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Identification and its Mitigation using
an Enhanced Least Squares Algorithm
Thip Manmek
A Thesis Submitted to
The University of New South Wales for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications
August 2006
ii
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and to the best of my knowledge
it contains no material previously published or written by another person, nor material
which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or
diploma at UNSW or any other educational institution, except where due
acknowledgement is made in the thesis. Any contribution made to the research by
others, with whom I have worked at UNSW or elsewhere, is explicitly acknowledged in
the thesis. I also declare that the intellectual content of this work is the product of my
own work, except to the extent that assistance from others in the project’s design and
conception or in style, presentation and linguistic expression is acknowledged.
(Signed)…………………………..
Thip Manmek
iii
ABSTRACT
This thesis proposes, analyses and implements a fast and accurate realtime power
system disturbances identification method based on an enhanced linear least squares
algorithm for mitigation and monitoring of various power quality problems such as
current harmonics, grid unbalances and voltage dips.
The enhanced algorithm imposes less realtime computational burden on processing the
system and is thus called “efficient least squares algorithm”. The proposed efficient
least squares algorithm does not require matrix inversion operation and contains only
real numbers. The number of required realtime matrix multiplications is also reduced in
the proposed method by preperforming some of the matrix multiplications to form a
constant matrix. The proposed efficient least squares algorithm extracts instantaneous
sine and cosine terms of the fundamental and harmonic components by simply
multiplying a set of sampled input data by the precalculated constant matrix.
A power signal processing system based on the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm is presented in this thesis. This power signal processing system derives
various power system quantities that are used for realtime monitoring and disturbance
mitigation. These power system quantities include constituent components, symmetrical
components and various power measurements. The properties of the proposed power
signal processing system was studied using modelling and practical implementation in a
digital signal processor. These studies demonstrated that the proposed method is capable
of extracting time varying power system quantities quickly and accurately. The dynamic
response time of the proposed method was less than half that of a fundamental cycle.
Moreover, the proposed method showed less sensitivity to noise pollution and small
iv
variations in fundamental frequency. The performance of the proposed power signal
processing system was compared to that of the popular DFT/FFT methods using
computer simulations. The simulation results confirmed the superior performance of the
proposed method under both transient and steadystate conditions.
In order to investigate the practicability of the method, the proposed power signal
processing system was applied to two reallife disturbance mitigation applications
namely, an active power filter (APF) and a distribution synchronous static compensator
(DSTATCOM). The validity and performance of the proposed signal processing
system in both disturbance mitigations applications were investigated by simulation and
experimental studies.
The extensive modelling and experimental studies confirmed that the proposed signal
processing system can be used for practical realtime applications which require fast
disturbance identification such as mitigation control and power quality monitoring of
power systems.
v
In memory of my farther…
vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisors, Professor Colin
Grantham, and Dr. Toan Phung, for giving me a good opportunity to work with them,
and stimulating suggestions and encouragement have helped me throughout my research
and the writing of this thesis. I would not have been able to complete this work without
their countless help and encouragement.
I gratefully acknowledge the full financial support from Mahanakorn University of
Technology (Thailand) throughout my PhD study in Australia. Furthermore, I am
deeply indebted to my supervisor for his financial support during my PhD study. Also, I
am thankful to Professor Trevor Blackburn and Professor Faz Rahman for their
financial support which enabled me to attend several international and local
conferences.
I am especially thankful to Dr. Baburaj Karanayil and Mr. Gamini Liyadipitiya for
kindly supporting and giving me many technical advices regarding hardware and
software needed for my project.
Also, I would like to express thanks to my friends in the Energy Systems research group
for the interesting discussions and sincere friendship. I particularly thank Huu Phuc To
for his kind support and valuable suggestions that I received during modeling and
experimenting of the active power filter.
Great thanks from my heart to my husband, Chathura, for his immense support,
unswerving love and encouragement which has enabled me to complete this work. I also
thank my sister and brother, for their never ending love. Finally, I would like to express
vii
my sincere gratitude to mother and late father, who have been giving me the best
throughout my life. They have encouraged me throughout my academic career, and I
certainly owe all of my success to their loving support and guidance.
Thip Manmek
Kingsford, August 2006
viii
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................ vi
CONTENTS.................................................................................................................. viii
LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................... xxix
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................ xxx
CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Overview.................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Classification of Power Quality Problems ............................................................... 2
1.3 Importance of the Identification and Tracking of Disturbance Signal Quantities ... 5
1.4 Existing Methods of Identification of Disturbance Quantities ................................ 6
1.5 Scope of this Thesis ................................................................................................. 9
1.6 Proposed Approach for Identification of Power System Disturbances.................. 10
1.7 Structure of Thesis ................................................................................................. 12
CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................. 14
REVIEW OF THE EXISTING TECHNIQUES FOR POWER SYSTEM
HARMONIC ESTIMATION ........................................................................................ 14
2.1 Overview................................................................................................................ 14
2.2 NonRecursive Harmonic Detection Methods....................................................... 15
2.2.1 Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and fast Fourier transform (FFT)
method……………………………………………………………………………15
2.2.2 Wavelet transform (WT) …………………………………………………..21
 Continuous wavelet transform (CWT)……………………………………..22
ix
 Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) ……………………………………….23
 Discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) ………………………………24
2.2.3 Conventional least squares (CLS) method ……………………………….29
2.3 Recursive Harmonic Detection Methods ............................................................... 33
2.3.1 Kalman filtering (KF) method …………………………………………….33
2.4 Summary ................................................................................................................ 37
CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................................. 39
PERFORMANCE OF THE EXISTING TECHNIQUES FOR POWER SYSTEM
HARMONIC ESTIMATION ........................................................................................ 39
3.1 Overview................................................................................................................ 39
3.2 The Performance of DFT/FFT Method.................................................................. 41
3.3 The Performance of Wavelet Transform (WT) Method ........................................ 46
3.4 The Performance of Conventional Least Squares (CLS) Method ......................... 50
3.5 The Performance of a Kalman Filtering (KF) Method .......................................... 55
 Performance and the order of Kalman filter 59
3.6 Comparison of the Studied Methods...................................................................... 61
3.6.1 Effect of noise distortion on estimation accuracy ………………………62
3.6.2 Effect of marginal fundamental frequency variation on the estimation
accuracy …………………………………………………………………………64
3.6.3 Transient response time …………………………………………………..65
3.7 Summary ................................................................................................................ 65
CHAPTER 4 .................................................................................................................. 67
PROPOSED EFFICIENT LEAST SQUARES TECHNIQUE FOR POWER
SYSTEM HARMONIC DETECTION.......................................................................... 67
4.1 Overview................................................................................................................ 67
x
4.2 Mathematical Derivation of the Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm for
Harmonic Detection ........................................................................................................ 68
4.2.1 Singular value decomposition (SVD) based least squares method ………..69
4.2.2 Proposed efficient least squares technique ……………………………….72
4.3 Performance of the Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm......................... 81
4.3.1 Computational complexity ……………………………………………….82
4.3.2 Detection time ……………………………………………………………..83
4.3.3 CramerRao Bound (CRB) analysis ………………………………………86
 CRLB for least squares ……………………………………………………86
 Comparison of simulated estimation performances of proposed
efficient least squares algorithm and CLS method with CRLB …………………87
4.4 Summary ................................................................................................................ 90
CHAPTER 5 .................................................................................................................. 92
PROPOSED EFFICIENT LEAST SQUARES ALGORITHM BASED POWER
SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEM............................................................................... 92
5.1 Overview................................................................................................................ 92
5.2 Structure of the Power Signal Processing System................................................. 95
5.3 Analysis of the Power Signal Processing System.................................................. 97
5.3.1 Power signal processing in a singlephase system ……………………….97
 Instantaneous fundamental and harmonic components of voltage and
current signals ……………………………………………………………………99
 RMS values and phase angles of fundamental and harmonic
components of voltage and current signals ……………………………………..99
 Total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current ………………..100
xi
 SinglePhase power measurements ………………………………………101
5.3.2 Power signal processing in threephase systems ………………………...103
 Voltage unbalance ……………………………………………………….108
 Stationary symmetrical component estimation ………………………….108
 Instantaneous symmetrical component estimation ………………………110
5.4 Modelling and Experimental Results for the Performance of the Power Signal
Processing System......................................................................................................... 113
5.4.1 Performance of the proposed power signal processing system in
detecting fundamental and harmonic components …………………………….113
 Effect of sudden amplitude and phase changes …………………………116
 Effect of marginal fundamental frequency changes on performance ……119
 Effect of noise on the performance ………………………………………122
5.4.2 Performance of the power signal processing system in estimating
power and total RMS …………………………………………………………..123
5.4.3 Determining symmetrical components …………………………………127
 Stationary symmetrical components …………………………………….127
 Instantaneous symmetrical components …………………………………130
5.4.4 Experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm based harmonic detection ……………………………………………132
5.5 Summary .............................................................................................................. 136
CHAPTER 6 ................................................................................................................ 138
PROPOSED SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF
HARMONICS IN A THREEPHASE ACTIVE POWER FILTER
APPLICATION ........................................................................................................... 138
xii
6.1 Overview.............................................................................................................. 138
6.2 ThreePhase Active Power Filter System with the Proposed Efficient Least
Squares Algorithm........................................................................................................ 142
6.2.1 System configuration ……………………………………………………142
6.2.2 Modelling of threephase PWM converter ……………………………….144
6.2.3 Design of dq current controllers ………………………………………..147
6.2.4 Design of dc voltage controller ………………………………………….151
6.2.5 Current harmonic detection and controller phase lag correction based
on the proposed efficient least squares algorithm ……………………………..154
6.3 Modelling Results for ThreePhase Active Power Filter Based on the Proposed
Harmonic Detection Method......................................................................................... 160
6.3.1 Modelling results for extracting individual current harmonic
components of a practical nonlinear load ………………………………………160
6.3.2 Modelling results for the selective harmonic compensation of active
power filter based on proposed harmonic extraction method ………………….163
6.4 Experimental Results of the Threephase Active Power Filter Based on Proposed
Harmonic Detection Method......................................................................................... 167
6.4.1 Experimental results for harmonics extraction using the proposed
method ………………………………………………………………………….169
6.4.2 Experimental results for the selective harmonic compensation of
active power filter using the proposed method …………………………………171
6.5 Summary .............................................................................................................. 176
CHAPTER 7 ................................................................................................................ 178
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PROPOSED SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR VOLTAGE DIP
DETECTION IN A DISTRIBUTION STATIC SYNCHRONOUS
COMPENSATOR APPLICATION............................................................................. 178
7.1 Overview.............................................................................................................. 178
7.2 Review of Grid Unbalance and Voltage Dip Detection Methods and the D
STATCOM System....................................................................................................... 179
7.2.1 Existing method of grid unbalance and voltage dip detection methods …179
 Grid unbalance detection methods ……………………………………..179
 Voltage dip detection methods …………………………………………..180
7.2.2 Brief review of the DSTATCOM system ………………………………182
7.3 Voltage Dip Detection Based on Proposed Efficient LS Method........................ 183
7.4 The DSTATCOM System with Proposed Voltage Dip Detection Method........ 189
7.4.1 System configuration ……………………………………………………189
7.4.2 Positive and negativesynchronous reference frame controllers
(reactive power controller) ……………………………………………………..192
7.5 Modelling and Simulation Results of the DSTATCOM for Voltage Dip
Mitigation...................................................................................................................... 196
7.5.1 DSTATCOM system modelling ……………………………………….196
7.5.2 Simulation results for unbalanced grid voltage mitigation ……………..199
7.5.3 Simulation results for balanced voltage dip mitigation …………………202
7.5.4 Simulation results for unbalanced voltage dip mitigation ………………206
7.6 Experimental Results for the DSTATCOM with the Proposed Voltage Dip
Detection ....................................................................................................................... 209
7.6.1 Experimental results for unbalanced grid voltage mitigation ……………211
7.6.2 Experimental results for balanced voltage dip mitigation ……………….214
xiv
7.6.3 Experimental results for unbalanced voltage dip mitigation …………….217
7.7 Summary .............................................................................................................. 220
CHAPTER 8 ................................................................................................................ 223
CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................................................... 223
8.1 Conclusion of this Thesis..................................................................................... 223
8.2 Suggestions for Future Work ............................................................................... 230
8.2.1 Interharmonic detection …………………………………………………230
8.2.2 Voltage dip detection for dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) ……………..231
8.2.3 Application of more sophisticated control techniques for APF ………….231
REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 233
APPENDIX A.............................................................................................................. 241
A.1 CramerRao Lower Bound (CRLB) for a Single Sinusoid .................................... 241
A.2 Variance of Linear Least Squares Method............................................................. 243
A.3 CramerRao Lower Bound of the Linear Least Squares Technique ...................... 245
APPENDIX B.............................................................................................................. 250
B.1 Modelling Programs Using MATLAB................................................................ 250
B.1.1 Proposed power signal processing system in detecting fundamental
and harmonic components………………………………………………………250
B.1.2 Proposed power signal processing system in estimating power and
total RMS values ……………………………………………………………….251
B.1.3 Proposed power signal processing system in determining symmetrical
components …………………………………………………………………….251
B.1.4 Proposed harmonic detection method in extracting current harmonic
components of a practical nonlinear load ………………………………………252
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B.1.5 Proposed harmonic detection method in selective harmonic
compensation of active power filter …………………………………………….252
B.1.6 Proposed voltage unbalance and dip detection method in D
STATCOM system …………………………………………………………….253
B.2 RealTime Programs used for Experiments ......................................................... 253
B.2.1 Proposed power signal processing system in estimating instantaneous
fundamental and harmonic component …………………………………………253
B.2.2 Proposed harmonic detection method in selective harmonic
compensation of active power filter ……………………………………………254
B.2.3 DSTATCOM with the proposed voltage dip detection …………………255
APPENDIX C.............................................................................................................. 257
EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS........................................................................................ 257
C.1 Overview of Experimental Setups ....................................................................... 257
 Experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm ………………………………………………………………………257
 Active power filter (APF) system ………………………………………..258
 DSTATCOM system ……………………………………………………259
C.2 Description of dSPACE DS1104 Controller Board............................................. 260
C.3 Description of Threephase 35kW PWM Converter............................................ 263
C.4 External Voltage and Current Transducers.......................................................... 271
APPENDIX D.............................................................................................................. 276
D.1 Papers Relevant to the Thesis Topic .................................................................... 276
D.1.1 Refereed conference publications ………………………………………..276
D.1.2 Paper not relevant to the thesis topic ……………………………………278
xvi
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Harmonic distortion example…………………………………………… 3
Figure 2.1 The first stage in the decimationintime algorithm................................ 19
Figure 2.2 Fourlevel DWPT decomposition tree for harmonic extraction scheme. 26
Figure 2.3 Kalman filter harmonic extraction scheme. ............................................ 36
Figure 3.1 The postulated signal given in (3.1) with SNR of 17dB. ........................ 40
Figure 3.2 Steadystate amplitude error of DFT/FFT method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB (solid)........................... 42
Figure 3.3 Phase angle error of DFT/FFT method for each harmonic component:
zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB (solid)................................................ 42
Figure 3.4 Detection time of DFT. ........................................................................... 43
Figure 3.5 Fundamental amplitude and phase angle error of the DFT method for
sudden change in input signal at t=0.1 sec...................................................................... 44
Figure 3.6 Actual (solid) and estimated components using DFT method (dash) of a
signal (Top), and waveform error (bottom) for 1Hz increase in fundamental frequency
at t = 0.06 sec : (a) Fundamental component, (b) Fifthorder harmonic component and
(c) Seventhorder harmonic component.......................................................................... 45
Figure 3.7 First six decomposed components of postulated input waveform using
Daubechies 10 (db10) 4level filter bank........................................................................ 48
Figure 3.8 First six decomposed components of postulated input waveform using
Symlets 10 (sym10) 4level filter bank. .......................................................................... 49
Figure 3.9 Steadystate amplitude error of CLS method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB (solid)........................... 51
xvii
Figure 3.10 Phase angle error of CLS method for each harmonic component: zero
noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB (solid). ...................................................... 51
Figure 3.11 Detection time of CLS method. .............................................................. 52
Figure 3.12 Fundamental amplitude and phase angle error of the CLS method for
sudden change in input signal at t=0.1 sec...................................................................... 53
Figure 3.13 Actual (solid) and estimated components using CLS method (dash) of a
signal (top), and waveform error (bottom) for 1Hz increase in fundamental frequency at
t = 0.06 sec : (a) Fundamental component, (b) Fifthorder harmonic component and (c)
Seventhorder harmonic component. .............................................................................. 54
Figure 3.14 Steadystate amplitude error of KF method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB (solid)........................... 56
Figure 3.15 Steadystate phase angle error of KF method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB (solid)........................... 56
Figure 3.16 Detection time of KF method.................................................................. 57
Figure 3.17 Actual (solid) and estimated components using KF method (dash) of a
signal (top), and waveform error (bottom) for 1Hz increase in fundamental frequency at
t = 0.06 sec: (a) Fundamental component, (b) Fifthorder harmonic component and (c)
Seventhorder harmonic component. .............................................................................. 59
Figure 3.18 Transient response of the KF method: The input waveform with step
change at t=0.1sec (top), amplitude of fundamental (middle), fundamental amplitude
error (bottom). ................................................................................................................. 60
Figure 3.19 Transient response of the KF method to short duration disturbance: the
waveform of short duration disturbance (top) and estimated amplitude using KF
(bottom). ................................................................................................................. 61
xviii
Figure 3.20 Comparison of estimated fundamental amplitude error for various
methods verses signaltonoise ratio (SNR).................................................................... 63
Figure 3.21 Comparison of estimated fundamental phase angle error for various
methods verses signaltonoise ratio (SNR).................................................................... 63
Figure 3.22 Comparison of the waveform errors against fundamental frequency
variation of the studied methods. .................................................................................... 64
Figure 4.1 Detection time: actual (solid), proposed efficient least squares algorithm
(dash) and FFT method (dot). ......................................................................................... 84
Figure 4.2 Amplitude of the fundamental component from the proposed efficient
least squares method: at sampling frequency 3 kHz (dot), at sampling frequency 5 kHz
(dash), sampling frequency at 7 kHz (dashdot) and actual value (solid)....................... 85
Figure 4.3 Phase angle of the fundamental component from the proposed efficient
least squares method: at sampling frequency 3 kHz (dot), at sampling frequency 5 kHz
(dash), at sampling frequency 7 kHz (dashdot) and actual value (solid)....................... 85
Figure 4.4 Logarithmic variance of amplitude estimation vs. SNR: CRLB, proposed
efficient least squares method and conventional least squares method. ......................... 89
Figure 4.5 Logarithmic variance of phase angle estimation vs. SNR: CRLB,
proposed efficient least squares method and conventional least squares method........... 89
Figure 5.1 General overview of the power signal processing system. ..................... 94
Figure 5.2 Structure of the proposed power signal processing system. ................... 96
Figure 5.3 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine terms of fundamental and
harmonic components of voltage and current of a singlephase system using proposed
efficient least square algorithm. ...................................................................................... 98
xix
Figure 5.4 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine of the fundamental and
harmonic components of a threephase system using the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm. ............................................................................................................... 105
Figure 5.5 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine of the fundamental and
harmonic components of a zerosequence free threephase system using the proposed
efficient least square algorithm. .................................................................................... 107
Figure 5.6 The postulated voltage waveform. ........................................................ 114
Figure 5.7 Actual (solid) and extracted waveforms with the proposed method (dot):
instantaneous fundamental, 5
th
and 11
th
order harmonic components of the input voltage
waveform. ............................................................................................................... 115
Figure 5.8 RMS values of the fundamental and harmonic components obtained
using the proposed method............................................................................................ 115
Figure 5.9 Phase angles of the fundamental and harmonic components obtained
using the proposed method............................................................................................ 116
Figure 5.10 Performance of the proposed method for step amplitude change at t = 0.1
sec. ............................................................................................................... 117
Figure 5.11 Actual, and reconstructed voltage waveform using the proposed method
for step amplitude change at t = 0.1 sec. ....................................................................... 118
Figure 5.12 Performance of the proposed method for step phase change at t = 0.1
sec. ............................................................................................................... 118
Figure 5.13 Actual, and reconstructed voltage waveform using proposed method for
step phase change at t = 0.1 sec. ................................................................................... 119
Figure 5.14 Tracking performance of the proposed method with step frequency
change from 50 Hz to 51 Hz at t = 0.1 sec.................................................................... 120
xx
Figure 5.15 Comparison of the RMS errors of the proposed and the DFT methods
against the fundamental frequency change. .................................................................. 121
Figure 5.16 Tracking performance of the reconstructed waveform using the proposed
method and the DFT method with frequency step changes from 50Hz to 51 Hz at t = 0.1
sec. ............................................................................................................... 121
Figure 5.17 Steady state RMS error of reconstructed waveforms using proposed and
DFT methods at 51Hz fundamental frequency. ............................................................ 122
Figure 5.18 RMS error of reconstructed waveform vs. SNR for proposed and DFT
methods. ............................................................................................................... 123
Figure 5.19 Postulated voltage and current waveforms given in (5.37) and (5.38) with
100% step change at t = 0.1 sec. ................................................................................... 124
Figure 5.20 Comparison of estimated total RMS values of voltage and current
waveforms using proposed method and DFT method, and actual values for 100% step
change at t = 0.1 sec. ..................................................................................................... 125
Figure 5.21 Comparison of steady state total RMS voltage error for proposed method
and DFT method. .......................................................................................................... 126
Figure 5.22 Comparison of estimated total active power, total reactive power and
power factor using proposed method and DFT method, and actual values for 100% step
change at t = 0.1 sec. ..................................................................................................... 126
Figure 5.23 Postulated threephase voltage waveforms. .......................................... 128
Figure 5.24 RMS magnitudes of positive, negative, and zerosequence determined
using proposed method. ................................................................................................ 129
Figure 5.25 Phase angles of positive, negative, and zerosequence determined using
proposed method. .......................................................................................................... 129
xxi
Figure 5.26 Postulated threephase voltage waveforms for instantaneous symmetrical
components estimation.................................................................................................. 130
Figure 5.27 Instantaneous positive, negative, and zerosequence components
determined using proposed method. ............................................................................. 131
Figure 5.28 Comparison of amplitudes of positive, negative and zerosequence
components determined using proposed and DFT methods. ........................................ 132
Figure 5.29 Overview of the experimental setup. .................................................... 133
Figure 5.30 Captured threephase load voltage waveforms. .................................... 134
Figure 5.31 Experimental results: extracted instantaneous fundamental component
and its RMS value for phase a , phase b and phase c ................................................ 135
Figure 5.32 Comparison of actual waveform and the reconstructed waveform with
proposed method: phase a , phase b and phase c . ..................................................... 135
Figure 5.33 Percentage error in reconstructed voltage waveform for phase a . ...... 136
Figure 6.1 Typical location for a shunt active filter based on a voltage source
converter. ............................................................................................................... 140
Figure 6.2 Schematic diagram of the selective harmonic APF with proposed
harmonic detection method. .......................................................................................... 142
Figure 6.3 Schematic diagram of threephase voltage source converter. ............... 144
Figure 6.4 dq ÷ axis closedloop current control diagrams. ................................... 149
Figure 6.5 Bode diagram of the closedloop dq ÷ current TF. .............................. 151
Figure 6.6 Control block diagram of the voltage control loop. .............................. 152
Figure 6.7 Bode diagram of the closed dclink voltage control loop. .................... 153
Figure 6.8 Proposed efficient least squares algorithm for identification of current
harmonics for APF. ....................................................................................................... 154
xxii
Figure 6.9 Phaselags of the current controller for various harmonics components. ...
............................................................................................................... 157
Figure 6.10 Magnitude attenuation of the current controller for various harmonics
components. ........................................................................................................... 159
Figure 6.11 MATLAB/SIMULINK model of threephase thyristor rectifier load and
the harmonic current extraction using the proposed method. ....................................... 160
Figure 6.12 The load current waveform of phasea. ................................................ 161
Figure 6.13 Extracted fundamental and individual harmonic components (i.e. 5
th
, 7
th
,
11
th
and 13
th
order harmonics) of phase – a current using the proposed method. ........ 162
Figure 6.14 Actual current waveform and the reconstructed waveform with the
proposed method of phasea, b and c. ........................................................................ 162
Figure 6.15 MATLAB/SIMULINK model for the selective harmonic compensation
of active power filter based on the proposed harmonic detection method.................... 163
Figure 6.16 Simulation results of the proposed APF without current controller phase
lag compensation; (a) load current; (b) filter current; (c) source current; and (d) dclink
voltage. ............................................................................................................... 165
Figure 6.17 Simulation results of the proposed APF with current controller phase lag
compensation; (a) load current; (b) filter current; (c) source current; and (d) dclink
voltage. ............................................................................................................... 165
Figure 6.18 Performance of APF based on proposed method during step decrease in
load current together with fundamental frequency change from 50 to 52 Hz: (top) load
current; (middle) filter current; and (bottom) source current........................................ 166
Figure 6.19 Performance of APF based on DFT method during step decrease in load
current together with fundamental frequency change from 50 to 52 Hz: (top) load
current; (middle) filter current; and (bottom) source current........................................ 167
xxiii
Figure 6.20 Overview of experimental setup for APF system. ................................ 168
Figure 6.21 Photograph of experimental setup for APF system. ............................. 169
Figure 6.22 Extracted fundamental, 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
–order harmonic
components in load current for phase –a. ..................................................................... 170
Figure 6.23 Actual waveforms and the reconstructed waveforms with proposed
method for load current for phase  a ,  b and  c ......................................................... 171
Figure 6.24 Response of APF with proposed selective harmonic compensation when
filtering enabled at t=0.035sec.: (Ch1) load current waveform (6.5 A/div), (Ch2) active
filter current (2 A/div), (Ch3) source current waveform (6.5 A/div) and (Ch4) dclink
voltage (140 V/div). ...................................................................................................... 172
Figure 6.25 Oscillogram of (Ch1) load current (5 A/div) and (Ch2) source current (5
A/div) for APF with proposed harmonic detection method for 0 o =
D
of bridge rectifier
load. ............................................................................................................... 173
Figure 6.26 Oscillogram of (Ch1) load current (5 A/div) and (Ch2) source current (5
A/div) for APF with proposed harmonic detection method for about 60 degrees firing
angle (i.e. 60 o ~
D
) of bridge rectifier load. .................................................................. 173
Figure 6.27 Harmonic constituent as a percentage of the fundamental component of
load current and source current with zero firing angle (i.e. 0 o =
D
). ............................. 174
Figure 6.28 Harmonic constituent as a percentage of the fundamental component of
load current and source current with about 60 degrees firing angle (i.e. 60 o ~
D
)........ 175
Figure 6.29 Dynamic response of APF with proposed selective harmonic
compensation: (Ch1) load current waveform (6.5 A/div), (Ch2) active filter current (2
A/div), (Ch3) filtered source current waveform (6.5 A/div) and (Ch4) dclink voltage
(140 V/div). ............................................................................................................... 176
xxiv
Figure 7.1 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine components of fundamental
voltage component using the proposed efficient least squares algorithm..................... 184
Figure 7.2 Block diagram of voltage dip detection method based on proposed
efficient least squares algorithm.................................................................................... 189
Figure 7.3 Overall schematic diagram of DSTATCOM with proposed voltage dip
detection method. .......................................................................................................... 190
Figure 7.4 Simulated threephase unbalanced grid voltages. ................................. 193
Figure 7.5 Simulated direct dq ÷ components for threephase voltages given in
Figure 7.4. ............................................................................................................... 193
Figure 7.6 Simulated positive and negative sequence dq ÷ components for three
phase voltages given in Figure 7.4. Top: positivesequence in positive SRF; bottom:
negativesequence in negative SRF. ............................................................................. 194
Figure 7.7 Detailed block diagram of reactive power controllers for DSTATCOM
given in Figure 7.3. ....................................................................................................... 195
Figure 7.8 MATLAB/SIMULINK model for DSTATCOM system with proposed
dip detection. ............................................................................................................... 197
Figure 7.9 MATLAB/SIMULINK model of DSTATCOM controller. ................ 197
Figure 7.10 Simulated threephase grid voltages. .................................................... 200
Figure 7.11 Simulated grid voltages in the SRF dq ÷ components, before
compensation. Top: positive sequence in positive SRF; bottom: negativesequence in
negative SRF. ............................................................................................................... 200
Figure 7.12 Compensated voltage waveforms and phase voltage waveform error in
the case of unbalance grid voltage. ............................................................................... 201
xxv
Figure 7.13 Compensated grid voltages in the SRF dq ÷ components in the case of
unbalanced grid voltage. Top: positive sequence in positive SRF; bottom: negative
sequence in negative SRF. ............................................................................................ 201
Figure 7.14 Simulated current injections and dclink voltage during unbalanced
voltage compensation.................................................................................................... 202
Figure 7.15 Simulated threephase grid voltage with 25% balanced voltage dip. ... 203
Figure 7.16 Simulated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in case of 25%
balanced voltage dip. Top: positive sequence in positive SRF; bottom: negative
sequence in negative SRF. ............................................................................................ 204
Figure 7.17 Compensated voltage waveforms at PCC and voltage waveform error in
case of 25% balance voltage dip. .................................................................................. 204
Figure 7.18 Compensated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in case of balanced
voltage dip. Top: positivesequence in positive SRF; bottom: negativesequence in
negative SRF. ............................................................................................................... 205
Figure 7.19 Simulated current injections and dclink voltage during balanced voltage
dip compensation. ......................................................................................................... 205
Figure 7.20 Simulated threephase grid voltages during unbalanced voltage dip.... 207
Figure 7.21 Simulated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in case of 25% voltage
dip with 20% amplitude unbalance. Top: positive sequence in positive SRF; bottom:
negativesequence in negative SRF. ............................................................................. 207
Figure 7.22 Compensated voltage waveforms at PCC and voltage waveform error in
the case of unbalance voltage dip.................................................................................. 208
xxvi
Figure 7.23 Compensated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in the case of 25%
voltage dip with 20% amplitude unbalance. Top: positive sequence in positive SRF and
bottom: negativesequence in negative SRF. ................................................................ 208
Figure 7.24 Simulated current injections and dclink voltage during unbalanced
voltage dip compensation.............................................................................................. 209
Figure 7.25 Overview of the experimental setup of the DSTATCOM system....... 210
Figure 7.26 A photograph of the experimental setup of the DSTATCOM............. 211
Figure 7.27 Unbalanced phase voltages of phasesa, b and c (100 V/div). ........... 212
Figure 7.28 Compensated voltage of phasesa, b and c using DSTATCOM with
proposed method (100 V/div). ...................................................................................... 212
Figure 7.29 Dynamic response when unbalance mitigation started at t = 0.06 sec.:
voltage of phases a, b and c (100 V/div)................................................................... 213
Figure 7.30 Dynamic response when unbalance mitigation started at t = 0.06 sec.:
(Ch1) d ÷ component of positivesequence voltage in positive SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3)
d ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF (8.67 V/div); (Ch4)
q ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF (8.67 V/div). ............. 214
Figure 7.31 Balanced voltage dip of 17% occurred of at t = 0.06 sec. (100 V/div).......
............................................................................................................... 215
Figure 7.32 Compensated voltage waveforms of phasesa, b, and c at PCC in case
of 17% balanced voltage dip at t = 0.06 sec. (100 V/div)............................................. 216
Figure 7.33 Dynamic response of balanced voltage dip compensation when dip
started at t = 0.06 sec.: (Ch1) d ÷ component of positivesequence voltage in positive
SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3) d ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative
SRF (8.67 V/div); (Ch4) q ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF
(8.67 V/div). ............................................................................................................... 216
xxvii
Figure 7.34 Compensated steadystate voltage waveforms of phasesa, b and c at
PCC during 17% balanced voltage dip (100 V/div)...................................................... 217
Figure 7.35 Voltages of phasesa, b and c for unbalanced dip occurring at t = 0.06
sec. (100 V/div)............................................................................................................. 218
Figure 7.36 Detected dq ÷ symmetrical components for unbalanced voltage dip
started at t = 0.06 sec.: (Ch1) d ÷ component of positivesequence voltage in positive
SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3) d ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative
SRF (8.67 V/div); (Ch4) q ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF
(8.67 V/div). ............................................................................................................... 219
Figure 7.37 Compensated voltage waveforms of phasesa, b, and c at PCC in case
of unbalanced voltage dip at t = 0.06 sec. (100 V/div). ................................................ 219
Figure 7.38 Dynamic response of unbalanced voltage dip compensation when dip
started at t = 0.06 sec.: (Ch1) d ÷ component of positivesequence voltage in positive
SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3) d ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative
SRF (8.67 V/div); (Ch4) q ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF
(8.67 V/div). ............................................................................................................... 220
Figure C.1 Experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm. ............................................................................................................... 258
Figure C.2 Experimental setup for active power filter system................................ 259
Figure C.3 Experimental setup for DSTATCOM system...................................... 260
Figure C.4 A photograph of CP1104 connector panel. ........................................... 262
Figure C.5 Pin mapping of interconnection cable between CP18 SubD of connector
panel CP1104 and the IGBT converter. ........................................................................ 263
Figure C.6 IGBT converter power circuit. .............................................................. 266
xxviii
Figure C.7 Schematic diagram of the interface PCB inside the IGBT converter. .. 267
Figure C.8 Schematic diagram of the current transducer PCB (residing inside the
converter). ............................................................................................................... 268
Figure C.9 Schematic diagram of the voltage transducer PCB (residing inside the
converter). ............................................................................................................... 269
Figure C.10 Interconnection cable inside the converter (for PWM signals)............. 270
Figure C.11 A photograph of the IGBT converter. ................................................... 270
Figure C.12 Schematic diagram of the current transducer PCB. .............................. 273
Figure C.13 Schematic diagram of the voltage transducer PCB............................... 274
Figure C.14 A photograph of external voltage and current transducers. .................. 275
xxix
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1. Comparison of computational complexity of the DFT versus FFT
algorithm. ................................................................................................................. 20
Table 3.1 Decomposed components, frequency subbands and fundamental and
harmonic components ..................................................................................................... 47
Table 3.2 Estimated amplitude and phase angle values using db10 4level filter
bank. ..................................................................................................................... 48
Table 3.3 Estimated amplitude and phase angle values using Sym10 4level filter
bank. ..................................................................................................................... 50
Table 4.1 Comparison of the realtime computational cost (number of calculation
operations) ................................................................................................................. 83
Table 6.1 System parameters for modeled APF.................................................... 164
Table 7.1 Design specifications and circuit parameters of the proposed D
STATCOM.................................................................................................................... 198
xxx
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
F
C
Filter capacitance
dc
C
dcside capacitor of VSC
rms
e
Root mean squares error
sa
e
sb
e
sc
e
Source phase voltages of phases a,b and c
sd
e
d ÷ axis component of source voltage in SRF
sw
f
Converter Switching frequency
s
f
Sampling frequency
TI
G
Current transfer function
CI
G
Transfer function of PI current controller
cloop
G Closedloop transfer function of dq ÷ current feedback loops
_ dc cloop
G
Closedloop transfer function of outer voltage loop
I Identity matrix
( ) I o Fisher information for vector o
i Instantaneous current
dc
i
The dc side current
L
i
Load current
F
i
Converter current
S
i
Source current
H
i
Harmonic current
CHai
i ѽ
CHbi
i
Phase lag corrected instantaneous harmonic signal
xxxi
,
Fd Fq
i i dq ÷ axes components of VCS current in SRF
i
I
Peak amplitudes of the i
th
component of current
RMS
i
I RMS of the i
th
component of current
K Total number of harmonic components
Pi
K
Proportional gain of current controller
Ii
K
Integral gain of current controller
Pv
K
Proportional gain of dc voltage controller
Iv
K
Integral gain of dc voltage controller
L Number of the captured samples
S
L
Source inductance
F
L
Inductance of the acside of VCS
line
L
Line inductance
tr
L
Transformer leakage inductance
m Timestep in the discrete sample sequence
a
m ,
b
m and
c
m
Modulation signals of phases a,b and c
d
m ,
q
m dq ÷ axes components of modulation signals.
i
Mag
Magnitude correction factor
n Discrete present time step
P
active
i
Active power
P
active
total
Total active power
P
reactive
Reactive power
PF Power factor
S
R
Source resistance
xxxii
line
R
Line resistance
dc
R
dcside resistance of VCS
F
R
acside resistance of VCS
S Apparent power
t Continuous time
T Sampling time
V
THD
THD of the voltage
I
THD
THD of the current
v Instantaneous voltage
i
V
Peak amplitudes of the i
th
component of voltage
RMS
i
V RMS of the i
th
component of voltage
dc
V
dclink voltage
X Amplitude
e Angular frequency of the supply
ni
e
Natural frequency of closedloop current transfer function
nv
e
Natural frequency of closedloop dc voltage transfer function
u Phase angle
2
o Noise variance
o Firing angle
Superscripts
+ Positivesequence component
 Negativesequence component
0 Zerosequence component
* Reference or command value
xxxiii
T
Transpose
Complex number
sin Sine component of a signal
cos Cos component of a signal
Subscripts
i i
th
harmonic component
d d ÷ axis component
q
q ÷ axis component
img
Imaginary component
real Real component
Abbreviation
ADC Analogue to digital converter
APF Active power filter
BLUE Best linear unbiased estimator
CWT Continuous wavelet transform
CLS Conventional least squares
CRB CramerRao Bound
CRLB CramerRao Lower Bound
DFT Discrete Fourier transform
DSP Digital Signal Processor
dB Decibel
DSTATCOM Distribution static synchronous compensator
DWT Discrete wavelet transform
FFT Fast Fourier transform
HP High pass filter
ITAE Integral of time multiplied by absolute magnitude of the error
xxxiv
KVL Kirchoff’s voltage law
KCL Kirchoff’s current law
KF Kalman filter
LP Low pass filter
LS Least squares
PI Proportional plus integral
PLL Phaselockedloop
PCC Point of common coupling
PCB Printed circuit board
PWM Pulse width modulated
RMS Rootmeansquare
RL Resistance and Inductance
STFT Shorttime Fourier transform
SVD Single value decomposition
SPWM Sinusoidal pulse width modulation
SRF Synchronous reference frame
SNR Signaltonoiseratio
THD Total harmonic distortion
TF Transfer function
VSC Voltage source converter
WT Wavelet transform
WGN White Gaussian noise
Chapter 1: Introduction
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview
Fast and accurate measurement of fundamental and harmonic quantities is extremely
important at all levels of the electrical power system, and is of value for both power
distributors and power consumers. The design of most conventional equipment such as
lights, constant speed motors and power systems are based on the assumption that the
voltage sources are sinusoidal and the loads are linear, so that the resulting load currents
are also sinusoidal. As demands on accuracy have increased and nonlinear loads have
become more common, this approximation is often no longer valid. Much effort is made
to investigate the influence of nonlinear loads on measurements and new
instrumentations are developed to cope with nonsinusoidal conditions on the power
systems. One part of this effort, which is described in this thesis, is the development and
verification of a novel signal processing algorithm, for measuring timevarying
individual harmonic quantities of singlephase and threephase waveforms. This
algorithm is nonrecursive, and is based on a linear least squares algorithm. The
proposed method can identify each harmonic component with a fast response and high
accuracy in realtime. The important features of the proposed approach are its
sensitivity to marginal variations in the centre frequency and high immunity to noise
present in the signals which are normally encountered in practice. The proposed method
is suitable for environments where small frequency excursions are experienced and the
conventional discrete Fourier transform based methods do not provide satisfactory
results. In this study, it is also confirmed that the proposed method is able to extract the
Chapter 1: Introduction
2
harmonics quantities in realtime, and its effectiveness is substantiated with a DSP
based experimental threephase shunt active power filter (APF) and distribution static
synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) application.
1.2 Classification of Power Quality Problems
Power quality problems are classified in two main groups as steadystate and transients.
Power system harmonics and voltage unbalance can be given as examples of power
quality problems in the steady state. Voltage dips, spikes and surges are examples which
tend to occur over short time intervals, and classified as transients. Of all these,
harmonic distortion and voltage dips are the most important power quality problems
facing industrial and large commercial customers [1, 2]. A brief description of the
characteristics and the causes of typical power quality problems are given next.
Harmonic distortion: Harmonics can be understood as different frequency periodic
components that are superimposed on the main frequency waveform. Harmonics usually
have frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. In power
systems, existing harmonics are mostly odd integer multiple of the power frequency.
The 3
rd
, 5
th
, 9
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
orders can be identified as most the common
harmonics. In addition to these common harmonics, it is possible to face signal
components that are not integer multiples of the fundamental. Such components are
called as “interharmonics” and they are usually encountered while dealing with non
periodic signals.
In recent years a rapid growth in harmonic voltages and currents injected into power
systems has been observed due to the increased utilisation of nonlinear loads. In
addition, devices employing highfrequency switching, such as switch mode power
Chapter 1: Introduction
3
supplied used in televisions, computers and compact fluorescent lighting have added an
additional level of harmonics to the supply system. Propagation of current harmonics
through the distribution system usually leads to unwanted waveform distortions in the
system voltages. As an example, the illustration of up to ninth harmonic distortion can
be seen in Figure 1.1.
Harmonic voltages and currents can cause many serious operational problems to both
energy suppliers and users. Overheating of motors and transformers, malfunction of
control devices, protective relays, and iron losses in transformers can be listed as typical
detrimental effects of harmonics voltages and currents along the power network [3].
Figure 1.1 Harmonic distortion example.
Voltage unbalance: Voltage unbalances occur in threephase systems as a result of
unbalanced load or source operations. Improper grounding and untransposed over head
transmission lines also lead to unbalance between phases in a threephase system.
Analyses of threephase systems are usually carried out by symmetrical sequence
Chapter 1: Introduction
4
components and the proportion of the negative and positivesequence components
determines the degrees of unbalance.
A possible effect of voltage unbalance is significant differences in threephase currents.
Particularly, electric machines connected to unbalance power systems draw currents
with a degree of unbalance that is several times higher than that of the supply voltage.
This current unbalance results in loss of efficiency and temperature rise in the machine.
Unbalanced supplies also affect the operation of acdc converters. Ripple on the dcside,
and noncharacteristic harmonics on the acside are possible consequences of voltage
unbalance [4].
Voltage dips: According to IEEE Std. 11591995 [5], a voltage dip is defined as a
reduction in the voltage magnitude at the power frequency of short duration between 1
cycle and 6 cycles. Voltage dips are considered one of the most serious power quality
problems. Disruptive voltage dips are mainly caused by shortcircuit faults. Voltage
dips causes problem on various types of utilisation equipment [1], [6]. Especially
computers, adjustablespeed drives and processcontrol equipment are wellknown for
their sensitivity to supply voltage dips. Equipment used in modern industrial plants are
actually becoming more sensitive to voltage dips as the complexity of the equipment
increases and the equipments are interconnected in sophisticated processes.
Power interruptions are also common in power systems. Interruptions mostly occur
when a protective device operates and isolates the circuit serving a user. This normally
occurs only when there is a fault on a circuit that supplies a particular user. Short
interruptions are also known to be troublesome and costly type of power quality
problem for most customers. However, occurrence of voltage dips are much more
frequent compared to interrupts since voltage dip can occur due to the faults in a wide
Chapter 1: Introduction
5
part of power system whereas, interrupt usually occur only when there is a fault on a
particular circuit. If equipment is sensitive to these dips, the frequency of problems
experienced will be much higher than if the equipment would be only sensitive to
interruptions [7]. Over the last ten years, voltage dips have become one of the main
topics concerning power quality among utilities, customers and equipment
manufacturers. Several international standards and working group documents have been
produced to improve the understanding of voltage dip problems [8], [9] ,[10],[11],[12].
1.3 Importance of the Identification and Tracking of Disturbance
Signal Quantities
The analysis and mitigation of power quality problems are becoming an integral part of
power system studies. Reference [13], suggested a cost estimate of $25 billions per year
is spent in the U.S. for correcting power quality problems. Power quality problems can
impact customer operations, causing malfunctions and cost on lost production. To avoid
these malfunctions and unnecessary costs, many facilities have been required to
implement a mitigation system. Essentially, mitigation requires two components: the
method of extraction of the disturbance signal and the mitigating control strategy to
generate the control signal for the mitigating device to cancel the disturbance, or reduce
its level. A mitigation controller system should have characterized fast response to cope
with the dynamic nature of the power system disturbances. A fast and accurate
measurement technique is an essential to estimate the accurate compensating signals for
the conditioning task. The features of a good disturbance identification method for
mitigation purposes can be listed as below:
(i) An ability to extract, to detect and to track the distorted signal and disturbance
signals accurately and fast.
Chapter 1: Introduction
6
(ii) A performance rate that facilitates the tracking of phenomena such as harmonics
and symmetrical components without requiring a large Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
programming code and execution time.
(iii) Stability for the operation range of the disturbance.
(iv) Robustness against marginal variation in centre frequency.
1.4 Existing Methods of Identification of Disturbance Quantities
This section briefly explains the main existing methods of identification of amplitude
and phaseangle of the fundamental and its harmonic components used in power
systems applications. The principles of identifying harmonics using the rootmean
square (RMS), discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based algorithms including fast Fourier
transform (FFT), conventional least squares (CLS), wavelet transforms (WT) and
Kalman Filter (KF) methods are explained and their qualities and shortcomings are
mentioned. These methods are studied in more detail in the next chapter to establish the
desired features for a new improved method.
A simple approximation of the amplitude of the sinusoidal signal can be obtained by
using the root mean square (RMS), which is evaluated over a cycle window. A great
advantage of this method is its simplicity, speed of calculation and less requirement for
memory, because the RMS value can be stored periodically instead of after every
sample [14]. However, this method’s dependency on the measurement window length is
considered as a disadvantage. A higher window length results in better accuracy at the
cost of a lower timeresolution. Moreover, the RMS value does not distinguish between
fundamental frequency, harmonics or noise components.
Chapter 1: Introduction
7
The most common category of harmonic estimation methods are based on the discrete
Fourier transform (DFT) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) [15], [16], [17], [18]. The
DFT is a discrete complex valued series for calculating the Fourier coefficients. The
DFT method can be used to estimate amplitudes and phase angles of the fundamental
and harmonic components. The FFT algorithm is computationally an efficient
implementation of the DFT and it reduces the computational cost required for
evaluation of the DFT by several orders of magnitude. However, the DFT/FFT methods
still need data points sampled over one fundamental cycle of signal to accurately
calculate the harmonic components. As a consequence, these methods are known to be
unsuitable for sinusoidal analysis of highly timevarying signals. Also, any corruption
of the DFT/FFT would yield inaccurate results due to leakages (occur if the number of
samples is not an integer) and picketfence (occur if the analysed waveform includes
interharmonics). In some cases, results of the estimation can be improved with
windowing (e.g. Hanning, Hamming, Kaiser Windows) or filtering (e.g. lowpass or
highpass filters) [19], [20]. Window length dependency resolution is another
disadvantage of the DFT/FFT methods. For example, the shorter the data window the
worse is the frequency resolution. Another shortcoming of the DFT/FFT methods is
their high sensitivity to noise [19].
One alternative to the DFT is the shorttime Fourier transform (STFT), which is a
sliding window version of the DFT and performs the DFT on each windowed signal
[21]. This provides some timeinformation in addition to the frequencyinformation.
However, because of its constant time window (i.e., constant time resolution), the
frequency resolution must also be constant. The STFT uses a window of constant width
that is not adjusted to individual frequency components. One can intuitively see that
Chapter 1: Introduction
8
high frequency components of a signal may benefit from windows of short duration,
whereas low frequency components of a signal generally benefit from windows of
longer duration.
Since 1994, the use of Wavelet transform (WT) theory has been introduced to identify
particular harmonics or harmonic subbands of interest [22], [23]. The use of the WT
has emerged as an alternative to both the DFT and the STFT for the analysis of non
stationary phenomena because WT is used to decompose the signal in different
frequency bands and characterise them separately. As described in [24], [25], wavelets
perform better with nonperiodic signals that contain short duration impulse components
as is typical in power system transients. Furthermore, wavelet based techniques have
been proposed for detection and measuring of power system disturbances [26].
However, the estimation efficiency and accuracy of the wavelet transform depends on
the choice of the mother wavelet and the wavelet type should be chosen accordingly to
the specific event being studied. This algorithm also needs expensive computation
which restricts their realtime application in power systems. As a consequence, WT are
more commonly used in offline interharmonic detection applications [23],[25],[26].
Conventional least squares parameter estimation techniques have a long and successful
history since Gauss’ first formulation. The basic idea is to choose the parameter
estimate that minimizes the sum of squarederror criterion that is related to a set of over
determined linear equations, the coefficients of which are unknown parameters. The
advantage of such an algorithm has been enhanced by the adoption of matrix notation
and the use of digital computers for performing the computations. The least squares
computations yield updated estimates of all model variables as well as their respective
cofactor or covariance matrices. As a consequence, this method is suitable for
Chapter 1: Introduction
9
identifying disturbances in timevarying harmonic signals. Methods to measure
harmonics in power systems using the least square method have been proposed in [27]
and [28]. However, the early idea of measuring with a conventional least square method
was discarded due to its immense mathematical complexity.
A digital recursive measurement scheme for online tracking of power system
harmonics proposed by Girgis et al [29] uses a Kalman filter (KF) to estimate the
harmonic components. The main feature of the KF is the recursive processing of the
noise measurement data. This technique is defined as a statemodel, and can track
amplitudes and phaseangles of the fundamental and harmonics in realtime under noisy
environments [29]. However, the KF is generally sensitive to the initial condition of the
state variable covariance matrix and the noise variance which have been arbitrarily fixed
in [29]. There are no systematic methods of determining these two matrixes and a trial
and error approach is used to apply them in practice. Moreover, internal calculations of
the KF procedure also need relatively long time [30], [31],[32].
1.5 Scope of this Thesis
The aim of this research is first to propose a novel identification disturbances signal
quantities technique and then to verify the performance of the proposed identification
technique by applying it to a suitable practical mitigation application. The scope of this
research is outline as follow:
1. To propose a novel power system disturbance identification technique with the
following features.
(i) Fast and accurate detection of timevarying fundamental and harmonic
components in power system quantities.
Chapter 1: Introduction
10
(ii) Maintain better accuracy in detecting amplitude and phase angle value compared
to conventional methods such as DFT or FFT, when system frequency is slightly
changed.
(iii) Capability of coping with the unbalances in threephase systems.
(iv) Low computational complexity so that it is more suitable for realtime
applications.
(v) Structural simplicity for efficient implementation with digital signal processors.
2. To design a power system signal processing system that estimates the constituent
components, symmetrical components, total harmonic distortions (THD) and power
factor based on the proposed identification method.
3. To evaluate performance of the proposed power signal processing system by applying
it to a threephase active power filter application. In this application, the proposed
power signal processing system is used to identify the harmonics in the current in order
to generate compensation currents.
4. Finally, to apply the proposed power signal processing technique to identify grid
unbalances and voltage dips, and employ the identified information to a DSTATCOM
application to mitigate them.
1.6 Proposed Approach for Identification of Power System
Disturbances
The advantages of the conventional least square algorithm for disturbance identification
were mentioned in Section 1.4. This method is very suitable to extract disturbances in
timevarying harmonic signals. However, complex number arithmetic and inversion
Chapter 1: Introduction
11
matrix transformation require a significantly greater number of computational steps.
Therefore, the concept of the proposed method is to solve the system equations in an
alternative way without inverting any matrices and with less number of realtime matrix
multiplications. From the results, the proposed algorithm is shown to be
computationally efficient, since it only performs one matrix multiplication per time
sample. The size of the matrix is 2K L × and hence only 2K L × multiplication and
addition operations are required, where K is the number of the required harmonics of
the signal and L is number of sample data. Compared to this, the conventional linear
least square algorithms requires ( )
3
2
2 8 K LK L + + number of multiplications and
additions. Therefore, the proposed method will be referred to as “Efficient least squares
algorithm” throughout this thesis. The proposed efficient least square algorithm can be
applied to extract the harmonic components in a singlephase and threephase system
with the following advantages. (1) The proposed method extracts the fundamental and
harmonic components of distorted signals fast and accurately. (2) The proposed method
directly estimates the instantaneous fundamental and harmonic components. (3) The
proposed method is relatively less sensitive to the marginal changes in centre frequency.
(4) The proposed method has less transient time and therefore, the tracking capabilities
are superior to those of the conventional harmonic detection methods. (5) The proposed
method has relatively less computation complexity and therefore is suitable for real
time applications.
The proposed efficient least squares method can be augmented with a simple calculation
unit to extract the instantaneous positivenegativeand zerosequence components of the
power system signal. Also, the proposed efficient least squares method can be extended
Chapter 1: Introduction
12
to obtain other electrical power quantities such as power factor, active power, reactive
power and total harmonic distortion.
The theoretical, modelling and experimented studies presented in this thesis show that
the proposed efficient least squares method successfully satisfies all the requirements
mentioned in the previous section. The application of the proposed efficient least
squares method to an active power filter and DSTATCOM further confirms the
practicability of this method.
1.7 Structure of Thesis
This thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 2 considers the existing methods of
harmonic detection and describes the principles of operation of each method. Chapter 3
illustrates performances of the nonrecursive and recursive existing harmonic
identification methods using computer simulations. The accuracy in detecting
harmonics of each method is compared with regard to (1) noise distortion, (2) effect of
the frequency variation, and (3) detection and transient response time. Chapter 4
proposes the efficient least squares algorithm. The mathematical derivation for the
proposed algorithm that begins with the linear least squares algorithm is presented. Its
properties and performances are examined. The power system signal processing system
based on the proposed efficient least squares algorithm is introduced in Chapter 5. The
mathematical derivation of various power system measurements as well as detailed
simulation and experimental studies of the proposed power system signal processing
system are presented in Chapter 5. The performance of the proposed power system
signal processing system with respect to noise, timevarying amplitudes and phase
angles and marginal fundamental frequency variations is demonstrated. Chapter 5 also
Chapter 1: Introduction
13
presents comparison performance of the proposed method with the conventional
methods, namely DFT and FFT.
Applicability of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm based power signal
processing methods in two reallife power system applications are studied in Chapters 6
and 7.
In Chapter 6, the proposed efficient least squares algorithm based harmonic detection
method is applied to insert individual harmonic components into the control system of a
threephase active power filter (APF). Extensive simulations studies are conducted to
investigate the performance of the harmonic detection method as well as the harmonic
compensation performance of the APF. The experimental studies are carried out on a
threephase laboratory APF setup. This chapter also discusses the detail control design
of the APF. The APF controller and the proposed harmonic detection algorithm were
implemented on a dSPACE DS1104 R&D board.
Chapter 7 presents an application of the proposed signal processing system for voltage
dip and unbalance detection to generate the current reference signal for a DSTATCOM
in order to compensate for voltage dips and unbalances. This chapter also describes the
control strategy that is based on the separation of positive and negativesequence
voltages and controlling them separately in order to handle both balanced and
unbalanced voltage dips. The operation and performance of the proposed DSTATCOM
system are verified via simulation and experimental studies.
Conclusions and suggestions for future work are given in Chapter 8.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
14
CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE EXISTING TECHNIQUES
FOR POWER SYSTEM HARMONIC
ESTIMATION
2.1 Overview
This chapter reviews and studies various existing methods in the literature for harmonic
identification and enumerates advantages and drawbacks of each method. This is
achieved under the broad categorisation of the methods as nonrecursive and recursive.
The nonrecursive strategies possess simple and straightforward techniques to obtain
amplitudes and phaseangles of the power system signal. These methods capture a
number of samples of the input signal and process them to estimate the harmonic
components in feed forward manner. Recursive methods have more complicated
structure and can be used to achieve lower noise sensitivities. Recursive methods of
harmonic estimation assume that the error criterion is related to an under determined set
of linear functions of the unknown harmonic amplitudes and phase angles. These
methods then attempt to minimize the error criterion recursively in order to estimate the
amplitudes and phase angle of the harmonics.
In this thesis, starting from the simplest intuitive structure, three nonrecursive and one
recursive structures are studied. The discrete Fourier transforms (DFT)/ fast Fourier
transform (FFT), the wavelet transform (WT), conventional least squares (CLS), and the
Kalman Filtering (KF) estimation methods are investigated.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
15
Equation (2.1) represents a general power system signal which consists of a
fundamental and harmonics and is used as the input signal for the various methods to be
studied in the following literature review.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
2
cos cos
K
i i i
i
y t X t X t e t e u e u
=
= + + + +
¯
(2.1)
Where,
i
X is the unknown magnitude of the signal; where subscript 1 refers to the
fundamental component;
i i
t e u + is the unknown instantaneous angle of the i
th
component; and
1
e is a known fundamental angular frequency, usually fixed at 50/60
Hz. The i is an integer value and usually
1 i
i e e = , where
i
e represents the frequency of
the i
th
component. However, in some power systems, interharmonics exist and for
interharmonics
1 i
i e e = . K is the total number of harmonic components. The variable
( ) e t represents the additive a stationary noise possesses of zero mean with variance
2
o .
2.2 NonRecursive Harmonic Detection Methods
2.2.1 Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and fast Fourier transform (FFT)
method
As mentioned earlier in Section 1.3, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is a discrete
complex valued series for calculating the Fourier coefficients. The DFT is the most
wellknown tool for estimation of amplitude and phase angle of the fundamental and
harmonic components in a power system signal [16],[33],[34].
The basic equation that describes the DFT is
( ) ( )
1
0
i
L
j n
n
x i y n e
e
÷
÷
=
=
¯
(2.2)
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
16
where
n is the present data point,
i is order of each harmonic component,
L is the window length (i.e. number of captured data points),
2
i
i
L
t
e
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
is a set of fixed and equally spaced frequencies, 0 1 i L s s ÷ ,
( ) y n is the input signal at point n , and
( ) x i is the DFT evaluated at frequency
i
e .
Although (2.2) is described as complex series, real valued series can be obtained by
setting the imaginary part to zero. In general, the transform into the frequency domain
will be a complex valued function that includes magnitude and phase angle. The
magnitude and phase angle for the i
th
harmonic can be given as follows.
2 2
magnitude ( ) ( )
i real imag
X x i x i = = + (2.3)
1
( )
phase angle tan
( )
imag
i
real
x i
x i
u
÷
 
