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**VORTEX SHEDDING INDUCED VIBRATIONS OF A LIGHT MAST
**

Bjarni Bessason∗, and Jónas Thór Snaæbjörnsson∗

Engineering Research Institute University of Iceland, Hjardarhaga 2-6, 107 Reykjavik , Iceland e-mails: bb@hi.is, jonas@hi.is

∗

Keywords: Wind, vortex shedding, vibrations, acceleration, full-scale data, countermeasures. Abstract. The paper reports a case study of wind induced vortex shedding vibrations of a steel light mast. The vibrations are examined, full scale observations reported and the countermeasures devised to reduce the motions are described. The across wind motion of the mast was observed in windy weather shortly after its installation. The amplitude of deflection at the tip of the mast was estimated to be few centimetres and considered unsatisfactory by the owner. A measurement program was initiated to map the vibrations of the mast and to correlate them with wind data. The recorded data showed that the initiation of the intense vibrations as well as the amplitude of the vibrations was in fair agreement with predictions based on theory of bluff body aerodynamics. To reduce the vibrations cylindrical wind flaps were added to the light mast to counteract the formation of vortexes. Comparison of recorded vibration data before and after the installation of the wind flaps show that the flaps significantly reduced the vibrations

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1 WIND INDUCED VIBRATIONS Vortex shedding The flow induced vibrations of the cantilever were traced to the much studied vortex shedding process [1]. which can create problems in a variety of contexts in wind engineering. The amplitude of deflection at the tip of the beam was estimated to be few centimetres. Field observations confirmed incidental vertical swings of the cantilever beam in modarate winds. (1). Figure 1: The flight mast with the cantilever beam stretching out over the intersection to the left. the Icelandic Civil Aviation Administration. Firstly. This affected the construction of the light mast in two ways. The main objective of this paper is to report the investigation of the observed vibrations and the countermeasures carried out in order to reduce the motions. The analysis includes both full scale measurements as well as analytical evaluation of the dynamic behaviour of the light mast. The original structure is shown on Fig. Secondly. was installed. it was considered preferable to design an elegant figuration of the mast that could fit nicely into the surroundings. the optimal location of the new light frame interfered with a road intersection and therefore it was necessary to design a cantilever beam stretching out over part of the intersection. The Aviation Administration considered these vibrations unacceptable and decided to investigate the problem in order to seek a solution to reduce the swings.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson 1 INTRODUCTION In the summer of 2005 a frame type mast supporting flight control lamps for the approach control of incoming flights to the N-S runway of the airport in Reykjavik. significant across wind motion of the cantilever beam was observed in windy weather by people passing and stopping at the intersection. Soon after the installation of the light frame. 2 2. This was reported to the owner of the mast. Iceland. The vortices shed from a bluff body as the flow region is separated induce a fluctuating force on 2 . The Reykjavik airport is located in the middle of the city and surrounded by inhabited areas and dens road system. The yellow bubbles on the top of the beam are the flight control lamps.

The actual vibration amplitude of a structure under the influence of vortex shedding are governed both by the structure’s inherent damping characteristics and by the mass ratio between the structure and the fluid it displaces.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson the structure that can lead to vibrations. and the damping (structural and fluid) is sufficiently small for the cross flow forces to 'lock on' to the structural natural frequency then large amplitude oscillations result. which is defined as: Sc = 4π meς T ρ D2 (3) Here me is average mass per unit length. given as: 3 . Annex E ) and design guidelines. The customary value for circular cylinders is 0. k is a parameter depending on the structural mode shape. The vortex shedding for rectangular sections is characterized by the Strouhal number. in handbooks and is supplied in design guidelines and codes for various cross section types. These two effects are often combined in the Scruton number sometimes referred to as a stability parameter. the damping is almost totally due to structural damping since the aerodynamic fluid damping is usually negligible. an adequate representation of the vibration amplitude [2]. If the vortex shedding frequency coincides with a natural frequency of vibration of a member (or an assembly of members). and nv is the vortex shedding frequency. This limit is dependant on the member mode shape. [5] by ESDU. [4] EN 1991-1. in principle. ζT is the total critical damping ratio. The Strouhal number depends on the cross section type. such as Ref. and is evaluated as: Vcrit = ns D St (2) The resulting oscillations self limit when the amplitude of the vibration becomes comparable to the size of the vortex. this can be simplified to: ymax kCl = D 4π Sc St 2 (4) Here ymax is the maximum vibration amplitude. D is the dimension of the cross-section perpendicular to the wind direction. V ~ Vcrit.e. Cl is a mode and amplitude dependent lift coefficient. ns. of the flow: St = nv D V (1) where V is the wind velocity. but is often found to be of the order of 1 cross section diameter which is rarely an acceptable limit.4. the Reynolds number of the flow and the amplitude of the resulting vibration. The wind velocity generating this condition is termed the critical wind velocity. The phenomenon is well described in the literature [3] as well as in design codes (see for instance Ref. Although the damping parameter in Eq. As Sc increases then the response amplitude proportionally decreases when locking occurs.2. i.(3) represents the total damping. The intensity of this force acting on the structure controls the amplitude of vibration of the structure that primarily depends on the cross-sectional shape of the structure and the mean wind velocity [2]. For a narrow band excitation a sinusoidal excitation model gives. ρ is the density of air and D is the across wind dimension of the cross section. St. but it can be found in the literature.

