1620

995

"c "

18
c

4 Strokes

22 18

28 139 6 291

871 768

5ffc
/J? c

82 176
234 113 507
r

H 0c

12 9

""j-c477
"c
2 Strokes

^c
569
244

47 254 f322

91

27

627
80

nf ^"llOOO 5^c
tt

*c

ac
^c Xc
c pfi

^c

444 57 964 468 38 38

Pxi
20
r

t
43
42

18

130

SM

18 324 fl68

1417
17

93

1263 gc 953
122

59
f

1500

28 17 143
r

U70 170
1

^c pgc
P]

Sc
^

774 281 435 128

42

/ 42
1114
68

^
A
^

1841
43

14

:""

426 827 ("794

^
=

-t:c

32

20

1572
c

P
a-

11 438
^

7Kc

79 694 f503 (104

/348 U
1491
"

46 89 1569

Pxi rl32 I 24 123

1613
98 488

"c

1350
36 24 950

i337
122

"5
T

258 155 152 435 14

11 ftc
c"

/""

31 427

75c

581
^
^

f= a
"

^^419
;kc Sc

/358
83 75 18 181

7"

108
"

ii29^f;
c

822
19 117 f500 1424 f312

3 Strokes
c "sf-

468 37 613

69 857
161

"*

^
\163
10

"

{153
4 37

1436
fl69

4-c ^c
"ft.
"

110

Ojc
f --" :?c "c

3L

-fee

711

"c

98 49 2

i^c 1482
r227

/432
63 71

f516 1138
c

624 110
562

^M
=f c ^

27 59

15 366 16

1164

^
Xc "^

126 35 rl65 I 30

5c
l:

30 357
c

^0 ^c

/134

I 47

576 123

43
79 53

2ilc

18 634

69

"c

13

:H- t247

/175

23 256

24

TSc

109

358

INDEX

BY

NtTMBEB

OP

STROKES.

Rc

375
57 266 53 11

340

7T"e

283 504
500 288

46 269 273

196
r213

731 747

^Ic
^c
ac

558
329 348

(2.

?Ee

.^-c
tj^

264 698 862 923


601 999 f981 1995 94 r215

I? ^^
A,".

323

f593
U37

rl58 1223 761 232

722
409

U90

"

1178
20

-H-M677
557 625

353
15 100

^M571

(273 jlfcc
139

/235
1461 235 246 258 266 272 280

-jftc 426
H, c
c lil

241 732

723
.365

"fee 664
84

721 123 450 556

He

121

"

1547
111

193

Jfjc
^
^

682

1848

c E{5

f626
1955
226

230 288

5 Strokes

1^ "
^
1369

{208
4

l^c J:
t: py

4" 165
".

290 310

1515

473 503 530 944 934 615 613

HM2S
421 386

118

;""= 876
702 60

^"(238 ^^
d^c
110 111 399

-nr.

(299
1304
311 338 354 360 366 209 451

386 441

" ffl

{225
6 strokes

^
c fFi

iLc

"

1861
1^

^^e ft ^e ^e
^c

112 119 125 133 150


dfcc

iH-lo389
42

Af\.C 14 5ic
72 121 271 170

f/jc

7 7 8

f609 1992

S"
HI "
m,

474

r233 (648
38

(327 ^"{495
^
"

11 26

483
180 518

^e Ijc

552 635

257 27 42 34 278
i

tfic 647 Jpjc


HP

ngc

28 210 216 142

34

^297
(194
253
165 184 187 189

(161

525 532 547

656

/424
1428 674

;496
1554
224

1305 38

38
45r

c 708 :5b ^IJC 711

;^c
35:c

(jHcc 646
700

TtJc

256 97 139 51

214
897 494

40 22

717 728 728 728

tCc #15
e

676 675 991

548

^nM52x

193

INDEX

BY

NTJMBEE

OP

STROKES.