= =

\ .
(2.4)
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an algorithm that efficiently computes the DFT,
and is much faster for higher number of samples (i.e. large L ). The FFT algorithm takes
advantage of the symmetry in the exponential functions
i
j n
e
e ÷
to reduce the number of
computations while computing the DFT. The idea behind the FFT is the divide and
conquer approach, to break up the original L point sample into two
2
L
data sequences.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
17
This is because a number of smaller problems are easier to solve than one large one.
The derivation of the FFT algorithm is briefly explained below [35].
A DFT with 2
v
L = points is considered for the divide and conquer approach. The L 
point data sequence can be split into two
2
L
data sequences ( )
1
f n and ( )
2
f n ,
corresponding to the evennumbered and oddnumbered samples of ( ) y n , respectively,
that is
( ) ( )
1
2 f n y m = (2.5)
( ) ( )
2
2 1 f n y m = + , 0,1,..., 1
2
L
m = ÷ (2.6)
Thus ( )
1
f n and ( )
2
f n are obtained by decimating ( ) y n by a factor of 2, and hence
the resulting FFT algorithm is called a decimationintimealgorithm. Now the L point
DFT can be expressed in terms of the DFT’s of the decimated sequences as follows:
( ) ( )
1
0
, 0,1,..., 1
L
in
L
n
x i y n W i L
÷
=
= = ÷
¯
( ) ( )
in in
L L
n even n odd
y n W y n W
= =
= +
¯ ¯
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 2 1 2 1
2 1 2
0 0
2 2 1
L L
m i mi
L L
m m
y m W y m W
÷ ÷
+
= =
= + +
¯ ¯
(2.7)
where
2
j
L
L
W e
t
÷
=
.
By substituting exponential relationship,
2
2 L L
W W =
into (2.7),
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
18
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 2 1 2 1
1 2 2 2
0 0
L L
im i im
L L L
m m
x i f m W W f m W
÷ ÷
= =
= +
¯ ¯
( ) ( )
1 2
, 0,1,..., 1
i
L
F i W F i i L = + = ÷
(2.8)
where ( )
1
F i
and ( )
2
F i
are the
2
L
point DFTs of the sequence ( )
1
f m and ( )
2
f m ,
respectively.
( )
1
F i
and ( )
2
F i
are periodic with period
2
L
and can be represented as
( ) ( )
1 1
2 F i L F i + =
and ( ) ( )
2 2
2 F i L F i + =
. In addition to this, the symmetry property
(i.e.
2 i L i
L L
W W
+
= ÷
), can be exploited. Hence, (2.8) can be represented as (2.9) and
(2.10) below.
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
, 0,1,..., 1
2
i
L
L
x i F i W F i i = + = ÷
(2.9)
( ) ( )
1 2
, 0,1,..., 1
2 2
i
L
L L
x i F i W F i i
 
+ = ÷ = ÷

\ .
(2.10)
It may be observed that the direct computation of ( )
1
F i
requires
( )
2
2
L
complex
multiplications. The same applies to the computation of ( )
2
F i
. Furthermore, there are
2
L
additional complex multiplications required to compute ( )
2
i
L
W F i
. Hence the
computation of ( ) x i requires
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
L L L L  
+ = +

\ .
complex multiplications. This first
step results in a reduction of the number of multiplications from
2
L to
2
2 2
L L
+ , which is
about a factor of 2 for large L .
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
19
Thus, the fundamental of the FFT algorithm described above can be depicted as in
Figure 2.1. Recombine Algebra shown in the diagram combines the samples again in
the correct order by utilizing (2.9) and (2.10).
The decimation of the data sequence can be repeated again and again until the resulting
sequences are reduced to onepoint sequences. For 2
v
L = , this decimation can be
performed
2
log v L = times. Thus the total number of complex multiplications and
additions are reduced to
2
log
2
L
L and
2
log L L respectively.
It can be seen that the number of operations have reduced dramatically. For example, a
calculation of the DFT requires
2
L multiplications whereas the basic FFT algorithm
requires approximately
2
log
2
L
L multiplications. Table 2.1 shows a comparison of the
number of complex multiplication and complex addition in the direct computation of the
DFT and in the basic FFT algorithms.
Point
DFT
Point
DFT
Point
Recombine
Algebra
2
L
2
L
L
y(t)
( )
1
0 F
( )
1
1 F
1
1
2
L
F
 
÷

\ .
( )
2
0 F
( )
2
1 F
2
1
2
L
F
 
÷

\ .
( ) 0 x
( ) 1 x
1
2
L
x
 
÷

\ .
2
L
x
 

\ .
1
2
L
x
 
+

\ .
( ) 1 x L +
( ) x e
( ) 0 y
( ) 2 y
( ) 2 y L ÷
( ) 1 y
( ) 3 y
( ) 1 y L ÷
Figure 2.1 The first stage in the decimationintime algorithm.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
20
Table 2.1. Comparison of computational complexity of the DFT versus FFT algorithm.
Complex multiplication Complex addition
Number of
data points,
( L )
DFT,
(
2
L )
FFT,
( ) 2
log
2
L
L )
DFT,
( ( 1) L L ÷ )
FFT,
(
2
log L L )
8 64 12 56 24
16 256 32 240 64
32 1,024 80 992 160
64 4,096 192 4,032 384
128 16,384 448 16,256 896
256 65,536 1,024 65,280 2048
However, the FFT method needs data points sampled over one cycle of signal to
calculate the harmonic components accurately. In other words, the minimum possible
detection time of the FFT is one fundamental cycle. Therefore, the FFT based
algorithms are known to be unsuitable for harmonic analysis with timevarying signals
[36], [20]. Also, the corruption of the DFT and the FFT would yield inaccurate results
due to leakages/ or resolution limit of the DFT (leakages occur if the number of periods
sample is not an integer) and picketfence (occur if the analysed waveform includes
interharmonics) [36], [37]. Another shortcoming of the DFT/FFTbased methods is
their sensitivity to noise [36]. Moreover, the DFT and the FFT result in significant
estimation errors for changes in fundamental frequency, even for slight changes. To
help solve this problem, recent studies have reported improvements with the DFT based
procedures which first estimate the frequency and then apply the DFT using a window
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
21
which is a multiple of the estimated period in order to obtain accurate harmonic
magnitudes [38]. However, these methods have more complicated structures due to the
frequency estimation requirement.
In addition, the FFT can be considered as a more general approach to harmonic
extraction, where all the harmonic frequency components within the bandwidth of the
signal are calculated. However, many applications, such as harmonic monitoring, may
require the extraction of a limited number of individual harmonics. For an example, in
some cases only fifthorder and seventhorder harmonics are of interest as the levels of
other harmonic components are significantly low. For such applications, the FFT
algorithm may not result in significant reduction of computational cost since it
calculates all the harmonics of the input signal.
2.2.2 Wavelet transform (WT)
To overcome some limitations in the DFT/FFT methods, a wavelet transform (WT), is
applied to the harmonic analysis [25]. A WT expands a signal not in terms of a
trigonometric polynomial but by wavelet, generated using the translation (shift in time)
and dilation (compression in time) of a fixed wavelet function called the mother
wavelet. These dilating and shifting mechanisms are desirable for analysing waveforms
containing nonstationary events. The transform coefficient magnitude indicates the
similarity in frequencies between the harmonic component of the signal and the dilated
wavelets. By continuously dilating the wavelet, harmonics frequencies in the signal can
be identified. The wavelet transform approach gives much more compact support for the
analysis of signals with localized transient components than the DFT method. This
makes the wavelet –based signal processing technique more suitable than the DFT in
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
22
some power system applications. Moreover, a method can also be developed to
accurately quantify the harmonic amplitudes and phases from the transform coefficients.
For practical implementation of the WT for harmonic identification, discrete wavelet
transform (DWT) or discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) can be employed. In
[25], the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) is applied to extract harmonic
components of the power system signal. Here, high order Daubechies, a smooth
orthogonal wavelet packet, is chosen as the mother wavelet packet. This wavelet packet
is more suitable for harmonic analysis purposes than other existing wavelet packets
because they are smoother and the magnitude response of their corresponding filters is
less distorted. The DWPT decomposes the signal into harmonic trends and these
decomposed components are then analysed by the continuous wavelet transform
(CWT). In [25], a modulated Gaussian wavelet so called Morlet wavelet is applied as
the mother wavelet in the CWT to estimate the harmonic frequencies, amplitudes and
phase angles from the decomposed components.
Brief theoretical background of the method proposed in [25] is presented as follows.
 Continuous wavelet transform (CWT)
The CWT of signal ( ) y t can be defined as follows
( ) ( ) ( )
*
,
,
a b
CWT a b y t t dt v
·
÷·
=
l
(2.11)
Where ( )
( )
, a b
t b
t a
a
v v
÷  
=

\ .
is a translated and dilated version of the mother
wavelet ( ) t v . The parameter ‘ a ’ corresponds to the scale (i.e. dilation) and the
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
23
parameter ‘ b ’ corresponds to the translation (i.e. related to the location of the window,
as the window is shifted through the signal) of ( ) t v . Scaling, as a mathematical
operation, either dilates or compresses a signal. Larger scales corresponding to dilated
signals and small scales corresponding to compressed signals. 1 a is the
normalization factor. ( )
*
t v denotes the complex conjugate of ( ) t v .
 Discrete wavelet transform (DWT)
The main idea of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is the same as that of the CWT,
but it employs a timescale representation of a digital signal using digital filtering
techniques.
By choosing
0
p
a a = ,
0 0
p
b na b = , and t kT = in equation (2.6), where T =1.0 and
k , p , n are integer values, the discrete wavelet transform formula is given by
( )  
( )
0 0
*
0
0
1
,
p
p
p
k
k na b
DWT p n y k
a
a
v
 
÷

=

\ .
¯
(2.12)
For computational efficiency,
0
a and
0
b are set to 2 and 1 respectively resulting in a
binary dilation of 2
p
and a dyadic translation of 2
p
n .
The inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) can also be given as below
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0
1
, /
p p
p n
y k DWT p n k na b a
C
v
v
 
= ÷

\ .
¯¯
(2.13)
The IDWT given in (2.13) is compared with the general equation of finite impulse
response (FIR) digital filter given in (2.14), to understand the characteristics of ( ) k v .
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
24
 
1
[ ] [ ]
k
x n y k h n k
c
= ÷
¯
(2.14)
It may be seen that ( ) k v is the impulse response of a lowpass (LP) digital filter with
transfer function ( ) e + [39]. If
0
2 a = , each dilation (i.e., 1, 2,... p = ) of ( ) k v
effectively halves the bandwidth of ( ) e + . A multilevel DWT filter bank can be
implemented using (2.12) (i.e., DWT), in the forward transform stage and (2.13) (i.e.
IDWT) in the inverse transform stage.
 Discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT)
Discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) is defined as
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
2 0
0
2 2
N
n n
k
t h k t k v v
÷
=
= ÷
¯
(2.15)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
2 1 1
0
2 2
N
n n
k
t h k t k v v
÷
+
=
= ÷
¯
(2.16)
The wavelet packets
n
v , are generated form a linear combination of the scaled and
translated versions of the mother wavelet ( )
1
t v and its scaling function ( )
0
t v .
0
h and
1
h are lowpass (LP) and highpass (HP) filter of length 2N , corresponding to the
mother wavelet.
A DWPT filter bank is implemented using (2.15) and (2.16) in a similar way that the
DWT filter bank is implemented in (2.12). Unlike the DWT filter bank where only the
(LP) output component is split, in the DWPT filter bank both the LP and HP are split at
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
25
each level. This results in a more general decomposition structure and can be used to
extract harmonics effectively.
A fourlevel DWPT filter bank structure to decompose signal ( ) y n into 16
components,
1
d to
16
d is shown in Figure 2.2 [25]. Parameters p and j are the level
number and decomposed output component index, respectively.
0
H and
1
H represent
LP and HP filters respectively, and the coefficients of these filters are calculated using
the Daubechies wavelet packet. This DWPT gives a uniform subband frequency and is
used for harmonic studies. However, the amplitude of the signal attenuates when it
passes through a filter. The attenuation factor depends on the harmonic frequency and
the band width of the filter. The error due to the attenuation of the filter can be corrected
by multiplying the output by a scaling constant, which is the reciprocal of the filter gain
at each harmonic frequency
i
f . The DWPT filter bank contains cascaded LP and HP
filter combinations in each branch of the tree and therefore the total attenuation factor
must be considered for correction. In [25], this total attenuation factor for each
harmonic frequency is obtained by multiplying the gains of the filters at corresponding
harmonic frequency
i
f . The reciprocal of attenuation factor is referred as the overall
antidistortion scaling constant ( ( )
j i
C f ) in [25].
After obtaining the harmonic trends from the decomposed output subbands from the
DWPT, CWT can be employed to obtain the amplitudes and phase angles of the
harmonic components.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
26
1
H
0
H
8 16 ÷
1
H
0
H
1
H
0
H
( ) y n
0 16 ÷
0 8 ÷
12 16 ÷
8 12 ÷
4 8 ÷
0 4 ÷
1
H
0
H
14 16 ÷
12 14 ÷
1
H
0
H
10 12 ÷
8 10 ÷
1
H
0
H
6 8 ÷
4 6 ÷
1
H
0
H
2 4 ÷
0 2 ÷
1
H
0
H
15 16 ÷
14 15 ÷
1
H
0
H
13 14 ÷
12 13 ÷
1
H
0
H
9 10 ÷
8 9 ÷
1
H
0
H
11 12 ÷
10 11 ÷
1
H
0
H
7 8 ÷
6 7 ÷
1
H
0
H
5 6 ÷
4 5 ÷
1
H
0
H
3 4 ÷
2 3 ÷
1
H
0
H
1 2 ÷
0 1 ÷
16
d
j
d
2
d
1
d
#
#
1 p = 2 p = 3 p = 4 p =
Figure 2.2 Fourlevel DWPT decomposition tree for harmonic extraction scheme.
Equation (2.11) can be rewritten as
( ) ( )
2
1
*
,
, ( )
t
j a b
t
CWT a b d n n dt v =
l
(2.17)
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
27
where ( )
j
d n is the decomposed output of the j
th
brunch.
1
t and
2
t are the starting and
ending times of the analysed section of the signal. The Gaussian function so called
Morlet wavelet given in (2.18) is chosen as the mother wavelet in the CWT.
( )
2
0
( )
( 2 0.5 )
,
t b t b
j f
a a
a b
t e
t
v
÷ ÷  
÷

