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IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF WESTERN FILMS ON TEENAGERS AND THE QUESTION OF CULTURAL PROMOTION IN AFRICAN SOCIETY

Bello Semiu

ABSTRACT This study examines the impact of western films on teenagers as it affects the promotion of cultural heritage in African society. Much after the independence across African continent, one of the major preoccupations African leaders had to contend with is the restoration of African cultures in their pristine forms which were arguably polluted or collapsed by the colonial masters during their reign. No doubt, teenagers and youth generally, are vital segment of the society who could be instrumental promoting African cultures. But unfortunately, the mentality and lifestyle of the teenagers in African societies have been grossly affected by exposure to western films to such an extent that rather than promoting African cultures, they have become hardened acolytes and promoters of western cultures. The study therefore examines this situation with particular reference to Nigeria adopting both ualitative and uantitative research methods and at the end find out that western films exert great impact on the teenagers in Nigerian society thereby creating cultural gap to the native cultures. The study then concludes by prescribing way forward towards the restoration and promotion of African cultures as it affects teenagers with particular reference to Nigerian society. INTRODUCTION Considerations about the effects of films can be traced back to the 1920s. At that time, the earliest coordinated social scientific research or investigation into the impact of these effects began in the estern countries. !t "as intended at stud#ing the harmful impacts of films on societies. $he development of this medium as a common mass entertainment and information source during the 19%0s encountered similar concerns about potential harms, especiall# in connection "ith #oung audiences &'unter, 199(). *o"ada#s, man# concerns have been raised about the kinds of values and attitudes that ma# be inculcated b# e+posure to certain kinds of media contents, especiall# enculturation and violence in movies &,ube# and -arson, 200%).

$he most important concern in the debate about violent film has been "hether or not it promotes aggressive behavior among vie"ers most especiall# the #oung ones &.vra 1990). /esearchers have also sho"n that heav# e+posure to screen violence can cause problems in other domains of social behavior. 0or e+ample, it can make people become both fearful of the "orld around them and accepting violence in the real life as displa#ed b# others &!bid). 1iolence is one of the global concerns toda# in all segments of the "orld. Antisocial behavior in human beings is accepted to be associated to a number of ph#siological, ps#chological, domestic and cultural aspects. $he learning environments "hich a child is e+posed to are also assumed to contribute to the increase of aggressive behaviors and attitudes as "ell as his inclinations to customs, values and norms of the societ# &Berko"it2, 2001). $he media, as one of the specific learning condition is believed to be a potential contributor to the gro"th of antisocial attitudes and behavior in children and teenagers &!bid). hile social scientists "ork on determining the ma3or causation of violence, such as social environments, cultural factors, famil# instruction, and group membership parents, teachers, politicians and school administrators continue to blame the media for increased cultural alienation and attitudinal change among adolescents &0raser and Staub, 1994). 0or instance, school principals, mothers, and #oung people "ere surve#ed for their perceptions of factors influencing home cultures among #outh. $he results sho"ed that violent messages in rap music and violence in the movies are perceived as the factor among others, influencing the formative process of the teenagers &,andakai, 5rice and $ell3ohann, 1999). Also and importantl#, the 6uestion of cultural promotion in the developing "orld has been hampered b# blind acceptance and practice of "estern cultures b# the #oung ones. 0indings ho"ever sho" that film as a medium of mass communication is one the ma3or contributors. *o"ada#s, the teenagers in *igeria and Africa as a "hole "atch "estern films "ith impunit# or "ithout caution. $his shapes their thoughts, attitudes, associations, behaviors and general "a#s of life.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS $he stud# ans"ered these pertinent 6uestions in order to fulfill the overall goal. i. 7o "estern films shape the attitudes, behaviors and general lifest#les of the teenagers in *igeria8 ii. 7o *igerian teenagers accept and practice "estern cultures e+posed to through "estern films at the e+pense of *igerian cultures8 iii. At "hat degree do *igerian teenagers resist foreign or "estern cultures e+posed to through "estern films8

