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Academic Writing
Paragraph Structure Jon Buscall, PhD

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Jon who ?
* Communications consultant * PhD in Writing * Journalist, copywriter, translator, * www.jonbuscall.com

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Academic Writing...

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Why are we here?

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Avoid pain

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Academic Writing is a game

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Some folks obey...

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Others don’t

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Follow the rules

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Respect the rules

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Get it wrong

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And you won’t be...

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Get it right

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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A successful essay
is built on the solid foundation of: *tone **structure ***evidence

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Getting it wrong...
...is like turning up to work in your pyjamas!

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Read...books!

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Be formal

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Remember:

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cannot can’t do not don’t

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Use sources...

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within the body of your text you must cite your sources as you use them you must cite any and all data, facts, information, opinion, ideas, tables, charts, photographs, etc, that you obtained in your research

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Learn how to format your essay

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Instructions
use A4 paper set the font to 12 point, New Times Roman 2.54 cm margins double-space your text throughout use a running header with your name: e.g. Buscall 1 number pages consecutively, starting on page 1

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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On to paragraphs...

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Essay Structure
Introduction

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Body

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Conclusion

Paragraph

Introduction

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Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph

Body

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Paragraph

Conclusion

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Paragraph

Thesis Statement

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Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph

Evidence

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Paragraph

Conclusion

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Thesis statement?

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Paragraph Structure
All paragraphs have:

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*optional

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topic sentence supporting sentences concluding sentence*

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Topic sentence

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Introduces the topic of the paragraph i.e. Tells the reader what the paragraph is about

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Source:http://www2.actden.com/writ_Den/Tips/paragrap/topic.htm

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Required

Key sentence

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Source:http://www2.actden.com/writ_Den/Tips/paragrap/topic.htm

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Supporting sentences

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develop & discuss the topic (i.e. give extra details, provide evidence)

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Source:http://www2.actden.com/writ_Den/Tips/paragrap/topic.htm

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Source:http://www2.actden.com/writ_Den/Tips/paragrap/topic.htm

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Concluding sentences

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Signal the end of the paragraph Conclude the paragraph Link back to the thesis

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Source:http://www2.actden.com/writ_Den/Tips/paragrap/topic.htm

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Source:http://www2.actden.com/writ_Den/Tips/paragrap/topic.htm

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Hmm. Disagreement

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Look at page 6a in the course handout: Writing Academic English

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Note to Jon:

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Open up the file Paragraph 1.

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Good Topic Sentences ?
Page 6b

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Languages influence each other. The slang expression so long (meaning “goodbye” is probably a corruption of the Arabic salaam. The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious.

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Good Topic Sentences ?
Page 6b The English language is influenced by Arabic. (Introduction)

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The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious.

Paragraph 1

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Good Topic Sentences ?
Page 6b

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Languages influence each other. The slang expression so long (meaning “goodbye” is probably a corruption of the Arabic salaam. The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious.

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Supporting sentences

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examples facts statistics quotations

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Reasons for Borduriaʼs Advanced Civilization

The role played by the ancient kingdom of Borduria in the development of modern civilization is complex. However by looking at the historical facts available, we can come to one simple conclusion: during its heyday, Borduria was the most modern civilization in Asia-Minor. This essay will examine how Borduriaʼs sewage system, early postal system, and theatrical traditions made it the most advanced civilization in the region.

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

See 7b

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The concluding sentence
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signals the end of the paragraph sums up the paragraph adds a final point paraphrases the first topic sentence

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Exercise

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Page 8 b: Exercise on Paragraph Structure

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Now (re)write your own paragraph. Substitute: gold for “the ability to write fluent, formal English”

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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Good writing...
...comes from working out.

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Wednesday, October 21, 2009

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