359 930
941
c 846 Vlll

997
34

82 84 86 93 101 fl05 1240

291 85

873

f579
e

"^

If^e 894 Be
796

1622
"e

857 298
30.;

624 581
570 741

301

9i7 955 964 971

Me

202
321

8 Strokes

5f'Je709
",c
445 244 560 260

"me #;e

'efe
'Me f?o

310

336

827
634

343 794

He

"e

555
719

316
315

ISje
liinT

^"

{ 543
109 114
115

107

!7ile974
U"
;$
C

fie j"e

801

983

547 /l^e 799 765

984 fl97

7tte 355
358
374 377 117 f400 U06
@

IW1"

249

me #e

619

mo ^ne
^
"

327
330

384
673 34 583

fine 114

938

#e

)998
889
0

(332
1767
341 345

5cc

953
562 359 598 691 767 705
r279

n
^

526 533

i^e
Se

Bf c
SSe

Me f^c
^
"

fl20
1294
7 Strokes

538
545

413 419

(484 664 f416

730

{349
350

122

:#" 4P"
963
966 975

135 135

l|e 1151 l^e


467

877
446

^e ^
Se
mc

665
e

'I^e 548
e #15

^e t fgc

139 675 386 100

713

fp5fc 353
359 372

Me

C 723 il.j!

136 136

#e

473 497 510

f422
(589 603

|g c
iic

722

^ne

tlbc 732
585 739

980
2
f

138
42

f;J;c

3 5 10 10
11

1146

518

ffe pt
#0.
^

855 733 400 621

^e ;te
Me
^-J c

f563
1522 388 644 206 669 258 597 564

IRe

578
756

fpc

149 157

"^e

530

^0

g^e

380 411 414

f549 1629
712 717 728

^
Me

"

*e {955 m
768 769 770

f!fc 160

"

20 37 608

^ m

274

;fXe 866

m j^e
'x-e
7n 0

439
450 463

221
212 216

"e

677 f405

;Se
^e

66 53 57

Mo

J226
1492

Pffc is. #e #e #e
i^e

729 736

1847
542

808
811

(^^6
488
489

582

4fee 740
744 784

ge

830
671

Me ;ie

690 652 861

^c

820

^e

fB.c 241
250

i^c
tte

815
822 825

^'^ 1534 ^ %
71 73 79

7x

72

f"e me
1t

554 390 650 720 510

^e *Ee ^e
sac

^- c

269 203 f287

785 806
834 870

865
897 902 547

'l^e
Me

^0 5Re ^l^e

493 281 296 297 178

827

-^le 832 ^0
843

^c

1584

360

INDEX

BY

NUMBER

OF

STROKES.

r477

195
213 f221 (645 223

lo23
488 486 492 507
r508 1684 513 522

^PM509
137
156

227 jjiljic
238

10 strokes

287
337 5

m
ii"c *c
3B.

460 8 9 10 28 40
c

530
532 585

12
16 17 22 23 39 757
f

Wc

577
c flf

41

727 309 318 347 251 258 267 271


r

1628

Sic

47 f356 (636

45

65 69

1989
865 75 77 ^^

(503 97

36
JEE

273

1514

/142
88 89 217 94 I 98

277
261

"tc
B$c

103
125

e 511

286 288 293 f305 (502 168 167

124

"

tac

129
fl31 1626 143
145

1849
102

'fac
Bijc

j" 106
108 854 112 119 120 126
c ""'f

465

Ifjo 169
185 186

148 152

fM
^Ec

154
160

^0

188 193 194

1^
m.

165
168

Jt

INDEX

BX

NUMBEE

OP

STROKES.

361

189
192 218 219

516 518 519

fflc 920
942

^c
fj c

175
179 178 183

^0

414
418 420 423 438

He
0 'fg

Me fte

945 959

M-"
R^c

}?""' 521
529
536 544

^c

C^e

238 248 f215


(447 269 270

M
IRc

972 982
990

/fgc 185 go ftc 200 1" ^fflc201 Igc ^e


c ipi

iSe 470 :i;e


496

fie

708 718

Jfcc 991
994

229 236

Mo

f^c '^e

506 520 523

flic

725 731 733 758

609 813 948 648

244 255

275 282 284


289

^e
*
r

^e
l^e

527
531

i^" f262 U75 B"c


Iljc 267

;^c

762 764 767

ffc

601 589 625 384 312 724

290
292 305

^"(908 gcc
1 ^c
283 284 "287 t, 586 294 295

541
512 546 549 550

307
314 321 332

J5J.

772 773

Se

^e
e 71? ^e

^j^c ^0 #; ^. c

a"
E3.