EXPLICATING LITERATURE
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$he emergence of globali2ation concept in the period bet"een the latter half of the 19 th Centur# and the initial #ears of the 20th Centur# &19%0:191() "ith its "idespread entrenchment in most of the countries of the "orld "ith varied degrees and dimensions also learn credence to this stud#. ;f course, films and mass media in general are not b#e:products of globali2ation but the fact is, it gives another coloration and occasioned a paradigm shift in the media "orld in terms of conceptuali2ation process and the general practice. 'lobali2ation also impacts greatl# on the socio:econom#, political, educational and cultural life of man# countries of the "orld. .mphasi2ing this position, Bello &2010) submits !globali"ation principally and philosophically aims at globali"ing the world in all thin#able ramifications$cultural, economic, political, educational etc. %mportantly however, homogeni"ation of cultural relations worldwide has been a #ey factor in the process of globali"ing and this undoubtedly, has improved the lots of humanity since its birth but each nation of the world has had to face a great deal of challenges most especially the developing countries.

Also, <unfortunatel#, the case of African countries and other third "orld nations of the "orld are 6uite nagging. $he cultural fabrics of these countries have suffered a seemingl# irreparable damage in the face of globali2ation. $he mass media and the so:called ne" media : radio, television, computer, ne"spaper, maga2ines, books, bill:boards, cinema, recordings, films, internets etc, have all b# content and production eroded the cultural values of Africans. $he operations of *igerian mass media are patterned on the "estern model "hich invariabl# erodes our cultures. ..= &!bid) 7efined as <the process of intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across international boundaries, globali2ation principall# aims at the transcendental homogeni2ation of political and socio:economic theor# across the globe, it is e6uall# aimed at making global being present "orld"ide at the "orld stage or global arena. !t deals "ith the increasing breakdo"n of trade barriers and the increasing integration of "orld market= &0afo"ora, 1999,p.%). Better still, globali2ation is also seen <as an evolution "hich is s#stematicall# restructuring interactive phase among nations b# breaking do"n barriers in the arena of culture, commerce, communication and several other fields of endeavors= &;huabun"a, 199%, p. 20). >u#ale &1999) rightl# observes the over"helming effects of globali2ation thus, <the effect of globali2ation has had on culture is immense and diverse. !t has affected people?s cultural behaviors in different "a#s. 5eople have had to change their living "a#s=, &>u#ale 1999, 1). Barber &1992) and 5arker &200%) also emphasi2e that a number of people "ho vie" globali2ation from the @niversalist perspective critici2e the gro"ing erosion of traditional values aided b#
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rapid development of information technolog# and transnational corporations &Cited b# >amman A -iu 2009, p.12). >amman A -iu ho"ever note that at its e+treme, proponents of this school appear to suggest that globali2ation is another form of cultural imperialism. !n this conte+t, it can be asserted that films are general instruments of globali2ed societ# e+panding and sustaining the scope of cultural dominance and imperialism of the "estern "orld. !mportantl#, researchers have empiricall# proved that most films appeal to the emotions of its vie"ers and ultimatel# affect their "orldvie". Because of the developing emotions of adolescents as a result of the onset of pubert#, films can have a huge effect. !n a stud# of retention rate of film details bet"een different age groups, /osen &19B9) found that <both children and adults remember best material that has a high emotional appeal, that is easil# understood, and that is concerned "ith the movie?s plot.= $he material that adolescents "ill emotionall# relate to differs not onl# from adults and children, but also from teenagers to teenagers. $eenagers are most likel# to become emotionall# invested and interested in the situations that pertain to their changing vie"s of the "orld and gro"ing status in societ#. $hese issues include identit# formation, high school graduation, and college, moving a"a# from home, driving, and parental relationships. $he level of emotional involvement teenagers in general feel "ith the film?s content can affect aspects of his or her ps#chosocial development. !n *igerian societ#, the situation is 6uite alarming in that, teenagers? attitudes, thoughts and general behaviors are considerabl# influenced b# "estern films and "orsestill, *oll#"ood films "hich are mostl# anchored on "estern models consolidate "estern films thereb# promoting "estern values in *igerian societ#. $his is not to sa# that films are completel# negative. 0ilms sho" teenagers interactions and e+periences "hich the# ma# have encountered or "ill encounter later in their development. hile the "rong films can give the teenagers "rong ideas, "atching movies does benefit an adolescent?s cognitive development. >ovies pla# an important role in teenager?s lives, and open up "indo"s on a better "orld, at least on a "orld that 6uestions the status 6uo. 0ilms provide teenagers an opportunit# to e+perience different parts of the "orld the# ma# never be able to e+perience in their o"n lives. A teenager living in a small to"n ma# have little or no interactions "ith different ethnicities, but through films, the# are able to vie" a different part of the "orld. Also, b# vie"ing foreign situations in a film, teenagers are able to appl# these situations to their o"n lives using their evolving formal operational thought.