effects of tapered or stepped diameter members.6. the locked-in narrow banded behaviour becomes more episodic. The range of V/Vcrit for which the oscillations remain significant is considerably wider for lightly damped structures than for heavily damped structures which points to the dominant role of structural damping in determining the amplitude of wind vortex induced oscillations and the range of excitation wind speeds. span-wise correlation due to end effects. called “the correlation length model”. but the U-profile section of the cantilever should cause a breakdown of flow regularity to some degree by the irregular nature of the flow trapped within the section. [4] is similar to the ESDU procedure. These include for instance Ref. influence of the response amplitude on the excitation force. The main results of the modal analysis are shown in Table 1. The response is then calculated by interpolating the derived function for the correct value of structural damping. 2. and the response decreases. The methodology presented in Ref. For uniform or near-uniform cantilevers. A 3D beam finite element (FE) model was made of the light mast in SAP2000 [9]. The methodology of Ref. Both approaches are based on the simple description of the process involved provided her above but with some additions and accompanying datasets. [5] (ESDU 90036) and Ref. which developed a mathematical model for predicting the vortex-excited vibration taking into account the increasing correlation length of the exciting force with increasing vibration amplitude. It is to some extent based on the work of Ruscheweyh et al [6]. The structure has low internal damping and therefore when excited the duration of vibration is considerable.4 Annex E). The horizontal beam at the top of the mast is made of welded U-profile (400x400mm) while the columns have a closed rectangular section of same size. [4] (EN 1991-1. In the case of non-critical wind velocities the response can be corrected based on the damping level and response amplitude at the critical velocity and for low amplitude broad banded responses a modified set of equations are presented and used.5 and then k = 1. but is put forward in somewhat simplified form that does not attempt to account for all the parameters that might influence the response. β can be taken as 1. such as: Roughness of the vortex generation surface. where H is the cantilever length. All corners are very sharp and therefore susceptible to vortex shedding. [5] takes into account many parametric effects. effect of mode shape on the excitation force.2 Modal analysis and estimation of critical wind velocity for vortex shedding The light mast is a slender steel frame structure. To take into account the weight of the flight lamps and other fittings the dead weight of the steel structure was increased by 10%. As seen from the table some of the vibration modes were out of plane while the others were in 4 . The basic technique is to derive the response amplitude at the critical velocity as a function of damping using the standard equations for the member properties.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson k= ∫ φ (z) dz ∫ φ (z) dz 0 h j 2 0 j h (5) For a cantilever the mode shape φj(x) can be taken as (x/H)β. At wind speeds away from V ~ Vcrit. the effect of atmospheric turbulence. All cross-sections and dimensions were based on the engineering drawings of the light mast. reduction of response as the wind velocity deviates from the critical wind velocity and includes prediction of low amplitude broad banded responses. There are several guidelines available to an engineer which can be used in assessing the susceptibility of structures to wind induced vortex shedding.