\ .
= (2.18)
The parameter ‘ a ’ is chosen such that
, a b
v always covers the entire event. This fixes
the value of ‘ a ’ for a given duration. The frequency of
, a b
v can be varied by changing
0
f in (2.18).
0
f is varied from the minimum frequency of
0min
f to the maximum
frequency of
0max
f with suitable increments. The value of the increment decides the
frequency resolution of the algorithm. The
0min
f and
0max
f are given below.
0min lj
f af = and
0max hj
f af = (2.19)
where
lj
f and
hj
f are the lowest and highest frequencies of ( )
j
d n .
The parameter b in (2.18) is given by
1
t and it coincides the wavelet with the analysed
section.
The harmonic frequency corresponding to the transform coefficient ( ) , CWT a b is given
by
o
i
f
f
a
= (2.20)
where
i
f is the i
th
harmonic frequency
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
28
The harmonic amplitude is indicated by the coefficient ( ) , CWT a b . The amplitude and
phase angle of the i
th
harmonic can be obtained by the coefficient of the ( ) , CWT a b as
follow:
( ) ,
i
i
X C a CWT a b T
v
= (2.21)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
0
Im ,
tan
Re ,
i
i i
i
CWT a b
CWT a b
u u
÷
= ÷ (2.22)
where C
v
is a constant. The value of C
v
can easily be found by transforming a
synthesized sinusoidal waveform [40].
i
X is then multiplied by the antidistortion
scaling constant ( )
j i
C f to give the correct harmonic amplitude.
0i
u is the initial phase
shift caused by the shifting of the wavelet at corresponding harmonic frequency
i
f by
‘ b ’.
The above described method alleviates the problem of images produced by the filter
bank, and therefore is more suitable for identification of harmonics in power system
waveforms.
However, the realtime implementations of the WTbased techniques are often
computationally prohibitive. This is due to the computational requirement of the inner
product calculations between the basic functions and the signal which are needed in
order to find the wavelet coefficients. Moreover, the efficiency and accuracy of the
wavelet transform depends on the choice of the mother wavelet and the wavelet type
should be chosen accordingly for the specific event to be studied.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
29
2.2.3 Conventional least squares (CLS) method
The term least squares describes a frequently used approach to solving over determined
or inexactly specified systems of equations in an estimation. Instead of solving the
equations exactly, minimization of the sum of the squares of the residuals is only
attempted in the least squares algorithm. This makes the least squares technique a very
powerful estimation tool and in estimation theory the least square estimator is called the
“best linear unbiased estimator” (BLUE) since it minimizes the variance and does not
have bias [41].
In harmonic analysis, the least squares estimation of harmonic amplitude and phase
angle is formulated as the solution of a set of linear equations which minimizes the
mean square error. The least squares technique possesses the advantages of simplicity
in its underlying structure, and robustness. Owing to these features, the power system
harmonic estimation can be improved dramatically by using the least square algorithm
and it has found applications in areas such as power quality monitoring [27], [28], [42].
A brief theoretical description on the conventional least squares technique in harmonic
estimation is presented below.
From the signal (2.1), when T is the sampling interval of the data acquisition system
that captures the power system waveform, the discrete form of the waveform model is
given as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos cos sin sin
K
i i i i i
i
y m X mT mT e u e u
=
= ÷
¯
(2.23)
Equation (2.23) can be rearranged as below
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
30
( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos sin
K
i i i i
i
y m A mT B mT e e
=
= ÷
¯
(2.24)
where ( ) cos
i i i
A X u = and ( ) sin
i i i
B X u = ,
m  time step in the discrete sample sequence,
i  i
th
harmonic component ( i = 1 corresponding to the fundamental),
K  total number of required harmonic components.
The discretetime version of (2.24) is given in matrix notation as
= y A x (2.25)
where
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
y n
y n
y m
y n L
÷
=
÷ +
y
#
#
,
1
1
i
i
K
K
A
B
A
B
A
B
=
x
#
#
,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
cos sin cos sin
cos 1 sin 1 cos 1 sin 1
cos sin
cos 1 sin 1 cos 1 sin 1
K K
K K
i i
K K
nT nT nT nT
n T n T n T n T
mT mT
n T n L T n L T n L T
e e e e
e e e e
e e
e e e e
=
+ + +
A
! ! ! !
! ! ! !
# # ! ! ! ! # #
# # ! ! # #
# # ! ! ! ! # #
! ! ! !
,
n  present time step in the discrete sample sequence,
L  number of captured samples,
( 1),..., m n L n = ÷ +
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
31
and 1,..., i K = .
In (2.25), the raised dot denotes matrix multiplication, A is a timevarying matrix, x is
a column vector and y is a input vector. Here, L is the number of measured samples
which is typically higher than the total number of harmonics, K . According to the
Nyquist theory, L should be greater than two times K (i.e., 2 L K > ).
The actual data recording of the power system quantity for which harmonic analysis is
to be carried out can be denoted by sequence ( ) y m , (where 1,... m n L n = ÷ + for data
recording at time step n ). Now, the requirement is to find the amplitude and the phase
angle of each harmonic component such that the actual data sequence, ( ) y m , that
matches the postulated sequence, ( ) s m , as close as possible. To achieve this matching
between ( ) s m and ( ) y m , the difference between them is formed and minimised.
Using a squared error form for the purpose, the error function to be minimized is
expressed as
( )
2
1
( )
n
m n L
E y m s m
= ÷ +
= ÷
¯
( ) ( ) = ÷ ÷ y Ax y Ax
T
2 = ÷ + y y y Ax x A Ax
T T T T
(2.26)
where E is the error function to be minimized.
The minimum of (2.26) occurs where the derivative of E with respect to
i
A and
i
B can
be found as follows:
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
32
2 2 0
E c
= ÷ + =
c
A y A Ax
x
T T
(2.27)
The above equation can be written in matrix form as
( )
= A A x A y
T T
(2.28)
The inverse matrix of
( )
A A
T
is closely related to the probable uncertainties of the
estimated parameters in vector x and it can be found as follows:
( )
1 ÷
= x A A A y
T T
(2.29)
where
( )
1 ÷
A A A
T T
is the pseudoinverse of matrix A.
Equation (2.29) represents the linear least squares algorithm and the amplitude and
phase angle for each harmonic component can thus be obtained from the x vector as
follows:
1 1 1
1 1 1
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
i i i
i i i
K K K
K K K
A X
B X
A X
B X
A X
B X
u
u
u
u
u
u
= =
x
# #
# #
(2.30)
The amplitude
i
X and phase angle
i
o of the i
th
order signal harmonic is thus given by
2 2
i i i
X A B = +
1
tan
i
i
i
B
A
u
÷
 
=

\ .
(2.31)
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
33
In addition to the advantages mentioned earlier, the CLS approach also offers fast
tracking of the timevarying individual harmonic components including fundamental
component in the timedomain. In spite of the advantages, there are several performance
limitations with the CLS technique. The most prominent limitation is the high
computation cost of performing the calculation given in (2.29) due to the matrix
inversion and number of matrix multiplications. The CLS requires ( )
3
2
2 8 K LK L + +
number of multiplications /additions operations to be performed. Consequently, the
processing requirement for realtime implementation of the CLS algorithm is very high.
Moreover, realtime implementation of the conventional least squares algorithm given
in (2.29) is rather susceptible to roundoff error, which is a characteristic of computer
hardware [43], due to the matrix inversion operation. This roundoff error may cause
failure in the numerical process.
As a result of the above disadvantages, the CLS technique is inappropriate for efficient
realtime implementation.
2.3 Recursive Harmonic Detection Methods
2.3.1 Kalman filtering (KF) method
The Kalman filter is a set of mathematical equations that provides an efficient
computational (recursive) means to estimate the state of a process, in a way that
minimizes the mean of the squared error. The Kalman filter (KF) can be used as an
estimator to find the amplitude, frequency and phase angle of the power system signals
[44], [29], [45], [46]. KF based algorithms have the ability to identify and track time
varying harmonic components. A KF can be used to identify harmonic components in a
noise polluted power system signal. In addition to harmonic amplitude and phase angle
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
34
identification, a modified KF technique that can track the system frequency, has also
been proposed [45].
A Kalman filter algorithm for harmonic detection can be briefly described as follows
[46].
The state space model and measurement equation of the power system harmonic signal
is given in (2.32) and (2.33) respectively.
1 n n n n +
= + x x w m (2.32)
n n n n
y v = + H x (2.33)
where
n  present time step,
n
x is the 2 1 K × state vector at present time step n ,
n
m is the 2 2 K K × state transition matrix,
n
w represents the discrete time variation of the state variables due to an input noise
sequence which is characterized by a covariance matrix
n
Q ,
n
y is a scalar input signal measurement at time step n ,
n
H is the 1 2K × connection matrix between measurement and state vector;
n
v is a scalar noise signal, characterized by its variance R .
The KF recursive estimation is described by the following algorithm;
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
35
Initialize the estimates ˆ
n
x

and the state covariance matrix
( )( )
ˆ ˆ
 
n n n n n
E
= ÷ ÷
P x x x x

T
.
Calculate the Kalman gain
n
K and update the estimates ˆ
n
x :
( )
1

n n n n n n n
R
÷
= + K P H H P H
 T T
(2.34)
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
n n n n n n
y = ÷ x x K H x
 
+ (2.35)
( )

n n n n
= ÷ P P I K H (2.36)
1
ˆ ˆ

n+ n n
x x = m (2.37)
1 n+ n n n n
+ P P Q

=
T
m m (2.38)
If
n
w and
n
v are white Gaussian noise with zero mean value and are uncorrelated, then
the KF provides an optimal estimate of the realtime signal parameters.
The harmonic components of the signal can be identified in either the stationary or the
rotating reference frame. Here, the rotating reference frame is utilized by applying the
following conditions to the KF algorithm.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) cos sin cos sin
n
nT nT KnT KnT e e e e =
H ! (2.39)
n
m = = I m (2.40)
where K is the total number of required harmonic components,
T is the sampling time period and
I is the 2 2 K K × identity matrix.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
36
In the rotating reference frame, the state variables ˆ
n
x represent the inphase and in
quadrature components of the harmonics. Therefore, the magnitude and phase angle of
each harmonic component can be obtained as follows.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
Magnitude 2 1 2
n n
X i X i = ÷ + (2.41)
( )
( )
1
2 1
Phase angle tan
2
n
n
X i
X i
÷
÷
= (2.42)
where i is the i
th
harmonic component ( i =1 corresponds to the fundamental) (i.e. range
of 1... i K = )
The block diagram of the above described KF algorithm for harmonic detection is
illustrated in Figure 2.3.
n
H
n
H
T
+
+
÷
1
z
+

+
n
÷
P
+
+
1
z

+
n
y n
x
n
Q
R
n
K
Figure 2.3 Kalman filter harmonic extraction scheme.
The KF starts with the initial condition of
0
ˆ x , and
0

P and then recursively calculates ˆ
n
x .
Covariance matrices
n
Q and R play an important role in the KF performance. These
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
37
two covariance matrices should be able to successfully model variations in the system.
They should be selected based on the type of distortions and disturbances which are
present in the system. There are no systematic methods of determining these two
matrices and the trial and error approach is used to adjust them in practice. KF methods,
in general, depend strongly on the initial conditions
0
ˆ x and
0

P . If the initial conditions
are chosen incorrectly the performance of the estimator is poor, resulting in biased
estimation. Another shortcoming of the KF is its calculation time which is relatively
long [30], [31],[32].
2.4 Summary
The principles of operation of major harmonic measurement methods were explained in
this chapter. The DFT/FFT, the WT, and the CLS were studied as nonrecursive
schemes. A KFbased harmonic identification method was studied as a recursive
scheme. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were discussed.
The DFT and FFT are most popular among the above methods and have simple
structure. The FFT is computationally more efficient than the DFT method. However,
both methods do not perform well in identifying timevarying harmonics. Due to this,
these methods are not suitable mitigation applications where timevarying harmonics
are present. In addition, the FFT may be considered inefficient for application where
only a limited number of harmonics are to be identified, since it estimates all the
harmonic components regardless of the specific required harmonics. The DFT/FFT
method is able to detect integer harmonics only and cannot identify interharmonics.
These methods are highly sensitive to noise and system frequency variation.
Chapter2: Review of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
38
The WT method is applied with view of overcoming some of the limitations in the
DFT/FFT methods. However, the estimation efficiency and accuracy of the wavelet
transform depends on the choice of the mother wavelet and the wavelet type should be
chosen accordingly to the specific event to be studied. Also, this algorithm needs
expensive computational requirements that restrict their realtime application. This latter
shortcoming is common for the CLS method. This is due to the matrix inversion
operation and the matrix multiplications requirements of the least squares algorithm.
The computer implementation of matrix inversion may also cause roundoff error which
could lead to failure in numerical process. In spite of these disadvantages, the CLS
method offers the fast tracking of the timevarying individual harmonic components
including the fundamental component in the timedomain. The CLS method provides
robust performance with respect to noise pollution.
The main advantage of the KFbased algorithm is its ability to track harmonics in highly
noise polluted power system signals. This method can also detect timevarying
harmonics. However, the potential of the KF as a tool for harmonic analysis, practically
has been limited by implementation difficulties. The response of the filter is governed
by the error covariance matrices
n
Q and R , which act as “tunning” parameters for the
estimation, balancing between accuracy, speed of tracking and filter divergence. In
practice, choosing appropriate parameters for desired filter operation can be an arduous
task, limiting the success of the application. Also, the KF has significantly high
computational complexity.
The next chapter compares performances of the above discussed existing harmonic
identification methods using computer simulation case studies.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
39
CHAPTER 3
PERFORMANCE OF THE EXISTING
TECHNIQUES FOR POWER SYSTEM
HARMONIC ESTIMATION
3.1 Overview
This chapter evaluates the performance of the various power system harmonic
estimation methods described in the previous chapter. These methods are implemented
in MATLAB/SIMULINK computational software in order to investigate the
performances. The first part of the studies investigates effects of noise distortion,
transient response and sensitivity to marginal fundamental frequency variation for each
method individually. Then, all the methods are compared in terms of accuracy of
estimation and transient response time.
In this study, a postulated signal which consists of 50 Hz unity fundamental, 3
rd
, 5
th
, 7
th
,
9
th
and 11
th
order harmonic components is used to investigate the performance of each
method. This signal is given below as
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
( ) 1.00sin 45 0.4sin 3 50
0.3sin 5 150 0.2sin 7 36
0.1 9 30 0.05 11 120 ( )
y t t t
t t
t t e t
e e
e e
e e
= + + ÷
+ + + +
+ ÷ + ÷ +
D D
D D
D D
(3.1)
where
1
e = 314 rad/s, ( ) e t is additive noise distortion and the amplitudes of
fundamental and harmonics are represented as p.u. values.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
40
Throughout the following study, the noise distortion is assumed to be white Gaussian
noise (WGN) of zero mean with a variance (
2
o ). The intensity of the noise can also be
represented in terms of SignaltoNoiseRatio (SNR). The relationship between random
noise variance (
2
o ) and SNR in dB is defined as
1
2
20 log
2
X
SNR
o
= ×
×
(dB) (3.2)
where
1
X is the magnitude of the signal fundamental component.
Figure 3.1 shows the postulated signal including noise distortion of SNR=17dB. This
signal is used in most of the investigations throughout this chapter and therefore, this
signal is assumed unless otherwise stated.
Figure 3.1 The postulated signal given in (3.1) with SNR of 17dB.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
41
3.2 The Performance of DFT/FFT Method
This section presents the results of digital simulation case studies carried out to evaluate
the performance of the DFT/FFT method for harmonic estimation. In this example, the
input signal given in (3.1) is chosen. A sampling frequency of 3 kHz is chosen for
simulations.
The performance of the DFT/FFT against noise is studied by adding WGN to the
postulated signal. The Random number generation in SIMULINK and Randn command
in MATLAB are used to generate a noise with Gaussian distribution. The simulations
are conducted for two cases (i) polluted postulated waveform with signal to noise ratio
(SNR) of 17dB (ii) zero noise.
The performance of this method for exacting amplitude and phase angle of each
harmonic component with respect to noise is show in Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3
respectively. The results show that the steadystate amplitude error has a maximum
value of about 0.15 pu with the 3
rd
harmonic and minimum of about 0.05pu with the
fundamental component under the noise pollution whereas zero error for the noiseless
signal. The steadystate phase angle error increased with the harmonic order from 5
degrees in the fundamental to a maximum of 100 degrees in 11
th
order harmonic.
Similar to the amplitude, the phase angle error is zero for zero noise.
The detection time of the DFT is illustrated in Figure 3.4. The top graph shows the
postulated waveform. As can be seen in this figure the DFT method takes one full
fundamental cycle for the detection of the fundamental component of the postulated
waveform.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
42
Figure 3.2 Steadystate amplitude error of DFT/FFT method for each
harmonic component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR =
17dB (solid).
Figure 3.3 Phase angle error of DFT/FFT method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB
(solid).
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
43
Figure 3.4 Detection time of DFT.
Figure 3.5 shows the transient error of the DFT method for a sudden 50% increase in
amplitudes and 20 degrees in phase angles of all the components of the postulated
waveform at t=0.1 sec. In this simulation, the increase in amplitudes and phase angles of
all the components (i.e. fundamental and harmonics) occurred simultaneously and zero
noise is assumed. As can be seen the DFT requires at least one cycle to identify this
change. No steadystate error is observed when there is zero noise presence in the
signal.
The effect of marginal fundamental frequency variation on the accuracy of the DFT
method of harmonic detection is observed. Figure 3.6 (a),(b)and (c) show the actual and
estimated fundamental, fifth and seventhorder harmonic components of a signal with a
fundamental frequency increase of 1 Hz ( i.e. from 50Hz to 51Hz) occurring at t = 0.06
sec. These figures indicate that the DFT method results in significantly high estimation
errors in the fundamental and other harmonic components for marginal changes in
fundamental frequency.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
44
Figure 3.5 Fundamental amplitude and phase angle error of the DFT method
for sudden change in input signal at t=0.1 sec.
(a)
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
45
(b)
(c)
Figure 3.6 Actual (solid) and estimated components using DFT method (dash)
of a signal (Top), and waveform error (bottom) for 1Hz increase in
fundamental frequency at t = 0.06 sec : (a) Fundamental
component, (b) Fifthorder harmonic component and (c) Seventh
order harmonic component.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
46
3.3 The Performance of Wavelet Transform (WT) Method
This section presents the performance of the wavelet transform based harmonic
detection method. The MATLAB/Wavelet Toolbox commands are used to implement
the wavelet transform. Two different mother wavelet packets, namely Daubechies 10
(db10) and Symlets 10, (sym10) are used in a discrete wavelet packet filter bank with 4
levels. The different mother wavelet allows for the demonstrating effect of the type of
the mother wavelet on estimation accuracy. The input waveform given in (3.1) is
sampled at 3200 Hz and decomposed at 4
th
level (i.e.
4
2 16 = subbands). Thus, each
frequency subband has a bandwidth of 3200/16 = 200Hz. Table 3.1 shows the
decompose component, corresponding sub bands and the harmonic order to be
estimated using a 4 level filter bank. The fundamental frequency of the given input
signal is 50 Hz. The amplitude and phase angle values of the fundamental and harmonic
components are computed from the CWT of corresponding subband as explained in
(2.21) and (2.22) of Chapter 2. As explained in Chapter 2, only the decomposed
components at 4
th
level are used to calculate the amplitude and phase angle values of the
components because each frequency subband at level 4 completely covers the
information of the respective harmonic component.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
47
Table 3.1 Decomposed components, frequency subbands and fundamental and
harmonic components
Subbands Frequency Band (Hz) Harmonic Component
d6 500600 11
th
d5 400500 9
th
d4 300400 7
th
d3 200300 5
th
d2 100200 3
rd
d1 0100 Fundamental
The decomposed components of the waveform given in (3.1) with noise (SNR= 17dB)
for db10 filter bank are shown in Figure 3.7. Table 3.2 shows the estimated values and
errors of amplitude and phase angles for the db10 filter bank. According to this table,
the maximum amplitude error of 0.0323 pu occurs in the 11
th
order harmonic and
minimum of 0.0055pu occurs in the fundamental. The maximum phase angle error
occurs in the 9
th
order harmonic which is 28.2 degrees. The minimum error of 1.89
degrees occurs in the estimated fundamental component.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
48
Figure 3.7 First six decomposed components of postulated input waveform
using Daubechies 10 (db10) 4level filter bank.
Table 3.2 Estimated amplitude and phase angle values using db10 4level filter
bank.
Amplitude Phase angle
Harmonic
Order
DWT
(db10)
Error
(pu)
DWT
(db10)
Error
(degrees)
11
th
0.0177 0.0323 137.3 17.3
9
th
0.1026 0.026 55.19 28.2
7
th
0.225 0.025 15.47 20.53
5
th
0.327 0.027 146.6 3.4
3
rd
0.3757 0.0242 55.64 5.64
Fundamental 0.9945 0.0055 43.11 1.89
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
49
The decomposed components for the filter bank with the Symlets 10 (sym10) mother
wavelet packet is shown in Figure 3.8. Table 3.3 shows the estimated and error values
of the amplitudes and phase angles for the sym10 filter bank. The maximum amplitude
error for this case occurs in the estimated 3
rd
order harmonic and the value is 0.0525pu.
The minimum amplitude error of 0.007pu occurs in the 9
th
order harmonic component.
A maximum of 42 degrees and minimum of 1.27degrees phase angle errors occur in the
11
th
and 3
rd
order harmonic components respectively.
It is clear from the Table 3.2 and Table 3.3 that different mother wavelet packets results
in different estimation errors in amplitude and phase angle for the same input signal.
Thus, a poor selection of the mother wavelet may lead to inaccuracy in estimations.
Figure 3.8 First six decomposed components of postulated input waveform
using Symlets 10 (sym10) 4level filter bank.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
50
Table 3.3 Estimated amplitude and phase angle values using sym10 4level filter
bank.
Amplitude Phase angle
Harmonic
Order
DWT
“sym10”
Error
(pu)
DWT
“sym10”
Error
(degree)
11
th
0.035 0.015 109.6 10.4
9
th
0.1007 0.007 72 42
7
th
0.1676 0.0324 32.89 3.11
5
th
0.2951 0.0049 135.5 14.5
3
rd
0.4525 0.0525 51.27 1.27
Fundamental 1.034 0.034 46.65 1.65
3.4 The Performance of Conventional Least Squares (CLS) Method
This section investigates the performance of the CLSbased harmonic detection method.
A sampling frequency of 3 kHz and 30 number of samples (i.e. L =30) have been chosen
for the simulation study. The same postulated waveform given in (3.1) is used as the
input signal.
Figure 3.9 and Figure 3.10 show the steadystate amplitude and phase angle error
respectively for the CLS method. This simulation is conducted for a noise polluted input
signal with SNR of 17dB and for unpolluted (i.e. zero noise) input signal. As can be
seen in Figure 3.9 the amplitude error for the polluted signal stays below 0.02 pu in the
fundamental and all harmonic components. The maximum steadystate phase angle
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
51
error of 15 degrees and minimum of 1 degree occur in the 11
th
order harmonic and the
fundamental component respectively. These can be observed in Figure 3.10.
Figure 3.9 Steadystate amplitude error of CLS method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB
(solid).
Figure 3.10 Phase angle error of CLS method for each harmonic component:
zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB (solid).
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
52
The detection time of the CLS is illustrated in Figure 3.11. The top graph shows the
postulated input waveform. As can be seen in this figure the CLS method takes less than
half of the fundamental cycle to initiate the detection of the fundamental component of
the postulated waveform.
Figure 3.11 Detection time of CLS method.
Figure 3.12 shows the transient error of the CLS method for a sudden 50% increase in
amplitude and 20 degrees in phase angles of all the component of the postulated
waveform at t=0.1 sec. This figure shows that the CLS method takes less than half of a
fundamental cycle transient time (i.e. less than 10ms).
Figure 3.13 (a),(b) and (c) show the actual and estimated fundamental, fifthorder and
seventhorder harmonic components of the signal with 1 Hz fundamental frequency
increase at t= 0.06 sec. As can be seen in these figures, the CLS methods are capable of
damping transient errors within 10 ms (i.e. less than half fundamental cycle) and the
steadystate error is about 5% for the fundamental component. However the steadystate
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
53
errors for the harmonic components have significantly high value as can be seen in
Figure 3.13 (a) and (b).
Figure 3.12 Fundamental amplitude and phase angle error of the CLS method
for sudden change in input signal at t=0.1 sec.
(a)
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
54
(b)
(c)
Figure 3.13 Actual (solid) and estimated components using CLS method (dash)
of a signal (top), and waveform error (bottom) for 1Hz increase in
fundamental frequency at t = 0.06 sec : (a) Fundamental
component, (b) Fifthorder harmonic component and (c) Seventh
order harmonic component.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
55
3.5 The Performance of a Kalman Filtering (KF) Method
The performance of the Kalman filter method of harmonic estimation given in Chapter
2, under different operating conditions, is investigated in this section. For this
investigation, the sampling frequency of the KF algorithm is selected to be 3200Hz (i.e.
64 50 × Hz). The following initial conditions and parameters for the KF method are
selected for the simulation.
(i) Zero initial process ˆ
0
x

vector.
(ii) Null initial covariance matrix (
0
P

).
(iii) Constant noise variance ( R ) of 0.0005.
(iv) Constant diagonal state variable covariance matrix ( Q) with each diagonal
element equal to
5
6 10
÷
× .
The performance of the KF method in estimating amplitude and phase angle of the
fundamental and harmonic components is studied with respect to noise by utilizing the
6
th
order KF. The same postulated input signal given in (3.1) is used with (i) noise of
SNR = 17 dB and (ii) zero noise. Figure 3.14 and Figure 3.15 show the estimation error
of amplitude and phase angles respectively of the fundamental and harmonic
components. The maximum amplitude error of 0.07pu is observed in the 3
rd
and 5
th
order harmonic components. The maximum phase angle error occurs in the 11
th
harmonic and the actual value is about 65 degrees. However, it should be noted that the
estimation error of the KF method depends on noise variance ( R ), state variable
covariance matrix ( Q) and the order of the KF. Thus, choice of proper KF parameters is
essential for good estimation of amplitudes and phase angles.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
56
Figure 3.14 Steadystate amplitude error of KF method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB
(solid).
Figure 3.15 Steadystate phase angle error of KF method for each harmonic
component: zero noise (dash) and with noise of SNR = 17dB
(solid).
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
57
The detection time of the above KF is illustrated in Figure 3.16. The top graph shows
the postulated waveform. As can be seen in the bottom graph, it takes 15 ms to detect
the amplitude for the KF with the given initial conditions and parameters described
earlier.
Figure 3.16 Detection time of KF method.
The performance of the KF method with respect to the marginal fundamental frequency
changes is now investigated. Figure 3.17 (a),(b) and (c) show the actual and estimated
fundamental, fifthorder and seventhorder harmonic components of the signal with 1
Hz fundamental frequency increase at t = 0.06 sec. As can be seen in these figures, the
transient error is damped within 10ms. In this example the KF shows slightly less
steadystate errors in fundamental and harmonics compared to the CLS method
discussed in the previous section for fundamental frequency increase. It should be noted
again that the KF method performance depends on the KF parameters and thus, the
steadystate error values may vary for different selection of parameters.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
58
(a)
(b)
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
59
(c)
Figure 3.17 Actual (solid) and estimated components using KF method (dash)
of a signal (top), and waveform error (bottom) for 1Hz increase in
fundamental frequency at t = 0.06 sec: (a) Fundamental
component, (b) Fifthorder harmonic component and (c) Seventh
order harmonic component.
 Performance and the order of Kalman filter
In harmonic detection, the order of the KF must be chosen according to the highest
harmonic order to be estimated and selecting a lower order KF results in a larger error in
the estimated amplitudes and phase angles. Thus, higher estimation accuracy can be
achieved by choosing a higher order KF. However, the transient time of the KF
increases with the order of the KF and a higher order KF provides slower dynamic
response compared to that of a lower order KF. There is a tradeoff between estimation
accuracy and transient time and therefore the selection of the order of the KF is based
on the specification for the application.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
60
In order to show the effect of the order of the KF, simulations are conducted for the 1
st
and 6
th
order Kalman filters. These Kalman filters are applied to identify two cases: (i)
step change in waveform and (ii) short duration disturbance.
Figure 3.18 shows that the KF estimation example for 100% step change in input
waveform consists of 1 pu fundamental and 0.1 pu 5
th
order harmonic components. As
can be seen in this figure, the 1
st
order KF is faster in tracking the change than is the 6
th
order. The reduction in tracking speed (i.e. higher transient time) is due to the fact that
the energy of the sudden change in the amplitude is spread over all frequencies in the
higher order KF case. The 6
th
order KF takes approximately half a cycle before the
estimated amplitude converges to true value. Comparatively, a very short time is
required for the 1
st
order KF. However, the 1
st
order KF estimation is affected by the
presence of the harmonic element unlike the 6
th
order KF that gives almost negligible
steadystate error.
Figure 3.18 Transient response of the KF method: The input waveform with
step change at t=0.1sec (top), amplitude of fundamental (middle),
fundamental amplitude error (bottom).
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
61
Figure 3.19 shows the performance of the 1
st
and 6
th
order KFs in identifying a short
duration amplitude disturbance. For this simulation a fundamental frequency waveform
(i.e. harmonic free) of amplitude 1pu is chosen and the amplitude is increased to 1.5pu
for one cycle duration (i.e. for 20ms). The magnitude estimated by the 1
st
order KF is
closer to the actual amplitude during the event than is that from the 6
th
order KF. This is
due to the slower response of the 6
th
order KF. The steadystate error of the 1
st
order KF
estimation is negligible due the harmonic free input waveform.
Figure 3.19 Transient response of the KF method to short duration disturbance:
the waveform of short duration disturbance (top) and estimated
amplitude using KF (bottom).
3.6 Comparison of the Studied Methods
This section compares the performance of the above studied methods for power system
harmonic estimation. The comparisons are made in terms of effect of noise and
marginal variation in the fundamental frequency on the accuracy of estimation and the
transient response time of the methods.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
62
3.6.1 Effect of noise distortion on estimation accuracy
The level of error incurred in estimated amplitude and phase angle versus SNR is
depicted for the DFT, WT, CLS and KF methods. A range from a highly noise polluted
signal (SNR=10dB) to a low noise polluted signal (SNR=50dB) is covered and the error
is measured in the steadystate. The maximum steadystate amplitude and phase angle
errors of the fundamental component for varying SNR are shown in Figure 3.20 and
Figure 3.21, respectively. The same sampling frequency and number of samples are
used in order to compare various methods. The KF estimation error results given in
Figure 3.20 and Figure 3.21 correspond to the 6
th
order KF.
Figure 3.20 shows the WT method has the maximum level of amplitude noise immunity
among the studied methods. The DFT/FFT is the most sensitive method to noise. The
level of amplitude noise immunity of the KF and CLS methods are in between the two
extremes and both methods show almost the same amplitude error for the range of SNR
from 27dB to 50dB. The noise immunity of the KF depends on the KF parameters as
explained earlier and proper parameters must be selected to reduce the estimation error.
Figure 3.21 shows that the WT method has the smallest phase angle error throughout
the given SNR range. The CLS method has almost the same phase angle error as the KF
method for high signal to noise ratios: from SNR of 35 to 50dB. The KF shows less
phase error for lower SNRs (i.e. highly noise polluted waveforms) than that of the CLS.
The DFT has the highest phase angle error among all the methods under noise pollution.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
63
Figure 3.20 Comparison of estimated fundamental amplitude error for various
methods verses signaltonoise ratio (SNR).
Figure 3.21 Comparison of estimated fundamental phase angle error for
various methods verses signaltonoise ratio (SNR).
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
64
3.6.2 Effect of marginal fundamental frequency variation on the estimation
accuracy
This section investigates the robustness of the studied methods against marginal
variations in the fundamental frequency. The percentage waveform errors of the
fundamental, 5
th
and 7
th
order harmonic components for varying frequencies from 48
52 Hz are given in Figure 3.22.
As can be seen from Figure 3.22, the KF method and CLS method have the smallest
level of error relative to the fundamental frequency change while the DFT method is the
most sensitive to fundamental frequency variations. The percentage errors for harmonic
components are significantly higher than that of the fundamental for all the methods.
Figure 3.22 Comparison of the waveform errors against fundamental frequency
variation of the studied methods.
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
65
3.6.3 Transient response time
Among the studied methods the CLS method takes transient response time of less than
half a cycle of the fundamental frequency. The 6
th
order KF, which is given above, also
responds to the amplitude and phase angle change within a half a cycle. However, the
KF transient response time depends on the parameters Q and R , and the order of the
KF as described earlier in Section 3.5. The DFT/FFT methods have slower response
compared to the CLS and KF methods and take at least 1 cycle to detect the amplitudes
and phase angles. The wavelet transforms do not usually find practical application in
dynamic realtime harmonic detection due to reasons discussed in Section 2.2.2. As a
consequence, the transient response of the WT has not been investigated in this thesis.
3.7 Summary
This chapter extensively investigated the performances of the existing harmonic
detection techniques using computer simulation. The investigation focused on studying
the effect of noise distortion, sensitivity to marginal fundamental frequency variations
and transient response of each method, namely DFT/FFT, WT, CLS, and KF.
The DFT/FFT methods take more than one cycle transient time to estimate the
amplitude and phase angle. These methods show high estimation error for noise
distorted waveforms. Thus, DFT/FFT methods are practically suited only for estimating
harmonic components of low noise distorted stationary signals in power systems.
Moreover, they have the highest sensitivity to fundamental frequency variations among
all the discussed methods.
The wavelet transform has the highest noise immunity. However, the type of mother
wavelet has great impact on the estimation accuracy and prior knowledge about the
Chapter3: Performance of the Existing Techniques for Power System Harmonic Estimation
66
measurement signal is essential for proper selection of mother wavelet. Thus, this
method is not suitable for online harmonic estimation of time varying signals, even
though it can provide excellent results in offline power system disturbance analysis.
The Kalman filter method has good noise immunity and better estimation accuracy
against marginal variations of the fundamental frequency. However, there is a tradeoff
between the estimation accuracy and transient response time. The performance of the
KF method depends on parameter matrices Q and R , and the order of the KF. The
higher order KF has slower transient response. Even though the lower order KF
provides fast transient response, it cannot cover higher order harmonics in the
measurement waveforms; this results in significant estimation errors in the steadystate.
The CLSbased method shows good estimation accuracy in detecting amplitudes and
phase angles under noise distortions conditions. The transient response time of the CLS
is less than half a cycle. This method also has a better estimation accuracy compared to
the DFT/FFT in identifying fundamental and harmonics under condition of marginal
variations in fundamental frequency. However, as discussed in chapter 2, this method
has the drawback of high computational complexity.
The next chapter proposes an enhancement to the liner least squares algorithm that
overcomes the main drawbacks of the CLS method.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
67
CHAPTER 4
PROPOSED EFFICIENT LEAST SQUARES
TECHNIQUE FOR POWER SYSTEM
HARMONIC DETECTION
4.1 Overview
After providing a rigorous definition of the harmonic extraction problem in the previous
chapters, this chapter introduces and studies the proposed development of a harmonic
identification method based on a linear least squares algorithm for realtime applications
such as monitoring and disturbance mitigation. A harmonic identification method that is
suitable for realtime monitoring and disturbance mitigation should satisfy the following
criteria:
(i) Mathematical simplicity so that it can be practically implemented
(ii) Fast detection and tracking of disturbance
(iii) Accuracy in extracting disturbance signal
(iv) Robustness against marginal changes in the system frequency
These conditions are imposed by practical requirements and each practical application
dictates the degree of speed, accuracy and robustness which it demands.
Various schemes described in Chapters 2 and 3 have been proposed in the literature to
give a solution to this problem. However, the research in this area still continues and the
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
68
need for faster, more precise and more robust algorithms having simple structure for
implementation purposes still exists.
In the rest of this chapter, an improvement for the conventional least squares harmonic
detection technique, which has already been described in chapter 2 and 3, is proposed
with regard to the overall problem. This improved method is referred to in this thesis as
the Efficient Least Squares algorithm. The mathematical governing equations of the
proposed method are provided and the features are illustrated. The proposed method is
also compared with existing methods in terms of the performance with respect to the
harmonic detection issue.
4.2 Mathematical Derivation of the Proposed Efficient Least Squares
Algorithm for Harmonic Detection
This section presents the proposed efficient least squares algorithm with the goal of
eliminating the problems of the conventional least squares algorithm in Chapter 2,
particularly, reducing the computational requirement so that it can be used in realtime
monitoring and disturbance mitigation applications. The intuitive foundation of the
proposed approach lies in the application of the singular value decomposition (SVD) to
the least squares algorithm. The SVD is a powerful and computationally stable
mathematical tool for solving rectangular matrices which has found many applications
in numerical computing [47],[48],[49]. It has been shown that application of the SVD
eliminates the matrix inversion problem of the conventional least squares algorithm and
also provides better noise immunity for estimation. Successful offline harmonic
detection using the SVD based least squares algorithms have been demonstrated in the
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
69
literature [28], [50]. Even though these approaches eliminate the matrix inversion
problem, the computational burden remains high for effective realtime application.
In the proposed approach, realtime computational burden is reduced by rearranging and
precalculating matrices of the conventional least squares algorithm. The proposed
method is capable of measuring the harmonic signals accurately while requiring less
realtime computations compared to the conventional least squares and direct SVD
based methods. The analysis and implementation of the proposed method is carried out
in the timedomain. This allows convenient application of the method to realtime
power system harmonic identification for monitoring and mitigation applications.
As mentioned earlier in this section, the intuition for the proposed approach has been
drawn from the SVD based least square algorithm. Therefore, the mathematical
description for the proposed approach begins with a brief introduction to the SVD based
least squares method, even though the proposed method is not directly derived from this
latter method.
4.2.1 Singular value decomposition (SVD) based least squares method
The general power system signal given in (2.1), can be written in complex form as
shown below.
( ) ( )
1
cos
K
i i i
i
y t X t e u
=
= +
¯
( ) ( )
( )
1
1
2
i i i i
K
j t j t
i
i
X e e
e u e u + ÷ +
=
= +
¯
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
70
( )
1
1
2
i i i i
K
j j t j j t
i i
i
X e e X e e
u e u e ÷ ÷
=
= +
¯
(4.1)
The discretetime version of (4.1) can be written in matrix term as
( ) ( )
1
1
2
i i i i
K
j j mT j j mT
i i
i
y m X e e X e e
u e u e ÷ ÷
=
= +
¯
(4.2)
= y A x
(4.3)
where
( )
( )
( )
1
( )
1
y n
y n
y m
y n L
÷
=
÷ +
y
#
#
,
1
1
1
1
i
i
K
K
j
j
j
i
j
i
j
K
j
K
X e
X e
X e
X e
X e
X e
u
u
u
u
u
u
÷
÷
÷
=
x
#
#
and
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1
2
K K
K K
i i
K K
j nT j nT j nT j nT
j n T j n T j n T j n T
j mT j mT
j n L T j n L T j n L T j n L T
e e e e
e e e e
e e
e e e e
e e e e
e e e e
e e
e e e e
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
=
A
" " " "
" " " "
# # " " " " # #
# # " " # #
# # " " " " # #
" " " "
Application of singular value decomposition allows solving the system equation without
matrix inversion. In this approach, the rectangular matrix A
is represented as the
product of three matrices [28],
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
71
= A USV
T
(4.4)
where U
is a columnorthogonal matrix of the dimensions 2 L K × , V
is an orthogonal
matrix of the dimensions 2 2 K K × , while S
is a 2 2 K K × matrix of singular values with
non zero diagonal entries,
1 2
, , ,
p
s s s ! ordered in a descending way,
(i.e.
1 2
... 0
p
s s s > > > > ).
By substituting (4.4) into the conventional least square algorithm given in (2.24), the
algorithm for the SVD based least squares can be found as shown below.
1
r r r
÷
= x VS U y
T
(4.5)
where
1
1 2
1 1 1
, ,...,
r
p
diag
s s s
÷
=
S
The amplitude and phase angle for each harmonic component can thus be obtained. The
reduced size matrices
r
U
and
r
V
are created from the original matrices by taking the
first columns from the matrix U
and the first rows from the matrix V
, respectively.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
i
i
K
K
j
R I
j
R I
j
i i
i R I
j
i i i R I
j
K K K
R I
j
K
K K
R I
A j A
X e
B j B
X e
A j A
X e
B j B X e
X e A j A
X e
B j B
u
u
u
u
u
u
÷
÷
÷
+
+
+
= =
+
+
+
x
! #
# !
(4.6)
Thus, the amplitude
i
X and phase angle
i
u of the i
th
signal harmonic are given below.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
72
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
i i i i i
R I R I
X A A B B = + = + and
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
tan tan
i i
I I
i
i i
R R
A B
A B
u
÷ ÷
   