7espite these values, it is depressing to hear the conversation of toda#Cs t#pical teenagers. Det the offensive behavior encouraged b# the media is not confined to speech. 0or the sake of supposed humor, the media fre6uentl# sho" children acting naught#. Staged or cartoon:mediated disobedience, bull#ing, #elling, "hining, ro"diness, h#peractivit#Eall set an e+ample for children in the vie"ing audience. !t could then be postulated that the more a teenager "atches such films, the more likel# he "ill bull# his peers, attend to the norms and values of the land "ith 3eopard# and unconcerned mind. orst of all are the man# scenes sho"ing teenagers out of control, in a tantrum. @nfortunatel#, a tantrum is contagious. $eenagers learn civilit#F indeed, the# learn kindness, consideration, and all the other virtues essential to good social relationships through interaction "ith loving adults and through adult: supervised films. $1:vie"ing, b# focusing a teenagerCs attention upon an impersonal screen, drasticall# reduces his interaction "ith other real people. ;ne of the indictments that recent research has brought against $1:vie"ing is that it produces teenagers "ho are handicapped b# poor social skills. 0rom the beginning, movies have labored mightil# to convince vie"ers that the# need to make themselves more attractive and align "ith dominant cultures as presented b# the media. !t has offered up a ceaseless stream of advertisement for hair care products, shaving blades and creams, bod# soaps, deodorants, and a host of other products designed to enhance the feel, the smell, or the look of the human bod#. All these are sharp attack on the cultural values of the *igerian societ# and this is conse6uentl# manifested b# the general "a# of life of the *igerian teenagers. !n the last one decade and a half, the feelings and attitudes of the #outh in general to conform to "estern cultures is on the increase on dail# basis. .+posure to media contents and more recentl#, the advent of the internet and its "idespread use among *igerian teenagers among other factors have progressivel# increased the tide. !n the effort to attract vie"ers and sell products, this media constantl# offer a galler# of the "orldCs most beautiful people. A modern man sees more "orld:class female beaut# in a single da# than his forefathers sa" in a lifetime. As a result of the mediaCs relentless campaign to promote bod# consciousness, teenagers toda# are more obsessed "ith beaut# as defined b# the "estern media than ever before "hich contraril# oppose to the paradigm of African beaut#. Go"ever, it might appear that this stud# is inversel# giving a knock to the idea presented man# #ears ago b# .uropean:American thinkers "ho did not believe Africans are capable of producing their o"n meaning "hen encountering foreign ideas "hich is a platform for .uro:American thinkers to <preserve= African cultures in their so:called <pristine= state in order to render Africans apolitical and unable to resist imperialism. $he position of this stud# is contrar# from the ideal perspective but importantl#, the realit# in *igerian societ# in relations to teenagers? e+posure to "estern films and the level at "hich the# cultivate and practice foreign cultures imbibed from these films is so alarming "ith various cumulative negative effects so much that
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the situation has continued to attract the attention of the academia "hich has led to man# research studies. 0or instance in a stud# titled <.+posure of Children and $eenagers to !nternet 5ornograph# in South estern *igeriaH Concerns, $rends and !mplicationsF -onge et al &2001) submit that se+ualit# trends among teenagers and children in *igeria "as culturall# alien to *igerian societ# in the past. $he authors further point out that among other factorsF e+posure and enculturation through importation of various "estern films and foreign cultures have been "idel# responsible for the ugl# situation. -onge et al &op cit) cited ;3o and 0asuba &200%) to give a clear picture of the situation Adolescent&s sexuality behavior in Nigeria and sub$'ahara Africa is seriously going through transformation from what it used to be in the past. They attributed this to the effect of moderni"ation caused by industriali"ation, education, exposure and enculturation through importation of various western films and foreign cultures which were alien to the Nigerian cultures in particular and Africa as a whole. The major deterrents against these vices were previously cultural orientation and religious beliefs. (nfortunately, the internet more than any other agent of social change has contributed in no small measure to the removal of guilt, fear and shame associated with unconventional sexual activities !n a similar stud#, <Attitudes of *igerian Secondar# School Adolescents $o"ards Se+ual 5racticesH !mplications for Counseling 5ractices= conducted b# .gbochuku and .kanem &2009), the authors identified various anticultural issues and behavioral problems the *igerian Societ# has to grapple "ith. Such problems according to the stud# include truanc#, disobedience, vandalism, assault, insult, stealing, violent demonstration, drug offences, e+amination malpractices and secret cult activities. $he authors lament thatH There appears to be a consensus among Nigerian researchers and observers that many traditional values are changing rapidly and for the worse. )ne area of life in which the decline of cultural values is obvious is in the area of sexuality. %t is lamentable in Nigeria, culture no longer has a grip on the youth as our society seems to be plagued with decayed moral codes and values and so the sense of right and wrong is eroded! Apart from the blame apportioned to parents for their negligence, scholars are of the opinion that adolescents are naturally open to the
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normal sex drive while this drive is increased by the impact of permissive western cultures transmitted through the sexual stimuli conveyed by the mass media

