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NFPA490

Codeforthe StorageofAmmoniumNitrate 2002Edition

Copyright2002,NationalFireProtectionAssociation,AllRightsReserved ThiseditionofNFPA490,CodefortheStorageofAmmoniumNitrate,waspreparedbythe TechnicalCommitteeonHazardousChemicalsandactedonbyNFPAatitsMayAssociation TechnicalMeetingheldMay1923,2002,inMinneapolis,MN.Itwasissuedbythe StandardsCouncilonJuly19,2002,withaneffectivedateofAugust8,2002,and supersedesallpreviouseditions. ThiseditionofNFPA490wasapprovedasanAmericanNationalStandardonJuly19, 2002. OriginandDevelopmentofNFPA490 NFPA490wasdevelopedbytheTechnicalCommitteeonStorage,Handling,and TransportationofHazardousChemicalsandwastentativelyadoptedbytheAssociationin 1963.Itwasfurtheramendedandagaintentativelyadoptedin1964.Afterfurtherrevision,it wasofficiallyadoptedin1965.AmendmentstoNFPA490wereadoptedin1967,1969,and 1970.Acompleterevisionwasadoptedin1975,andseveralminoramendmentswere adoptedin1980and1985. The1993editionofNFPA490incorporatedamendmentstothedocument.Thesechanges enhanceditsenforceabilitythroughrevisionofnonmandatorylanguageprovisionsand conformancewiththeNFPA ManualofStyle. The1998editionofNFPA490incorporatedamendmentstothedocumentthatupgradedthe criteriaforautomaticsprinklerprotection,makingthemsimilartotheprovisionsforliquid andsolidoxidizersascontainedinNFPA430,CodefortheStorageofLiquidandSolid Oxidizers. The2002editionofNFPA490containsminorrevisionstomakethedocumentconformwith the2000editionofNFPAsManualofStyle.Thesechangesincluderenumberingofthe chaptersandcreatingachapterfordefinitions. TechnicalCommitteeonHazardousChemicals CopyrightNFPA

JohnA.Davenport,Chair WestHartford,CT [I] Rep.IndustrialRiskInsurers AnthonyAndrews,CromptonCorporation,TX [M] Rep.SocietyofthePlasticsIndustry,Inc. JamesE.Benge,HerculesInc.,DE [U] WilliamJ.Bradford,Brookfield,CT [SE] DavidS.Carlson,AkzoNobelPolymerChemicalsLLC,TX [M] HenryL.Febo,Jr.,FMGlobal,MA [I] RichardFerguson,PPGIndustriesInc.,PA [M] CharlesL.Gibson,GibsonTechnology&EngineeringAssociates,GA [SE] H.DieterHeinz,HeinzLaboratoriesInternational,CA [SE] DonaldJ.Hoffmann,SafetyEngineeringLaboratories,Inc.,MI [SE] RonaldKeefer,MenloParkFireProtectionDistrict,CA [E] AlanR.Laguna,MeritSprinklerCompany,Inc.,LA [IM] ChesterM.McCloskey,TheNoracCompany,Inc.,CA [M] RobertA.Michaels,RAMTRACCorporation,NY [SE] RalphJ.Mikida,FMCCorporation,PA [M] MiltonNorsworthy,ArchChemicals,Inc.,TN [M] DavidP.Nugent,SchirmerEngineeringCorporation,IL [SE] AnthonyM.Ordile,LossControlAssociates,Inc.,PA [SE] DavidF.Purdy,BioLab,Inc.,GA [M] GeorgeW.Rambo,GRCSInc.,VA [SE] GaryF.Trojak,ChlorineInstituteInc.,DC [M] (VoteLtd.toNFPA434) SamuelVanover,JeffersonParishFireDepartment,LA [E] CopyrightNFPA