In-plane.32 0.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson the plane of the structure.Results of the modal analysis of the flight mast.25 0. (3) modes 2 and 4 are shown. Figure 3: Mode 4. Torsion. f2=2. based on the natural frequency of the excited mode of the structure and the character- 5 . Field observations showed that it was the vertical motion of the cantilever beam that was most apparent.52 0.33 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Natural period (s) 0. Table 1 .87 Main description of mode Out-of-plane. Out-of-plane.43 0.94 2.06 4. This value corresponds closely to the natural frequency for an equivalent cantilever beam fixed at the column connection (2.22 0. 2. (2) and Fig. Mode no. Whole beam is moving. A B C D Figure 2: Mode 2. In Fig. In-plan motion. thus explaining why the swings were only observed at the tip of the cantilever but not elsewhere along the mast. The cantilever beam moving up and down. Lateral movement of cantilever beam. while the out-of-plane modes can be ignored.3 Hz. Whole structure is moving.10 4. The whole structure is moving in plane. (1) the critical velocity for vortex shedding can be deduced from the Strouhal number. Mode 2. For this mode the modal analysis showed that the deflection at the middle of the span BC (see Fig.13 Natural frequency (Hz) 1.33 Hz. Out-of-plane motion. Using Eq.06 Hz. which is the most likely candidate for vortex induced vibrations has a natural frequency of 2. (2)) was only 6% of the deflection at point A. 4 and 6 are of concern.4 Hz).45 7. Vertical movement of cantilever beam. f4=4. Both columns moving in phase In-plane motion. Therefore modes no.

at point B in Fig.e. Assuming mode 2. are required to excite mode 4.e. Both the ESDU method in Ref. see Fig. but the onset wind velocity is higher than the wind speed necessary to excite mode 2 by vortex shedding. or 12-15 m/s. These results. In the response estimation the cantilever beam was basically assumed to be fixed at the first column connection (i. i.1 RECORDINGS OF STRUCTUREAL RESPONSE AND WIND DATA Instrumentation To confirm the source of the problem and to map the situation before taking any actions it was decided to carry out a measurement program at the site. with a natural frequency of 2.12 for a square rectangular section with sharp corners.4 m. Assuming a critical damping ratio of 1%. Monitoring of the vibrations and the 6 .125. Based on Ref [4] (EN 1991-1. The frame was instrumented with a uniaxial vertical accelerometer located at the tip of the beam.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson istic width of the structure. especially the Eurocode result. Sc is the Scruton number.4 Annex E) the Strouhal number is ~0. the critical mean wind velocity was found to lie between 7 and 8 m/s. [5] (ESDU 90036) gives a Strouhal number in the range of 0. Those modes are not likely to be involved in vortex or wind induced motion. the ESDU [5] estimate was 10 cm but the Eurocode [4] estimate was 6 cm. 12 cm using Eurocode [4] and 15 cm using ESDU [5]. were applied.5%. which is quite reasonable for this type of structure.12 is the Strouhal number. Knowing the critical damping ratio. and wind velocity and wind direction meters above the other supporting column. 3 3. clat is a lateral force coefficient and D is the vertical dimension of the cross-section as before.3 Estimation of vortex shedding Vibration amplitude based on Eurocode The vibration amplitude of a structure under the influence of vortex shedding can be estimated by aerodynamics methods. As an example. (2)) and vibrating in mode 2. and to excite mode 6 wind speed in the range 24-28 m/s are necessary. the mode shape and the equivalent mass per unit length of the beam for the mode of vibration makes it possible to evaluate the Scruton number given by Eq. due to lack of correlation in the wind action over the full frame structure. The two methods tested gave similar results. Ref.max = 1 1 ⋅ ⋅ K ⋅ KW ⋅ clat ⋅ D St S c (6) Here St ~0. Assuming a lower damping ratio of 0. corresponded well to the measured value of roughly 6 cm as presented in Section 3. [4] can then be used to estimate the maximum vertical deflection at the tip of the beam (point A in Fig.2.11 to 0. (2)): δ A. KW is the effective correlation factor. the following equation from Ref.(3) and estimate the maximum tip displacement of the beam due to vortex induced effects. [4]). (4). It should be noted that this type of estimation is quite sensitive to the choice of critical damping ratio. which is a common wind velocity level in Reykjavik.3 Hz to be the critical mode of vibration with regard to across wind induced vibrations and since the width of the section is 0. Open non circular cross sections such as U sections are also prone to galloping oscillations [4]. 2. [5] as well as the methodology given in Annex E in Eurocode 1 (see Ref. would result in a considerably higher estimate for the tip displacement of the cantilever. or about 11 m/s. Mode 4 and 6 involve movement of the whole frame structure. Higher wind speeds.