= =
 
 
\ . \ .
(4.7)
The main advantage of the SVD based least square method is that it eliminates the
matrix inversion problem of the conventional least squares method. However, this SVD
based least squares algorithm has high computational complexity since it requires three
matrix multiplications to perform. Even though this algorithm has many advantages in
offline applications, the high computational complexity makes it unsuitable for real
time harmonic detection applications.
This discussion leads to the proposal of another matrix manipulation technique to avoid
the shortcoming of the SVD in realtime applications. This technique is described
below.
4.2.2 Proposed efficient least squares technique
By applying the exponential relationship
( )
i i i
j T n L j LT j nT
e e e
e e e ÷ ÷
= to matrix A
in (4.3),
matrix A
can be decomposed into matrix P
and Q
as shown in (4.8).
= A P Q
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
2
0 0 0
0 0 0
K K
K K
K
K K K
j nT
j T j T j T j T
j nT
j T j T j T j T
j nT
j L T j L T j L T j L T j nT
e
e e e e
e
e e e e
e
e e e e e
e
e e e e
e
e e e e
e
e e e e e
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
A
"
"
"
"
"
# # " # #
# # " # #
#
" "
(4.8)
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
73
The significance of (4.8) is that the matrix P
is now a constant matrix ( 2 L K × ) (i.e.
time invariant). The Q
is a time varying diagonal matrix ( 2 2 K K × ).
Substituting matrix A
of (4.8) into the conventional least square algorithm given in
(2.24),
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1
÷
÷
= =
x A A A y PQ PQ PQ y
T T
T T
( )
1 ÷
= x Q P PQ Q P y
T T T T
( ) ( )
1 1 ÷ ÷
= x P PQ Q Q P y
T T T T
( )
1
1
= x Q P P Q QP y
1 T T
( )
1
= x Q P P P y
1 T T
(4.9)
Let
( )
1
= C P P P
T T
, C
is a constant matrix, and
1 * ÷
= Q Q
(complex conjugate), since
Q
is diagonal matrix. The
*
Q
is shown below.
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
K
K
j nT
j nT
j nT
j nT
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
÷
÷
=
Q
"
"
# # " # #
#
"
*
(4.10)
Now, (4.9) can be written as follows:
= x Q Cy
*
(4.11)
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
74
The amplitude and phase angle for each harmonic component can thus be obtained.
1
1
1
1
i
i
K
K
j
j
j
i
j
i
j
K
j
K
X e
X e
X e
X e
X e
X e
u
u
u
u
u
u
÷
÷
÷
=
x
#
#
(4.12)
The amplitude
i
X and phase angle
i
u of the i
th
order harmonic can be obtained as
described earlier in (4.7).
As may be seen, the matrix C
is time invariant (i.e. constant) and can be precalculated.
Equation (4.11) shows that only two realtime matrix multiplications are required since
the matrix C
is precalculated. This algorithm also does not require matrix inversion.
This algorithm shows some improvement over the SVD based least squares method
with respect to the computational complexity in realtime. For example, the number of
realtime multiplication/addition operations required for this improved method is
( )
2
2 (2 ) L K L K + and this is lower compared to that of the SVD based least squares
method: ( )
3
2
2 (2 ) (2 ) K L K L K + + and CLS method: ( )
3
2
2 2 (2 ) K L K L + + . However,
complex arithmetic and matrix operations in the above improved method given in (4.11)
still requires a significantly large number of computational steps for realtime
applications.
The computational cost of the method given in (4.11) can be further reduced by
representing it in real number matrices using a rotational matrix. Furthermore, the real
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
75
number matrix equation will be rearranged to include time varying components to the
output matrix so that the algorithm can be used efficiently in harmonic detection for
mitigation applications. The following describes these developments.
The Euler's equation cos sin
j
e j
u
u u = + can be represented as a 2 2 × rotation matrix
as shown below [51].
cos sin
cos sin ( )
sin cos
j
e j
u
u u
u u u
u u
= + ÷÷÷ =
÷
R (4.13)
The elements of matrix P
and Q
in (4.8) are in the form of complex exponentials and
this can be represented in rotation matrix form with real numbers by letting the matrix
(4.13) substitute the elements of (4.8) as follows
1 1
1 1
(0) (0) (0) (0)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
( ) ( ) 2
( ( 1) ) ( ( 1) ) ( ( 1) ) ( ( 1) )
K K
i i
K K
T T T T
mT mT
L T L T L T L T
e e e e
e e
e e e e
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
R R R R
R R R R
P
R R
R R R R
" " " "
" " " "
# # " " " " # #
# # " " # #
# # " " " " # #
" " " "
(4.14)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
i
i
K
K
nT
nT
nT
nT
nT
nT
e
e
e
e
e
e
÷
=
÷
÷
R
R
R
Q
R
R
R
" " " "
" " " "
# # " " " " # #
" "
" "
# # " " " " # #
" " " "
" " " "
(4.15)
where matrices PandQ are real number version of matrices P
and Q
respectively.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
76
( )
i
mT e R and ( )
i
mT e ÷ R elements of matrix P in (4.14) can be rearranged as
cos( ) sin( ) cos( ) sin( )
( )
sin( ) cos( ) sin( ) cos( )
m
i i i i m
i i
i i i i
mT mT T T
mT
mT mT T T
e e e e
e
e e e e
= = =
÷ ÷
R H (4.16)
Similarly,
( )
m
i i
mT e ÷ = R H (4.17)
where
m
i
H is the transpose of
m
i
H .
By applying
m
i
H and
m
i
H representation to (4.14),
0 0 0 0
1 1 K K
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
(L1) (L1) (L1) (L1)
1 1 K K
1
2
m m
i i
=
H H H H
H H H H
P
H H
H H H H
" " " "
" " " "
# # " " " " # #
# # " " # #
# # " " " " # #
" " " "
(4.18)
The real number version of (4.9) can be written as
( )
=
1
X Q P P P Y
1 T T
(4.19)
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
77
where
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
i i
i i
K K
K K
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
R
R
R
R
X
R
R
R
R
#
#
and
( )
( )
( )
( )
(0)
1 (0)
(0)
1 (0)
y n
y n
y m
y n L
÷
=
÷ +
R
R
Y
R
R
#
#
X is real number matrix version of complex vector x . Y is real number matrix version
real number vector y . It may be noted that each sampled data in Y is multiplied by
rotational matrix (0) R since the input data is considered as the reference. This also
result in an appropriate dimensions for output matrix Y . Similar to the complex
representation in (4.9) the time invariant matrix (i.e., constant matrix) in real number
representation
( )
1
C= P P P
T T
is defined.
Substituting C into (4.19) and rearranging,
= QX CY (4.20)
Lets define a real number matrix
o
X as below
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1
1 1 1
o
0 0 0 ( )
0 0 0 ( )
0 0 0 0 0 ( )
0 0 0 0 0 ( )
0 0 0 ( )
0 0 0 ( )
i i i
i i i
K K K
K K K
nT X
nT X
nT X
nT X
nT X
nT X
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
R R
R R
R R
X = QX
R R
R R
R R
" " " "
" " " "
# # " " " " # # #
" "
" "
# # " " " " # # #
" " " "
" " " "
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
78
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1
1 1 1
o
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
i i i
i i i
K K K
K K K
X nT
X nT
X nT
X nT
X nT
X nT
u e
u e
u e
u e
u e
u e
×
÷ × ÷
×
=
÷ × ÷
×
÷ × ÷
R R
R R
R R
X
R R
R R
R R
#
#
1 1 1
1 1 1
o
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
i i i
i i i
K K K
K K K
X nT
X nT
X nT
X nT
X nT
X nT
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
+
÷ ÷
+
=
÷ ÷
+
÷ ÷
R
R
R
X
R
R
R
#
#
(4.21)
In the above matrix manipulation the timevarying terms in matrix Q are moved into
matrix X.
By substituting
o
X = QX into (4.20),
o
= X CY (4.22)
Here,
o
X is the output matrix of dimension 4 2 K × , which contains information of K
number of harmonics including the fundamental. Matrix C is time invariant (i.e.
constant matrix) and its dimensions are 4 2 K L × . The input sampled data matrix Y has
dimensions 2 2 L× .
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
79
However, (4.22) defined above contains repetitive information due to the rotational
matrix representation. As a result, the size of matrices in (4.22) are larger than required
for identifying K number of harmonics including the fundamental.
By removing the repetitive rows and columns from these matrices the following more
compact matrix relationship can be obtained. This matrix equation is given below.
c
=
c
x C y (4.23)
where
c
x is a output vector containing 2K elements,
c
C is the compact version of matrix C.
Equation (4.23) can be elaborated with its element as given below.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1
1,1 1, 1 1 1
2 ,
2 1,
2K,1 2K,L
cos
c c sin
1
c cos
c sin
c c cos
1
sin
L
i m i i i
i+ m i i i
K K K
K K K
X nT
y n
X nT
y n
X nT
X nT
y m
X nT
y n L
X nT
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
+
+
÷
+
=
+
+
÷ +
+
" " "
# " " " # #
# " " # #
# " " #
# " " " # #
#
" " "
(4.24)
Equation (4.24) characterises the proposed Efficient Least Squares algorithm for
harmonic identification. The proposed method samples the measuring signal y(t) at a
sampling period, T , and the discretetime sequence y(m) is obtained
( 1),... 1) m= n,(n  (n  L+ ), where n corresponds to the present sample and L is the
number of samples (i.e., window size). This sampled data is represented as a vector y
of length L as shown in (4.24).
c
C is a time invariant, 2K L × matrix. All the elements
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
80
of this matrix (i.e.
1,1
c ,
2,1
c …etc) can be precalculated given that the frequencies of the
required harmonic components (
i
e ), number of sample points ( L ) and sampling period
(T ) are known.
c
x is a vector of length 2K containing instantaneous cosine and sine
terms of the fundamental and harmonic components as shown in (4.24).
The proposed efficient least squares algorithm calculates instantaneous cosine and sine
terms of the fundamental and harmonic components by simply multiplying a set of input
data samples by a precalculated constant matrix. The algorithm does not require matrix
inversion and it contains only real numbers. This algorithm performs only one matrix
multiplication per sample time. One matrix multiplication corresponds to only 2K L ×
multiplication/addition operations, since the size of the constant matrix in the efficient
least squares algorithm is 2K L × . These features make this algorithm computationally
efficient and therefore, it is very suitable for realtime harmonic detection. The number
of computations to be solved in this method depends upon the number of harmonics
required to be identified. This allows for saving in processing power when the numbers
of required harmonics are less than the total number, even if the required harmonics are
of higher order.
Generally, a minimal value for L is desired, since it will determine the time taken to
extract the harmonic. However, it should not be less than double of the total number of
harmonic components to be extracted, 2K . This requirement is to ensure that with the
proposed method there are a sufficient number of inputs and to maintain the required
accuracy. The response time of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm depends
on the sampling period (T ) and the number of captured samples ( L ), and it is given by
T L × . In order to improve the response time a smaller sampling period (T ) can be
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
81
used. However, this will increase the sensitivity of the matrix, which may lead to lower
identification accuracy under noise conditions.
As noted earlier in this section,
c
x in (4.24) that the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm determines the instantaneous cosine and sine terms instead of the amplitudes
and the phase angles of the fundamental and harmonic components. This is
advantageous in mitigation applications as the detected instantaneous components can
be used directly. Nevertheless, it is also possible to calculate the values of the
amplitudes and phase angles of each harmonic component as follows.
The amplitude
i
X of the i
th
order component is given by
( ) ( )
2 2
cos sin
i i i i i i i
X X nT X nT e u e u = + + +
ѽ (4.25)
If a reference time is defined, the phase angle
i
u of the i
th
order component can be
calculated by
( )
( )
1
sin
tan
cos
i i i
i i
i i i
X nT
nT
X nT
e u
u e
e u
÷
  +
= ÷


+
\ .
ҏ (4.26)
4.3 Performance of the Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm
This section analyses computational complexity, detection time and the estimator
performance using CramerRao Lower Bound (CRLB) for the proposed efficient least
squares algorithm.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
82
4.3.1 Computational complexity
The computational complexity of an algorithm can be evaluated in terms of the
additions and multiplications required. Higher number of additions and multiplications
result in higher computational complexity. Among these operations, multiplication
requires significantly higher execution time compared to addition in microprocessor
based calculations.
Table 4.1 illustrates the realtime computational complexity of the proposed efficient
least squares algorithm and various other existing harmonic identification methods. In
order to facilitate the comparison with the existing algorithm, it will be assumed that the
number of captured sampling data points is 32 (i.e. L = 32); the number of harmonic
components to be extracted is 5 (i.e. K =5); and the number of harmonic components
present in the input signal is 7 (i.e., M =7).
Table 4.1 shows, from top to bottom, the computation complexity of the conventional
DFT [46], FFT method [35], conventional least square method (CLS), Kalman filter
method [46] and the proposed efficient least squares algorithm. The computational
complexity of the FFT method depends only on the number of captured sampling data
points ( L ). The computational requirements of the DFT, CLS and the proposed
methods depend on the number of captured sampling data points ( L ) as well as the
number of harmonic components to be extracted ( K ). For the KF method, the number
of operations depends on the number of harmonic components present in the input
signal ( M ).
Considering the number of calculation operation, the FFT is the most efficient; the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm also requires few calculations and becomes
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
83
more advantageous than the FFT method when only the fundamental components is to
be extracted (i.e., K =1). The Kalman filter is somewhat disadvantageous because its
model should include not only the harmonic components that must be detected, but also
the other significant harmonic components of the input signal. The DFT and CLS
method require a very high number of calculation operations; this confirms the
difficulty in realtime implementation of the DFT and CLS methods.
Table 4.1 Comparison of the realtime computational cost (number of calculation
operations)
Method Multiplication Addition Total
Basic DFT
4 6 LK K +
670
2 1 LK ÷
319 989
Basic FFT
2
log
2
L
L
80
2
log L L
160
240
Conventional
Least Square (CLS)
( )
3
2
2 8 K LK L + +
7432
( )
3
2
2 8 K LK L + +
7432
14864
Kalman Filter
2
20 8 M M +
1036
2
14 6 M M +
728
1764
Proposed efficient least
squares
2LK
320
2LK
320 640
4.3.2 Detection time
The detection time can be defined as the time that the estimated signal takes to approach
the actual value within an acceptable confidence interval and remain there for a
specified time. There is a tradeoff between confidence interval and the detection time,
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
84
the more confidence the longer the detection time. Here, the detection time is defined
as the time taken to reach 99% confidence of the actual value after the start of the
measurement process. Figure 4.1 shows comparisons of detection time for the proposed
efficient least squares algorithm and the FFT method in identifying amplitude at 4 kHz
sampling frequency. The values of other parameters such as L and K were chosen to
be same as in Section 4.3.1. It is clear from Figure 4.1 that the proposed algorithm has
significantly less detection time compared to that of the FFT method.
Figure 4.1 Detection time: actual (solid), proposed efficient least squares
algorithm (dash) and FFT method (dot).
Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3 show response of the proposed method to step changes in
amplitude and phase angle of the fundamental component for three different sampling
periods. These figures confirm that the response time can be improved by a reduced
sampling period (T ), as mention in Section 4.2. However, lower sampling time causes
increase in identification errors. This problem may be observed in Figure 4.2 and Figure
4.3 with 7 kHz sampling frequency. As a consequence, there is tradeoff between
detection time and identification errors.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
85
Figure 4.2 Amplitude of the fundamental component from the proposed
efficient least squares method: at sampling frequency 3 kHz (dot),
at sampling frequency 5 kHz (dash), sampling frequency at 7 kHz
(dashdot) and actual value (solid).
Figure 4.3 Phase angle of the fundamental component from the proposed
efficient least squares method: at sampling frequency 3 kHz (dot),
at sampling frequency 5 kHz (dash), at sampling frequency 7 kHz
(dashdot) and actual value (solid).
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
86
4.3.3 CramerRao Bound (CRB) analysis
The CramerRao Lower Bound (CRLB) is a measure for evaluating the performance of
estimators under noisy conditions. The CRLB is defined to be a limit on the best
possible performance achievable for parameter estimation given a dataset. CramerRao
Bound (CRB) analysis for the proposed efficient least squares algorithm and the
conventional least squares method are carried out to compare the performances of the
estimations.
The CRB theoretical analysis is conducted to set a lower bound on the variance of the
least squares as a function of noise variance. This CRLB is compared with simulated
variances of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm and the conventional least
squares method to assess the closeness to the best possible estimation. In this thesis
CRB analysis are carried out for the two main estimation parameters, namely, amplitude
and phase angle.
In the next section, the CRLB of amplitude and phase angle are found for the least
squares estimation.
 CRLB for least squares
If, , X u are the amplitude and phase angle to be estimated, the parameter vector of the
proposed technique can be defined as   , X u = c
T
. The CramerRao Lower Bound
(CRLB) for least squares algorithm can be given in vector form as below. (Section 15.7
of [41])
( )
( )
1
ˆ
var
ij
i
÷
>
I c c (4.27)
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
87
where ( ) I c is the complex Fisher information matrix and can be defined as
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
1
2Re
ij
i j
H
i j
tr
÷ ÷
÷
c c
=
c c
c c
+
c c
x x
x x
x
C C
I C C
C
c c
c c c
c c
c c
c
c c
u u
(4.28)
The covariance matrix, ( )
1 ÷
x
C
c for the least squares algorithm is obtained as explained
in Appendix A.2. By applying this covariance matrix to the Fisher information matrix
(4.28) and simplifying (Appendix A.3)
( )
2 2
2 0
1
0
L
LX o
=
I c (4.29)
From matrix(4.29), the CRLB for estimated amplitude and phase angle can be written as
follows:
( )
2
ˆ
var
2
X
L
o
> (4.30)
( )
2
2
ˆ
var
LX
o
u > (4.31)
 Comparison of simulated estimation performances of proposed
efficient least squares algorithm and CLS method with CRLB
This section analyzes the estimation performance of the proposed efficient least squares
method and the conventional least squares technique. The error variances of amplitude
and phase angle of each method are compared to CRLB for various signals to noise
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
88
ratios (SNR). The error variances are obtained via simulations and the parameters used
for simulation are described below.
A singlephase noise polluted waveform is sampled at 3000 Hz. This waveform has
unity amplitude and 50Hz fundamental component. A sampling window of 30 samples
is chosen (i.e. L =30) for the simulations. The noise pollution is modelled as White
Gaussian Noise (WGN) and the simulations are conducted for varying the signal to
noise ratio (SNR) from 10 to 50 dB. (i.e. the noise variance
2
o from 0.05 to
5
0.5 10
÷
× pu). For each SNR value an average of 1000 independent variance realizations
is used.
Figure 4.4 and Figure 4.5 show the CRLB and the bounds reached by both methods
when estimating amplitudes and phase angles under different noise conditions. The
results show that the proposed efficient least squares algorithm approaches the CRLB
better than does the CLS method in both amplitude and phase angle estimations. Thus
the proposed efficient least squares algorithm provides better estimation accuracy under
noise pollution condition.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
89
Figure 4.4 Logarithmic variance of amplitude estimation vs. SNR: CRLB,
proposed efficient least squares method and conventional least
squares method.
Figure 4.5 Logarithmic variance of phase angle estimation vs. SNR: CRLB,
proposed efficient least squares method and conventional least
squares method.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
90
4.4 Summary
This chapter introduced and systematically discussed the proposed power system
harmonic detection technique. The proposed technique is based on the least squares
algorithm and the intuition for the proposed method is drawn from the principle of
singular value decomposition (SVD). The derivation of the proposed method is carried
out using complex number representation. In the proposed method, the matrix inversion
operation which is needed in the CLS is removed using an approach similar to the SVD.
The time varying terms in the main matrix ( A
) of the signal is separated so that some
matrix operations can be preperformed and thereby reduce the realtime computational
burden. Next, the complex representation is transformed into real number representation
using the rotational matrices. The timevarying terms are incorporated to the output
matrix in order to reduce a realtime matrix multiplication. The resultant matrix
equation is further simplified by removing the repetitive rows and columns. This
simplified matrix equation characterizes the proposed technique and it was named as the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm. The proposed efficient least squares
algorithm calculates the instantaneous cosine and sine terms of the fundamental and
harmonics components by simply multiplying a set of input data samples by a pre
calculated constant matrix. The proposed algorithm does not require any matrix
inversion operation and contains only real numbers. This algorithm performs only one
matrix multiplication per sample time which corresponds to only 2K L ×
multiplication/addition operations. The comparison shows that the proposed efficient
least squares algorithm has significantly low realtime computational complexity
compared to most of the existing harmonic detection techniques.
Chapter4: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Technique for Power System Harmonic Detection
91
The proposed efficient least squares method retains all the good features of the CLS
method, such as fast transient response and less sensitivity to marginal changes in
fundamental frequency. In addition, CramerRao bound analysis shows better
estimation performance for the proposed efficient least squares algorithm compared to
the CLS method under noise conditions.
The next chapter discusses the application of the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm for power system signal processing that is required for various realtime
monitoring and disturbance mitigation applications.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
92
CHAPTER 5
PROPOSED EFFICIENT LEAST SQUARES
ALGORITHM BASED POWER SIGNAL
PROCESSING SYSTEM
5.1 Overview
This chapter presents an application of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
which has been discussed in the previous chapter. The application covers various power
system signal processing requirements, particularly for realtime monitoring and
disturbance mitigation in power systems. The main power system quantities that need to
be identified for the monitoring, disturbance mitigation and various other purposes can
be classified as follows.
Constituting components: Identification of the fundamental and harmonic components
of the currents and the voltages in a power system is important for the disturbance
mitigation as well as the power quality monitoring. In mitigation applications such as
active power filters, the harmonic components must be identified rapidly and accurately
for the successful compensation.
Total harmonic distortion (THD) is a popular power quality measure that represents the
level of harmonic content in a power system signal. However, identification of
individual harmonic amplitudes is required for some power quality monitoring
applications. The accuracy of the estimation is the main criteria for the power quality
monitoring. In many other power system applications, the instantaneous signal (i.e.,
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
93
sinusoid) of a specific component or its basic information such as amplitude and phase
angle is required.
Symmetrical components: Stationary symmetrical components are used for fault
detection and evaluating the degree of unbalance in a power system. The stationary
symmetrical components can be calculated from the amplitudes and phase angles of
threephase signals.
Instantaneous symmetrical components are used for synchronization; dynamic grid
unbalance and voltage dip mitigation. The fast estimation of these components is
essential for such voltage unbalance or dip compensation applications.
Power components: In a power system, different measures of power such as active,
reactive, harmonic, apparent powers, and power factor are defined. These measures are
required in many applications and should be calculated from the information embedded
in the voltage and the current signals.
The signal processing methods discuss in this chapter are capable of deducing the above
mentioned power system quantities from the sampled instantaneous current and voltage
signals with greater accuracy and fast response due to the application of proposed
efficient least squares algorithm. In addition the various other advantages of the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm described in the previous chapter, such as
simple structure, high noise immunity and less sensitivity to marginal changes in
fundamental frequency are also apparent in these signal processing methods. As a result,
the proposed efficient least squares algorithm can be successfully applied not only for
the harmonic detection but also for the realtime identification of various other time
varying power system quantities.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
94
Figure 5.1 depicts a general overview of the power signal processing system discussed
in this chapter. The system receives the sampled voltage and current signals as inputs
and it outputs various power system quantities. In a singlephase system the inputs are a
single pair of voltage and current signals whereas a threephase system usually needs
three pairs of voltage and current signals which correspond to threephases. However, in
a zerosequence free threephase power system, only two pairs of voltage and current
signals are required as the third pair is dependent on the other two. The outputs of the
signal processing system are the instantaneous fundamental, harmonic and symmetrical
components; RMS values and phase angles of the fundamental and the harmonic
components; the stationary symmetrical components; total harmonic distortions; and
various power measurements including power factor.
POWER SYSTEM
SIGNAL
PROCESSING
Voltage
Signals
Current
Signals
Instantaneous fundamentals of voltages and currents
Stationary Symmetrical Components
Instantaneous harmonics of voltages and currents
RMS of harmonic components of voltages and currents
RMS of fundamental components of voltages and currents
Phase angles of harmonic components of voltages and currents
Phase angles of fundamental components of voltages and currents
THD of voltages and currents
Apparent power
Active power
Reactive power
Power factor
Instantaneous symmetrical components of voltages and currents
Figure 5.1 General overview of the power signal processing system.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
95
5.2 Structure of the Power Signal Processing System
Figure 5.2 shows the structure of the power system signal processor based on the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm. The structure of this power signal processing
system can be understood by considering four stages. As discussed in the previous
chapter, the proposed efficient least squares algorithm outputs the instantaneous cosine
and sine terms and the first stage of the signal processing system directly use them. The
first stage consists of identifying instantaneous fundamental and harmonic components
of the voltages and the currents. The outputs of the second stage of the signal processing
system are estimated by performing additional processing operations on the
instantaneous cosine and sine terms. The outputs of the second stage are the
instantaneous symmetrical components; RMS values and phase angles of the
fundamental and harmonic components; and active power of the fundamental and
harmonic components. The third stage consists of estimating the stationary symmetrical
components; total harmonic distortions (THD) of the voltages and the currents; and the
apparent power. The power system quantities in the third stage are obtained by
performing additional processing on the outputs of the second stage. The reactive power
and the power factor in the fourth stage are calculated from the active power and the
apparent power inputs. All these steps are illustrated in Figure 5.2.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
96
The
Proposed
Efficient
Least
Squares
Algorithm
Amplitude
and
Phase angle
Processing
Instantaneous symmetrical components
Phase angles of fundamental and harmonic
components of voltages and currents
Amplitudes of
symmetrical components
Phase angles of
symmetrical components
THD of voltages and currents
Reactive power
Apparent power
Stationary
Symmetrical
Components
Processing
Instantaneous
Symmetrical
Components
Processing
Active
Power
Processing
Reactive
Power
and
Power factor
Processing
Power factor
Apparent
Power
Processing
THD
Processing
Active power of fundamental and
harmonic components
Voltage
Signals
Current
Signals
Instantaneous fundamental and harmonic
components of voltages and currents
RMS of fundamental and harmonic
components of voltages and currents
Figure 5.2 Structure of the proposed power signal processing system.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
97
5.3 Analysis of the Power Signal Processing System
This section analyses the powers signal processing system based on the proposed
efficient least squares algorithm. The mathematical derivations for each of the power
system quantities mentioned in the previous section will be discussed for singlephase
and threephase power systems.
5.3.1 Power signal processing in a singlephase system
The singlephase power signal processing system requires a pair of sampled phase
voltage and current signals to estimate various power system quantities. All the
quantities given in Figure 5.1 except symmetrical components can be estimated for a
singlephase system.
As described in the previous chapter, the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
estimates the instantaneous cosine and sine terms of the fundamental and harmonic
components simply by multiplying the sampled input data (i.e. sampled voltage or
current) with a precalculated constant matrix. This constant matrix is common for the
both current and voltage estimations since it depends only on the sampling period and
the frequency values of the components to be identified. A common constant matrix
reduces memory requirement for the realtime digital signal processor implementation.
Figure 5.3 illustrates the application of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm in
estimating the instantaneous cosine and sine terms of the fundamental and the
harmonics of both the current and voltage signals. In this figure, the instantaneous
cosine and sine terms are represented using a different notation as given below.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
98
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
cos
1 1 1 1
sin
1 1 1 1
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
V
V
i i Vi i
i i Vi i
K K VK K
K K VK K
V nT v
V nT v
V nT v
V nT v
V nT v
V nT v
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
# #
# #
and
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
cos
1 1 1 1
sin
1 1 1 1
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
I
I
i i Ii i
i i Ii i
K K IK K
K K IK K
I nT i
I nT i
I nT i
I nT i
I nT i
I nT i
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
e u
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
# #
# #
(5.1)
where
i
V and
i
I are the peak amplitudes of the i
th
component of voltage and current
respectively,
and
Vi
u and
Ii
u are the phase angles of the i
th
component of voltage and current
respectively .
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
i
i
K
K
v
v
v
v
v
v
#
#
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1) v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
×
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
i
i
K
K
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1) i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
×
Constant Matrix
c
C
Figure 5.3 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine terms of fundamental
and harmonic components of voltage and current of a singlephase
system using proposed efficient least square algorithm.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
99
 Instantaneous fundamental and harmonic components of voltage and
current signals
The instantaneous fundamental and harmonic components of the voltage and the current
signals are directly given by the instantaneous cosine terms of the output matrices. This
can be represented as follows:
cos
1 1
cos
cos
i i
K K
v v
v v
v v
=
# #
# #
(5.2)
cos
1 1
cos
cos
i i
K K
i i
i i
i i
=
# #
# #
(5.3)
where
i
v and
i
i are the i
th
instantaneous harmonic component of the voltage and
current respectively. Usually, the fundamental is given by subscript i =1.
 RMS values and phase angles of fundamental and harmonic
components of voltage and current signals
The RMS value and the phase angles of the fundamental and each harmonic component
can be calculated using instantaneous cosine and sine terms of the proposed efficient
least squares algorithm. The RMS value of the i
th
component of voltage,
RMS
i
V is given in
(5.4).
( ) ( )
2 2
cos sin
1
2
RMS
i i i
V v v = + (5.4)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
100
The phase angle of thei
th
component of voltage,
Vi
u is given in (5.5).
sin
1
cos
tan
i
Vi i
i
v
nT
v
u e
÷
 
= ÷

\ .
(5.5)
The RMS values and the phase angles of the fundamental and harmonic components of
the current can be determined similarly.
The total RMS value of the voltage signal (
RMS
total
V ) and the current signal (
RMS
total
I ) can be
obtained as follows:
( )
2
1
K
RMS RMS
total i
i
V V
=
=
¯
and
( )
2
1
K
RMS RMS
total i
i
I I
=
=
¯
(5.6)
 Total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current
Total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measure representing the level of total harmonic
contamination in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the RMS value of the all
harmonic components to the RMS value of the fundamental component. The THD of
the voltage (
V
THD ) and the current (
I
THD ) can be represented mathematically as given
in (5.7) and (5.8) respectively.
( )
2
2
1
100
K
RMS
i
i
V RMS
V
THD
V
=
= ×
¯
% (5.7)
( )
2
2
1
100
K
RMS
i
i
I RMS
I
THD
I
=
= ×
¯
% (5.8)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
101
where
RMS
i
V and
RMS
i
I are the RMS values of the i
th
component of voltage and current
respectively.
 SinglePhase power measurements
Active power: The active power in a power system with harmonic distortion occurs
only due to interaction of the voltage and the current components that have the same
frequency. Interaction of voltage and current components that have two different
frequencies contributes only to the reactive and the apparent power.
The singlephase active power corresponding to each frequency (i.e. fundamental and
harmonics) can be efficiently estimated using the instantaneous cosine and sine terms of
the proposed efficient least squares algorithm. The active power corresponding to the
frequency of the i
th
component, P
active
i
is given in (5.9),
( )
cos cos sin sin
1
P
2
active
i i i i i
v i v i = + (5.9)
Proof of (5.9) is given below,
( )
cos cos sin sin
1
P
2
active
i i i i i
v i v i = +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
cos cos sin sin
2
i i Vi i i Ii i i Vi i i Ii
V nT I nT V nT I nT e u e u e u e u = + + + + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos cos sin sin
2
i i
i Vi i Ii i Vi i Ii
V I
nT nT nT nT e u e u e u e u = + + + + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
cos 2 cos cos 2 cos
4
i i
i Vi Ii Vi Ii i Vi Ii Vi Ii
V I
nT nT e u u u u e u u u u = + + + ÷ ÷ + + + ÷
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
102
( ) ( ) cos cos
2
RMS RMS i i
Vi Ii i i Vi Ii
V I
V I u u u u = ÷ = ÷
where ( ) cos
RMS RMS
i i Vi Ii
V I u u ÷ is the familiar definition for the active power in a single
phase system.
The total active power can be obtained by summing the active powers corresponding to
the each frequency components as given below.
1
P P
K
active active
total i
i=
=
¯
(5.10)
Apparent power: The apparent power of a singlephase system can be obtained by
simply multiplying the total RMS values of the voltage and the current together as
shown below.
( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
S
K K
RMS RMS RMS RMS
total total i i
i i
V I I V
= =
  