MichaelA.Viggiani,GeorgeEastmanHouse,NY [U] Alternates PaulA.Cera,IndustrialRiskInsurers,CT [I] (Alt.toJ.A.Davenport) RichardCobb,TheNoracCompany,Inc.,CA [M] (Alt.toC.M.McCloskey) LynneR.Harris,SocietyofthePlasticsIndustry,Inc.,DC [M] (Alt.toA.Andrews) JohnM.Hoffmann,SafetyEngineeringLaboratories,Inc.,MI [SE] (Alt.toD.J.Hoffmann) ThomasM.Lachocki,BioLab,Inc.,GA [M] (Alt.toD.F.Purdy) Nonvoting CharlesH.Ke,U.S.DepartmentofTransportation,DC CarlH.Rivkin, NFPAStaffLiaison
CommitteeScope:ThisCommitteeshallhaveprimaryresponsibilityfordocumentson,and maintaincurrentcodesfor,classesofhazardouschemicalsandcodesforspecificchemicals wherethesearewarrantedbyvirtueofwidespreaddistributionorspecialhazards. ThislistrepresentsthemembershipatthetimetheCommitteewasballotedonthefinaltext ofthisedition.Sincethattime,changesinthemembershipmayhaveoccurred.Akeyto classificationsisfoundatthebackofthedocument. NOTE:Membershiponacommitteeshallnotinandofitselfconstituteanendorsementof theAssociationoranydocumentdevelopedbythecommitteeonwhichthememberserves.

NFPA490 Codeforthe StorageofAmmoniumNitrate 2002Edition NOTICE:Anasterisk(*)followingthenumberorletterdesignatingaparagraphindicates thatexplanatorymaterialontheparagraphcanbefoundinAnnexA. Changesotherthaneditorialareindicatedbyaverticalrulebesidetheparagraph,table,or figureinwhichthechangeoccurred.Theserulesareincludedasanaidtotheuserin identifyingchangesfromthepreviousedition.Whereoneormorecompleteparagraphshave beendeleted,thedeletionisindicatedbyabulletbetweentheparagraphsthatremain. CopyrightNFPA

InformationonreferencedpublicationscanbefoundinChapter2andAnnexE.

Chapter1Administration
1.1Scope. 1.1.1 Thiscodeshallapplytothestorageofammoniumnitrateintheformofcrystals, flakes,grains,orprillsincludingfertilizergradeasdefinedby DefinitionsandTest ProceduresforAmmoniumNitrateFertilizer,dynamitegrade,nitrousoxidegrade,technical grade,andothermixturescontaining60percentormorebyweightofammoniumnitrate. 1.1.2 Thiscodeshallnotapplytothetransportationofammoniumnitrate. 1.1.3 Thiscodeshallnotapplytostorageunderthejurisdictionofandincompliancewith theregulationsoftheU.S.CoastGuard. 1.1.4* Thiscodeshallnotapplytoammoniumnitratebasedblastingagents. 1.1.5 Thestorageofammoniumnitrateandammoniumnitratemixturesthataremore sensitivethanallowedbytheDefinitionsandTestProceduresforAmmoniumNitrate Fertilizershallnotbepermittedbythiscodeexceptonthespecificapprovaloftheauthority havingjurisdiction. 1.1.6 Nothinginthiscodeshallapplytotheproductionofammoniumnitrateortothe storageofammoniumnitrateonthepremisesoftheproducingplant,providedthatno distinct,unduehazardtothepubliciscreated. 1.2Purpose. Thepurposeofthiscodeistoprovideforthesafestorageofallgradesammoniumnitrate containing60percentormorebyweightofammoniumnitrate. 1.3Application. Thiscodeshallapplytoallpersons,firms,corporations,copartnerships,andassociations storing,having,orkeepingammoniumnitrateandtotheownerorlesseeofanybuilding, premises,orstructureinwhichammoniumnitrateisstoredinquantitiesof1000lb(454kg) ormore. 1.4Enforcement. Thiscodeshallbeadministeredandenforcedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdictiondesignated bythegoverningauthority.(SeeAnnexDforsamplewordingforenablinglegislation.)

Chapter2ReferencedPublications
2.1General. Thedocumentsorportionsthereoflistedinthischapterarereferencedwithinthiscodeand CopyrightNFPA

shallbeconsideredpartoftherequirementsofthisdocument. 2.2NFPAPublications. NationalFireProtectionAssociation,1BatterymarchPark,P.O.Box9101,Quincy,MA 022699101. NFPA13,StandardfortheInstallationofSprinklerSystems,2002edition. NFPA30,FlammableandCombustibleLiquidsCode,2000edition. NFPA58,LiquefiedPetroleumGasCode,2001edition.