e. Another way to present the data is to plot the maximum displacement within every minute versus mean wind speed for the corresponding minute. this corresponded to approximately 14 samples for one oscillation. This wind velocity range is in fair agreement with the critical wind velocity predicted by Eq. Referring to the natural frequency of mode 2 from the FE-analysis. (6). 0° is north. respectively. the largest peak displacements (the top 5 values) are observed when the wind speed is in the range 7 to 8. (5) displays an example of the recorded time histories along with wind data for 13 hours of continuous recording. i.e. see Fig. respectively.43 cm. etc. as demonstrated by the bottom graph of Fig. Fig. The maximum displacement during these 13 hours was 6. 2. it is clearly seen how the oscillations of the cantilever beam are strongly correlated to the wind speed.2). Location of accelerometer. Furthermore.5 m/s which again is in fair agreement with the vortex shedding behaviour discussed in Section (2). Whenever the wind speed reaches the 6 to 8 m/s range the beam starts vibrating intensively. which corresponds to a peak-to-peak motion of almost 13 cm. which was considered sufficient.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson wind also gave the opportunity to compare the behaviour of the light mast before and after installation of countermeasures and thereby to see the effectiveness of such measures. whereas the wind speed and the wind direction are displayed in the two bottom figures.76 million values in one 24-hour day. respectively. The recorded acceleration and the evaluated displacement at the tip of the beam are displayed in the top two figures. The time axis is the same for all four graphs. The data were recorded by a data acquisition station located in a box beneath column BE (see Fig. This figure shows. When there was little wind the measurements were stopped by a phone call and then started again with another phone call. The wind is blowing from south during these 13 hours. Otherwise the measurements and the data transfer were completely automatic.2 Recorded data Data were recorded over a period of six days. 7 . (4)). 180° is south. The accelerometer continuously recorded data with a sampling rate of 32 Hz. except when the wind speed is above 5. and wind speed and wind direction meters. that the peak displacements are within 2 cm. (1) in Section (2. 90° is east. During these six days 86 hours of data were collected. i.5 m/s. 3. From the graphs displaying the response on one hand and the wind velocity on the other. from the north. Wind speed and wind direction meter A B Vertical accelerometer C D 7. (5). The data were transmitted via mobile telephone communication to the laboratory for processing. θ. The plane of the light mast faces north and south. The wind velocity meter recorded the average wind speed and wind direction for each minute.4 m E 30.4 m F Figure 4. This was in fact the maximum recorded deflection in the 86 hours of available data. The wind direction is given as clockwise angle.

Example of recorded data for 13 hours (20 August 2005).(h) 20 22 24 Figure 5.(° ) 270 180 90 0 North West South East North 12 14 16 18 Time .(m/s) 8 6 4 2 0 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 360 Wind direction .(cm) 12 14 16 18 Time .(h) 20 22 24 10 Wind speed .(m/s2) 10 0 -10 -20 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Displacement . 8 .Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson 20 Acceleration .