= =
 
 
\ .\ .
¯ ¯
(5.11)
Reactive power: The reactive power of a singlephase system can be obtained from the
apparent and the active power as given in (5.12).
( )
2
2
P S P
reactive active
total
= ÷ (5.12)
Power factor: The power factor of a power system that contains harmonics is defined
as the ratio of total active power to the apparent power. Thus, the power factor can be
written as,
P
PF
S
active
total
= (5.13)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
103
5.3.2 Power signal processing in threephase systems
Signal processing for threephase power systems requires three pairs of sampled phase
voltage and current signals which corresponds to the three phases, to estimate the power
system quantities. All the quantities given in Figure 5.1 can be determined for three
phase systems.
Figure 5.4 illustrates the application of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm in
estimating the instantaneous cosine and sine of the fundamental and harmonics of the
current and voltage signals in a threephase system. As can be seen in this figure, the
threephase system is a straightforward extension of the singlephase system described
in the previous section. The constant matrix of the proposed efficient least square
algorithm is common and therefore, a single matrix can be used as shown in Figure 5.4.
Most of the processing methods discussed for the singlephase system are common to
the threephase system since it is a direct extension of the singlephase system. These
power quantities include the instantaneous fundamental and harmonic components, the
RMS values, phase angles and the THD. The power measurements of the threephase
system are obtained by summing the individual phase powers as described below.
The active power corresponding to each frequency component in the threephase can be
obtained as follows,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
P P P P
active active active active
i i i i
abc a b c
= + +
( ) ( )
cos cos sin sin cos cos sin sin cos cos sin sin
1
P
2
active
i ai ai ai ai bi bi bi bi ci ci ci ci
abc
v i v i v i v i v i v i = + + + + + (5.14)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
104
where
( )
P
active
i
abc
is the threephase active power corresponding to the i
th
frequency
component.
The total active power
( )
P
active
total
abc
can be calculated by summing the active power of all
the components as given below.
( ) ( )
1
P P
K
active active
total i
abc abc
i=
=
¯
(5.15)
The threephase apparent power (
abc
S ) is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
RMS RMS RMS RMS RMS RMS
abc a b c total total total total total total
a a b b c c
S S S S V I V I V I = + + = + + (5.16)
where
a
S ,
b
S and
c
S are the apparent powers of phases a , b and  c respectively.
The threephase reactive power
( )
P
reactive
abc
is defined similar to that of the singlephase
system and it is given below.
( ) ( )
2
2
P S P
reactive active
abc total
abc abc
= ÷ (5.17)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
105
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
a
a
ai
ai
aK
aK
v
v
v
v
v
v
#
#
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
a a a
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
T
×
×
Constant Matrix
c
C
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
a
a
ai
ai
aK
aK
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
a a a
i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
T
×
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
b b b
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
T
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
b
b
bi
bi
bK
bK
v
v
v
v
v
v
#
#
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
b
b
bi
bi
bK
bK
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
b b b
i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
T
×
×
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
c c c
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
T
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
c
c
ci
ci
cK
cK
v
v
v
v
v
v
#
#
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
c
c
ci
ci
cK
cK
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#   ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
c c c
i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
T
×
Figure 5.4 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine of the fundamental
and harmonic components of a threephase system using the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
106
Zerosequence free voltages and currents in threephase system
In some threephase power systems there exists a special condition where the
summation of three voltage or current signals corresponding to three phases is zero.
Such threephase voltages or currents are called “zerosequence free”, and these
conditions can be written as
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
a b c
v t v t v t + + = (5.18)
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
a b c
i t i t i t + + = (5.19)
If the voltage and the current of a system satisfy (5.18) and (5.19) conditions, the signal
processing system based on the proposed efficient least squares algorithm requires only
two pair of input voltage and current signals, since the third phase is dependent on the
other two. Thus, it allows saving two matrix multiplications compared to the general
threephase system. Figure 5.5 shows the application of the efficient least square
algorithm to a zerosequence free threephase power system.
The conditions (5.18) and (5.19) result in following relationships
cos cos cos
sin sin sin
0
0
ai bi ci
ai bi ci
v v v
v v v
+ + =
+ + =
(5.20)
cos cos cos
sin sin sin
0
0
ai bi ci
ai bi ci
i i i
i i i
+ + =
+ + =
(5.21)
Equation (5.20) and (5.21) can be used to estimate the instantaneous cosine and sine
terms corresponding to the third phase and hence all the power system quantities can be
calculated similar to a general threephase system.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
107
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
a
a
ai
ai
aK
aK
v
v
v
v
v
v
#
#
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
a a a
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
×
×
Constant Matrix
c
C
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
a
a
ai
ai
aK
aK
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
a a a
i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
×
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
b b b
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
b
b
bi
bi
bK
bK
v
v
v
v
v
v
#
#
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
b
b
bi
bi
bK
bK
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
b b b
i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
×
Figure 5.5 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine of the fundamental
and harmonic components of a zerosequence free threephase
system using the proposed efficient least square algorithm.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
108
 Voltage unbalance
In threephase power systems, there are situations where the threevoltage phasors are
not symmetrical. In these cases, the threevoltage phasers do not have equal amplitude,
nor are they shifted exactly with respect to each other. This is called unbalanced
voltages. Asymmetrical threephase load currents are one of the many reasons that
causes voltage unbalance. The voltage unbalances are identified as a power quality
problem and a measure representing the level of the unbalance can be defined as
max. deviation from average voltage
Voltage unbalance 100
average voltage
= × % (5.22)
where, average voltage =
( ) sum of voltage of each phase
3
All the voltage values in (5.22) are the RMS values of the fundamental components of
each phases.
 Stationary symmetrical component estimation
The stationary symmetrical components technique presents a mathematical approach for
the analysis of an asymmetrical threephase system (under steadystate conditions) by
transforming it into a set of symmetrical sequence components called positive,
negative, and zerosequence components. The stationary symmetrical components
analysis was first proposed in [52] and finds its main application in unbalanced fault
calculations of threephase systems.
The RMS values and phase angles calculated using the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm can be used to estimate the stationary symmetrical components for the
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
109
fundamental and each harmonic frequency. The following describes the estimation of
stationary symmetrical components.
The stationary symmetrical component of the i
th
frequency can be defined as,
0
2
2
1 1 1
1
1
3
1
RMS
RMS
RMS
ai ai Vai
ai bi Vbi
ai ci Vci
V V
V a a V
V a a V
u
u
u
+
÷
Z
= Z
Z
(5.23)
where
1 3
1 120
2 2
a j = ÷ + = Z
D
,
RMS
ai Vai
V u Z ,
RMS
bi Vbi
V u Z and
RMS
ci Vci
V u Z are phasor representations of the stationary voltages
using RMS values and phase angles at i
th
frequency for phase  a ,  b and  c
respectively,
0
ai
V
,
bi
V
+
and
ci
V
÷
are the zero, positive and negativesequence components given as
complex numbers.
By simplifying (5.23), the stationary symmetrical sequence components can be obtained
as follows,
( ) { } { }
0 0 0
1
Re Im
3
RMS RMS RMS
ai ai Vai bi Vbi ci Vci ai ai
V V V V V j V u u u = Z + Z + Z = +
(5.24)
( ) ( ) ( )
{ } { }
1
120 240
3
Re Im
RMS RMS RMS
ai ai Vai bi Vbi ci Vci
ai ai
V V V V
V j V
u u u
+
+ +
= Z + Z + + Z +
= +
D D
(5.25)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
110
( ) ( ) ( )
{ } { }
1
240 120
3
Re Im
RMS RMS RMS
ai ai Vai bi Vbi ci Vci
ai ai
V V V V
V j V
u u u
÷
÷ ÷
= Z + Z + + Z +
= +
D D
(5.26)
Equations(5.24), (5.25) and (5.26) are used to derive the stationary zero, positive and
negative sequence phasors from the phase voltage phasors that have been obtained
using the proposed efficient least squares algorithm.
The amplitude ratio of the fundamental positive and negative sequence stationary
symmetrical components is another index used to indicate the degree of unbalance in a
threephase system [4]. This is called the voltage unbalance factor (VUF) and is given
in (5.27) as
1
1
% 100
a
a
V
VUF
V
÷
+
= ×
(5.27)
where
1 a
V
+
and
1 a
V
÷
are the magnitude of the positive and negative stationary
symmetrical components of the threephase system.
 Instantaneous symmetrical component estimation
The concept of symmetrical components described in the previous section deals with
phasors and hence it is applicable only to the steadystate. This concept is extended to
accommodate dynamic and transient conditions [53]. The instantaneous symmetrical
components are mainly used in voltage dip and unbalance mitigation applications. Fast
and accurate extraction of the instantaneous symmetrical components is essential in
such applications and the proposed efficient least squares algorithm successfully
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
111
satisfies these requirements. The derivation of the instantaneous symmetrical
components is now described.
The instantaneous symmetrical components of voltage at i
th
frequency can be written as
follows:
0
2
2
1 1 1
1
1
3
1
ai
ai
ai bi
ci
ai
v
v
v v
v
v
o o
o o
+
÷
=
(5.28)
where
2
3
1 3
2 2
j
e j
t
o = = ÷ + is
2
3
t
phase shift in the time domain,
cos sin
ai ai ai
v v jv = + ,
cos sin
bi bi bi
v v jv = + and
cos sin
ci ci ci
v v jv = + are instantaneous i
th
voltage
components of phase a , b and c respectively, represented as complex numbers, and
( ) ( )
cos sin
0 0 0
ai ai ai
v v j v = + ,
( ) ( )
cos sin
ai ai ai
v v j v
+ + +
= + and
( ) ( )
cos sin
ai ai ai
v v j v
÷ ÷ ÷
= + are zero,
positive and negative sequence components of the instantaneous i
th
voltage
component, represented as complex numbers.
By substituting the real and the imaginary components of
ai
v ,
bi
v ,
ci
v ,
0
ai
v ,
ai
v
+
and
ai
v
÷
into
(5.28), and simplifying,
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
cos sin
0 0 0
cos cos cos sin sin sin
1
3
1 1
3 3
ai ai ai ai bi ci
ai bi ci ai bi ci
v v j v v v v
v v v j v v v
= + = + +
= + + + + +
(5.29)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
112
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin
2
cos cos sin sin
cos
sin sin cos cos
sin
1
3
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
ai ai ai ai bi ci
bi ci bi ci
ai
bi ci bi ci
ai
v v j v v v v
v v v v
v
v v v v
j v
o o
+ + +
= + = + +
 
= ÷ ÷ ÷ +


\ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷


\ .
(5.30)
and
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin
2
cos cos sin sin
cos
sin sin cos cos
sin
1
3
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
ai ai ai ai bi ci
bi ci bi ci
ai
bi ci bi ci
ai
v v j v v v v
v v v v
v
v v v v
j v
o o
÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + +
 
= ÷ ÷ + ÷


\ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ +


\ .
(5.31)
The instantaneous symmetrical sequence component are given by the real parts of (5.29)
, (5.30) and (5.31), thus
( ) ( )
cos
0 0 cos cos cos
1
3
ai ai ai bi ci
v v v v v = = + + (5.32)
( )
cos cos sin sin
cos
cos
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
bi ci bi ci
ai ai ai
v v v v
v v v
+ +
 
= = ÷ ÷ ÷ +


\ .
(5.33)
( )
cos cos sin sin
cos
cos
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
bi ci bi ci
ai ai ai
v v v v
v v v
÷ ÷
 
= = ÷ ÷ + ÷


\ .
(5.34)
where,
ai
v
+
,
ai
v
÷
and
0
ai
v are i
th
order instantaneous positive negative and zero
sequences component of phasea respectively.
As may be seen, equations (5.32), (5.33) and (5.34) directly represent the instantaneous
zero, positive and negative symmetrical components using instantaneous cosine and
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
113
sine terms obtained by the proposed efficient least square algorithm. This approach
allows derivation of the instantaneous symmetrical component individually at
fundamental and various harmonic frequencies.
5.4 Modelling and Experimental Results for the Performance of the
Power Signal Processing System
5.4.1 Performance of the proposed power signal processing system in detecting
fundamental and harmonic components
The basic performance of the efficient least squares algorithm based power signal
processing system is initially investigated through a set of computer simulations. This
section presents the results of digital simulation case studies carried out to evaluate the
harmonic estimation performance of the power system signal processing system based
on the proposed efficient least squares algorithm. Effects of varying the amplitude,
phase jumps, marginal fundamental frequency variation and noise are studied. A
sampling frequency of 4 kHz and 40 data samples (i.e., L =40) have been chosen for the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm. The postulated input voltage waveformgiven
in (5.35) is chosen for the simulations. This waveform is heavily distorted with
harmonics as shown in Figure 5.6.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
( ) 1.00cos 50 0.7cos 3 135
0.6cos 5 40 0.5cos 7 60
0.4cos 9 80 0.3cos 11 75
0.2cos 13 18 ( )
v t t t
t t
t t
t e t
e e
e e
e e
e
= + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
D D
D D
D D
D
(5.35)
where ( ) e t is additive white Gaussian noise of zero mean with variance
2
o = 0.00005,
which corresponds to the random noise of SNR= 40dB.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
114
Figure 5.6 The postulated voltage waveform.
Figure 5.7 shows extraction of the instantaneous fundamental, 5
th
and 11
th
order
harmonic components of the input voltage signal given in (5.35). The results show that
the extracted waveforms track the actual waveform after half a fundamental cycle
detection time.
Figure 5.8 and Figure 5.9 show RMS values and phase angles of the fundamental and
harmonic components of the postulated input voltage waveform. A detection time of
half a fundamental frequency (i.e., 10ms) is apparent again in the both RMS and phase
angle estimations.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
115
Figure 5.7 Actual (solid) and extracted waveforms with the proposed method
(dot): instantaneous fundamental, 5
th
and 11
th
order harmonic
components of the input voltage waveform.
Figure 5.8 RMS values of the fundamental and harmonic components
obtained using the proposed method.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
116
Figure 5.9 Phase angles of the fundamental and harmonic components
obtained using the proposed method.
 Effect of sudden amplitude and phase changes
This section investigates the tracking capability of the proposed method during sudden
changes in amplitude and phase angle. Occasionally, sudden changes in the amplitude
and phase of the signals can occur in power systems due to the switching or faults.
In order to investigate the tracking performance of the proposed method during
amplitude and phase change, the postulated voltage waveform is subjected to step
amplitude and phase changes. A 100% amplitude step increase is applied to the
fundamental, 5
th
and 7
th
order harmonic components of the input voltage waveform at t
= 0.1 sec. Figure 5.10 shows the performance of tracking the fundamental, 5
th
and 7
th
order harmonics during the step change. As may be seen, the tracking is regained within
half cycle of the fundamental. This is further verified by the Figure 5.11 which gives
the comparison of the actual, and the reconstructed waveform obtained by summing all
instantaneous fundamental and harmonic components extracted using the proposed
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
117
method. Figure 5.12 shows the response of the proposed method for sudden phase
changes of 60 ÷
D
degrees in fundamental, 5
th
and 7
th
order harmonic components in the
input voltage waveform. This figure shows transient time similar to that for the step
amplitude change. Figure 5.13 shows the actual and the reconstructed voltage waveform
for the step phase change.
Figure 5.10 Performance of the proposed method for step amplitude change at
t = 0.1 sec.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
118
Figure 5.11 Actual, and reconstructed voltage waveform using the proposed
method for step amplitude change at t = 0.1 sec.
Figure 5.12 Performance of the proposed method for step phase change at t =
0.1 sec.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
119
Figure 5.13 Actual, and reconstructed voltage waveform using proposed
method for step phase change at t = 0.1 sec.
 Effect of marginal fundamental frequency changes on performance
This section studies the sensitivity of the proposed method with respect to the marginal
variations in the fundamental frequency. A step fundamental frequency change of 1 Hz
(i.e., frequency increased from 50 to 51 Hz) is applied to the input voltage waveform at
t = 0.1 sec. in order to study the effect. Figure 5.14 shows the tracking performance of
the proposed method for this step frequency change. As may be seen, the tracking is
regained within half a fundamental cycle. However, small steady state error in the phase
can be observed after the step frequency change. The steady state error can be
effectively measured using the root mean squares error (RMS) and it is defined as
follows:
( )
2
100%
( )
rms
actual extracted
e
actual rms
÷
= ×
l
(5.36)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
120
Figure 5.15 compares the steady state RMS errors of the proposed method and the DFT
method for marginal fundamental frequency changes. The proposed method shows
superior estimation accuracy compared to the DFT method. For both methods, the least
error appears in the fundamental component and the significance of the error increases
as the harmonic order increases. A comparison of tracking capability of the proposed
and the DFT methods for the step increase in fundamental frequency is shown in Figure
5.16. As may be seen, the reconstructed waveform using the DFT method takes one
complete fundamental cycle to regain accurate tracking whereas the proposed method
takes only half a fundamental cycle. In addition the reconstructed waveform using the
DFT method has higher steady state phase delay compared to the proposed method.
Figure 5.17 shows the steady state RMS errors of the reconstructed waveforms using the
proposed and the DFT methods for the above described frequency change. The
proposed method shows a lower RMS waveform error of about 12.5% compared to
about 32% for the DFT method.
Figure 5.14 Tracking performance of the proposed method with step frequency
change from 50 Hz to 51 Hz at t = 0.1 sec.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
121
Figure 5.15 Comparison of the RMS errors of the proposed and the DFT
methods against the fundamental frequency change.
Figure 5.16 Tracking performance of the reconstructed waveform using the
proposed method and the DFT method with frequency step
changes from 50Hz to 51 Hz at t = 0.1 sec.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
122
Figure 5.17 Steady state RMS error of reconstructed waveforms using
proposed and DFT methods at 51Hz fundamental frequency.
 Effect of noise on the performance
The effect of noise on the estimation accuracy is investigated by carrying out
simulations with various SNRs. The same input voltage waveform given in (5.35) is
selected and the RMS errors of the reconstructed waveform using the proposed and the
DFT methods are compared. Figure 5.18 shows this comparison. As may be seen, the
proposed method has superior noise immunity compared to the DFT method.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
123
Figure 5.18 RMS error of reconstructed waveform vs. SNR for proposed and
DFT methods.
5.4.2 Performance of the power signal processing system in estimating power and
total RMS
This section discusses the performance of the proposed power signal processing system
in estimating the total RMS and the power quantities. The following postulated voltage
and current waveforms are used for the simulations.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
( ) 1.00cos 50 0.7cos 3 135
0.6cos 5 40 0.5cos 7 60
0.4cos 9 80 0.3cos 11 75
0.2cos 13 18 ( )
v t t t
t t
t t
t e t
e e
e e
e e
e
= + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
D D
D D
D D
D
(5.37)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
( ) 0.5cos 30 0.4cos 3 55
0.3cos 5 10 0.2cos 7 30
0.1cos 9 45 0.08cos 11 60
0.05cos 13 10 ( )
i t t t
t t
t t
t g t
e e
e e
e e
e
= + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
D D
D D
D D
D
(5.38)
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
124
where
( ) e t is white Gaussian noise of zero mean with variance
2
o = 0.00005 that corresponds
to voltage SNR of 40dB random noise,
and ( ) g t is white Gaussian noise of zero mean with variance
2
o = 0.00001 that
corresponds to current SNR of 40dB random noise.
The above voltage and current waveforms contain 50Hz fundamental and the 3
rd
, 5
th
,
7
th
, 9
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
order harmonics. A step amplitude of 100% is applied to both
current and voltage waveforms at t = 0.1sec in order to study the transient response. The
postulated waveforms with step changes are shown in Figure 5.19. A sampling
frequency of 4.0 kHz and 40 samples (i.e. L =40) are chosen for the proposed efficient
least squares algorithm.
Figure 5.19 Postulated voltage and current waveforms given in (5.37) and
(5.38) with 100% step change at t = 0.1 sec.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
125
Figure 5.20 compares the total RMS values of the voltage and the current calculated
using the proposed method and the DFT method with the actual values. As may be seen,
the proposed method has a faster transient response compared to that of the DFT
method. The steady state RMS estimation error comparison for this case is shown in
Figure 5.21. According to this figure, the proposed method has superior accuracy
compared to the DFT method.
Figure 5.22 shows comparison of estimated total active power, reactive power and
power factor using the proposed method and the DFT method. Similar to the previous
cases, the transient time for the estimation using the proposed method is less than that
for the DFT method. The total active power shown in this figure is obtained by
summing the individual active powers correspond to each harmonic component as
described in Section 5.3.1.
Figure 5.20 Comparison of estimated total RMS values of voltage and current
waveforms using proposed method and DFT method, and actual
values for 100% step change at t = 0.1 sec.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
126
Figure 5.21 Comparison of steady state total RMS voltage error for proposed
method and DFT method.
Figure 5.22 Comparison of estimated total active power, total reactive power
and power factor using proposed method and DFT method, and
actual values for 100% step change at t = 0.1 sec.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
127
5.4.3 Determining symmetrical components
This section presents the simulation results for calculation of symmetrical components
using the power signal processing system based on the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm. Results for stationary symmetrical components as well as instantaneous
symmetrical components are presented in this section.
 Stationary symmetrical components
The stationary symmetrical components are obtained using the calculated RMS values
and the phase angles as discussed in Section 5.3.2. The following postulated unbalanced
threephase voltage waveforms are used for the simulation that evaluates stationary
symmetrical components.
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1cos 2 50 20 0.6cos 2 150 45
0.4cos 2 250 90 0.2cos 2 350 30
0.1cos 2 450 60 ( )
a
t t
v t t t
t e t
t t
t t
t
+ + + +
= + + + +
+ +
D D
D D
D
(5.39)
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
1.1cos 2 50 45 0.8cos 2 150 25
0.4cos 2 250 95 0.2cos 2 350 15
0.3cos 2 450 65 ( )
b
t t
v t t t
t e t
t t
t t
t
+ + + +
= + + + +
+ +
D D
D D
D
(5.40)
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
0.9cos 2 50 30 0.45cos 2 150 60
0.3cos 2 250 80 0.2cos 2 350 150
0.05cos 2 450 45 ( )
c
t t
v t t t
t e t
t t
t t
t
+ + + +
= + + + +
+ +
D D
D D
D
(5.41)
where the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz and the waveforms contain 3
rd
, 5
th
, 7
th
and
9
th
order harmonics.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
128
The postulated threephase voltage waveforms given in (5.39), (5.40) and (5.41) are
shown in Figure 5.23. A sampling frequency of 4 kHz and 40 samples (i.e. L =40) are
chosen for the proposed efficient least squares algorithm in this simulation.
Figure 5.23 Postulated threephase voltage waveforms.
Figure 5.24 shows RMS amplitudes of the stationary positive, negative and zero
sequence symmetrical components of the fundamental determined by the proposed
method. Figure 5.25 shows corresponding phase angles for each sequence component.
The detection time is observed to be about half a fundamental cycle for both the
magnitudes and the phase angles.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
129
Figure 5.24 RMS magnitudes of positive, negative, and zerosequence
determined using proposed method.
Figure 5.25 Phase angles of positive, negative, and zerosequence determined
using proposed method.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
130
 Instantaneous symmetrical components
The simulation results present in this section deal with the determination of the
instantaneous symmetrical components. The postulated input threephase voltage
waveform that is used for the simulation is shown in Figure 5.26. The postulated
waveform consists of three parts: (i) balanced unity amplitude threephase voltages for
the time period from t = 0 to 0.1 sec.; (ii) an amplitude unbalanced (i.e., step reduction
in phase  b amplitude to 0.4 pu) threephase voltage for the time period from t = 0.1 to
0.2 sec.; and (iii) both amplitude and phase unbalanced (i.e., step change in phase  a
amplitude from 1.0 to 1.5 pu and phase angle from 0
D
to 60 ÷
D
), and distorted (i.e.,
contain 3
rd
and 5
th
order harmonics) threephase voltage for the time period from t =0.2
to 0.3 sec.
Figure 5.26 Postulated threephase voltage waveforms for instantaneous
symmetrical components estimation.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
131
Instantaneous positive, negative and zero sequence components of the fundamental
estimated using the proposed method are shown in Figure 5.27. As may be seen from
Figure 5.27, the perfectly balanced threephase voltage results in only the positive
sequence and both the zero and the negativesequence component are absent. The
detection time is apparent in the estimated negativeand positivesequence components.
All the sequence components appear in the unbalanced parts of the waveform. It is also
worth noticing that the proposed method is capable of extracting the instantaneous
fundamental symmetrical components from a distorted waveform. This is apparent in
the third time period of the Figure 5.27.
Figure 5.28 compares the amplitudes of the instantaneous symmetrical components
estimated using the proposed method and the DFT method. As may be seen, the
proposed method has superior transient response compared to that of the DFT method.
Figure 5.27 Instantaneous positive, negative, and zerosequence components
determined using proposed method.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
132
Figure 5.28 Comparison of amplitudes of positive, negative and zero
sequence components determined using proposed and DFT
methods.
5.4.4 Experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
based harmonic detection
Experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm is conducted
by applying it for realtime determination of artificially generated voltage harmonics.
Figure 5.29 illustrates the experimental setup used for this investigation. The
experimental setup consists of a threephase IGBT inverter which is supplied by a three
phase variac via a diode bridge rectifier; inductive load and a dSPACE DS1104 R&D
board hosted on a personnel computer. The dSPACE DS1104 R&D board generates the
PWM (i.e., pulse width modulated) signals which drive the IGBTs in the inverter. The
output side of the inverter is passed through an inductive filter which filters the
switching pulses in the voltages. The line voltages of the load are measured with a fast
and accurate voltage transducer board, which at the same time provides complete
isolation. The measured voltage signals are digitized with 12 bit ADCs that are located
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
133
on the dSPACE DS1104 R&D board. A complete description of the experimental setup
including detailed specifications of the IGBT inverter, dSPACE DS1104 R&D board
and voltage transducer board is given in Appendix C.
The automatic code generation facility provided with the dSPACE1104 development
environment is used to generate realtime C programs from the MATLAB/SIMULINK
model. The program used in this investigation consists of two independent modules: the
module that generates PWM signals for the reference signal which contains the
fundamental and harmonics (i.e., 5
th
and 7
th
order harmonics) components; and the
module that contain the digital implementation of the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm. The sampling frequency and switching frequency for the PWM generation
program module is 9 kHz. The sampling frequency of the proposed algorithm is chosen
to be 3 kHz. The realtime waveforms are captured as a data file using capture facility
provided with the dSPACE DS1104 development environment and plotted using
MATLAB.
3

P
h
a
s
e
A
C
S
u
p
p
l
y
Variac
+ RL
LOAD
IGBT INVERTER
PC WITH dSPACE 1104
R&D BOARD
PWM signals
F
L
ab
v
bc
v
ca
v
dc
C
Voltage
Sensors
DIODE BRIDGE
Figure 5.29 Overview of the experimental setup.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
134
Figure 5.30 shows the captured threephase load voltage waveforms which contains
harmonics. Figure 5.31 shows the extracted instantaneous fundamental and its RMS
values for phases  a ,  b and  c . In order to investigate the accuracy of extracted
values, the voltage waveforms are reconstructed by summing the extracted
instantaneous fundamental and the instantaneous individual harmonic components.
Figure 5.32 compares the reconstructed voltage waveform with the actual voltage
waveforms for phases a ,  b and  c . As may be seen, the reconstructed voltage
waveforms follow the actual waveform very closely. The errors in the reconstructed
waveforms are obtained by the difference between the reconstructed and the actual
waveforms. Figure 5.33 shows the error in the reconstructed voltage waveform for
phase a . The lower error in the reconstructed waveform further confirms the accuracy
of the estimation for the proposed efficient least squares algorithm.
Figure 5.30 Captured threephase load voltage waveforms.
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
135
Figure 5.31 Experimental results: extracted instantaneous fundamental
component and its RMS value for phase a , phase b and phase c .
Figure 5.32 Comparison of actual waveform and the reconstructed waveform
with proposed method: phase a , phase b and phase c .
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
136
Figure 5.33 Percentage error in reconstructed voltage waveform for phase a .
5.5 Summary
This chapter discussed the power signal processing system based on the proposed
efficient least square algorithm. The power signal processing system is capable of
deducing a number of power system quantities which are required for various
applications, from measured instantaneous voltage and current signals. The proposed
efficient least squares algorithm directly provides the instantaneous fundamental and the
harmonic components. Various other power systems quantities, namely instantaneous
and stationary symmetrical components, RMS values and phase angles of the
fundamental and harmonic components, total harmonic distortion (THD), active power
of the fundamental and harmonics components, apparent power, reactive power and
power factor are estimated by performing additional processing on the output
instantaneous cosine and sine terms of the proposed efficient least squares method.
Extensive modelling and simulation studies were conducted in order to investigate the
performance of the proposed signal processing system. These studies show that the
Chapter 5: Proposed Efficient Least Squares Algorithm based Power Signal Processing System
137
proposed signal processing system offers many advantages such as simple structure,
high estimation accuracy, short detection time and fast transient response. In addition
the proposed method has higher noise immunity and less sensitivity to marginal
fundamental frequency changes compared to that of the basic DFT/FFT method.
Finally, the experimental verification of the proposed method is conducted using an
experimental setup that generates know harmonics artificially. The experimental results
demonstrate the applicability of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm for real
time environments. The extensive study in this chapter indicates that the proposed
signal processing system is a potential candidate for identifying harmonics for realtime
disturbance mitigation applications.
In the next two chapters of this thesis, the application of the proposed efficient least
square algorithm based signal processing is applied to two reallife power system
applications, namely, an active power filter(APF) and a distribution static synchronous
compensator (DSTATCOM).
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
138
CHAPTER 6
PROPOSED SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEM
FOR IDENTIFICATION OF HARMONICS IN
A THREEPHASE ACTIVE POWER FILTER
APPLICATION
6.1 Overview
This chapter presents an application of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm in
detection of the instantaneous current harmonics for an active power filter (APF).
Nonlinear loads such as thyristor rectifiers draw fluctuating harmonic currents from the
ac mains. The injection of harmonics causes supply voltage distortion, poor power
factor and low system efficiency. The effect of the harmonic generation on power
systems has become a serious power quality problem due to the increase use of
nonlinear loads [6], [54], [55]. Thus, it is essential to reduce the harmonic distortions in
a power system to maintain the power quality.
Harmonic currents are traditionally compensated with passive LC filters. However, the
main drawbacks of passive filtering are; inability to compensate for harmonics in the
load currents with varying magnitudes, tuning problems and the large weight of the
filtering system. To solve these problems, active power filters (APF) have been
proposed and considered as a more practical solution for reducing the current
harmonics. This latter method provides an easy tuning facility and stable operation. The
principle of the operation of an APF is to generate compensating currents into the power
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
139
system in order to cancel the current harmonics that are contained in the distorted load
current. The performance of the APF depends on the method used to obtain the current
reference and the control method that is used to generate the compensation currents. In a
conventional APF, the fundamental component of the source current is detected using a
method that is theoretically based on a high pass filter or a band pass filter or a low pass
filter. Then, the distortion waveform is obtained by subtracting the detected
fundamental component form the actual source current waveform. This distortion
waveform corresponds to the total harmonic content and is used to generates the
compensation currents [56], [57], [58], [59]. This method is usually called “total
harmonic compensation” since it does not require identifying each harmonic component
separately.
The main shortcomings of total harmonic compensation methods are identified as their
performance problems due to the delays of the controller and inverter phase lags. These
delays cause incorrect compensation, especially for the higher order harmonics. In
addition the system cannot effectively compensate the unbalances present in the three
phase load currents because of the phase shift caused by the filters. This problem could
be solved by choosing a larger time constant for the filter, but this would lead to a
longer response time. With a view to solving the above mentioned problems, selective
harmonic compensation methods have been presented [60], [61], [38]. In selective
harmonic compensation, the most significant low order harmonics in a power system
are usually selected to be compensated, for example the 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
order
harmonics. Most of the higher order harmonics are effectively attenuated by the line
impedance of the power system. Selective harmonic compensation allows for effective
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
140
compensation of the controller and inverter delays of the active power filter for
individual harmonic components.
NON LINEAR
LOAD
sa
v
sb
v
sc
v
s
L
s
R
s
i
L
i
F
i
F
L
dc
C
F
R
dc
V
Voltage Source
Converter
PCC
+

Figure 6.1 Typical location for a shunt active filter based on a voltage source
converter.
Figure 6.1 shows the electrical circuit for the shunt active filter investigated in this
chapter. Shunt active filters are connected in parallel with the nonlinear loads in order to
reduce the injection of unwanted harmonic components from the load current. The main
component of a shunt APF is the voltage source converter (VSC) with dclink
capacitors. The VSC is connected to the point of common coupling (PCC) via a
decoupling inductor that is usually the leakage inductance of a transformer. The
commands for the semiconductor switches are usually generated using the pulse width
modulation (PWM) technique.
As discussed above, the purpose of the APF is to compensate the harmonic components
of the load current
L
i so that only the fundamental frequency components remain in the
grid current
S
i . For selective harmonic compensation, the most significant active
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
141
individual harmonic components are extracted from the measured current and the
summation of those harmonic components is the reference for the VSC compensation
current
F
i .
Fast and accurate harmonic detection is very important for the selective harmonic
compensation as slow and inaccurate detection significantly affects the performance of
the APF. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) method has been widely applied to
detect the selective order harmonic components in steadystate conditions, but one
complete fundamental cycle delay is unavoidable for this algorithm [61]. Hence the
DFT technique is not very suitable for detection of the varying load current harmonics,
especially when tracking sudden changes in the waveforms [36].
This chapter evaluates the performance of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
in extracting harmonics for a threephase active power filter. The rest of the chapter is
structured as follows. In Section 6.2, the system configuration of the APF including
converter modelling and controller design are discussed. The application of the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm for extracting harmonics and correcting the
current controller phase lags will be discussed in this section. In Section 6.3, the
modelling and simulation results are presented and the performance of the proposed
harmonic detection based APF is investigated. Section 6.4 provides experimental results
to demonstrate the realtime application of the proposed harmonic detection method for
the harmonic extraction for a prototype APF. A summary of the chapter will be
presented in section 6.5.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
142
6.2 ThreePhase Active Power Filter System with the Proposed
Efficient Least Squares Algorithm
6.2.1 System configuration
The schematic diagram for the active power filter system is illustrated in Figure 6.2.
NON LINEAR
LOAD
s
L
s
R
F
L
sa
i
sb
i
sc
i
La
i
Lb
i
Lc
i
Fb
i
Fc
i
Fa
i
F
R
Controller
2
dc
V
* 2
dc
V

*
Fd
i
dc
C
Fd
i
Fq
i
abc
dq
, ,
Fa Fb Fc
i i i
i
q
controller
Decoupling
d
u
q
u
d
m
q
m
PWM
Geneartion
Switching signals
Fd
i
Fq
i
e
PLL
abc
dq
e
sin( ) t e
cos( ) t e
sin( ), cos( ) t t e e
*
0
Cq Fq
i i = =
Harmonic detection
using the proposed
method
i
d
controller
sd
e
+
+
+
+

2
dc
V
dc
R
sd
e
Hb
i
Ha
i
Current controller
phase lag correction
abc
dq
Cd
i
Cq
i
Hb
i
Ha
i
abc
dq
sin( ) t e
cos( ) t e
a
m
b
m
c
m
a
b
c
sab
e
sa
e
sab
e
sab
e
sb
e
sc
e
Figure 6.2 Schematic diagram of the selective harmonic APF with proposed
harmonic detection method.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
143
The APF consists of a threephase voltage source inverter, a dcside capacitor
dc
C with
its leakage resistance
dc
R , and a filter inductance
F
L on the acside of the inverter. The
resistor
F
R represents the resistance of the cables that connects the APF to the PCC. A
threephase controlled rectifier with a DC load is used as the nonlinear load. The three
phase supply is represented as an ideal voltage source with an inductance
S
L and a
resistance
S
R , which characterizes the transformer and line impedances of the supply.
The analysis and design of the APF controller are conducted in the rotating reference
frame which is synchronized with the supply voltage vector. This reference frame is
usually represented in the two axes dq ÷ reference frame and all the electrical quantities
are transformed into the dq ÷ axes for design and analysis [59] [62] [63] [64].
As may be seen in Figure 6.2, the APF controller consists of two cascaded control
loops. The outer voltage control loop regulates the dclink voltage to a required level.
The two inner dq ÷ current control loops force the APF currents
Fd
i and
Fq
i to follow
the command currents
*
Fd
i and
*
Fq
i respectively. The command
*
Fd
i for the daxis current
loop is obtained by summing the voltage controller output and the d ÷ axis component
of phase lag compensated harmonic current
Cd
i . The command
*
Fq
i for the q ÷ axis
current loop is obtained from the q ÷ axis component of the phase lag compensated
harmonic current
Cq
i . These phase lag compensated harmonic currents are obtained by
correcting the current controller phase lag of the harmonic currents of phasea andb
(i.e.
Ha
i and
Hb
i ) that are obtained using the proposed harmonic detection method.
a
m ,
b
m and
c
m are the modulation signals for the PWM generator. The decoupling
terms are added to the output of the current controllers in order to remove the coupling
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
144
and then transformed to abc ÷ reference frame to obtain the modulation signal for the
converter. All these details are indicated in Figure 6.2.
6.2.2 Modelling of threephase PWM converter
This section discusses the modelling and analysis of the threephase PWM voltage
source converter used in the APF. Figure 6.3 shows a schematic diagram of the model
for the IGBT voltage source converter. The threephase voltage source converter
consists of six IGBTs, and a dclink capacitor bank (
dc
C ) to filter out the switching
ripple. The source voltages are
sa
e ,
sb
e and
sc
e . The acside of the converter is modelled
as an inductor
F
L and a resister
F
R . The terminal voltages of the converter are
Fa
v ,
Fb
v
and
Fc
v . The acside currents are
Fa
i ,
Fb
i and
Fc
i .
dc
R represents the equalising and
leakage resistances of the dclink capacitor bank
dc
C . The dcside voltage and current
are
dc
V and
dc
i respectively. All of these components are indicated in Figure 6.3.
Fb
v
Fa
v
Fc
v
Fa
i
Fb
i
Fc
i
dc
i
dc
C
dc
R
dc
V
+

sa
e
sb
e
sc
e
F
R
F
L
Figure 6.3 Schematic diagram of threephase voltage source converter.
The mathematical representation of the converter model can be obtained as follows.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
145
By applying Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) to the acside of the voltage source
converter,
sa Fa F Fa F Fa
d
e v R i L i
dt
÷ = + (6.1)
sb Fb F Fb F Fb
d
e v R i L i
dt
÷ = + (6.2)
sc Fc F Fc F Fc
d
e v R i L i
dt
÷ = + (6.3)
By assuming the power loss in the converter is negligible, the power balance of the ac
and dcsides can be written as follows:
Fa Fa Fb Fb Fc Fc dc dc
v i v i v i V i + + = (6.4)
By applying Kirchoff’s current law (KCL) to the dcside of the converter,
dc
dc dc dc
dc
V d
i C V
dt R
= + (6.5)
By substituting (6.5) into (6.4),
2
dc
Fa Fa Fb Fb Fc Fc dc dc dc
dc
V d
v i v i v i C V V
dt R
+ + = + (6.6)
The voltage source converter in this thesis uses sinusoidal pulse width modulation
(SPWM) and therefore, the relationship between the terminal voltages (i.e.
Fa
v ,
Fb
v
and
Fc
v ) and the modulation signals (i.e.
a
m ,
b
m and
c
m ) of phase  a ,  b and  c can be
written as follows:
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
146
2
dc
Fa a
V
v m = ,
2
dc
Fb b
V
v m = and
2
dc
Fc c
V
v m = (6.7)
The complete model of the voltage source converter can be explained by (6.1), (6.2),
(6.3), (6.6) and (6.7). However, as mentioned earlier in Section 6.2.1, the analysis
provided in this chapter is conducted in the synchronously rotating reference frame
(SRF) and thus the model needs to be represented in the reference frame that rotates
synchronously with the supply frequency as described below.
By transforming (6.1), (6.2) and (6.3) into the SRF, the following equations which
describe the current dynamics in the dq ÷ axis, can be written as follows:
sd Fd F Fd F Fd F Fq
d
e v R i L i L i
dt
e = + + ÷ (6.8)
0
Fq F Fq F Fq F Fd
d
v R i L i L i
dt
e = + + + (6.9)
where
Fd
i ,
Fq
i are the dq ÷ axes components of the acside current in the SRF,
sd
e is the d ÷ axis component of the source voltage in SRF and
e is the angular frequency of the supply in elec rad/s.
The modulation signals given in (6.7) can be transformed into the SRF as below.
2
dc
Fd d
V
v m = and
2
dc
Fq q
V
v m = (6.10)
where
d
m ,
q
m are the dq ÷ axes components of the modulation signals.
By substituting (6.10) into (6.8) and (6.9), and rearranging,
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
147
1
2
dc F
Fd Fd sd d Fq
F F F
V R d
i i e m i
dt L L L
e + = ÷ + (6.11)
2
dc F
Fq Fq q Fd
F F
V R d
i i m i
dt L L
e + = ÷ ÷ (6.12)
The acside power of the converter can be written in the SRF as follows.
( )
3
2
Fa Fa Fb Fb Fc Fc Fq Fq Fd Fd
v i v i v i v i v i + + = + (6.13)
By assuming the voltage drops in the acside resistance
F
R and inductor
F
L are
negligible, (6.13) can be rewritten as:
( )
3 3
2 2
Fa Fa Fb Fb Fc Fc Fq Fq Fd Fd sd Fd
v i v i v i v i v i e i + + = + ~ (6.14)
By substituting (6.14) into (6.6) and rearranging
2
3 1
2
sd
dc dc dc Fd
dc dc dc
e d
V V V i
dt R C C
+ = (6.15)
The complete model of the threephase converter in the SRF is given by (6.11), (6.12)
and (6.15) above.
6.2.3 Design of dq current controllers
Equations (6.11) and (6.12) describe the dynamics of the dq ÷ axes currents in the SRF.
As may be seen in these equations, the dq ÷ axes current dynamics in the SRF are
coupled to the each other (i.e.
q
i depends on
d
i and visa versa). It is necessary to
decouple them for proper control design. The decoupling can be achieved by
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
148
introducing new input terms
d
u and
q
u to (6.11) and (6.12) respectively. Then, the time
domain transfer functions (TF) of dq ÷ axes current can be given in (6.16) and (6.17).
F
Fd Fd d
F
R d
i i u
dt L
+ = (6.16)
F
Fq Fq q
F
R d
i i u
dt L
+ = (6.17)
where
2
dc
q q Fd
F
V
u m i
L
e = ÷ ÷ and
1
2
dc
d sd d Fq
F F
V
u e m i
L L
e = ÷ + .
As can be seen in (6.16) and (6.17), both dq ÷ axes has the same current transfer
function (TF) and these time domain TFs can be represented in Laplace domain as:
( )
( ) 1
( )
( ) ( )
Fq
Fd
TI
d q F F
I s
I s
G s
U s U s s R L
= = =
+
(6.18)
Figure 6.4 shows the closedloop current control block diagram in the dq ÷ axes. The
decoupled current transfer function (
TI
G ) and the transfer function of the PI
(proportional plus integral) current controller (
CI
G ) are indicated in this figure. The
closedloop transfer function of the dq ÷ current feedback loops can be obtained as
below.
2
( )
1
CI TI Pi Ii
cloop
CI TI F
Pi Ii
F
G G K s K
G s
G G R
s K s K
L
+
= =
+  
+ + +