NFPA70,NationalElectricalCode ,2002edition.

NFPA220,StandardonTypesofBuildingConstruction,1999edition. NFPA230,StandardfortheFireProtectionofStorage,1999edition. NFPA430,CodefortheStorageofLiquidandSolidOxidizers,2000edition. NFPA495,ExplosiveMaterialsCode,2001edition. 2.3OtherPublications. 2.3.1TFIPublication. TheFertilizerInstitute,820FirstStreet,NE,Washington,DC20002. DefinitionsandTestProceduresforAmmoniumNitrateFertilizer,1984.

Chapter3Definitions
3.1General. Thedefinitionscontainedinthischaptershallapplytothetermsusedinthiscode.Where termsarenotincluded,commonusageofthetermsshallapply. 3.2NFPAOfficialDefinitions. 3.2.1*Approved.Acceptabletotheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. 3.2.2*AuthorityHavingJurisdiction(AHJ).Theorganization,office,orindividual responsibleforapprovingequipment,materials,aninstallation,oraprocedure. 3.2.3*Code.Astandardthatisanextensivecompilationofprovisionscoveringbroad subjectmatterorthatissuitableforadoptionintolawindependentlyofothercodesand standards. 3.2.4Labeled.Equipmentormaterialstowhichhasbeenattachedalabel,symbol,orother identifyingmarkofanorganizationthatisacceptabletotheauthorityhavingjurisdictionand concernedwithproductevaluation,thatmaintainsperiodicinspection ofproductionof labeledequipmentormaterials,andbywhoselabelingthemanufacturerindicatescompliance CopyrightNFPA

withappropriatestandardsorperformanceinaspecifiedmanner. 3.2.5*Listed.Equipment,materials,orservicesincludedinalistpublishedbyan organizationthatisacceptabletotheauthorityhavingjurisdictionandconcernedwith evaluationofproductsorservices,thatmaintainsperiodicinspectionofproduction oflisted equipmentormaterialsorperiodicevaluationofservices,andwhoselistingstatesthateither theequipment,material,orservicemeetsappropriatedesignatedstandardsorhasbeentested andfoundsuitableforaspecifiedpurpose. 3.2.6Shall.Indicatesamandatoryrequirement. 3.2.7Should.Indicatesarecommendationorthatwhichisadvisedbutnotrequired. 3.3GeneralDefinitions.(Reserved)

Chapter4GeneralProvisions
4.1RestrictedLocations. 4.1.1 Apermitshallberequiredfromtheauthorityhavingjurisdictionforthestorageof 1000lb(454kg)ormoreofammoniumnitrate. 4.1.2 Notmorethan60tons(54.4metrictons)ofammoniumnitrateshallbestoredunless thelocationandstoragefacilityhavebeenapprovedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. 4.1.3 Storagelocationsshallbesubjecttoapprovalbytheauthorityhavingjurisdictionwith respecttoproximityofresidentialoccupancies,placesofpublicassembly,schools,hospitals, railroads,andpublichighways.Limitationsonstorablequantitiesshallbeconsideredwith regardtoproximityoftheseexposuresandcongestedcommercialorindustrialdistricts. 4.1.4* Approvaloflargequantitystorageshallbesubjecttodueconsiderationofthefire andexplosionhazards,includingexposuretotoxicvaporsfromburningordecomposing ammoniumnitrate. 4.2Structures. 4.2.1 Storagebuildingsshallnothavebasementsunlessthebasementsareopenonatleast oneside.Buildingsoveronestoryinheightshallnotbeusedforstorage,unlessapprovedfor suchuse. 4.2.2 Storagebuildingsshallhaveadequateventilationorbeofaconstructionthatwillbe selfventilatingintheeventoffire. 4.2.3* Thewallontheexposedsideofastoragebuildingwithin50ft(15.2m)ofa combustiblebuilding,forest,pilesofcombustiblematerials,andsimilarexposurehazards shallbeofTypeIconstruction,asdescribedin NFPA220,StandardonTypesofBuilding Construction.InlieuoftheTypeIwall,otherequivalentmeansofexposureprotectionsuch asafreestandingwallshallbepermittedtobeused.TheroofcoveringsshallbeClassCor better. CopyrightNFPA