775 788 790 796

S
M
JSc

699
579 895 568 629 953 991 620

tlie 710
747 762 763

335
352 356 357 399

if"
Bi"

799

il-c t^c
g

297
298

frae
rt
e

fife 802
802 813 821 826

^e
306 311 315

769

#e
770 779 803 804

^=c
Elc

404
416 417 436 437 445 457 497 499 501 513 516

gc

?Ke Ste me i^e

339 353 363 371 400

ffe fg
S^c ^c

565 633 692

IS"

/198
(392

lie
g
c

805 808
814 817 847

ffle
iSe Ift; "" *^e

831
835 877 880

583
342 453

i^o t^^e itfc #e


i;c

ic

402 405 409

m ffO
c c """ c

680 396 593


663

850
851 f205 (863

887

408
410 412

897
911

"e

362
660 251 252 271 279
12 Strokes

INDEX

BY

NUMBBl

OF

STROKES.

545

57-0

697

m""

(956 1141 464 615 619 333

Jm.e 693

|gc
gc
f^c

331 343 316 355 369 374 407 414 416 423
_

fflc
^i c
^c

78] 782
801

711 720 407

Sic

686
662

^e ^JjC
"e ^e
ira
a

678

281

jgc
m

816 823 829


830 885

If c

736
743 5S8 750

rre

394 684 262 634

W.c

I' I,,??
M.

'^

286 584 288 313 32 i

Me Re me ,Se me

1""

fSc

578 374

Wi"
we

33 39 41 48 53

lie

755

!!^e Vic

602

668
172

760 783
795

599
590 144 385 411 649 f421 1530

^c

836
838

326
329 333 334 344

llice884
430

^e

842
856 860 876 878 905 915

^c
Se Die Me

454 202 595 448

jic

804 818 837 841

/435
1462

51 c
rle
^c
Mc

1^0 lie +f c """


^"

y^
54
56

53

Me

703
553 788

361 362 373 376

We

453 471

:^c
HS
c

75
77 83

F^ve
m ife
^e

845 704 858 683 872 931 874 883

He

636 22 42 44 73 60 61 82

378 98 401 99 99
c 431 4[if.

1"e ^e
me

pe Ife
^e
^c

472 478

ilc931
^c
937 940

487
498

m
502

fiie Me
ile

695
737 513 252 685 610 893

952

?|je 889 "e #;e


f875 1896

me

101 116

460 465 477 484


*'ii c

IS-e ^e

!tc
c ijp^

958 516
BI3

965

If e ^c
Me ?^e ^c

^c

522 972
988

i"e

119 134

Se
wn nn

900 914 466 924 927

( 83 fr,o1716

^.c Me

993997

ire

161 199 f207 (696

490 493 493 495

fifie381
449 177

tic
nt
e

114 133

"e
^"c

ii c 1001 ^ c 1002
M
308

fie
^c

159
164 171

#e
iie me

flic 387
912

^e f|e

BiSCC211
^c
214
c

SEC

508

935 iJeSte

230

51c

{ '.)73
525 537

ol3

961 f638 1962 967 13 Strokes

i)|e 215
242

14 Strokes

0 $c %t

616 664 580

ifee
Bfc
383 797 978

258 273 279

S^c

55 c
^0

232

538 540

968

240

"e

981

m #

702 249

fie

306

^c

364

IXDEX

BY

NUMBEE

OK

STROKES.

^c
gc
240 328 344

936 928 987


m

|c
i
c

668

ft"
Mc

322

gjc

308!.*|c
428

922

24

Strokes

63S
706
575

433
435

lie ffc
Sc
"c
452 471 485
22

320
446 479

Strokes

^c
PM
c

996
395

gc

439
456 514 716 750

He
398
[file

592 99

512

age

HJ

696

"653

537

25

Strokes

^c
gc

454

^e i
f428 (726 889
903 921 941 748

277 511 735

799 826

?Ke
fc
ic
Me
787

^c W

294 '''^^ 886

^
11 Me
c

,|"c
m"^
753 775 351
21 Strokes

^c
828

643

^c

726
792

@c
837

680 689

ic
EC

^c fie

||c

IMe
953
954
20

He

fcl gc

615
27

Strokes

ifc
11 II
g"c
ffic
c

840 868
19
c

793
23 Strokes

Strokes

39
Strokes

^c

706 749 826 849 292 299 799

Ho ffc i|c
He

632

891 914

Si" ijc
nlc
396 839

172 264 285

^c
jic
He

177 286 307

Me
-Ifc
mc

$c
fie

925

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