\ .
(6.19)
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
149
*
Fd
i

+
PI Controller
Fd
i d
u
Ii
CI Pi
K
G K
s
= +
1
TI
F F
G
s R L
=
+
(a) d ÷ axis
*
Fq
i

+
PI Controller
Fq
i
q
u
1
TI
F F
G
s R L
=
+
Ii
CI Pi
K
G K
s
= +
(b) q ÷ axis
Figure 6.4 dq ÷ axis closedloop current control diagrams.
Design of gains of the PIcontroller is conducted using the ITAE index. ITAE stands
for “integral of time multiplied by absolute magnitude of the error” and it is defined as
follows:
0
( )
T
ITAE t e t dt =
l
(6.20)
where ( ) e t is the absolute error and t is the time.
The coefficients of closedloop transfer function that minimizes the ITAE performance
criterion for a ramp input have been used for determining the gains of the PI controller.
By comparing the denominator of (6.19) with the optimum coefficients of the ITAE for
a ramp input for 2
nd
order transfer function given in [65], the parameters of the PI
current controller (
CI
G ) can be selected as follows:
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
150
3.2
F
Pi ni
F
R
K
L
e = ÷ and
2
Ii ni
K e = (6.21)
where
ni
e is the natural frequency of the closedloop current TF.
Pi
K and
Ii
K are the proportional and integral gains respectively. The dynamic response
of the closedloop current TF depends on the natural frequency (
ni
e ) and the value of
ni
e is chosen for the desired dynamic response. Figure 6.5 shows the frequency
response (i.e. bode plot) of the closedloop current TF. The natural frequency is chosen
to be 1257 rad/s. The values of
F
R and
F
L are 0.078O and 6mH respectively. As may
be seen, 3dB cutoff frequency of the closedloop is 4630rad/sec. This value is larger
than the frequency of the 13
th
order harmonic component which is the highest order
harmonic to be compensated with this APF. It may be also noted from the bode diagram
that the current controller has larger phase lag for the higher order harmonics despite of
the lower attenuation in the magnitude. For example at 4380rad/sec the phase lag is 50.1
degrees although the magnitude attenuation is only 3dB. As discussed in the
introduction to this chapter, controller phase lag affects the performance of the APF in
compensating higher order harmonics. The proposed signal processing method can be
effectively utilized to compensate the controller phase lag. This will be discussed in
detail in a later section of this chapter.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
151
Figure 6.5 Bode diagram of the closedloop dq ÷ current TF.
6.2.4 Design of dc voltage controller
The voltage control loop regulates the dclink voltage to a set level that is large enough
to generate the compensation currents. Equation (6.15) which describes the relationship
between
dc
V and
Fd
i , is a nonlinear equation. This equation is rearranged so that it can
be treated using linear control theory.
Multiplying (6.15) by 2 and rearranging,
2 2
2
( ) ( )
dc dc
dc dc
d
V V p
dt R C
+ = (6.22)
where
3
sd
Fd
dc
e
p i
C
= .
Equation (6.22) can be written in Laplace domain as:
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
152
2
( ) 1
( ) 2
dc
TV
dc dc
V s
G
P s s R C
= =
+
(6.23)
As may be seen in (6.23),
2
dc
V instead of
dc
V has a linear transfer function and can be
used for control design. This does not cause any technical problems since
dc
V is
unidirectional [64]. The block diagram of the outer voltage control loop is illustrated in
Figure 6.6. The dclink voltage is regulated via d ÷ axis current and the d ÷ axis inner
current loop is assumed to be very fast compared to the outer voltage loop and
consequently, the inner d ÷ axis current loop can be replaced with unity gain during the
design of the dclink voltage controller.

+
PI Controller
Iv
CV Pv
K
G K
s
= +
2
*
dc
V 1
2
Tv
dc dc
G
s
R C
=
+
1
*
Fd
i
Fd
i
2
dc
V
Figure 6.6 Control block diagram of the voltage control loop.
The closedloop transfer function of the outer voltage loop (
_ dc cloop
G ) is shown below in
(6.24).
_
2
( )
1
2
CV TV Pv Iv
dc cloop
CV TV
Pv Iv
dc dc
G G K s K
G s
G G
s K s K
R C
+
= =
+  
+ + +

\ .
(6.24)
This closedloop transfer function has 2
nd
order characteristics. The proportional and
integral constants (i.e.
Pv
K and
Iv
K ) of the PI controller can be obtained by comparing
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
153
the denominator of this transfer function to the ITAEcriterion for a ramp input for 2
nd

order transfer function [65] as follows:
2
3.2
Pv nv
dc dc
K
R C
e = ÷ ,
2
Iv nv
K e = (6.25)
where
nv
e is the natural frequency of the closed voltage loop.
The natural frequency of the outer loop (
nv
e ) is chosen to be considerably lower than
the natural frequency of the inner current controller (
ni
e ) to avoid any possibility of
formation of higher order systems. Figure 6.7 shows the frequency response of the outer
closedloop dclink voltage transfer function. This bode diagram corresponds to the
natural frequency (
nv
e ) of 31.4 rad/s. The values of
dc
C and
dc
R are 8250 F u and
6000O respectively.
Figure 6.7 Bode diagram of the closed dclink voltage control loop.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
154
6.2.5 Current harmonic detection and controller phase lag correction based
on the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
The proposed efficient least squares algorithm is next utilized to extract the harmonic
current components to be compensated using the APF as illustrated in Figure 6.2. As
discussed earlier in Section 6.1, the main advantage of the selective harmonic
compensation is that only the selected harmonic components are chosen to be
compensated. The proposed method extracts the instantaneous individual current
harmonic components and these harmonic components are summed up to generate the
compensation command. The APF described in this chapter deals only with the zero
sequence free currents and thus the measuring of two currents instead of three are
adequate. Figure 6.8 shows the application of the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm in extracting individual current harmonics.
×
×
Constant Matrix
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
a
a
ai
ai
aK
aK
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
a a a
i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
cos
1
sin
1
cos
sin
cos
sin
b
b
bi
bi
bK
bK
i
i
i
i
i
i
#
#
 
T
( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
b b b
i n i n i n L ÷ ÷ +
c
C
Figure 6.8 Proposed efficient least squares algorithm for identification of
current harmonics for APF.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
155
As described in the previous chapter, the instantaneous harmonic components can be
directly obtained from the instantaneous cosine terms. In this APF, the 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and
13
th
order harmonics are chosen to be compensated. These harmonic components for
phasea and b can be obtained as shown below.
cos
5 5
cos
7 7
cos
11 11
cos
13 13
Ha a
Ha a
Ha a
Ha a
i i
i i
i i
i i
=
(6.26)
cos
5 5
cos
7 7
cos
11 11
cos
13 13
Hb b
Hb b
Hb b
Hb b
i i
i i
i i
i i
=
(6.27)
where
( )
cos
cos
ai ai i ai
i I t e u = + ,
( )
cos
cos
bi bi i bi
i I t e u = + and
Hai
i and
Hai
i are the instantaneous i
th
harmonic components of the phasea and b currents
respectively.
The compensation command for phase a and b can be obtained by summing the
individual instantaneous components in (6.26) and (6.27) respectively as given below.
cos
5,7,11,13 5,7,11,13
THa Hai ai
i i
i i i
= =
= =
¯ ¯
(6.28)
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
156
cos
5,7,11,13 5,7,11,13
THb Hbi bi
i i
i i i
= =
= =
¯ ¯
(6.29)
where
THa
i and
THb
i are the compensation commands for phasea and b respectively.
As discussed earlier in this chapter, the SRF rotating at fundamental frequency has been
utilized for the analysis and control design of the APF. The currents at the fundamental
frequency become dcsignals after transforming them into the SRF, whereas the
harmonic components remain as acsignals. The frequency of a balanced threephase
harmonic component in the SRF fixed to the fundamental frequency can be obtained by
1
( 1) i f ÷ , where i is the harmonic order and
1
f is the fundamental frequency. For
example the 13
th
order harmonic has a frequency of 600Hz in the SRF that is fixed to
the fundamental frequency of 50Hz.
The current controllers introduce a phase delay (i.e. phaselag) for ac components.
These phaselags increase with the frequency and seriously affect the overall
performance of the APF, particularly the compensation of the high order harmonic
currents. Figure 6.9 shows the phaselags for the 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
order harmonics
for the current controller that is designed in Section 6.2.3.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
157
Figure 6.9 Phaselags of the current controller for various harmonics
components.
As mentioned earlier in Section 6.1, one advantage of using the selective harmonic
components for the APF application is that it allows for correcting the phase lag with
each the harmonic components. The correction for the current controller phase lag can
be achieved by adding the phase angles (i.e., introducing phase lead) given in Figure 6.9
to each harmonic component of the reference. These phase leads can be easily
introduced to the reference signal using the proposed method as follows.
From (6.26), the i
th
instantaneous harmonic component of the phasea can be written
as:
( )
cos
cos
Hai ai ai i ai
i i I t e u = = + (6.30)
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
158
By introducing phase lead,
i
o to the instantaneous harmonic component
Hai
i given in
(6.30), the phase lag corrected instantaneous harmonic signal
CHai
i can be written as
follows.
( ) cos
CHai ai i ai i
i I t e u o = + + (6.31)
By expanding the right hand side of (6.31),
( ) ( )
cos sin
cos cos sin sin
cos sin
CHai ai i ai i ai i ai i
ai i ai i
i I t I t
i i
e u o e u o
o o
= + ÷ +
= ÷
(6.32)
The instantaneous cosine and sine terms (i.e.
cos
ai
i and
sin
ai
i ) in (6.32) are directly obtained
form the proposed efficient least squares algorithm as shown in Figure 6.8. The phase
lag
i
o is obtained from the closedloop frequency response of the phase angle as shown
in Figure 6.9.
Now, the phase lag corrected compensation command for phasea can be obtained by
summing the individual instantaneous components in (6.32) as given below.
( )
cos sin
5,7,11,13 5,7,11,13
cos sin
TCHa CHai ai i ai i
i i
i i i i o o
= =
= = ÷
¯ ¯
(6.33)
Similarly for phaseb
( )
cos sin
5,7,11,13 5,7,11,13
cos sin
TCHb CHbi bi i bi i
i i
i i i i o o
= =
= = ÷
¯ ¯
(6.34)
where
TCHa
i and
TCHb
i are the phase lag corrected compensation commands for phasea
and b respectively.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
159
The current controllers also cause magnitude attenuation as shown in Figure 6.10. As
may be seen, these attenuations are not very significant. Nevertheless, the magnitude
attenuation can be corrected simply by multiplying each harmonic component by a
factor that is calculated from the frequency response. The magnitude correction factor
for the i
th
harmonic component (
i
Mag ) can be obtained as follows.
20
1
10
i
i
dB
Mag
 

\ .
= (6.35)
where
i
dB is the magnitude attenuation of the current controller for the i
th
harmonic
component.
Figure 6.10 Magnitude attenuation of the current controller for various
harmonics components.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
160
6.3 Modelling Results for ThreePhase Active Power Filter
Based on the Proposed Harmonic Detection Method
6.3.1 Modelling results for extracting individual current harmonic
components of a practical nonlinear load
The simulated performance of the proposed method in extracting individual current
harmonic components of a threephase full bridge thyristor rectifier is presented in this
section. MATLAB/SIMULINK software tools have been used for the modelling and
simulations. In this simulation example, the proposed harmonic detection method is
utilized to extract the fundamental, 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, and 13
th
order harmonics of the load
current. A sampling frequency of 3 kHz and 30 number of samples (i.e., L =30) is
chosen for the proposed efficient least squares algorithm. The line voltage of the source
is maintained at 300V, 50Hz during the simulations. The MATLAB/SIMULINK model
for this case study is illustrated in Figure 6.11.
Figure 6.11 MATLAB/SIMULINK model of threephase thyristor rectifier
load and the harmonic current extraction using the proposed
method.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
161
The system is simulated for time varying loading conditions. Figure 6.12 shows phase
a of the input current of the threephase full bridge thyristor rectifier. As may be seen,
the current corresponds to three different load conditions: rectifier operates with zero
firing angle (i.e. 0 o =
D
) from t = 0.02 to 0.08 sec.; zero firing angle (i.e. 0 o =
D
) with
increased current from t = 0.08 to 0.14 sec.; and firing angle of 60 degrees (i.e. 60 o =
D
)
from t = 0.14 to 0.22 sec.
Figure 6.13 shows the extracted fundamental, 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
order harmonic
components using the proposed efficient least squares algorithm. In order to evaluate
the identification accuracy the current waveforms are reconstructed by summing the
extracted fundamental and harmonic components. Figure 6.14 compares the actual
current waveform to the reconstructed current waveforms of phasea, b and c. This
figure demonstrates the tracking capability of the proposed least squares algorithm and
its accuracy in extracting harmonics of practical nonlinear load currents under dynamic
loading conditions.
Figure 6.12 The load current waveform of phasea.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
162
Figure 6.13 Extracted fundamental and individual harmonic components (i.e.
5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
order harmonics) of phase – a current using
the proposed method.
Figure 6.14 Actual current waveform and the reconstructed waveform with the
proposed method of phasea, b and c.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
163
6.3.2 Modelling results for the selective harmonic compensation of active
power filter based on proposed harmonic extraction method
The active power filter based on the proposed harmonic extraction method described in
section 6.2.1 is modelled in MATLAB/SIMULINK. This model is shown in Figure
6.15. The parameters of the modelled system are listed in Table 6.1. The modelled
system was simulated for two cases: (i) with current controller phase lag correction and
(ii) without current controller phase lag correction.
Figure 6.15 MATLAB/SIMULINK model for the selective harmonic
compensation of active power filter based on the proposed
harmonic detection method.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
164
Table 6.1 System parameters for modeled APF
Threephase supply, line voltage: (V
s
) 300V, 50Hz
Sampling frequency (f
s
) 6800 Hz
dclink voltage (V
dc
) 700 V
Filter inductance (L
F
) 6 mH
Filter resistance (R
F
) 0.078 O
Natural frequency dq ÷ control loop (
ni
e )
1257 rad/s
Natural frequency
2
dc
V control loop (
nv
e ) 31.42 rad/s
Converter Switching frequency (
sw
f )
6800 Hz
Figure 6.16 and Figure 6.17 show the performance of the APF with the proposed
individual harmonic detection method applied. Figure 6.16 corresponds to the APF that
does not utilize the individual phase angle compensation for the current controller phase
lags. Figure 6.17 shows improved performance with the current controller phase lag
compensation for the individual harmonic components. However, both cases show good
transient response for the sudden change in the nonlinear load current. This is due to the
fast dynamic response of the proposed harmonic extraction method.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
165
Figure 6.16 Simulation results of the proposed APF without current controller
phase lag compensation; (a) load current; (b) filter current; (c)
source current; and (d) dclink voltage.
Figure 6.17 Simulation results of the proposed APF with current controller
phase lag compensation; (a) load current; (b) filter current; (c)
source current; and (d) dclink voltage.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
166
Figure 6.18 and Figure 6.19 show the performance of the proposed method and for
comparison the DFT method when a step decrease in the load current occurs together
with +2 Hz supply frequency change at t = 0.3 sec. The transient time of the DFT
method is longer than the proposed method. The fundamental frequency change does
not have significant effected on the harmonic compensation with the proposed method.
In contrast, the DFT method shows poor compensation performance due to the
inaccuracies of harmonic detection of the DFT method caused by the fundamental
frequency change.
Figure 6.18 Performance of APF based on proposed method during step
decrease in load current together with fundamental frequency
change from 50 to 52 Hz: (top) load current; (middle) filter
current; and (bottom) source current.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
167
Figure 6.19 Performance of APF based on DFT method during step decrease in
load current together with fundamental frequency change from 50
to 52 Hz: (top) load current; (middle) filter current; and (bottom)
source current.
6.4 Experimental Results of the Threephase Active Power
Filter Based on Proposed Harmonic Detection Method
The above discussed threephase active power filter, based on the proposed harmonic
detection method, is next implemented in the laboratory. The APF consists of a three
phase IGBT converter and acside inductors. A threephase controlled rectifier (i.e. full
bridge thyristor rectifier) is selected as the nonlinear load which draws high levels of
harmonic currents. A variable voltage supply is used as the source for the load. Four
current sensors are used for measuring the load current and the APF current. Three
voltage sensors are used for measuring source voltage and dclink voltage. An overview
of the experimental setup is illustrated in Figure 6.20. The proposed harmonic detection
method and the APF controller are implemented on the dSPACE DS1104 R&D board
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
168
hosted on a personal computer. A complete description of the experimental setup
including detailed drawings and specifications of the IGBT inverter is given in
Appendix C.
Threephase
supply
voltage
Nonlinear
load
3PHASE
CONVERTER
_
+
PWM Signals
Fa
I
Fb
I
dc
V
PC WITH dSPACE 1104
CONTROL CARD
Sab
e
Sbc
e
La
I
Lb
I
Active Power Filter
Sca
e
F
L
Voltage sensors
Current
sensors
Current
sensors
Figure 6.20 Overview of experimental setup for APF system.
Figure 6.21 is a photograph of the experimental setup in the laboratory. The parameters
of the experimental APF are similar to those of the modelled APF system. These
parameters are given in Table 6.1.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
169
Figure 6.21 Photograph of experimental setup for APF system.
6.4.1 Experimental results for harmonics extraction using the proposed
method
The first part of the experimental study is conducted in order to investigate the realtime
performance of the proposed method in detecting harmonics in the nonlinear load
current. Figure 6.22 shows the realtime extraction of fundamental, 5
th
, 7
th
,11
th
and 13
th
order harmonic components in the input current of the full thyristor rectifier for phasea.
The experimental results in Figure 6.22 correspond to zero degrees firing angle
(i.e. 0 o =
D
) of the bridge rectifier.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
170
Figure 6.22 Extracted fundamental, 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
–order harmonic
components in load current for phase –a.
The load current waveforms are reconstructed by summing the extracted fundamental
and harmonic components of individual phases in order to investigate the accuracy of
detection. Figure 6.23 compares the actual and the reconstructed load current
waveforms for phases a, b and c. The reconstructed waveforms closely follow the
actual waveforms. A detection time of about 0.01 sec. is apparent in the beginning of
the identification.
In the next section the experimental results for the selective harmonic compensation of
the APF based on the proposed harmonic detection method will be presented.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
171
Figure 6.23 Actual waveforms and the reconstructed waveforms with proposed
method for load current for phase  a ,  b and  c .
6.4.2 Experimental results for the selective harmonic compensation of active
power filter using the proposed method
This section presents the experimental results for the selective harmonic compensation
of the APF based on the proposed method. The response of the APF is recorded when
the filtering command is issued at 0.035 sec. as shown in Figure 6.24 in order to
investigate the response time of the APF with the proposed selective harmonic
compensation. These results correspond to zero firing angle of the thyristor bridge
rectifier (i.e. 0 o =
D
). As may be seen, the filtering starts quickly after issuing the
command at t = 0.035 sec and the dclink voltage is unaffected during the transients.
Figure 6.25 and Figure 6.26 show the oscillograms for load current and source current
with the APF based on the proposed harmonic detection method for the firing angles of
zero and about 60 degrees respectively.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
172
Figure 6.24 Response of APF with proposed selective harmonic compensation
when filtering enabled at t=0.035sec.: (Ch1) load current
waveform (6.5 A/div), (Ch2) active filter current (2 A/div), (Ch3)
source current waveform (6.5 A/div) and (Ch4) dclink voltage
(140 V/div).
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
173
Figure 6.25 Oscillogram of (Ch1) load current (5 A/div) and (Ch2) source
current (5 A/div) for APF with proposed harmonic detection
method for 0 o =
D
of bridge rectifier load.
Figure 6.26 Oscillogram of (Ch1) load current (5 A/div) and (Ch2) source
current (5 A/div) for APF with proposed harmonic detection
method for about 60 degrees firing angle (i.e. 60 o ~
D
) of bridge
rectifier load.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
174
Figure 6.27 shows the harmonic constituents of the load current and source current for
the above case with the zero degree firing angle (i.e. corresponds to Figure 6.25). As
may be seen, the most significant 5
th
order harmonic in the source current is reduced by
81.72%. The other significant harmonics, 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
are reduced by 90.19%,
38.36% and 33.26% respectively. In Figure 6.28, the harmonic analysis for the second
case with firing angle of about 60 degrees (i.e. 60 o ~
D
) also shows reductions in the
significant harmonics in the source current. Reductions of 89.5%, 91.08% and 15.9%
can be observed in the 5
th
7
th
and 11
th
order harmonics respectively. However, there is
no significant reduction in the 13
th
order harmonic components.
Figure 6.27 Harmonic constituent as a percentage of the fundamental
component of load current and source current with zero firing
angle (i.e. 0 o =
D
).
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
175
Figure 6.28 Harmonic constituent as a percentage of the fundamental
component of load current and source current with about 60
degrees firing angle (i.e. 60 o ~
D
).
The dynamic performance of the APF with the proposed harmonic detection method is
investigated by applying a step increase from 9A to 15A in the dcside load current of
the thyristor bridge. The firing angle is kept at zero degree (i.e., 0 o =
D
). The results
obtained in this test are shown in Figure 6.29. This figure shows the experimental
results for the load current, filtered current, source current and dclink voltage during
this test. The APF shows good response in the filtered source current during the step
increase. Furthermore, it shows good regulation in dclink voltage during the step
increase of the load.
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
176
Figure 6.29 Dynamic response of APF with proposed selective harmonic
compensation: (Ch1) load current waveform (6.5 A/div), (Ch2)
active filter current (2 A/div), (Ch3) filtered source current
waveform (6.5 A/div) and (Ch4) dclink voltage (140 V/div).
6.5 Summary
This chapter discussed an application of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
in an active power filter (APF). The active power filter application discussed in this
chapter is based on a shunt connected voltage source converter which injects harmonic
currents into the power system in order to cancel out the harmonic currents that are
generated by the nonlinear load. The selective harmonic compensation strategy is
utilized for the APF due to its advantages over total harmonic compensation. The main
advantage is that the selective harmonic compensation allows correcting the delays of
the current controllers for individual harmonic components. The detailed modelling of
the threephase voltage source converter that is used for the APF application is
presented. The APF consists of a voltage controller that regulates dclink voltage and
synchronous reference frame dq ÷ axes current controllers to force desired harmonic
Chapter 6: Proposed Signal Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in a Threephase Active
Power Filter Application
177
currents into the power system. The systematic design of these controllers based on the
mathematical model is discussed in detail. The harmonics of the nonlinear load current
are extracted using the proposed least squares algorithm and used for deriving the
commands for the current controllers. The phase lags (i.e. delays) of the designed
current controllers for each harmonic component are calculated and the proposed
method is used to introduce phase leads that cancel the current controller phase lags.
A power system that consists of a voltage source and a practical nonlinear load (i.e. full
bridge thyristor rectifier) is modelled in MATLB/SIMULINK. This power system
model is simulated with the proposed method to investigate the performance of the
harmonic detection technique. The APF is then added to the model and the performance
of the harmonic compensation is investigated using the simulation results. The
simulations for the APF are conducted with and without the current controller phase lag
correction to demonstrate the effects of the phase lags correction on the performance.
A laboratory experimental setup for the APF is built using an IGBT voltage source
converter in order to verify the performance. The proposed harmonic detection method
and the APF control algorithm are implemented on the dSPACE DS1104 R&D board.
The first part of the experimental study is conducted to investigate the realtime
operation of the proposed harmonic detection method. The results of this study confirm
the accuracy of the harmonic detection technique. Then, the APF is utilized to
compensate the load current harmonics. The experimental performance of the APF is
extensively investigated for various operating conditions.
In the next chapter, the proposed efficient least squares algorithm will be applied for
detecting power system voltage dips and unbalances for mitigation using a distribution
static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM).
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
178
CHAPTER 7
PROPOSED SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEM
FOR VOLTAGE DIP DETECTION IN A
DISTRIBUTION STATIC SYNCHRONOUS
COMPENSATOR APPLICATION
7.1 Overview
This chapter presents the application of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm in
power supply voltage dip and unbalance detection for mitigation using a distribution
static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM). The DSTATCOM systems usually
consists of a voltage source converter which dynamically injects a current of desired
amplitude, frequency and phase into the grid line in order to mitigate dips or unbalances
present at the point of common coupling (PCC). Both balanced and unbalanced dips
occur in power systems. In order to handle both balanced and unbalanced voltage dips
effectively, the control strategy that is based on separating the positive and negative
sequence and controlling them separately is preferred. In this chapter, application of the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm in detecting the positive and negative
sequence components and then using those sequence components for mitigating voltage
unbalances and dips will be discussed in detail. The remainder of this chapter is
organized as follows.
The next section presents a brief review of the DSTATCOM system. The principle of
estimation of the positive and negative sequence components using the proposed
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
179
efficient least squares algorithm is discussed in Section 7.3. In Section 7.4, the system
configuration of the DSTATCOM with the proposed dip detection method and its
control strategy are discussed. Section 7.5 presents the modelling and simulation results.
The performance of the proposed dip detection method and DSTATCOM are
investigated for various disturbance conditions in the Section 7.5. In Section 7.6,
experimental results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed efficient least square
algorithm is a suitable tool for detecting voltage dips and to verify the simulation results
for voltage mitigation. A summary of this chapter is presented in Section 7.7.
7.2 Review of Grid Unbalance and Voltage Dip Detection Methods
and the DSTATCOM System
7.2.1 Existing method of grid unbalance and voltage dip detection methods
 Grid unbalance detection methods
Grid unbalances are usually determined via symmetrical components of the supply
voltage. It is essential to accurately track the symmetrical component online, since
these components significantly change their values during an unbalanced disturbance.
Accurate identification of the symmetrical components is required not only for
mitigating grid unbalances, but also for other important applications such as the
protection of power systems and digital relays[66], [67].
Many techniques are available for measuring symmetrical components of an unbalanced
threephase system. One existing technique is based on the Park transform coupled with
a notch filter which is widely used to track the symmetrical components. However,
these filters are characterized by low detection precision, since they are sensitive to any
change in the power supply frequency, and variation in the distribution system
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
180
parameters [68]. The FFT is proposed in [69] and [70] in order to overcome the
previous problem. However, its main drawback is that the accuracy of the results
depends on the width of the data window. Furthermore, the accuracy of the results
significantly deteriorates under dynamically changing unbalance conditions. The
Kalman Filter, which is a recursive estimator that can be used to process noisy
measurements, is introduced as a powerful tool in estimating the time varying
parameters of symmetrical components. Although the Kalman Filter gives a least square
optimal estimate [29] ,[71] the algorithm entails bulk calculations which require a large
memory capacity and a highspeed microprocessor for online implementation.
 Voltage dip detection methods
Different techniques have been used in the literature to detect and estimate the voltage
magnitude during a voltage dip event. The most common technique is to calculate the
rootmeansquare (RMS) value of the voltage. The main drawback of this method is its
dependency on the window length. The RMS magnitude of the voltage can be
calculated over a window length of any number of cycles using either nonoverlapping
or overlapping windows. The voltage dips cannot be immediately detected using the
RMS calculation. It is necessary that the new value of the voltage after the change be
entirely within the sampling window to obtain its correct magnitude. Thus, depending
on the instant when the voltage dip event begins, magnitude and duration of the dip, and
type of the window employed, the detected RMS magnitude of the voltage dip can be
very different [72], [73].
Fourier transform, wavelet analysis and Kalman filtering have been proposed in the
literature as alternative signal processing tools to monitor voltage events in power
systems. The Fourier transform technique can return information regarding the state of
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
181
system supply. The advantage of this method is that it can return magnitude and phase
of the fundamental and harmonics component of the supply voltage. However, it takes
at least one cycle of the fundamental when a dip has commenced before information
regarding the magnitude and phase angle can be assumed accurately [74].
The wavelet transform has proven to be a powerful processing tool in power systems,
where its timefrequency characteristics permit detecting and identifying different type
of power quality disturbances [75], [76]. The selection of the mother wavelet function
plays an important role in the detection of disturbances. Several studies have been made
on the performance of different mother wavelets to accurately detect and characterize
several parameters of voltage and current disturbance in power systems [77]. The RMS
voltage magnitude of the voltage during a dip can be obtained using the coefficients of
the wavelet analysis as proposed in [78]. In all of these cases, the wavelet analysis is
always applied over power quality records previously acquired in a power system. Until
now there are no references in the literature to the realtime applications of the wavelet
analysis to the detection and analysis of power quality disturbances. Another problem
associated with the use of the wavelet analysis is observed in the case of multiplestep
voltage dips. In such a case, the detailed coefficients of the highfrequency scale detect
the different steps of the voltage dip, making it difficult to ensure which one exactly
corresponds to the end of the voltage dip.
Kalman filters have also been used for detection of sudden changes in voltage
magnitude. The performance of the Kalman filter of different order to detect the
beginning of a voltage dip and to estimate the voltage magnitude during the dip can be
seen in [79], [80]. However, the practical application of the Kalman filter as a tool for
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
182
voltage dip detection has been limited by implementation difficulties as it needs high
computational complexity.
A voltage dip detection technique that utilizes the phaselocked loop (PLL) to each
supply phase independently has been introduced in [81], [82]. This technique can be
combined with any other technique to detect the magnitude of the dip voltage. The PLL
technique does not give good results if the voltage dip are associated with a phase angle
jump such as in unbalance voltage dip [83].
7.2.2 Brief review of the DSTATCOM system
Recently, the distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM) has been
introduced to distribution networks to manage the system reactive power and regulate
the voltage at the distribution buses. A DSTATCOM usually consists of a shunt
connected voltage source converter (VSC) [84]. The benefits of using a VSC are
sinusoidal currents, high current bandwidth, controllable reactive power to regulate bus
voltage level and to minimize the resonances between the grid and the converter. A
system with these characteristics can be used to inject a controllable current into the
grid. By injecting a current into the point of common coupling (PCC), a shunt
connected VSC can boost the voltages at that point during a voltage dip. Even though
the theory, control and modelling of conventional static compensator (STATCOM) have
been broadly discussed in the literature, more preference is given to the DSTATCOM
due to its simple connection requirement [85], [86]. Furthermore, an unbalance
correction can also be added to the functions of the DSTATCOM [87].
The extraction and tracking technique of voltage dip is the core of the DSTATCOM
mitigating control strategy. In order to obtain the required information to control the
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
183
DSTATCOM further processing during voltage unbalance or dip is required and the
processed information is required to be updated as fast as possible. Moreover, the
choice of techniques for the voltage dip detection is highly dependent on the realtime
implementation, the available computational hardware, and the amount of
computational effort.
The typical standard information tracking or detection methods such as the Fourier
transform or the practical digital implementation of it, the discrete Fourier transform
(DFT) or the Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) [88] and the phaselockedloop (PLL) [53]
are generally used in DSTATCOM systems. The main drawback of the DFT and the
FFT methods is less efficient in tracking the signal dynamics. The DFT method is not a
fast technique since it needs at least one cycle of the fundamental when dip has
commenced before information regarding the magnitude and phase can be determined
accurately. The PLL also has the same problem that it is slow in returning the
information of the voltage disturbances.
In the next section the voltage dip detection and unbalances detection based on the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm for using in DSTATCOM applications is
introduced.
7.3 Voltage Dip Detection Based on Proposed Efficient LS Method
Voltage dips, both balanced and unbalanced, in threephase system can be effectively
identified for mitigation purposes using instantaneous symmetrical components. The
proposed efficient least squares method as described in Section 5.3.2 is capable of
identifying the instantaneous symmetrical components of the fundamental frequency
accurately even though the point of common coupling voltage is strongly corrupted by
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
184
the voltage harmonics. Also, it fulfils the specific requirements of the fast transient
response, accuracy and robustness in order to ensure the satisfactory performance of the
mitigation system.
Identification of the instantaneous positive and negativesequence components of the
fundamental is usually adequate to mitigate both the balanced and unbalanced dips. The
size of the required constant matrix in this case is 2 L × , since only the fundamental
component is required to be identified (i.e., 1 K = ). Figure 7.1 illustrates the
identification of the instantaneous cosine and sine components of the fundamental
voltage using the proposed method.
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
a a a
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
T
×
×
Constant Matrix
c
C
×
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
b b b
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
T
cos
1
sin
1
c
c
v
v
  ( ), ( 1),..., ( 1)
c c c
v n v n v n L ÷ ÷ +
T
cos
1
sin
1
b
b
v
v
cos
1
sin
1
a
a
v
v
Figure 7.1 Estimation of instantaneous cosine and sine components of
fundamental voltage component using the proposed efficient least
squares algorithm.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
185
As described in Chapter 5, the instantaneous symmetrical components can be obtained
from the outputs of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm (i.e. the instantaneous
cosine and sine terms).
By taking the fundamental component (i.e. 1 i = ) of (5.30) and (5.31), the instantaneous
positive and negative sequence components of phasea can be written in complex
notation as follows:
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
cos sin cos sin
cos 1 1 1 1
1
cos sin cos sin
sin 1 1 1 1
1
1
3
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
a a a a b c
b b c c
a
b b c c
a
v v j v v v v
v v v v
v
v v v v
j v
o o
+ + +
= + = + +
 
= ÷ ÷ ÷ +


\ .
 
+ + ÷ ÷ ÷


\ .
(7.1)
( ) ( ) ( )
cos sin
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
cos sin cos sin
cos 1 1 1 1
1
cos sin cos sin
sin 1 1 1 1
1
1
3
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
a a a a b c
b b c c
a
b b c c
a
v v j v v v v
v v v v
v
v v v v
j v
o o
÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + +
 
= ÷ + ÷ ÷


\ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷


\ .
(7.2)
The positivesequence component of phase b and  c can be obtained from (7.1) as
shown below.
( ) ( )
cos sin
2
1 1 1 1
cos sin cos sin
cos 1 1 1 1
1
cos sin cos sin
sin 1 1 1 1
1
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
b b b a
a a c c
b
a a c c
b
v v j v v
v v v v
v
v v v v
j v
o
+ + + +
= + =
 
= ÷ + + ÷ ÷


\ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ + + ÷


\ .
(7.3)
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
186
( ) ( )
cos sin
1 1 1 1
cos sin cos sin
cos 1 1 1 1
1
cos sin cos sin
sin 1 1 1 1
1
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
3 3 1
3 2 2 2 2
c c c c
a a b b
c
a a b b
c
v v j v v
v v v v
v
v v v v
j v
o
+ + + +
= + =
 
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + +


\ .
 