$he stud# further proves that the adolescents are a"are of and familiar "ith the various environmental stimuli that came to them through films and pictures and e+posure to pornograph# and "estern films account for 4%.1I "hich stands as a ma3or variable e+erting a large measure of influence in the attitude of adolescents in general &.gbochuku A .kanem, 2009). $herefore, the contemporar# theor# of consumption in Africa "hich speaks of h#bridit# and resistance to foreign cultures is #et to be rooted and appreciated in *igeria. $he general lifest#le of these teenagers is considerabl# modeled on that of foreign cultures. $heir dressing, behavior, music and entertainment choice and "orldvie" in general are all pointers to this position. As defined b# Smith &2010), h#bridit# "hich emphasi2es the impossibilities of returning to an# notions of essential national or cultural identit# after the colonial encounter, particularl# in the present conte+t of social, economic and cultural globali2ation is #et to see the light of the da# in *igerian societ#, even the media industr# is not left out. $he point is that, the *igerian media are dominated b# foreign contents. G#bridit# and resistance theor# is onl# championed to an appreciable e+tent in *igeria b# the academia to raise the level of a"areness and for possible adoption in later #ears. Also, it is important to make reference to the theor# of encoding and decoding postulated b# Stuart Gall. Since the late 19(0s, traditional mass communication theorists and researchers conceptuali2ed the process of communication in terms of circuitH production, distribution and consumption. !n other "ords, the# have represented communication as a linear processH sender: message and receiver. But Gall &19B() had a contrar# argument to this model as he declared <! propose to rethink this model, offering readers a much more d#namic model, "ith a focus on television=&Gall, 19B(, p.%1). $herefore, Gall re3ected the transmission model of communication and the idea of fi+ed messages arguing that media messages are al"a#s open and pol#semic &i.e. have multiple meanings) and their interpretation or so:called <decoding= is influenced b# theJ conte+t and the culture of the receivers= &Cited b# >cKuail 2000, p.%4). Also, Gall &19B() that different receivers "ill not interpret a message as <sent= or <as e+pected= and moreoverJmeanings and messages are not simpl# transmitted, the# are al"a#s produced first b# the encoder from the ra" material of ever#da# life, and secondF b# the audience in relation to its location and other discourses. .ach moment is <determinative=, operating in its o"n conditions of production=

As much as the ideals of Gall?s proposition in encoding and decoding theor# or model of communication is appreciated "orld"ide, it could be contended that, depending on the d#namics of the situations and societiesF the propositions of the theor# ma# not be al"a#s true at all times and in all circumstances. 0or instance, aside this stud#, other studies earlier cited have proved that *igerian teenagers are largel# influenced b# foreign cultures e+posed to in the foreign films at the e+pense of the local cultures. $eenagers are not so empo"ered to have culturall# <decoded= messages from "estern films "ith their cultural filter. $he *igerian media and .ntertainment industries fail to help matter in this regard as the# pro3ect more of foreign contents "ithout consideration to #ounger generation and ade6uate attention to local contents.

