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Applications of Psychology with special reference to Pakistan

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including relating to individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior, mind and thought and the subconscious neurological bases of behavior. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. It is largely concerned with humans, although the behavior and mental processes of animals can also be part of psychology research, either as a subject in its own right (e.g. animal cognition and ethology), or somewhat more controversially, as a way of gaining an insight into human psychology by means of comparison (including comparative psychology). Psychology is commonly defined as the science of behavior and mental processes.

Health Department:
Health psychology is the application of psychological theory and research to health, illness and health care. Whereas clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological illness, health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behavior including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness. Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life or in research into the psychological impact of health and social care. Now a days, Health Psychology is also applied in Pakistan like the developed countries. In Pakistan, Health psychologists are involved in the betterment of health policies by the government.


Industrial Psychology:
Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O) is among the newest fields in psychology. Industrial Psychology focuses on improving, evaluating, and predicting job performance while Organizational Psychology focuses on how organizations impact and interact with individuals. In 1910, through the works and experiments of Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott, Industrial Psychology became recognized as a legitimate part of the social science. Industrial organizational psychologists look at questions regarding things such as who to hire, how to define and measure successful job performance, how to prepare people to be more successful in their jobs, how to create and change jobs so that they are safer and make people happier, and how to structure the organization to allow people to achieve their potential. I/O psychologists are employed by academic institutions, consulting firms, internal human resources in industries, and governmental institutions. Various universities across the Pakistan are beginning to strengthen their I/O Psychology programs due to the increase of interest and job demand in the field.

Educational Psychology:
Educational Psychology is concerned with all aspects of psychology that are relevant to education and psychology, particularly in the areas of human development, learning and motivation, education of the gifted and talented, and instructional psychology. The role of Educational Psychology is to bring together theory and research from psychology and related disciplines in order to facilitate healthy human development and effective learning and teaching. Educational psychology is rarely applied in Pakistan. But it is one of the significant field of psychology that is atleast applied in Pakistan to some extent.


Clinical Psychology:
Clinical psychology is the application of abnormal psychology research to the understanding, treatment, and assessment of psychopathology. This primarily includes behavioral and mental health concerns. It has traditionally been associated with psychological treatment and psychotherapy, although modern clinical psychology may take an eclectic approach, including a number of therapeutic approaches. Typically, although working with many of the same clients as psychiatrists, clinical psychologists do not, in general, prescribe psychiatric drugs. Several branches of the armed forces have in the past, and a few graduate schools are presently offering a psychopharmacology specialty for psychologists for them to be able to prescribe mental health medication. Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury. In recent years and particularly in the Pakistan, a major split has been mounting between academic research psychologists in universities and some branches of clinical psychology. Many research psychologists believe that many contemporary clinicians use therapies based on discredited theories and unsupported by empirical evidence of their efficacy.

Counseling Psychology:
Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities. Theres a wide range application of counseling psychology in developed countries but in third world countries like Pakistan, it is scarcely applied.


Sports Psychology:
Sport psychology is an inter-disciplinary science that draws on knowledge from the fields of Kinesiology and Psychology. It involves the study of how psychological factors affect performance and how participation in sport and exercise affect psychological and physical factors.[1] In addition to instruction and training of psychological skills for performance improvement, applied sport psychology may include work with athletes, coaches, and parents regarding injury, rehabilitation, communication, team building, and career transitions. Though this is highly required to be implemented in Pakistan, but as other important things, it is also not taken under consideration.

Forensic Psychology:
Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system. It involves understanding criminal law in the relevant jurisdiction in order to be able to interact appropriately with judges, attorneys and other legal professionals. An important aspect of forensic psychology is the ability to testify in court, reformulating psychological findings into the legal language of the courtroom, providing information to legal personnel in a way that can be understood. Further, in order to be a credible witness, for example in Pakistan, the forensic psychologist must understand the philosophy, rules, and standards of the Pakistan judicial system.