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ +


\ .
(7.4)
As described in Section 5.3.2, the real parts of
1 a
v
+
,
1 b
v
+
and
1 c
v
+
represent the
instantaneous positivesequence components corresponding to phases a , b and  c . The
real parts of (7.1), (7.3) and (7.4) can be represented in matrix form as follows:
cos
1
sin
1
cos
1
sin
1
cos
1
sin
1
1 3 1 3
1 0
2 2 2 2
1 1 3 1 3
1 0
3 2 2 2 2
1 3 1 3
1 0
2 2 2 2
a
a
a
b
b
b
c
c
c
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
+
+
+
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
(7.5)
where
a
v
+
,
b
v
+
and
c
v
+
are the fundamental instantaneous positive sequence components
of phases  a , b and  c respectively.
Similarly, the negative sequence components of phases  b and  c can be obtained by
considering the negative rotation as follows:
( ) ( )
cos sin
1 1 1 1 b b b a
v v j v v o
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + = (7.6)
( ) ( )
cos sin
2
1 1 1 1 c c c a
v v j v v o
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + = (7.7)
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
187
The matrix equation which corresponds to negativesequence can be obtained by
substituting (7.2) into (7.6) and (7.7), and then taking the real part of the complex
numbers, as given below.
cos
1
sin
1
cos
1
sin
1
cos
1
sin
1
1 3 1 3
1 0
2 2 2 2
1 1 3 1 3
1 0
3 2 2 2 2
1 3 1 3
1 0
2 2 2 2
a
a
a
b
b
b
c
c
c
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
(7.8)
where
a
v
÷
,
b
v
÷
and
c
v
÷
are the fundamental instantaneous negativesequence components
of phases  a , b and  c respectively
As may be seen from the (7.5) and (7.8), the instantaneous positive and negative
sequence components can be easily obtained using the instantaneous cosine and sine
terms of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm. The DSTATCOM application
that is discussed in the next section uses synchronously rotating reference frame
controllers (i.e. dq ÷ controllers). Therefore, transformation of the instantaneous
positive and negative sequence voltage components into the dq ÷ axes is required. The
transformation of the positive and negative sequence components into the
dq ÷ reference frame is given in (7.9) and (7.10) respectively.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
sin sin 3cos sin 3cos
2
2 2
1 1 3
cos cos 3sin cos 3sin
2 2
a
d
b
q
c
v
t t t t t
v
v
v
t t t t t
v
e e e e e
e e e e e
+
+
+
+
+
÷ ÷ ÷ +
=
÷ + ÷ ÷
(7.9)
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
188
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 1
sin sin 3cos sin 3cos
2
2 2
1 1 3
cos cos 3sin cos 3sin
2 2
a
d
b
q
c
v
t t t t t
v
v
v
t t t t t
v
e e e e e
e e e e e
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ +
=
÷ ÷ ÷ +
(7.10)
where
d
v
+
and
q
v
+
are the fundamental instantaneous dq ÷ components of the positivesequence
voltage, and
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
are the fundamental instantaneous dq ÷ components of the negative
sequence voltage.
The overview of the complete dip detection method based on the proposed efficient
least squares algorithm is illustrated in Figure 7.2. As described earlier in this section,
the negative and positive sequence components at fundamental frequency are obtained
from the instantaneous cosine and sine terms. Then, the dq ÷ transformation is carried
out to obtain the d ÷ and q ÷ components for each sequence. The advantages of
obtaining the dq ÷ components via the symmetrical components instead of the direct
dq ÷ transformation will be discussed in Section 7.4.2.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
189
Positivesequence
estimator
(Eq. 7.5)
Negativesequence
estimator
(Eq. 7.8)
( )
Sb
v t
( )
Sa
v t
( )
Sc
v t
abc
d
v
÷
abc
dq
dq
q
v
÷
d
v
+
q
v
+
1
cos( ) t e ÷
1
sin( ) t e ÷
1
cos( ) t e
1
sin( ) t e
Proposed
Efficient
Least Squares
Algorithm
Figure 7.2 Block diagram of voltage dip detection method based on proposed
efficient least squares algorithm.
7.4 The DSTATCOM System with Proposed Voltage Dip Detection
Method
7.4.1 System configuration
The configuration of the DSTATCOM with the proposed voltage dip detection method
is illustrated in Figure 7.3. The DSTATCOM consists of a threephase voltage source
converter (VSC), a dcside capacitor
dc
C with its leakage resistance
dc
R , and an
inductance
F
L on the acside of the converter. The resistance
F
R represents the cable
resistance of the acside of the converter. A shunt filter capacitor with capacitance
F
C
and an inductance
tr
L that represents transformer leakage inductance are added to the ac
side of the voltage source converter that forms a LCL filter. This filter helps in
effectively filtering out the switching ripple in the output voltage waveform.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
190
LOAD
a
e
b
e
c
e
line
L
line
R
F
R
a
b
c
Fb
i
Fc
i
Fa
i
F
L
Controller
2
dc
V
* 2
dc
V

*
Fd
i
dc
C
Fd
i
Fq
i
abc
dq
, ,
Fa Fb Fc
i i i
i
q
controller
d
u
PLL
abc
dq
e
sin( ) t e
cos( ) t e
sin( ), cos( ) t t e e
i
d
controller +
+
+
+

2
dc
V
dc
R
Reactive
Power
Controller
*
Cd
i
Voltage dip
detection based
on proposed
method
(Figure 7.2)
tr
L
F
C
,
d q
v v
+ +
,
d q
v v
÷ ÷
*
Cq
i
*
Cq
i
Decoupling
q
u
d
m
q
m
PWM
Geneartion
Switching signals
Fd
i
Fq
i
e
sd
v
abc
dq
sin( ) t e
cos( ) t e
a
m
b
m
c
m
sd
v
Line impedance
sab
v
sa
v
sab
v
sab
v
sb
v
sc
v
Grid
PCC
Figure 7.3 Overall schematic diagram of DSTATCOM with proposed
voltage dip detection method.
The grid is represented by using an ideal voltage source and impedance. This impedance
consists of an inductance
line
L and a resistance
line
R which characterizes the transformer
and power line respectively. The analysis and design of the DSTATCOM controller are
conducted in the rotating reference frame which is synchronized to the voltage vector.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
191
As explained earlier in Section 7.1, the DSTATCOM mitigates the voltage dips by
dynamically injecting a current of desired amplitude and phase angle into the grid line.
A schematic diagram of the DSTATCOM with the proposed voltage dip detection
method is illustrated in Figure 7.3. The two inner dq ÷ current regulators in Figure 7.3
force the converter currents
Fd
i and
Fq
i to follow the command currents
*
Fd
i and
*
Fq
i
respectively. The command
*
Fd
i to the d ÷ axis current loop is obtained by summing the
dclink
2
dc
V controller output and d ÷ axis component of the reactive power controller
output
Cd
i . The command
*
Fq
i is obtained from the q ÷ axis component of the reactive
power controller output
Cq
i . The purpose of the outer loop
2
dc
V controller is to regulate
the dclink voltage to a required level. The modulation signals
a
m ,
b
m and
c
m for the
PWM generator are derived from the output of the current controllers. The decoupling
terms are added to the output of the current controllers in order to remove the coupling
and are then transformed into the abc ÷ stationary reference frame to obtain the
modulation signal for the VSC. The ( )
1
sin t e and ( )
1
cos t e terms required for the
transformation between the abc ÷ and dq ÷ reference fames are obtained via a phase
locked loop (PLL) which is synchronized to the fundamental component of the voltage.
All of the above are illustrated in Figure 7.3.
The inner loop dq ÷ current controller and the outer loop dclink voltage controller
design for this DSTATCOM are similar to the controller design presented in the
Chapter 6, since they have the same structure and serve the same purpose. Nevertheless,
the dq ÷ current controllers in this application regulates only the fundamental frequency
components which are DC in the synchronous reference frame during the balanced dips
and 100Hz during the unbalance dips, and hence do not need to have a high bandwidth
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
192
as was the case with the APF. The command currents
*
Cd
i and
*
Cq
i which are needed to
be injected into the power grid in order to compensate the voltage dips and unbalances,
are obtained via a reactive power controller. The structure and the purpose of the
reactive power controller will be discussed in the next section.
7.4.2 Positive and negativesynchronous reference frame controllers
(reactive power controller)
In the case of balanced threephase voltages, the direct transformation of abc ÷ voltages
into the dq ÷ reference frame will result in dcquantities. Hence, the DSTATCOM can
use a conventional PIcontroller to control the injected reactive currents. However, if the
grid voltage or the load voltages are unbalanced, a ripple of double the grid frequency
will occur in the dq ÷ reference frame. In the case of unbalanced threephase voltages,
breaking the voltage signals into positive and negativesequence components and then
transforming into the dq ÷ synchronous reference frames (SRF) results in dcquantities.
These dq ÷ feedback signals allow flexibility in reactive power control. Figure 7.5 and
Figure 7.6 show simulation results for the dq ÷ components estimation for the three
phase voltages given in Figure 7.4. The simulated threephase voltages are balanced
until t = 0.2 sec. and then have an unbalance of 10% from t = 0.2 to 0.4 sec. As may be
seen in Figure 7.5, the direct dq ÷ components are dc during the condition of balanced
voltage and become ac for the case of unbalanced voltage, whereas, the
dq ÷ components of the positive and negative sequences are dc for both the balanced
and unbalanced threephase voltages as shown in Figure 7.6.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
193
Figure 7.4 Simulated threephase unbalanced grid voltages.
Figure 7.5 Simulated direct dq ÷ components for threephase voltages given
in Figure 7.4.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
194
Figure 7.6 Simulated positive and negative sequence dq ÷ components for
threephase voltages given in Figure 7.4. Top: positivesequence in
positive SRF; bottom: negativesequence in negative SRF.
As may be seen in the top and bottom graphs of Figure 7.6, that the transformation of
the balanced threephase voltages with unity amplitude into positive and negative
sequence dq ÷ components results in dcquantities with the following values.
1 pu
d
v
+
=
.
0 pu
q
v
+
=
(7.11)
0 pu
d
v
÷
=
.
0 pu
q
v
÷
=
(7.12)
Note from Figure 7.6 that under unbalanced conditions (7.12) no longer holds zero for
q
v
÷
which becomes 0.05 p.u for the case considered. Similarly, balanced and unbalance
voltage dips do not satisfy one or more of the conditions given in (7.11) and (7.12).
Thus, the voltage dips (i.e. both the balanced and unbalanced) and grid unbalance in
power systems can be corrected by regulating the positive and negativesequence dq ÷
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
195
voltage components to the values corresponding to the balanced threephase values
given in (7.11) and (7.12). Three controllers are utilized to regulate these dq ÷
components of the positive and negative sequence voltages as illustrated in Figure 7.7.

+
Controller
cq
i
+
d
d
IV
PV
K
K
s
+
+
+
d
v
+

+
Controller
*
cq
i
÷
d
d
IV
PV
K
K
s
÷
÷
+
d
v
÷

+
Controller
*
cd
i
÷
q
q
IV
PV
K
K
s
÷
÷
+
q
v
÷
abc
dq
abc
dq
+
+
dq
abc
*
cd
i
*
cq
i
*
0pu
d
V
÷
=
*
0 pu
q
V
÷
=
*
0
cd
i
+
=
( ) sin t e ( ) cos t e
( ) sin t e ÷ ( ) cos t e ÷
( ) sin t e ( ) cos t e
*
1 pu
d
V
+
=
d
V
+
d
V
÷
q
V
÷
Figure 7.7 Detailed block diagram of reactive power controllers for D
STATCOM given in Figure 7.3.
As shown in Figure 7.7,
d
v
+
is regulated to 1.0 pu via
*
q
i
+
in the positivesequence
synchronous reference frame.
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
are regulated to zero via the
*
q
i
÷
and
*
d
i
÷
in the
negativesequence synchronous reference frame. These dq  current components in the
positive and negative synchronous reference frames are converted into the abc ÷ axes
components and then added together to obtain the threephase currents that need to be
injected to the line in order to compensate for the voltage dips and unbalances. These
abc ÷ current commands are then transformed into the positive sequence synchronous
reference frame dq ÷ components to generate the current commands (i.e.
*
Cd
i and
*
Cq
i )
for the current controllers. All of these quantities are indicated in Figure 7.7.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
196
7.5 Modelling and Simulation Results of the DSTATCOM for
Voltage Dip Mitigation
7.5.1 DSTATCOM system modelling
In this section, the simulation results for the DSTATCOM with the proposed voltage
dip detection method will be presented. The configuration of the DSTATCOM system
with the proposed efficient least squares algorithm based voltage dip detection that is
shown in Figure 7.3 is modelled using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software package.
The model utilizes SIMULINK control and SimPower blocks and is shown in Figure
7.8 and Figure 7.9. Figure 7.9 shows the model of the DSTATCOM controller. The
model reproduces a prototype DSTATCOM system based on a shuntconnected VSC
that has been built in the Electrical Energy Systems Laboratory at the Department of
Electric Power Engineering of the University of New South Wales. The parameters of
the prototype DSTATCOM system are listed in Table 7.1.
The modelling and simulations of the DSTATCOM have been carried out for three
different cases: unbalanced grid voltage, balanced voltage dip and unbalanced voltage
dip.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
197
Figure 7.8 MATLAB/SIMULINK model for DSTATCOM system with
proposed dip detection.
Figure 7.9 MATLAB/SIMULINK model of DSTATCOM controller.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
198
Table 7.1 Design specifications and circuit parameters of the proposed DSTATCOM.
Phasevoltage of threephase supply: (V
s
) (rms)
210V=1 pu,
50Hz
Sampling frequency of DSTATCOM control algorithm (
s
f )
8000 Hz
Converter switching frequency (
sw
f )
8000 Hz
dclink voltage (V
dc
) 700 V
Line inductance (
line
L )
11 mH
acside inductance (
F
L )
6 mH
Filter capacitance (
F
C )
8 uF
Transformer leakage inductance (
tr
L )
2 mH
Natural frequency of dq current control loops (
ni
e )
942.47 rad/s
Natural frequency of
2
dc
V control loop (
nv
e ) 15.7 rad/s
Proportional gain of the positiveSRF d ÷ voltage controller 0.3
Integral gain of the positiveSRF d ÷ voltage controller 20
Proportional gain of the positiveSRF dq ÷ voltage controllers
0.12
Integral gain of the positiveSRF dq ÷ voltage controllers
10
Sampling frequency of the proposed efficient LS algorithm 2000 Hz
Number of samples of the proposed efficient LS algorithm ( L ) 20
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
199
7.5.2 Simulation results for unbalanced grid voltage mitigation
The DSTATCOM system has been tested for the performance in mitigation of the
unbalanced grid voltages. The simulated phasevoltages of the grid are shown in Figure
7.10. As may be seen, the amplitude of the phase voltage is 10% unbalanced from t =
0.05 to 0.35 sec. time period. The sequence components of the grid voltage is extracted
using the proposed efficient least squares method and are then transformed into the
corresponding SRFs in order to obtain the dq ÷ components. Figure 7.11 shows those
positive and negativesequence dq ÷ components before the mitigation. The proposed
voltage unbalance detection method is capable of tracking symmetrical components
accurately within less than half a cycle of a fundamental period. Figure 7.12 shows the
compensated phase voltages and the voltage waveform error for an unbalanced phase.
As may be seen in this figure, the grid voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC)
are clearly constant during the occurrence of the unbalanced grid voltage and the
maximum transient voltage error is about 2 %. Also, the steadystate errors during the
unbalanced compensation are negligible. Figure 7.13 shows the dq ÷ components of the
positive and negativesequence voltages during the compensation. The top plot of
Figure 7.14 shows the threephase currents that are injected into the power grid in order
to mitigate the voltage unbalance. The second and third plots of this figure show the
injected currents in the positivesequence SRF dq ÷ axes. It can be noted that there is a
ripple of 100 Hz contained in the dq ÷ current components during the mitigation of
voltage unbalance. As can be seen in the bottom plot, the dclink voltage is almost
unaffected during the mitigation.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
200
Figure 7.10 Simulated threephase grid voltages.
Figure 7.11 Simulated grid voltages in the SRF dq ÷ components, before
compensation. Top: positive sequence in positive SRF; bottom:
negativesequence in negative SRF.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
201
Figure 7.12 Compensated voltage waveforms and phase voltage waveform
error in the case of unbalance grid voltage.
Figure 7.13 Compensated grid voltages in the SRF dq ÷ components in the
case of unbalanced grid voltage. Top: positive sequence in
positive SRF; bottom: negativesequence in negative SRF.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
202
Figure 7.14 Simulated current injections and dclink voltage during unbalanced
voltage compensation.
7.5.3 Simulation results for balanced voltage dip mitigation
The grid voltage was affected by a 25% symmetrical voltage dip as shown in Figure
7.15. Figure 7.16 shows the SRF dq ÷ components extracted using the proposed voltage
dip detection method. As may be seen from Figure 7.16, the amplitude of the
d ÷ component of the positivesequence is reduced by 0.25 pu which corresponds to the
voltage dip, and the q ÷ component of positivesequence is zero. In the negative
sequence dq ÷ components, the short duration transients are observed at the beginning
and at the end of the dip which is caused due to the rapid variation of the grid voltage.
The steadystate amplitudes of the both dq ÷ components of the negativesequence
remain zero, since the voltage dip is balanced.
Figure 7.17 shows that the steadystate voltage at the PCC is nearly constant during the
occurrence of the voltage dip. The steadystate waveform error of the voltage shown in
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
203
Figure 7.17 remains almost zero, while the maximum transient error of only 0.15 pu
occurs at the start and the end of the dip for short time only. Figure 7.18 shows the
dq ÷ components of the positive and negativesequence voltages.
The top plot of Figure 7.19 shows the threephase currents injected into the power
system in order to mitigate the balanced voltage dip. The second and third plots of this
figure show the injected currents in the positivesequence SRF dq ÷ axes. These
components have dc values during the steadystate period of the dip, since the dip is
balanced. As may be seen in the bottom plot, the dclink voltage is almost unaffected
during the voltage dip mitigation.
Figure 7.15 Simulated threephase grid voltage with 25% balanced voltage dip.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
204
Figure 7.16 Simulated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in case of 25%
balanced voltage dip. Top: positive sequence in positive SRF;
bottom: negativesequence in negative SRF.
Figure 7.17 Compensated voltage waveforms at PCC and voltage waveform
error in case of 25% balance voltage dip.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
205
Figure 7.18 Compensated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in case of
balanced voltage dip. Top: positivesequence in positive SRF;
bottom: negativesequence in negative SRF.
Figure 7.19 Simulated current injections and dclink voltage during balanced
voltage dip compensation.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
206
7.5.4 Simulation results for unbalanced voltage dip mitigation
The system has been tested for mitigation of the unbalanced voltage dips. Threephase
grid voltages with 25% voltage dip and 20% amplitude unbalance are shown in Figure
7.20 and the corresponding positive and negativesequence dq ÷ components are
shown in Figure 7.21. As shown in Figure 7.21, the amplitude of the positive sequence
d ÷ component decreases to 0.75 pu and the q ÷ component remains zero. In negative
sequence, the d ÷ and q ÷ components have amplitudes of 0.08 pu and 0.04 pu
respectively during the unbalanced voltage dip. Figure 7.22 shows the voltage
waveform after compensation by the DSTATCOM with the proposed dip detection
method in the case of unbalanced voltage dip. As expected, the PCC voltage is constant
at 1 pu before, during and after the voltage dip, apart from the transient at the beginning
and at the end of the voltage dip. The error in the voltage waveform is also shown in
Figure 7.22. As may be seen, the error is very small in the steadystate and the transient
errors of less than 0.2 pu appear for short durations. Figure 7.23 shows the positive and
negativesequence dq ÷ components of the voltage during the unbalanced dip
compensation.
The top plot of Figure 7.24 shows the threephase currents that are injected into the
power grid in order to mitigate the unbalanced voltage dip. The second and third plots
of this figure show the injected currents in positivesequence SRF dq ÷ axes
respectively. As may be seen in the bottom plot, the dc link voltage is almost unaffected
during the voltage dip mitigation.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
207
Figure 7.20 Simulated threephase grid voltages during unbalanced voltage
dip.
Figure 7.21 Simulated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in case of 25%
voltage dip with 20% amplitude unbalance. Top: positive
sequence in positive SRF; bottom: negativesequence in negative
SRF.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
208
Figure 7.22 Compensated voltage waveforms at PCC and voltage waveform
error in the case of unbalance voltage dip.
Figure 7.23 Compensated grid voltages in SRF dq ÷ components in the case of
25% voltage dip with 20% amplitude unbalance. Top: positive
sequence in positive SRF and bottom: negativesequence in
negative SRF.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
209
Figure 7.24 Simulated current injections and dclink voltage during unbalanced
voltage dip compensation.
7.6 Experimental Results for the DSTATCOM with the Proposed
Voltage Dip Detection
A prototype DSTATCOM system with the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
based voltage dip detection has been set up in the laboratory. The overview of this setup
is given in the block diagram shown in Figure 7.25. The same threephase IGBT voltage
source converter that has been used for the APF is utilized in the experimental setup. As
may be seen in the Figure 7.25, the experimental setup consists of an additional resistive
load bank (i.e. load bankA) and a switch. The arrangement is used for generating
voltage dips and unbalances that are required for the experimental studies. The load
current drawn into the load bankA causes voltage drop in the line inductance and
thereby generates voltage dip in the PCC. The system parameters of the prototype D
STACOM are similar to the modeled parameters which are given in Table 7.1. The
proposed efficient least square algorithm based dip detection method and the control
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
210
algorithm required for the DSTATCOM system have been implemented on the
dSPACE 1104 R&D board. A photograph of the experimental setup for the D
STATCOM is shown in Figure 7.26. Further details of the experimental setup are given
in AppendixC.
3

P
h
a
s
e
A
C
S
u
p
p
l
y
Variac
Load
+
IGBT INVERTER
PWM Signals
ab
v
bc
v
dc
V
dc
C
F
L
Fa
i
PC WITH dSPACE 1104
R&D BOARD
line
L
ca
v
tr
L
F
C
Fb
i
Switch
Voltage
sensors
Current
sensors

DSTATCOM
Load
bankA
PCC
Figure 7.25 Overview of the experimental setup of the DSTATCOM system.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
211
Figure 7.26 A photograph of the experimental setup of the DSTATCOM.
7.6.1 Experimental results for unbalanced grid voltage mitigation
The DSTATCOM system is tested for the mitigation of unbalanced grid voltages. The
unbalanced grid voltage in the experimental setup is generated by applying an
unbalanced load at the load bankA. Figure 7.27 shows the unbalanced phase voltages
of phasesa, b and c. As may be seen, the voltages of phase a and b are reduced by
about 15% and 7% respectively. Figure 7.28 shows the steadystate voltages of the grid
after the compensation using the DSTATCOM with the proposed method. The
unbalances are not apparent in the compensated voltages.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
212
Figure 7.27 Unbalanced phase voltages of phasesa, b and c (100 V/div).
Figure 7.28 Compensated voltage of phasesa, b and c using DSTATCOM
with proposed method (100 V/div).
Figure 7.29 shows the dynamic response of the DSTATCOM during the grid unbalance
mitigation. The unbalance mitigation is enabled at t = 0.06 sec. Figure 7.30 shows the
corresponding d ÷ component of the positivesequence voltage in the positive SRF (i.e.
d
v
+
) and the dq ÷ components of the negativesequence voltage in the negative SRF (i.e.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
213
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
). During the unbalanced period, the
d
v
+
,
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
have values of about 0.9
p.u., 0.1p.u. and 0.03 p.u. respectively (1.0 p.u. = 210 V). As may be seen, the values of
d
v
+
,
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
are regulated to 1.0 p.u., 0 p.u. and 0 p.u. by the reactive power
controllers when the unbalance mitigation is enabled. The
d
v
+
shows fast transient
response. The
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
have slower transient response compared to that of the
d
v
+
.
Figure 7.29 Dynamic response when unbalance mitigation started at t = 0.06
sec.: voltage of phases a, b and c (100 V/div).
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
214
Figure 7.30 Dynamic response when unbalance mitigation started at t = 0.06
sec.: (Ch1) d ÷ component of positivesequence voltage in positive
SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3) d ÷ components of negativesequence
voltage in negative SRF (8.67 V/div); (Ch4) q ÷ components of
negativesequence voltage in negative SRF (8.67 V/div).
7.6.2 Experimental results for balanced voltage dip mitigation
A second set of experiments is carried out when the grid voltage is affected by a
balanced voltage dip. The balanced voltage dip is generated by applying the same load
to each phase of the resistive load bankA shown in Figure 7.25. The line inductance
line
L causes the same voltage drop in each phase due to this balanced load. The resistive
load bankA is switched on at t = 0.06 sec. The generated balanced voltage dip is shown
in Figure 7.31. The magnitude of this voltage dip is about 17%. Figure 7.32 shows the
compensated voltage waveforms of phasesa, b, and c using the DSTATCOM with
the proposed voltage dip detection method. Figure 7.33 shows the corresponding
d ÷ component of the positivesequence voltage in the positive SRF (i.e.
d
v
+
) and the
dq ÷ components of the negativesequence voltage in the negative SRF (i.e.
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
).
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
215
The value of
d
v
+
is regulated to 1.0 p.u. after a short transient to result in balanced three
phase voltages. The values of
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
are zero for any balanced threephase voltages
including balanced dips. As may be seen in Figure 7.33,
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
have settled back to
zero after the transient disturbance. Figure 7.34 shows the compensated steadystate
voltage waveforms of the phasesa, b and c during the 17% balanced voltage dip.
Figure 7.31 Balanced voltage dip of 17% occurred of at t = 0.06 sec.
(100 V/div).
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
216
Figure 7.32 Compensated voltage waveforms of phasesa, b, and c at PCC in
case of 17% balanced voltage dip at t = 0.06 sec. (100 V/div).
Figure 7.33 Dynamic response of balanced voltage dip compensation when dip
started at t = 0.06 sec.: (Ch1) d ÷ component of positivesequence
voltage in positive SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3) d ÷ components of
negativesequence voltage in negative SRF (8.67 V/div); (Ch4)
q ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF
(8.67 V/div).
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
217
Figure 7.34 Compensated steadystate voltage waveforms of phasesa, b and 
c at PCC during 17% balanced voltage dip (100 V/div).
7.6.3 Experimental results for unbalanced voltage dip mitigation
This section presents the results for the unbalanced dip mitigation using the D
STATCOM. The unbalanced voltage dip for this experiment is generated by switching
on an unbalanced load in the resistive load bankA shown in Figure 7.25. The switch is
turned on at t =0.06 sec. Figure 7.35 shows the generated unbalanced voltage dip using
the experimental setup. As may be seen, the voltages of the phasesa, b and c are
reduced by 28%, 15% and 8% respectively. Figure 7.36 shows the detected
d
v
+
,
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
components corresponding to the unbalanced voltage dip given in Figure 7.35. The
unbalance voltage dip is apparent in all the
d
v
+
,
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
components. The small
positive value of
d
v
÷
before the dip started is due to the slight unbalance in the original
voltage waveform. Figure 7.37 shows the compensated voltage waveforms of phases a,
b and –c using the DSTATCOM with the proposed voltage dip detection method.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
218
Figure 7.38 shows the
d
v
+
,
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
components corresponding to the compensated
waveform given in Figure 7.37.
Figure 7.35 Voltages of phasesa, b and c for unbalanced dip occurring at t =
0.06 sec. (100 V/div).
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
219
Figure 7.36 Detected dq ÷ symmetrical components for unbalanced voltage dip
started at t = 0.06 sec.: (Ch1) d ÷ component of positivesequence
voltage in positive SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3) d ÷ components of
negativesequence voltage in negative SRF (8.67 V/div); (Ch4)
q ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF
(8.67 V/div).
Figure 7.37 Compensated voltage waveforms of phasesa, b, and c at PCC in
case of unbalanced voltage dip at t = 0.06 sec. (100 V/div).
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
220
Figure 7.38 Dynamic response of unbalanced voltage dip compensation when
dip started at t = 0.06 sec.: (Ch1) d ÷ component of positive
sequence voltage in positive SRF (34.67 V/div); (Ch3)
d ÷ components of negativesequence voltage in negative SRF
(8.67 V/div); (Ch4) q ÷ components of negativesequence voltage
in negative SRF (8.67 V/div).
7.7 Summary
This chapter has shown that the proposed efficient least squares algorithm can be used
for voltage dip and unbalanced mitigation in the DSTATCOM. The discussed D
STATCOM consists of a voltage source converter which injects reactive current into the
grid in order to mitigate the voltage dips and unbalances. The DSTATCOM consists of
positive and negativesynchronous reference frame controllers (i.e. reactive power
controller) that regulate the dq ÷ components of the positive and negative voltage to
result in balanced threephase voltages at the point of common coupling. The dclink
voltage is regulated to a set value via the d ÷ axis current. The synchronous reference
frame dq ÷ axes current controllers are utilized to force the currents into the grid.
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
221
The proposed efficient least squares algorithm outputs the instantaneous cosine and sine
terms of the fundamental component. In the voltage dip and unbalance detection
methods, the size of the constant matrix (i.e.
c
C ) required is only 2 L × , since only the
fundamental component needs to be identified (i.e. 1 K = ). The instantaneous positive
and negative sequence components of the voltages are obtained using the instantaneous
cosine and sine terms of the fundamental components of phases a, b and c. The
identified positive and negativesequence components are then represented in the
positive and negative synchronous reference frames respectively (i.e.
d
v
+
,
q
v
+
,
d
v
÷
and
q
v
÷
). These voltage components are regulated to set values that correspond to the three
phase balance voltages in order to mitigate the voltage dips and unbalances. The
proposed voltage dip and unbalance detection method allows for extraction of these
sequence component within a half fundamental cycle. In addition the proposed method
is capable of identifying the voltage dips and unbalances accurately even though the
point of common coupling is strongly corrupted by the voltage harmonics.
A prototype DSTATCOM system is modelled and simulated using
MATLB/SIMULINK. The modelled system is tested for identification and mitigation of
the grid voltage unbalances, balanced and unbalanced voltage dips. Extensive
simulation studies showed that the proposed voltage unbalance and dip detection
method allows fast and accurate extraction of information that is required for successful
operation of the DSTATCOM system.
A laboratory experimental setup for the prototype DSTATCOM is built using an IGBT
voltage source converter in order to verify the performance. The proposed voltage dip
detection method and the DSTATCOM control algorithm are implemented on the
Chapter 7: Proposed Signal Processing System for Voltage Dip Detection in a Distribution Static
Synchronous Compensator Application
222
dSPACE 1104 R&D board. The prototype DSTATCOM system is tested for the
mitigation of grid unbalance, balanced and unbalanced voltage dips. The experimental
results verified the successful realtime application of the proposed voltage unbalance
and dip detection method in extracting information for the DSTATCOM application.
Chapter8: Conclusions
223
CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSIONS
8.1 Conclusion of this Thesis
This thesis presents an enhanced linear least squares algorithm for realtime power
system disturbance identification and its mitigation. The proposed method was named
“efficient least squares algorithm” in the thesis and it determines the power system
disturbance via instantaneous constituent components (i.e. instantaneous fundamental
and harmonic components). The extensive investigations that comprised analytical,
modelling and experimental implementation clearly indicated the realtime applicability
and the superior performance of the proposed power system disturbance identification
method when compared with existing identification methods.
In order to evaluate the standing of the proposed efficient least squares method, the
existing schemes of power system harmonic identifications were first researched and
discussed elaborately in Chapter 2 and 3. The schemes were broadly classified into non
recursive and recursive identification methods. In the nonrecursive class, the discrete
Fourier transform (DFT) including fast Fourier transform method (FFT), wavelet
transform method (WT) and conventional least squares algorithm (CLS) based method
were studied. The Kalman filter was studied under the recursive estimation method.
Chapter 2 provided review including brief discussion on principle of operation of each
method mentioned above. Chapter 3 investigated the performance of each method and
compared them in terms of accuracy of estimation and transient response time. This
investigation was conducted using computer models and their simulations for each
Chapter8: Conclusions
224
method. The effects of noise distortion and marginal fundamental frequency variations
on the estimation accuracy of each method were studied and compared. The
computational complexity of these harmonic identification schemes were also discussed
in Chapter 3. The investigations in Chapter 2 and 3 showed that the conventional least
squares method has good identification accuracy and offers fast tracking of time
varying harmonic components. However, this method was identified to be unsuitable for
realtime applications due to its high computational burden. This is due to the fact that
the CLS algorithm requires a matrix inversion and several matrix multiplication
operations. In addition the computer implementation of matrix inversion may cause
roundoff error which could lead to failure in the numerical process.
Having identified the shortcomings of the CLS method, Chapter 4 proposed
improvements to the CLS algorithm based harmonic identification method, particularly,
for reducing the computational requirement so that it can be used in realtime mitigation
applications. The proposed method was named as “efficient least squares algorithm” in
this thesis due to its reduced computational complexity. In the proposed method, the
matrix inversion operation which is needed in the CLS method was removed using an
approach similar to the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique. The several
matrix multiplications that are required in the CLS method were simplified to a single
realtime matrix multiplication. The derivation of the proposed method was conducted
using complex number representation and then it was transformed into real numbers
representation. The complete mathematical derivation of the proposed method was
elaborately described in this chapter.
The proposed efficient least squares algorithm has a simple structure. It calculates
instantaneous cosine and sine terms of fundamental and harmonic components by
Chapter8: Conclusions
225
simply multiplying a set of sampled input data by a precalculated constant matrix. This
algorithm performs only one matrix multiplication per sampling time which corresponds
to only 2K L × ( K and L are the number of harmonics to be identified and number of
samples respectively) multiplication and addition operations. The comparison showed
that the proposed efficient least squares algorithm has significantly low realtime
computational complexity compared to most of the existing harmonic estimation
methods. The proposed method operates in the time domain and directly outputs
instantaneous cosine and sine terms of fundamental and harmonic components instead
of amplitudes and phase angles of each component. This allows convenient signal
processing in realtime power system disturbance mitigation applications.
The simulation and experimental results presented in this thesis clearly indicated that
the proposed efficient least squares algorithm offers fast tracking of the timevarying
individual harmonic components including the fundamental component. The transient
response time of the proposed method is less than half a cycle of the fundamental
period. The transient response time of the proposed method is superior to those of the
conventional harmonic identification methods such as DFT/FFT, in which the transient
response time is at least one fundamental cycle.
The estimation performance of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm under
noisy conditions was investigated using the CramerRao bound (CRB) analysis. The
result of this analysis showed that the proposed method approaches the CRLB (i.e.
CramerRao Lower Bound) better than does the conventional least squares algorithm.
This indicates the better estimation accuracy of the proposed method. In addition the
identification accuracy of the proposed method and the DFT method under noisy
Chapter8: Conclusions
226
conditions was compared using computer simulation case studies. The results indicated
that the proposed method has superior identification accuracy over the DFT method.
In the proposed algorithm, as with conventional nonrecursive harmonic detection
methods, the fundamental power system frequency must be a known value and it is
assumed to be a constant. However, slight changes in fundamental frequency occur
occasionally in a real power system. The effect of small changes in fundamental
frequency on the accuracy of identification for the proposed method and the DFT
method was compared using computer simulation case studies. The results showed that
the proposed method has better transient response and steady state accuracy compared
to those of the DFT method.
As mentioned earlier in this section, the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
calculates the instantaneous cosine and sine terms of the fundamental and harmonic
components. In Chapter 5 these instantaneous cosines and sines were used to obtain
various power system measurements that are required for realtime monitoring and
disturbance mitigation in power systems. In addition to the instantaneous fundamental
and harmonic components, this power signal processing system can identify the
instantaneous and stationary symmetrical components, RMS values and phase angles of
the fundamental and harmonic components, total harmonic distortions (THD), active
power of the fundamental and harmonics components, apparent power, reactive power
and power factor. The detailed mathematical derivations of each of these quantities
were presented. Extensive modelling and simulation studies were conducted in order to
investigate the performance of the proposed signal processing system. The simulation
results clearly indicated that the signal processing system retains all the good features of
the proposed efficient least squares method discussed earlier. The experimental
Chapter8: Conclusions
227
verification of the proposed efficient least square algorithm based harmonic detection
was conducted using an experimental setup that generates known harmonic artificially.
The identification accuracy was established by comparing the actual waveform and the
reconstructed waveform by summing the individual fundamental and harmonic
components identified using the proposed method. Using this method, the percentage
error remained less than 3% for all conditions.
The extensive studies presented in Chapter 4 and 5 indicated that the proposed efficient
least squares algorithm based signal processing is a potential candidate for identifying
disturbances in power systems for realtime monitoring and mitigation applications.
In order to investigate the practicability, the proposed power signal processing method
was applied to two reallife disturbance mitigation applications namely, an active power
filter (APF) and a distribution synchronous static compensator (DSTATCOM). Chapter
6 presented the application of the proposed method in detecting individual harmonics
for an active power filter (APF). The active power filter discussed was based on a shunt
connected voltage source converter which injects harmonic currents into the power
system in order to cancel out the harmonic currents that are generated by the nonlinear
load. The selective harmonic compensation strategy was utilized for this APF due to its
advantages over total harmonic compensation. The detailed modelling and analysis of
the APF system and the systematic design of the current and voltage controllers were
presented. The extraction of the harmonic components of the nonlinear load and the
current controller phase lag compensation using the proposed method were discussed.
Various simulations for the APF system were conducted with and without the current
controller phase lag correction. The simulation results demonstrated that phaselag
correction of current controllers significantly improves the harmonic compensation
Chapter8: Conclusions
228
performance. The simulation results showed that the APF has good transient response
for a sudden change in nonlinear load current. The simulated performance of the APF
with the proposed method incorporated and the DFT method were compared for a step
increase in supply frequency. The APF with the proposed method showed superior
transient and steady state filtering performance which demonstrated less sensitivity to
small system frequency changes. A laboratory experimental setup for the APF was built
using an IGBT voltage source converter in order to verify the performance. The
experimental performance of the APF is extensively investigated for various operating
conditions. The results confirmed the short response time and good filtering
performance of the APF. In the case of thyristor full bridge load with zero degree firing
angle, the most significant 5
th
order harmonic was reduced by 81.72% after filtering.
The other significant harmonics 7
th
, 11
th
and 13
th
were reduced by 90.19%, 38.36% and
33.26% respectively. Nevertheless, the harmonic compensation performance of the
active power filter should be able to be improved further by applying more sophisticated
control techniques and this is referred to in the next section.
An application of the proposed efficient least squares method in detecting voltage
unbalances and dip for a distribution synchronous static compensator (DSTATCOM)
was discussed in Chapter 7. In the proposed voltage dip and unbalance detection
method, the instantaneous cosine and sine terms of the fundamental voltage component
were identified using the proposed method and these cosine and sine terms were utilized
to obtain the instantaneous positive and negative sequence components. The identified
instantaneous positive and negative sequence components were then transformed into
the positive and negative synchronous reference frame dq ÷ components respectively
in order to facilitate fast and convenient voltage dip and unbalance mitigation. The size
Chapter8: Conclusions
229
of the constant matrix (i.e.
c
C ) in the proposed least squares algorithm required for this
DSTATCOM application is 2 L × , since only the fundamental component needs to be
identified (i.e. 1 K = ). This resulted in low computational burden in microprocessor or
digital signal processing (DSP) based implementation. In addition the proposed method
is capable of identifying the voltage dips and unbalances accurately even for cases
where the point of common coupling is strongly corrupted by the voltage harmonics.
The simulation results showed that the proposed voltage dip detection method is able
to identify the dq ÷ components of voltage dips and unbalances within a half
fundamental cycle.
The complete DSTATCOM system was modelled and simulated for grid unbalance
and voltage dip mitigation. Extensive simulation studies showed that the proposed
voltage unbalance and dip detection method allows fast and accurate extraction of
information that is required for successful operation of the DSTATCOM system. A
laboratory prototype DSTATCOM system was built using an IGBT voltage source
converter in order to verify the operation of the DSTATCOM system. The proposed
voltage dip detection method and the DSTATCOM control algorithm were
implemented on the dSPACE DS1104 R&D board. The prototype DSTATCOM
system is tested for the mitigation of grid unbalances, together with balanced and
unbalanced voltage dips. The experimental results verified the successful realtime
application of the proposed voltage unbalance and dip detection method in extracting
information for the DSTATCOM application.
Chapter8: Conclusions
230
8.2 Suggestions for Future Work
8.2.1 Interharmonic detection
The term “interharmonic” refers to those frequencies that are not integer harmonics of
the fundamental frequency of the power supply [89]. The usual origins of inter
harmonics are periodically timevarying loads such as cycloconverters and arcing loads.
Interharmonic currents present the same problems with heating and inductive
interference as do integer harmonic currents [89], [90]. Moreover, interharmonic
currents cause interharmonic voltage distortion in the same manner as for harmonics
and create similar concerns. Electrical power engineers investigating current and
voltage waveform distortion in power systems have been placing interest in inter
harmonics [91], [89], [90], [92]. Even though the DFT method is used to detect the
interharmonic present in a signal, it faces various difficulties due to leakage and picket
fence effects [89].
The proposed efficient least squares method may be able to be applied for inter
harmonic detection successfully. The frequencies of harmonic components included in
the matrix A
which has been discussed in chapter 4, does not necessarily have to be
integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. Thus, the constant matrix (i.e.,
c
C ) of
the proposed algorithm can be included with elements that are not integer multiples of
fundamental frequency. This is needed to be further investigated, possibly using
modeling and computer simulations. Successful application may allow realtime
instantaneous interharmonic detection and mitigation similar to the case for integer
harmonics.
Chapter8: Conclusions
231
8.2.2 Voltage dip detection for dynamic voltage restorer (DVR)
The purpose of dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is similar to DSTATCOM and used to
protect sensitive loads from the effects of voltage dip on the distribution feeder. The
DVR which is placed in series with a sensitive load must be able to respond quickly to a
voltage dip if end users of sensitive equipment are to experience no voltage dip. It is
necessary for the DVR control system to not only detects the start and end of a voltage
dip but also to determine the dip depth and any associated phase shift. A typical
standard detection method such as the DFT/FFT is too slow in supplying this
information.
The proposed efficient least square algorithm may be applied for voltage dip detection
for use in conjunction with the main control system of a DVR. The proposed technique
is able to compute the phase shift and the reduction in the supply voltage much quicker
than typical DFT/FFT methods.
8.2.3 Application of more sophisticated control techniques for APF
As discussed in Section 6.2.5, in order to cope with the delay of the current control loop,
predetermined phase leads that are calculated from the frequency response are
introduced to each of the individual harmonic components. Even though with this
technique the delay of the current controllers are theoretically compensated, this
approach is essentially based on feedforward openloop compensation and is sensitive
to parameter mismatches and relies on the ability to accurately predict the current
controller performance. To overcome this problem, researchers have proposed a closed
loop compensation control of selected source current harmonics [60] and a closedloop
selective harmonic control based on repetitive techniques [38]. In the first method, the
selective harmonics in both the load current and source current are required to be
Chapter8: Conclusions
232
identified. The latter method needs individual harmonics of only the source current to be
identified and in order to improve the performance of selective compensation an
adjustable leading phase current control algorithm is proposed [5]. The harmonic
identification in this method is based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The
proposed efficient least square algorithm in this thesis has various advantages over the
DFT method and an application of the proposed efficient least square algorithm for the
APF with feedback (i.e closedloop) selective harmonic compensation may be
investigated in the future with advantage.
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Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
241
APPENDIX A
THE CRAMERRAO LOWER BOUND
The CramerRao Lower Bound is a measure for evaluating performance of estimator.
As a background, Section A.1 determines CRLB for a single sinusoid. Section A.2 and
A.3 describe the determination of CRLB for linear least squares.
A.1 CramerRao Lower Bound (CRLB) for a Single Sinusoid
The data of single sinusoid can be assumed to be
  ( ) ( ) cos y m X m e m e u = + + (A.1)
where X is the amplitude of the sinusoid, u is the phase angle, e is the known angular
frequency, and ( ) e m is a Gaussian white noise (WGN) with zero mean and variance
2
o .
The vector, ( ) ( ) 0 , , 1 y y L = ÷
y !
T
is defined for L samples ( ) 0,1, , 1 m L = ÷ ! . If
X and u are parameters to be estimated, the parameter vector is defined as
  X u =
T
o . Then CRLB for a single sinusoid in vector form follows as (Theorem 3.2
of [41])
( )
( )
1
ˆ
var I
ii
i
÷
>
o o (A.2)
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
242
As the signal is corrupted by Gaussian white noise, (A.2) is simplified to (Section 3.9 of
[41]):
( )
   