THEORETICAL INFERENCE $his stud# is anchored on the basis of cultivation theor# and cultural imperialism. Cultivation theor# is a social theor# other"ise kno"n as cultivation anal#sis "hich "as developed on the basis of e+amining the long:term effects of television on American audiences of all ages. 7eveloped b# 'eorge 'erbner and -arr# 'ross of the @niversit# of 5enns#lvania, cultivation theor# derived from several large:scale research pro3ects as part of an overall research pro3ect titled <Cultural !ndicators=. $he purpose of the Cultural !ndicators 5ro3ect "as to identif# and track the <cultivated= effects of television on vie"ers. $he# "ere concerned "ith the effects of television programming &particularl# violent programming) on the attitudes and behavior of the American public= &>iller, 200%, p.291) .stablishing the basic tenets of cultivation theor#, 'erbner et al &1994) argued that <"hile religion and education had previousl# been greater influences on social trends and mores, no" <television= is the source of the most broadl# shared images and messages in histor#. $elevision cultivates from infanc# the ver# predispositions and preferences that used to be ac6uired from other primar# sources J the repetitive pattern of television?s mass produced messages and images forms the mainstream of a s#mbolic environment= &'erbner et al, 1999, pp.1B:19). Still, 'erbner et al posit thatH *ultivation theory in its most basic form, then, suggests that exposure to television, over time, subtly +cultivates, viewers perceptions of reality. This cultivation can have an impact even on light viewers of television, because the impact on heavy viewers has an impact on our entire culture. Television is a medium of the sociali"ation of most people into standardi"ed roles and behaviors. %ts function is in a word, enculturation, -%bid, p. ./01

!nterestingl#, 'erbner, 'oss, >organ A Signorielh &1990), further note that <television is uni6ue in the histor# of media, it does not re6uire literac#, mobilit# or great e+pense and it brings a uniform set of images into ever# home. Because it is ubi6uitous, nonselective and diverse in sub3ect matter, it has become a central force in shaping modern culture. *e" generations have been raised "ith television as the primar# stor#teller in their lives and it helps shape and accounts for <the cultivation of shared conceptions of realit# among other"ise diverse publics=. ith this essential background, suffice it to une6uivocall# establish that e+posure to television b# *igerian teenagers "ith special reference to "estern films is a lee "a# to enculturation into "estern values. Simple is the reason, it is observed in *igeria and some parts of Africa that media contents are largel# dominated b# foreign fares and the so:called local contents are produced based on "estern patterns or models. $herefore, it succinctl# proves based on the basic thrust of cultivation theor# that there is high tendenc# for *igerian teenagers to get absorbed or immersed into foreign cultures due to the e+cessive e+posure to "estern films. Also, cultural imperialism theor# of Gerb Schiller &19BL) is of great significance to this stud#. As postulated b# Schiller &19BL), cultural imperialism theor# states that "estern nations dominate the media around the "orld "hich in return has a po"erful effect on the third "orld cultures b# imposing on them "estern values and therefore destro#ing their native cultures. Go"ever, based on the ontological assumption of the theor#, it is postulated that humans do not have the free "ill to choose ho" the# feel, act, think and live. $he# react to "hat the# see on television because there is nothing to compare it to besides their o"n lives, and usuall# portra#ed as less than "hat it should be. >ean"hile, the epistemological assumption of this theor# holds that there is one truth and no matter "hat, that truth is never going to change. As long as $hird orld countries continue to air "estern civili2ation?s programs, then the third "orld countries "ill al"a#s believe should act, feel, think and live as "estern civili2ations act, feel, think and live. As noted b# Ale+andra &200L), <cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting a more po"erful culture over a least kno"n or desirable culture. !t is usuall# the case that the former belongs to a large, economicall# or militaril# po"erful nations and the latter belongs to a smaller, less po"erful one. Cultural imperialism can take the form of an active, formal polic# or a general attitude. A metaphor of coloni2ation is emplo#edH the cultural product of the first "orld <invade= the third "orld and <con6uer= local culture=. 'iving a historical perspective of the theor#, $omlinson &1991), /auschenberger &200L) A Gamm &200%) observe thatH 'peculation of cultural imperialism emerged in the post 2orld 2ar .. under various names including neo$ colonialism, soft imperialism and economic imperialism. )ver the years, it has gained numerous other labels such as
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media imperialism, structural imperialism, cultural dependency and synchroni"ation, electronic colonialism, ideological imperialism and communication imperialism. 'uch theories describing cultural imperialism emerged in the .345s and gained prominence by the .3/5s. 'uch research encouraged the establishment of international organi"ations such as (N6'*), designed to research and monitor global information flows.