Therefore. This result was in good agreement with the results from the modal analysis for mode 2 (Table 1). The damping estimation gave values between 0. or the first vertical mode of vibration.. 3.31. (7b) it can be seen that the signal is a narrow-band process and nearly a regular sine wave.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson 7 6 Peak displacment . it can be deduced from the time series alone that the natural frequency of the motion was ~2. From the time series segment in Fig. from initiation to termination. The segment displayed is typical of the behaviour observed within the many bands of increased motion of the cantilever beam during the 3 hour observation period. even without frequency analysis. which shows an example of the shape and duration of a complete band of increased motion. As can be seen from the figure. the duration of the gust induced motion is about 2 minutes. As the power spectral density function demonstrates.3 Hz. The nature of these bands of acceleration bursts induced by the vortex shedding process is further displayed in Fig. (8) is displayed in Fig. These bursts of motion are induced by vortex shedding as the wind velocity reaches the critical level. the response is a narrowbanded process dominated by the second mode. since instead of integrating the acceleration time history numerically.(cm) 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 Wind speed . which usually calls for data filtering and corrections for linear trend.3 Data processing Fig. Further system identification gave a natural frequency of 2. (7a) shows an example of an acceleration time series recorded during 3 hours of logging and Fig. (6)). (8). the deflection at the tip of the beam can be estimated by assuming that the acceleration is a sine wave.5% and 1% of critical. The narrow-band nature of the signal simplifies the data processing. (9). etc. Power spectral density of the time series in Fig. (7b) shows a 10 second long segment from that same time series.(m/s) 8 9 10 Figure 6: Maximum displacment versus mean wind speed within 1 minute window for 13 hours of recorded data from 20 August 2005 (see also fig. which can be analytical integrated as: 9 .

(12:00-15:00.(m/s2) b) Time – (s) Figure 7: a) Data for 3 hrs. 15 10 ACCELERATION (m/s 2) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0 20 40 60 80 TIME (s) 100 120 140 Figure 8: An example of a vortex shedding induced acceleration burst. 10 .(m/s2) a) Time – (h) Acceleration . 17 August 2005) from the accelerometer b) 10-second-long segment enlarged from the upper graph.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson Acceleration .

t.2 0. stiffness or damping.8 0. Suppression of vortex induced vibration can be achieved using mechanical means by making changes in member properties and structural detailing.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson Periodogram Power Spectral Density Estimate 40 PSD estimate of the recorded signal PSD of a model output 20 One-sided PSD (dB/rad/sample) 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 0 0.3 0. sharp corners as well as low internal damping combine to promote vortex shedding excitation. The interaction affects the shedding mechanism primarily by interfering with the wake and reducing spanwise coherence. Another approach is to apply aerodynamic means to reduce the amplitude of response by disrupting the fluid processes involved in the vortex formation. the unpropitious rectangular shape of the cross-section of the beam. such as in the case discussed herein.5 0.9 1 Figure 9: Power spectral density estimate of the gust induced acceleration time series displayed in Fig. [7] and Ref. [8]). Increase in the natural frequency. This means that multiplying the recorded acceleration values with the constant 1/(2πn2)2 gives a good estimate of the deflection as a function of time. a (t ) = A sin(2π n2t ) ⇔ d (t ) = − 1 A sin(2π n2t ) (2π n2 ) 2 (7) where a stands for acceleration as function of the time.1 0.7 Normalized frequency (× π rad/sample) 0.4 0. d is the deflection as function of time. Several measures to reduce the effects of vortex shedding have been suggested in the literature and many have been successfully applied (see for instance Ref. (8). 4 AERODYNAMIC COUNTERMEASURES As mentioned before. No other data processing was therefore necessary for the acceleration data in order to estimate the deflections. either singly or in combination.6 0. and n2 is the natural frequency of mode 2. will generally reduce the oscillation amplitude. A mechanical solution would generally be used at the design stage whereas a fluid dynamic solution would be considered if in-situ problems were encountered. A is the maximum amplitude of the acceleration when described as sine-wave. 11 .

