You are on page 1of 29

sciencephysics4all.weebly.

com

: . : ,
, , , , ..


. , ,
, .


. ,
.
( ).
, (

) ( )

m
.
V


.
. ,
. , (m), (s)
(kg) .
(.. m2, m3, kg / m 3 ) , ,

.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com


.
1m ().

,
( ,
, ...).
( ) .
(.. ),
.

, ,
.
,
.
.
( ),

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

. ,
. ,
20cm ,
19,8cm ,
(.. )
20,1cm , :

19,8cm 20,1cm
19,95cm
2


;
-. ,
. ,
, ,
. Laser ( )
, .

300000km/ s . ,
( ),
( )
:


2,56 sec . , ( )
1,28 sec .
, :

x
x t (300000km / s) 1,28 sec 384000km
t

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

. 1sec
(). ( )
. ,
,
.
, () .
, .

,
,
. ,
. , 100
,
. , ,
.

,
. ,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
""
.

.
.
( )
.
.
( ) .
, .
,
.
T : ) l
, , )
,
, . g
.
:

T 2

l
g

( ,
)

:
, (
: , ) .

.
, . ,

. -
(
) . ,

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
. ,
.

1 kg ().
1 g () .

! .
.
Newton. :

B mg

m , B g
( ) :
g 9,8 , ( g 10 )
.


, (
, , ).
, ( ,
B mg ), ,
.
.

:
.

: ,
.

.
, .

. :
, (
Hooke). ,
.
,
. ( ) ,

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
, (
)
.

,
, B mg m

B
,
g

.
, ( )
( ). .
,
;
,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

.
: (C), (K) (F).
T
, T :
T 273 .

, .

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

.

. , :

:
.

:
.

:
. .

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

10

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

,
. ,
(
, ).
.
, . ,
, .

, . ,
: (
, , )

( ).
:
: ,
.
:
,
, .
,
.
: , ,
. .
,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

11

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
:
. . ,
( )
, , .


. ,
.
Joule, .

,

. ! ,
.
,
. ,
.

,
,
. ,
.

: (
)
10C 50C .
, :

1 2
2

10C 50C
30C
2

: () ,

.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

12

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
! .
. ,
,
.
(.. )
,
(.. )
.
, (
).

! !
,
.
.
.

:
)
)
)

: . :
) ,
.
) , ,
(
).
) , ,
( ).
) , ,
( ).
) ,
.
) ,
( ,
).

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

13

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

:
) (
) ( , -,
, - ).

) () ,
.

) ,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

14

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

,
.
.
:


: .
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

15

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com


: .
.
,
.
,
( ). ,
, .
.
.
: .
. . ()
(..
100C).
.
: ,
( ).


: ,
( ).

. ,
. ,
,
( ). :
,
. , (
),
, ,
.
:
(
). .

(
).
. ,
(
- ),
.
.
,
.
,
( ) (

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

16

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
). ,

( ). ,
, (.. )
(.. ).

:
. .
. .
.
. ,
.
.
,
, .

,
, .
, ,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
,
. , ,
( )
, .

( ),
,
.
, .

, ,
.

:
.

.
. ,
. ,
,

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

17

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
.
.
,
. ,
,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

18

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

, , , ,
, .
, .
, , ,
, .

! )
, .
) (
), (
). ()
,
.
) ,
. :
(
), .

, .


. ;
, ,
,

.

,
.
( ).
, ,
. .
! ,
. ,

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

19

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
(
) .
, ,
, .


. , 0C 4C,
, (
). , 4C,
. ,
, 4C 0C,
, (
). 0C, ,
, , ,
. , 4C
.
,
4C, 4C
( 0C),
.
4C ,
.
, ,
( < 0C). ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
- .

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

20

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

21

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com


. , ( )
.
, , , ,
.

:
. ,
.
:
.
.
, (
).
,
.

: , .
,
.

: , .
,
.


. ,

.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

22

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

, ,
. , .
,
. , , ,
, , .. , ,
,
.

, . ,
,
( ).

,
. , ,
,
.
:
) .

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

23

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
) ,
.


. ,
:
)
)
)

, (
- ,
, ),
(..

), .

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

24

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

(
) . , ,
, .

, ,
.

, .
,
.


, ,
, .
.

;
. ,
,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

25

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

.
.
. :
(, ).
, .
,
.

.
( ,
) ,
.
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

26

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

: , , , ..

, (
) .

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

27

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com


.
.

, .
( )
.
, (
) .
. ,
, .
(
), .

, ,
.
. ,
, , ... ,
( ).
, :

: , ,
. ,
. .

: (
) . ,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

28

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
:
. (
) .

:
.


( , ).
,
.

: sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

29