Cited b# hite &2000), Schiller &19B4) captures the central propositions of cultural imperialism in his classic definition. Cultural imperialism is the sum of the processes b# "hich a societ# is brought into the modern s#stem, and ho" its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even to promote the values and structures of the dominant centre of the s#stem &Schiller 19B4). !t must be emphasi2ed that <the spread of American consumer culture goes be#ond popular consumption, raising 6uestions and concerns of the @S dominance in the cultural sphere, "hat effect such cultural commodities are having on the values of societies, and in turn, on the realm of politics. $he term cultural commodities <refer to products of the print and audio:visual industries including movies, television, publishing, radio and music. $he products are vehicles for the transmission of values, lifest#les and ideologies that man# see as corrosive to the recipient culture= &/auschenberger 200L, p.2). Conse6uentl#, e+posure to foreign cultures b# *igerian teenagers through "estern films "ould inadvertentl# affect their attitudes, thoughts, belief s#stem, lifest#les, cultural affiliation and general "orldvie".

METHODOLOGY $he stud# adopted a surve# method "ith the use of 6uestionnaire as research instrument. $he 6uestionnaire "as designed putting into consideration the focus of the stud# as "ell as the research 6uestions. $he stud# focused -agos State of *igeria "here all ethnic groups in the countr# are ade6uatel# represented and most importantl#, the most notorious, the commercial nerve centre of the countr# and "here all forms of <moderni2ation or civili2ation= are rootedF in order to find out "hether "estern films affect *igerian teenagers b# giving preference to the "estern cultures at the e+pense of the native cultures. Conse6uentl#, 200 secondar# school students "ithin the age bracket of 1L:19 "ere selected. ;ut of the 200 copies of 6uestionnaire, 192 "ere returned out of "hich 190 "ere completed and statisticall# usable #ielding a response rate of 9%.0I.

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FINDINGS Demographi I!"orma#io! Basicall#, the demographic data from the respondents summari2e some statistics on gender, age, class and hobbies. Accordingl#, the respondents are relativel# more of the female folks "ho constitute %B.9I of the respondents "hile the male counterpart is (2.1I. $he stud# sho"s a good mi+ of age bracket bet"een the students as the# "ere grouped in the age intervals of 10:1% and 14:19 #ears "ith the former sharing (B.(I "hile the latter has %2.4I of the respondents. ;f the respondents, 4L.2I constitute those in senior class "hile those in 3unior class make L4.9I. As such, it ma# be said that the opinion e+pressed b# the respondents in the 6uestionnaire could "ell reflect the attitudes and perception of the adolescent age in various secondar# schools in *igeria. Conse6uent upon this, the hobbies of the respondents "ere divided along four divides of reading, s"imming, "atching films and pla#ing games. $hose that love "atching films constitute the largest proportion "ith L9.%I, follo"ed b# those that have flair for pla#ing games "ith L1.4I "herein reading came ne+t "ith 1%.9I and s"imming appeared last "ith 1L.2I. A!a$%&i& o" Re&ear h Q'e&#io!& i. ii. iii. 7o "estern films shape the attitudes, behaviors and general lifest#les of teenagers in *igeria8 7o *igerian teenagers accept and practice "estern cultures e+posed to through "estern films at the e+pense of *igerian cultures8 At "hat degree do *igerian teenagers resist foreign or "estern cultures e+posed to through "estern films8 + RQ ,) Yo' a ep# a!* pra #i e -e&#er! '$#'re& e.po&e* #o #hro'gh -e&#er! "i$m& a# #he e.pe!&e o" Nigeria! '$#'re& Strongl# Agree Agree !ndifferent Strongl# 7isagree 7isagree $;$AFRE Q + RQ /) A# -ha# FRE *egree *o %o' re&i&# Q -e&#er! '$#'re& e.po&e* #o #hro'gh -e&#er! "i$m& Gighest 7egree Gigher 7egree Gigh 7egree -o" 7egree -ack /esistance $;$A0% 1% 10 90 B0 190 +