• To reduce the dimensions of the cross-section gradually from the column top to the end of the cantilever beam. In evaluating the possible solutions. in addition to the expected efficiency of the method chosen. This rounds of the cross section and may introduce a positive Reynolds number effect.2 Hz. before and after installing the flaps. 5 RECORDINGS AFTER INSTALLATION OF COUNTERMEASURES In order to see the effects of the circular wind flaps data was recorded after their installation. (10) and by photos on Fig. Comparison of the two 12 . After the installation of the wind flaps data were recorded for a total of 145 hours during 7 days compared to the 86 hours on 6 days before the installation. and the new cylindrical wind flaps with air gap for reducing vortex excitation. • To make holes in the vertical webs of the cross-section of the cantilever beam. The peak deflection versus the 10 minute mean wind speed for all data recorded before the installation is shown in Fig. The chosen solution is shown by drawing on Fig. such as: • To stiffen the beam. • To smoothen the corners of the cross-sections. This implementation does not require redesign of the original crosssection and provided an opportunity to try another solution if the vibration amplitude were insufficiently reduced. • To design wind flaps on the beam. (12b). issues like cost and change of appearance of the structure were of concern. Within each interval the peak deflection of the beam end and the mean wind speed and the mean wind direction were evaluated.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson Several possible solutions were considered. Eventually it was decided to install cylindrical wind flaps on the top and bottom of the cantilever beam. were divided into 10 minute intervals. • To add damping to the system. (12a) and the same for all data recorded after the installation is shown in Fig. for instance by using a tuned damping device. In order to see the effects of the countermeasures all the data. The flaps added some weight to the structure and the response frequency of the recorded data was slightly reduced to 2. In addition a 25 mm air gap was intentionally designed between the original beam and the cylinders in order to allow the wind to bleed through the section and thereby counteract the formation of vortices. New wind-flap 100 mm Air gap 25 mm Originally cross-section 400 mm 25 mm New wind flap 100 mm Figure 10: The original U-profile of the horizontal beam in the light mast. (11).

(a) The cantilever as seen from Northwest.e. 13 .Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson graphs demonstrates that the flaps are effective and reduce the vortex induced motion by about 70%. Fig. Wind direction may of course have played some role in how the beam was excited. (a) (b) Figure 11: The light mast after installation of wind flaps with air cap on the cantilever beam. (b) The intersection and the light mast seen as seen from Northwest. The displacements recorded after installation of the flaps are all less than 1.5 cm. before and after the installation of the flaps. i. (12) displays data from all recorded wind directions for both cases.

The frames substructure. However. based on recorded data.(cm) 6 4 2 0 0 a) 2 4 6 8 10 12 Peak displacment . The recorded motions before and after installation of the flaps clearly indicate significant reduction in the vibration amplitude of the cantilever light mast. Countermeasures in the form of cylindrical wind flaps on the top and bottom of the cantilever beam to reduce the induced vibration amplitude were proposed and implemented.(cm) 6 4 2 0 0 b) 2 4 6 Wind speed .Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson Peak displacment . Recorded peak deflections were roughly 6 cm before the installation of flaps but were reduced to less than 2 cm after the implementation. The phenomena are well documented and the formulation given in codes and the literature was found to give an accurate prediction of the observed behaviour. showed significant across wind motion in windy weather. 6 CONCLUSIONS A steel frame structure supporting approach lights for air traffic control was installed at Reykjavik airport.(m/s) 8 10 12 Figure 12: Peak deflection versus mean wind speed for 10 minute intervals. Analysis and measurements revealed that this behaviour was due to vortex shedding effects. a cantilever beam. it should be noted that the response estimates depend strongly on the critical damping ratio which is generally not a well known parameter. 14 . a) Before installation of flaps (all available data) and (b) After installaion of flaps (all available data).

15 . Holmes. 64 203-220. Review and classification of various aerodynamic and hydrodynamic means for suppressing vortex shedding. CEN TC 250. 2001. 7 (2). California. M. Version 10. 1996. Journal of Wind Eng. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial. 90036. 1999. prEN 1991-1-4(E). Processes of buffeting and vortex forces in turbulent wind. Journal of Fluids and Structures. [4] Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures . 13 (7-8). 1990. Dutton and N. 145-189. D. Spon Press. Computer & Structures Inc. Zdravkovich.Part 1-4. Isyumov. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics.Bjarni Bessason and Jónas Thór Snæbjörnsson REFERENCES [1] M. Vortex shedding of bluff bodies: A Review. USA. Höffer. 36 (1-3) 739-744. [7] M. [6] H. [5] Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) Data Item Numbers: Structures of noncircular cross section: dynamic Response to Vortex Shedding. M. Reduction of tall building motion by aerodynamic treatments. 2004. Hortmanns and C. [9] SAP2000. Berkeley. [8] R. 791-811. 1981. [3] R. Integrated Software for Structural and Analysis and Design. Ruscheweyh. [2] J. and Industrial Aerodynamics. Wind loading of Structures. Schnakenberg Vortex-excited vibrations and galloping of slender elements Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics 65 (1996) 347-352. Matsumoto.

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