1
2
0
; ;
1
L
ij
m
m m
o
÷
=
c c
=
c c
¯
y y
I
o o
o
o o
i j
(A.3)
where ( )
ij
I o is a element of Fisher information matrix.
In evaluating the CRLB, let r m e u = + and use certain simplification based on
following approximations [93]
( )
1
0
sin 2 0
L
m
r
÷
=
~
¯
(A.4)
( )
1
0
cos 2 0
L
m
r
÷
=
~
¯
(A.5)
By substituting (A.4) and (A.5) into elements of Fisher information matrix in (A.3),
( ) ( )
1 1
2
2 2 2
11
0 0
1 1 1 1
cos cos 2
2 2 2
L L
m m
L
r r
o o o
÷ ÷
= =
 
= = + ~

\ .
¯ ¯
I o (A.6)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2 2
12 21
0
1
cos sin sin 2 0
L
m
X
X r r r
o o
÷
=
= = ÷ = ÷ ~
¯
I I o o (A.7)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 1
2 2 2
2 2 2
22
0 0
1 1 1 1
sin sin 2
2 2 2
L L
m m
LX
X r X r
o o o
÷ ÷
= =
 
= ÷ = ÷ ~

\ .
¯ ¯
I o (A.8)
Then, the Fisher information matrix becomes
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
243
( )
2 2
0
1 2
0
2
L
LX o
=
I o . (A.9)
Therefore
( )
1
2
2
2
0
2
0
L
LX
o
÷
=
I o (A.10)
From (A.10) the CRLB for each estimated parameter of a single sinusoidal is obtained
as follows:
( )
2
2
ˆ
var X
L
o
> (A.11)
( )
2
2
2
ˆ
var
LX
o
u > (A.12)
A.2 Variance of Linear Least Squares Method
In matrix notation of the system equation from (4.3) with noise is given below.
= + y A x e (A.13)
where
[ [0], [1], , [ 1]] y y y L = ÷ y !
T
,
[ , ] X u = x
T
,
matrix Ais the main matrix with known of dimension 2 L K × ,
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
244
[ [0], [1], , [ 1]] e e e L = ÷ e !
T
and this noise vector has the statistical characterization
2
(0, ) o e I N .
From Section 4.3 of [41], the partial derivative of logarithmic likelihood function
( ) ; p y x can be written as follows:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
ln ;
1
ln 2
L
p
to
o
c c
= ÷ ÷
c c
y x
y  Ax y  Ax
x x
T
2
1
2
2o
c
= ÷
c
y y  y Ax x A Ax
x
+
T T T T
(A.14)
Using matrix identities and simplifying,
( )
2
ln ;
1
p
o
c
=
c
y x
A y  A Ax
x
T T
(A.15)
Assuming that A A
T
is invertible
( )
( )
2
ln ; p
o
c
=
c
1 y x
A A
A A A y  x
x
T
T T
(A.16)
Therefore, the minimum variance unbiased (MVU) estimator of x is given as
( )
ˆ =
1
x A A A y
T T
(A.17)
( )
( )
2
o
=
A A
I x
T
(A.18)
The covariance matrix of x is found as
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
245
( ) ( )
1
2
ˆ
o
÷
=
1
x
C = I x A A
T
(A.19)
ˆ
2
1
o
1
x
C = I (A.20)
A.3 CramerRao Lower Bound of the Linear Least Squares Technique
The complex form of (A.13) can be written as
= + y A x e
where
[ [0], [1], , [ 1]] y y y L = ÷ y !
T
,
[ , ] X u = x
T
,
matrix A
is the main matrix with known of dimension 2 L K × ,
[ [0], [1], , [ 1]] e e e L = ÷ e !
T
and this noise vector has the statistical characterization
2
(0, ) o e I N .
If , X u , are the parameters to be estimated the complex amplitude and phase angle, the
parameter vector can be defined as   , X u =
T
c . The CramerRao Lower Bound for a
complex signal, in vector form, can be written as follows (Section 15.7 of [41])
( )
( )
1
ˆ
var
ij
i
÷
>
I c c (A.21)
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
246
where ( ) I c is the complex Fisher information matrix and can be defined as
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1
1
2Re
ij
i j
H
i j
tr
÷ ÷
÷
c c
=
c c
c c
+
c c
x x
x x
x
C C
I C C
C
c c
c c c
c c
c c
c
c c
u u
(A.22)
As can be seen from (A.20),
x
C
is not a function of c (i.e.   , X u =
T
c ). Therefore,
( )
0
i
c
=
c
x
C
c
c
and
( )
0
j
c
=
c
x
C
c
c
. As result, the first term of (A.22) is zero. Then, the
Fisher information matrix can be written as follows:
( )
( ) ( )
2
1
2Re
H
ij
i j
o
c c
=
c c
I I
c c
c
c c
u u
(A.23)
( )
c u and ( )
H
c u for (A.13) can be written as below.
( )
(0)
(1)
( )
( 1)
y
y
y m
y L
=
÷
#
#
c u ovo ( )
*
*
*
*
(0)
(1)
( )
( 1)
y
y
y m
y L
H
=
÷
#
#
c
T
u (A.24)
By applying (A.24) to (A.23) and simplifying,
( )
* 1
2
0
2 ( ) ( )
Re
L
ij
m
i j
y m y m
o
÷
=
c c
=
c c
¯
I
c
c c
(A.25)
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
247
The partial derivatives of the sampled input signal
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
( )
2
j fm j fm
X
y m e e
t u t u + ÷ +
= + and
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 *
( )
2
j fm j fm
X
y m e e
t u t u + ÷ +
= + with respect to amplitude and phase angle can be
written as follows
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1
( ) 1
2
j fm j fm
y m
e e
t u t u + ÷ +
c
= +
c
c
(A.26)
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
( )
2
j fm j fm
y m jX
e e
t u t u + ÷ +
c
= ÷
c
c
(A.27)
( ) ( )
( )
*
2 2
1
( ) 1
2
j fm j fm
y m
e e
t u t u + ÷ +
c
= +
c
c
(A.28)
( ) ( )
( )
*
2 2
2
( )
2
j fm j fm
y m jX
e e
t u t u + ÷ +
c
= ÷
c
c
(A.29)
By substituting partial derivatives given in (A.26),(A.27),(A.28) and (A.29) into (A.25),
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
* 1
2
11
0
1
2 2 2 2
2
0
2 ( ) ( )
Re
2 1
Re
4
L
m
L
j fm j fm j fm j fm
m
y m y m
e e e e
t u t u t u t u
o
o
÷
=
÷
÷ + + + ÷ +
=
c c
=
c c
= + +
¯
¯
I
1 1
c
c c
(A.30)
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
* 1
2
12
0
1
2 2 2 2
2
0
2 ( ) ( )
Re
2
Re
4
L
m
L
j fm j fm j fm j fm
m
y m y m
jX
e e e e
t u t u t u t u
o
o
÷
=
÷
÷ + + + ÷ +
=
c c
=
c c
= + ÷
¯
¯
I
1 2
c
c c
(A.31)
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
248
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
* 1
2
21
0
1
2 2 2 2
2
0
2 ( ) ( )
Re
2
Re
4
L
m
L
j fm j fm j fm j fm
m
y m y m
jX
e e e e
t u t u t u t u
o
o
÷
=
÷
÷ + + + ÷ +
=
c c
=
c c
= ÷ +
¯
¯
I
2 1
c
c c
(A.32)
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
* 1
2
22
0
2 2
2
2 1
2 2 2 2
2
0
2 ( ) ( )
Re
2
Re
2
Re
4
L
n
j fm j fm
L
j fm j fm j fm j fm
m
y m y m
Xje Xje
X
e e e e
t u t u
t u t u t u t u
o
o
o
÷
=
÷ + +
÷
÷ + + + ÷ +
=
c c
=
c c
= ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷
¯
¯
I
2 2
c
c c
(A.33)
By simplifying (A.30),(A.31),(A.32) and (A.33) ,
( )
2
11
2L
o
~
I c (A.34)
( )
12
0 ~
I c (A.35)
( )
21
0 ~
I c (A.36)
( )
2
2
22
LX
o
~
I c (A.37)
So that, the Fisher information matrix becomes
( )
2 2
2 0
1
0
L
LX o
=
I c (A.38)
Therefore,
Appendix A: The CramerRao Lower Bound of the proposed method
249
( )
2
2
1
0
2
1
0
L
LX
o
=
1
I c (A.39)
The CRLBs for the estimated amplitude and phase angle are obtained as
( )
2
ˆ
var
2
X
L
o
> (A.40)
( )
2
2
ˆ
var
LX
o
u > (A.41)
Appendix B: Modelling and RealTime Control Programs
250
APPENDIX B
MODELLING AND REALTIME CONTOL
PROGRAMS
B.1 Modelling Programs Using MATLAB
The simulation programs for this thesis have been developed using MATLAB/
SIMULINK software. The simulation programs included in the thesis are developed in
MATLAB 6.5.1. The simulation programs are organized as directories. Each directory
contains an initialization file init_matrixC_xxxxx.m which has to be run first to load the
constant matrix for the proposed efficient least squares method. Some directories
contain another initialization file init_xxxx.m which contains the controller parameters.
This file also has to be run prior to the main program. After initialization, the specific
SIMULINK model file can be opened and run.
The simulation programs can be broadly classified under the following:
B.1.1 Proposed power signal processing system in detecting fundamental and
harmonic components
These programs are used to test the performance of the proposed power signal
processing system in detecting fundamental and harmonic components described in
Chapter 5, Section 5.4.1.
Directory: MODELING \ Chapter5\ single
Matlab/Simulink files:
Appendix B: Modelling and RealTime Control Programs
251
1. Initialization file: init_matrixC_7K.m
2. Simulink model file: ELS_1p.mdl
B.1.2 Proposed power signal processing system in estimating power and total
RMS values
These programs are used to test the performance of the proposed signal processing
system in estimating various power measurements and total RMS values discussed in
Chapter 5, Section 5.4.2.
Directory: MODELING \ Chapter5\ single
Matlab/Simulink files:
1. Initialization file: init_matrixC_7K.m
2. Simulink model file: ELS_1p_power.mdl
B.1.3 Proposed power signal processing system in determining symmetrical
components
These programs are used to test the performance of determination of symmetrical
components using the proposed power signal processing system described in Chapter 5,
Section 5.4.3.
Directory: MODELING \ Chapter5\ threephase
Matlab/Simulink files:
1. Initialization file: init_matrixC_5K.m
2. Simulink model file: ELS_3p_symm.mdl
Appendix B: Modelling and RealTime Control Programs
252
B.1.4 Proposed harmonic detection method in extracting current harmonic
components of a practical nonlinear load
These programs are used to test the performance of the proposed individual harmonic
detection method in extracting individual current harmonic components in input current
of a full bridge thyristor rectifier load described in Chapter 6, Section 6.3.1.
Directory: MODELING \ Chapter6\ harmonic
Matlab/Simulink files:
1. Initialization file: init_matrixC_5K_APF.m
2. Simulink model file: APF_ELS_harmonic.mdl
B.1.5 Proposed harmonic detection method in selective harmonic
compensation of active power filter
These programs are used to test the performance of the harmonic detection method in
selective harmonic compensation for an active power filter described in Chapter 6,
Section 6.3.2.
Directory: MODELING \ Chapter6\APF
Matlab/Simulink files:
1. Initialization file: init_matrixC_5K_APF.m
2. Initialization file: init_APF.m
3. Simulink model file: APF_ELS_system.mdl
Appendix B: Modelling and RealTime Control Programs
253
B.1.6 Proposed voltage unbalance and dip detection method in DSTATCOM
system
These programs are used to test the performance of the DSTATCOM with the
proposed voltage dip detection method in described in Chapter 7, Section 7.5.
Directory: MODELING \ Chapter7\DSTATCOM
Matlab/Simulink files:
1. Initialization file: init_matrixC_1K_DSTATCOM.m
2. Initialization file: init_DSTATCOM.m
3. Simulink model file: DSTATCOM_ELS_system.mdl
B.2 RealTime Programs used for Experiments
The realtime programs have been developed under the dSPACE DS 1104 environment.
These realtime programs are organized as directories and each directory contains
number of files including main ControlDesk experiment file that links all the relevant
files. In addition the directories contain SIMULINK model file and the corresponding
initialization files.
The realtime programs can be mainly classified under the following categories:
B.2.1 Proposed power signal processing system in estimating instantaneous
fundamental and harmonic component
These programs are used for experimental verification of the proposed efficient least
squares algorithm described in Chapter 5, section 5.4.4.
Appendix B: Modelling and RealTime Control Programs
254
Directory: EXPERIMENT \ ThreePhase
File Name Description
Pwmgeneration_withmesurin.MDL SIMULINK Model
yuu.LAY Layout file of the ControlDesk
PWMgeneration.CDX
ControlDesk experiment file contains links to all
files related to the experiment
Pwmgeneration_withmesurin.PPC
PPC file is the executable file for the realtime
processor.
pwmgeneration_withmesurin.SDF System description file.
Pwmgeneration_withmesurin.TRC
This file provides information on the available
variables of the realtime interface.
init_matrixC_5K.m Constant matrix initialization file.
B.2.2 Proposed harmonic detection method in selective harmonic
compensation of active power filter
These programs are used to conduct experiments for active power filter based on the
proposed harmonic detection method described in Chapter 6, section 6.4.
Appendix B: Modelling and RealTime Control Programs
255
Directory: EXPERIMENT \ APF
File Name Description
ActiveRec.MDL SIMULINK Model
main.LAY Layout file of the ControlDesk
Active_rec.CDX
ControlDesk experiment file contains links to all
files related to the experiment
ActiveRec.PPC
PPC file is the executable file for the realtime
processor.
ActiveRec.SDF System description file.
ActiveRec.TRC
This file provides information on the available
variables of the realtime interface.
Init_APF.m Control Parameter initialization file for APF.
init_matrixC_5K_APF.m Constant matrix initialization file.
B.2.3 DSTATCOM with the proposed voltage dip detection
These programs are used to conduct experiments for the DSTATCOM system with the
proposed efficient least squares algorithm based voltage dip detection described in
Chapter 7, Section 7.6.
Appendix B: Modelling and RealTime Control Programs
256
Directory: EXPERIMENT \ DSTATCOM
File Name Description
ActiveRec.MDL SIMULINK Model
main.LAY Layout file of ControlDesk
Active_rec.CDX
ControlDesk experiment file contains links to all
files related to the experiment
Active_rec.PPC
PPC file is the executable file for the realtime
processor.
Active_rec.SDF System description file.
Active_rec.TRC
This file provides information on the available
variables of the realtime interface.
Init_DSTATCOM.m
Control parameter initialization file for the
DSTATCOM.
init_matrixC_1K_Dstatcom.m Constant matrix initialization file.
Appendix C: Experimental setups
257
APPENDIX C
EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS
C.1 Overview of Experimental Setups
Three different experimental setups are used to obtain results presented in this thesis.
The first setup is used for experimental verification of the proposed efficient least
squares algorithm. The second and third setups are a prototype active power filter
system and a prototype DSTATCOM system respectively. The core components of all
these experimental setups are a threephase 35kW IGBT converter and a dSPACE
DS1104 controller board (i.e. R&D board). A PC with Pentium III 800MHz is used to
host the dSPACE controller board and the software development throughout the thesis.
The presumed advantage of this system is the rapid development speed of programs
through the use of the dSPACE Realtime Interface (RTI). This feature enabled
simulated systems developed in Matlab/Simulink software to be automatically encoded
into Ccode for downloading to the DS1104 DSP system. Detailed descriptions of the
threephase IGBT converter and the DS1104 controller board will be given later in this
appendix.
 Experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm
The experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares algorithm is
conducted using the setup illustrated in Figure C.1. In this setup, the IGBT converter is
supplied by a diode bridge rectifier connected to a variable voltage supply. This
arrangement is similar to an inverter that is used in threephase dive applications. The
Appendix C: Experimental setups
258
acside of the converter is connected to an inductive load (RL load) via filter
inductances. These filter inductances are used for filtering the PWM pulses in the
converter output voltages (i.e. acside voltages). The DS1104 controller board generates
the PWM signals for a waveform that contains known harmonic components. The
filtered linevoltages at the load are measured using three voltage sensors and taken into
the DS1104 via the analogue inputs. Theses signals are then treated with the proposed
efficient least squares algorithm which is implemented on the DS1104 controller board.
3

P
h
a
s
e
A
C
S
u
p
p
l
y
Variac
+ RL
LOAD
IGBT INVERTER
PC WITH dSPACE 1104
R&D BOARD
PWM signals
F
L
ab
v
bc
v
ca
v
dc
C
Voltage
Sensors
DIODE BRIDGE
Figure C.1 Experimental verification of the proposed efficient least squares
algorithm.
 Active power filter (APF) system
The APF system is set up utilizing the threephase IGBT converter with acside
inductors as shown in Figure C.2. A threephase controlled rectifier (i.e. thyristor bridge
rectifier) is chosen as the nonlinear load that draws a high level of harmonic and
reactive currents. A variable three phase supply is used to power the nonlinear load.
Four current sensors and three voltage sensors were used for measuring load currents,
Appendix C: Experimental setups
259
APF currents, source voltages and dclink voltage as indicated in Figure C.2. These
measured currents and the voltages are taken into the DS1104 via analogue inputs. The
control algorithm including the proposed harmonic detection method implemented on
the DS1104 processes these inputs and generates the PWM outputs to switch the IGBTs
in the converter.
3

P
h
a
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A
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ab
v
ca
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V
dc
C
F
L
Fb
i
Fa
i
La
i
Lb
i
PC WITH dSPACE 1104
R&D BOARD
bc
v
Voltage
sensors
Current sensors
Figure C.2 Experimental setup for active power filter system.
 DSTATCOM system
The DSTATCOM system is set up utilizing the threephase IGBT converter with two
sets of inductors and a set of filter capacitors on the acside as shown in Figure C.3. A
variable voltage supply and another set of inductors are used to emulate the power grid.
Two resistive threephase load banks are used in the system. The load bank 1 with a
switch is used to generate voltage dips and unbalances in the emulated grid. The system
is able to generate both balanced and unbalanced voltage dips. In the case of unbalanced
Appendix C: Experimental setups
260
dip, the load bank1 is set to be unbalanced load. Two current sensors and four voltage
sensors are used for measuring converter currents and line voltages at the point of
common coupling (PCC) together with dclink voltage as indicated in Figure C.3.
3

P
h
a
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e
A
C
S
u
p
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ab
v
bc
v
dc
V
dc
C
F
L
Fa
i
PC WITH dSPACE 1104
R&D BOARD
line
L
ca
v
tr
L
F
C
Fb
i
Switch
Voltage
sensors
Current
sensors

Load
bankA
PCC
Figure C.3 Experimental setup for DSTATCOM system.
C.2 Description of dSPACE DS1104 Controller Board
The DS1104 Controller Board is specifically designed for the development of high
speed multivariable digital controllers and realtimes simulations in various fields. It is a
complete realtime control system based on a 603 Power PC floating point processor
Appendix C: Experimental setups
261
running at 250 MHz. For advanced I/O purposes, the board includes a slaveDSP
subsystem based on the TMS320F240 DSP microcontroller. The DS1104 DSP board
also provides an on–board slave processor for producing PWM control signals. This
feature means that a signal DSP card can be used to control the converter,
measurements and process the captured data in realtime.
The board is provided together with the software “ControlDesk”, which allows realtime
management of the inputs and outputs by providing a virtual control panel with
instruments and scopes and which allows modification of controller parameters during
the experiment.
Manufactuer: dSPACE GmbH
Technologiepark 25
33100 Pederborn
Germany
Processor: Main processor operating at 250MHz, 64bit floating point.
Memory: Global memory: 32 MB SDRAM and flash memory 8MB.
ADC: The board has 4 multiplexed channels with 16bit resolution; 2usecond
conversion time. It also has 4 A/D channel with 12bit resolution and 800 nsec.
conversion time.
Slave DSP subsystem: Texas Instruments TMS320F240 DSP @ 20MHz clock
frequency. It has 1x 3 phase PWM output and 4x1 phase PWM outputs.
Appendix C: Experimental setups
262
For the complete specification and detail of the ds1104 R&D Controller board see [94]
and [95].
Connector panel for DS1104: The connector panel provides easy connections between
the DS 1104 and the converter and transducers. A photograph of connector panel
CP1104 is shown in Figure C.4. The PWM signals can be connected using a CP18 Sub
D connector. The pin mapping of the interconnection cable between the connector panel
CP1104 and the IGBT converter is shown in Figure C.5. The currents and voltage
signals are taken into the DS1104 using BNC connectors CP1CP8 on the CP1104
connector panel.
Figure C.4 A photograph of CP1104 connector panel.
Appendix C: Experimental setups
263
(7)
(8)
(9)
(12)
CP18DS1104
3 Channel PWM
Signal Interface
PCB inside Inverter
(15) GND
(1) PWM_1
(2) PWM_3
(3) PWM_5
PWM Control Signals to 3 Phase
Semikron IGBT Inverter
Figure C.5 Pin mapping of interconnection cable between CP18 SubD of
connector panel CP1104 and the IGBT converter.
C.3 Description of Threephase 35kW PWM Converter
The IGBT converter was designed and built inhouse at the University of New South
Wales [96] [97]. The power circuit diagram of a 35kW IGBT converter and converter
interfacing circuit are shown in Figure C.6 and Figure C.7 respectively. The power
circuit given in Figure C.6 consists of a diodebridge rectifier which was used only in
the first part of the experimental study where the converter was used as an inverter to
generate known harmonics. This diode bridge rectifier was removed in the rest of the
experimental study (i.e. active power filter and DSTATCOM). The dclink capacitors
are rated to 1100V and a large capacitance value allows effective filtering of the
switching ripples and helps stiffening the dclink voltage. The output is produced by
switching a Semikron threephase IGBT smart module. The dclink voltage, lineline
voltages and line currents are measured by isolated voltage and current transducers as
shown in the diagram in Figure C.6. The control signals are produced in the dSPACE
Appendix C: Experimental setups
264
DS1104 DSP board and connected to the converter through a series of crossover
protection modules shown in Figure C.7. The DSP board is used to provide only three
PWM signal lines which correspond to three IGBTs on the upper arm of the converter
legs. The control signals for the lower three IGBTs are derived from the three upper
IGBT signals in the crossover protection circuitry that resides inside the converter. The
IGBT switching deadband was set at 4us. Figure C.10 shows the mapping of the
interconnection cable that connects the interface PCB to the Semikron IGBT module. A
photograph of the threephase IGBT converter is shown in Figure C.11.
The component specifications are:
1. Semikron SKiip IGBT module
 192GDL170475CTV
 SK No.: 20226332
2. Semikron Semipont rectifier
 SKD 160/12
3. dclink capacitors
Ten 3300 uF, 550V each.
Five pairs of series connected capacitors were connected in parallel for a maximum
dclink voltage of 1100V. A 10kO, 10W resistor was connected across each
capacitor for dividing the voltage equally between the series connected capacitors.
Appendix C: Experimental setups
265
4. Current transducers
The isolated LEM LTA 100P/SP1 current sensors are used to feedback the converter
currents to the DSP controller. These current sensors are Hall Effect current sensors
with a frequency range of 0150 kHz. The current sensor amplifier output is limited
to 9.1V as a measure of protecting the analogue inputs of the DSP board. The
schematic diagram of current transducer PCB is shown in Figure C.8. The gains of
the current sensors that are resided inside the converter are given below.

Fa
I (Red phase): 80.5A/10V

Fc
I (Blue phase): 78.3A/10V
5. Voltage transducers
An isolated LEM LV100 voltage sensor is used to measure the dclink voltage and
feed them into the DSP controller. The voltage sensor amplifier output is limited to
9.1V as a measure of protecting the analogue inputs of the DSP board. The schematic
diagram of voltage transducer PCB is shown in Figure C.9. The gain of the dclink
voltage sensors that reside inside the converter is given below.
 dclink voltage: 794.1V/10V
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Appendix C: Experimental setup
270
SIGNAL INTERFACE CARD
15
4
3
2
1
red
yellow
blue
violet
black
SKIP CONTROL CARD TYPE II
15
4
3
2
1
GND
FAULT
PWM3
PWM2
PWM1
Figure C.10 Interconnection cable inside the converter (for PWM signals).
Figure C.11 A photograph of the IGBT converter.
Appendix C: Experimental setup
271
C.4 External Voltage and Current Transducers
The hardware of the system consists of the external voltage and current transducer
board for fulfilling the additional current and voltage signal measurement requirements.
This transducer board contains three current and three voltage sensors. The voltage and
current sensors are manufactured by LEM and produce very linear characteristics over
their signal ranges. A photograph of the external voltage and current transducer board is
shown in Figure C.14. The specification of current and voltage transducers are given
below.
1. Current transducers
Isolated LEM LA 100P/SP13 current sensors are used to feedback the load currents
to the DSP controller. These current sensors are Hall Effect current sensors with a
frequency range of 0150 kHz. The current sensor amplifier output is limited to 9.1V
as a measure of protecting the analogue inputs of the DSP board. The schematic
diagram of current transducer PCB is shown in Figure C.12. The gains of the
external current transducers are given below.

La
I : 40.2A/10V

Lc
I : 82.1A/10V
2. Voltage transducer
Isolated LEM LV2P voltage sensors are used to measure the line voltages and feed
them into the DSP controller. The voltage sensor amplifier outputs are limited to
9.1V as a measure of protecting the analogue inputs of the DSP board. The schematic
Appendix C: Experimental setup
272
diagram of the external voltage transducer PCB is shown in Figure C.13. The gains
of the external voltage transducers are given below.

ab
V : 690.7/10V

bc
V : 702.3/10V

ca
V : 690.4/10V
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.
Appendix C Experimental setup
275
Figure C.14 A photograph of external voltage and current transducers.
Appendix D: List of Publications
276
APPENDIX D
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
D.1 Papers Relevant to the Thesis Topic
D.1.1 Refereed conference publications
[1] Thip Manmek, Chathura P. Mudannayake, and Colin Grantham, “Voltage Dip
Detection Based on an Efficient Least Squares Algorithm for DSTATCOM
Application,” Proceeding of the 2006 CES/IEEE – PELS International Power
Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC06), Shanghai, P.R. China
on the 13
th
Aug – 16
th
Aug 2006.
[2] Thip Manmek, Colin Grantham and Toan Phung, “Real Time Tracking of RMS
Quantities in ThreePhase Systems under Nonsinusoidal Conditions,”
Proceeding of the 6th International Conference of the IEEE on Power
electronics and Drive systems (PEDS05), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on the 28th
Nov  1st Dec 2005, pp.557562.
[3] Thip Manmek, Chathura P. Mudannayake, and Colin Grantham, “Robust Signal
Processing System for Identification of Harmonics in an Active Power Filter
Application,” Proceeding of the 6
th
International Conference of the IEEE on
Power electronics and Drive systems (PEDS05), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on the
28
th
Nov  1
st
Dec 2005, pp.313318.
[4] Thip Manmek, Huu – Phuc To ,Colin Grantham and Toan Phung, “Real Time
Individual Harmonic Measuring Method for Active Harmonic Compensation,”
Appendix D: List of Publications
277
Proceeding of Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference
(AUPEC 2005), Hobart, Australia, vol.1,25 Sept.  28 Sept. 2005, pp.260265.
[5] Thip Manmek, Colin Grantham and Toan Phung, “A New Efficient Algorithm
for Online Measurement of Power System Quantities” Proceeding of the 30
th
Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronic Society (IECON 2004),
Busan, Korea, November 2004.
[6] Thip Manmek, Colin Grantham and Toan Phung, “A Real Time Power
Harmonics Measuring Technique under Noise conditions”, Proceeding of
Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2004),
Brisbane, Australia, 26 Sept.  29 Sept. 2004. ISBN 1864997753 (CD ROM),
Paper No. 146.
[7] Thip Manmek, Colin Grantham and Toan Phung, “Novel and Accurate
Instantaneous Power Measurements”, Proceeding of Australasian Universities
Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2004), Brisbane, Australia, 26 Sept. 
29 Sept. 2004. ISBN 1864997753 (CD ROM), Paper No. 179.
[8] T. Manmek, C. Grantham and B. T. Phung “A novel algorithm for identification
and tracking of power system harmonics”, IEEE Proc. International Power
Electronics and Motion Control Conference, (IPEMC’04), Xian, China, 1416
Aug. 2004, pp.13461350.
[9] T. Manmek, C. Grantham and B. T. Phung “A new efficient algorithm for real
time harmonics measurement in power systems”, The first Electrical
Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information
Appendix D: List of Publications
278
Technology association of Thailand annual conference (ECTICON 2004),
Amari Orchid Resort Hotel, Pattaya, Thailand, 1314 May 2004,p
[10] T. Manmek, C. Grantham and B. T. Phung, “ A novel technique real time
voltage and current harmonic estimations based on the singular value
decomposition method”, Proceeding of Australasian Universities Power
Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2003), Christchurch, New Zealand, 28 Sept. 
1 Oct. 2003. ISBN 0473098679 (CD ROM).
D.1.2 Paper not relevant to the thesis topic
[1] W. Ngamkham, T. Manmek and C. Wongtaychatham, “Translinear Peak
Detector Circuit for Sinusoidal Signal”, The first Electrical
Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information
Technology association of Thailand annual conference (ECTICON 2004),
Amari Orchid Resort Hotel, Pattaya, Thailand, 1314 May 2004.
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