RQ() We&#er! FRE "i$m& &hape Q %o'r a##i#'*e& a!* ge!era$ $i"e&#%$e& Strongl# Agree Agree !ndifferent Strongl# 7isagree 7isagree $;$A40 40 20 20 L0 190

L1.4 L1.4 10.% 10.% 1%.9 100

4% B9 1( 1( 19 190

L(. 2 (1. 4 B.1 B.1 9.% 100

2.4 B.9 %.L (B.( L4.9 100

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$he table above clearl# indicates that "estern films do shape the attitudes and general lifest#les of *igerian teenagers "ith 4L.2I &120) of the respondents affirmed this in varied degrees. Also, the stud# sho"s that B%.9I &1(() practice "estern values e+posed to through "estern films at the e+pense of native cultures. !t is also indicated b# the table that *igerian teenagers could not resist the contents of foreign films as 9(.2I &140) affirmed this in varied degrees. CONCLUSION !t has been established b# scholars that no societ# can develop "ithout proper integration of the culture of the land. Culture itself cannot develop the societ# e+cept it is promoted b# all segments and institutions of the societ#. !n this regard, the role of the teenagers or the #outh in general cannot be overemphasi2ed. $he teenagers are such a vibrant segment of the societ# "ho should rather live b# the cultural norms of the societ# in order to promote and sustain the culture of the land. !t is ho"ever nagging, that e+posure to "estern films b# the *igerian teenagers has affected their attachment and affiliation to the *igerian cultures and value s#stem in general. $he situation is so disheartening that it needs the most urgent attention in order to salvage the cultural fabric and make the teenagers vanguards of this cause. $herefore, the *igerian 0ilms and 1ideo Censors Board &*01CB) must "ake up from its slumber and rise to the occasion. ;f course, there are la"s guiding the broadcast of foreign contents in general, but observation sho"s that there is no strict enforcement "hich led to la+it# and the present state of affairs in relation to the importation or influ+ of "estern films in the countr#. !n addition, *ational Broadcasting Commission &*BC) needs to pla# a vital role in this regard. $he e+cessive broadcast of "estern or foreign films in most of *igerian television channels needs to be seriousl# checkmated "ith punitive measures on erring stations. 7espite the stipulated percentage of local and foreign contents on *igerian television channels, there have been violations over the #ears "ithout an# form of severit#. $herefore, *BC needs to descend heavil# on erring television stations as a "a# of salvaging the cultural fabric of the *igerian societ#. !t is of interest to note that parents and guardians e6uall# have greater roles to pla#. $he unfortunate thing is that most of the parents no"ada#s encourage their "ards to "atch "estern or foreign films "ith little or no value. $he# should bear in mind that the# are not onl# doing harm to these #ounger generation, the societ# at large is going to suffer adversel# from it. 5arents should curtail and checkmate their children on the t#pe of "estern films to be "atched on the television or through C7s and 717s. 5arents should e6uall# educate their children on an# film "atched so as to assist bring out lessons from such film for the betterment of the societ# at large. *on:'overnmental:;rgani2ations &*';s), churches and mos6ues also have immense duties to discharge in this regard. $hese institutions should put up fre6uent but massive campaign against "estern films that are anti:cultural to the *igerian societ#. !f this campaign and other public enlightenment continue, there ma# be drastic reduction in its importation as "ell as reduced level
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of e+posure among the teenagers. .speciall#, the mos6ues and the churches, their effects in championing this kind of cause cannot be overemphasi2ed. $his is because researches have over the #ears sho"n that religious institutions have impacted great influence on humanit# especiall# in the 21st Centur#. !t is also important to note that our *oll#"ood should pla# an essential role. !t needs to encourage the production of locali2ed contents "hereb# the cultural norms and values of the *igerian societ# are emphasi2ed and "idel# promoted as against "hat happens in the *oll#"ood no"ada#s "hereb#, their productions are patterned on the "estern culture the resultant effect of "hich is cultural distortion and erosion among *igerian teenagers.

A0OUT THE AUTHOR 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1 Bello Semiu a lecturer at the 7epartment of >ass Communication, Crescent @niversit# Abeokuta, ;gun State "ith special interest in 3ournalism studies, public relations, health and development communications. Bello has several publications to his credit in man# learned 3ournals and attended conferences at local and international levels.

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