4.2.4 Allflooringinstorageandhandlingareasshallbeofnoncombustiblematerialorshall beprotectedagainstimpregnationbyammoniumnitrateitshallbewithoutopendrains, traps,tunnels,pits,orpocketsintowhichanymoltenammoniumnitratecouldflowandbe confinedintheeventoffire. 4.2.5 Thecontinueduseofanexistingstoragebuildingorstructurenotinstrictconformity withthiscodeshallbeapprovedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdictionincaseswheresuch continuedusewillnotconstituteahazardtolifeoradjoiningproperty. 4.2.6 Buildingsandstructuresshallbedryandfreefromwaterseepagethroughtheroof, walls,andfloors.

Chapter5StorageofAmmoniumNitrateinBags,Drums,or OtherContainers
5.1Containers. Bagsandcontainersusedforammoniumnitrateshallcomplywiththespecificationsand standardsestablishedbytheU.S.DepartmentofTransportation(DOT). 5.2Piles. 5.2.1 Containersofammoniumnitrateshallnotbeacceptedforstoragewhenthe temperatureoftheammoniumnitrateexceeds130F(54.4C). 5.2.2 Bagsofammoniumnitrateshallnotbestoredwithin30in.(762mm)ofthewallsand partitionsofthestoragebuilding. 5.2.3 Theheightofpilesshallnotexceed20ft(6.1m).Thewidthofpilesshallnotexceed 20ft(6.1m).Thelengthofpilesshallnotexceed50ft(15.2m). Exception:Wherethebuildingisofnoncombustibleconstructionorisprotectedby automaticsprinklers,thelengthofpilesshallnotbelimited. 5.2.4 Innocaseshalltheammoniumnitratebestackedcloserthan3ft(0.9m)belowthe rooforsupportingandspreaderbeamsoverhead. 5.2.5 Aislesshallbeprovidedtoseparatepilesbyaclearspaceofnotlessthan3ft(0.9m) inwidth.Atleastoneserviceormainaisleinthestorageareashallbenotlessthan4ft(1.2 m)inwidth. 5.2.6 Wherestoragefacilitiesarelocatedinremoteareas,therequirementsforpilesizesand aisles,assetforthin 5.2.3through 5.2.5,shallbepermittedtobewaivedbytheauthority havingjurisdiction.

Chapter6StorageofBulkAmmoniumNitrate
6.1Structures. CopyrightNFPA

6.1.1 Warehousesshallhaveadequateventilationorbecapableofadequateventilationin caseoffire. 6.1.2 Bulkstoragestructuresshallnotexceedaheightof40ft(12.2m). ExceptionNo.1:Wherebulkstoragestructuresareconstructedofnoncombustible material. ExceptionNo.2:Whereadequatefacilitiesforfightingarooffireareavailable. 6.2Compartments. 6.2.1 Binsshallbecleanandfreeofmaterialsthatcancontaminateammoniumnitrate. 6.2.2* Duetothecorrosiveandreactivepropertiesofammoniumnitrateandtoavoid contamination,galvanizediron,copper,lead,andzincshallnotbeusedinbinconstruction exceptwherethesebinsaresuitablyprotectedagainstammoniumnitrate.Aluminumbins, andwoodenbinsprotectedagainstimpregnationbyammoniumnitrate,arepermissible. Exception:Wherebinsaresuitablyprotected. 6.2.3 Thewarehouseshallbepermittedtobesubdividedintoanydesirednumberof ammoniumnitratestoragecompartmentsorbins.Thepartitionsdividingtheammonium nitratestoragefromthestorageofotherproductsthatwouldcontaminatetheammonium nitrateshallbeoftightconstruction. 6.2.4 Theammoniumnitratestoragebinsorpilesshallbeclearlyidentifiedbysignsreading AMMONIUMNITRATEwithlettersatleast2in.(50.8mm)high. 6.3Piles. 6.3.1 Pilesorbinsshallbesizedandarrangedsothatallmaterialinthepileismovedout periodicallyinordertominimizepossiblecakingofthestoredammoniumnitrate. 6.3.2* Heightordepthofpilesshallbelimitedbythepressuresettingtendencyofthe product.However,innocaseshalltheammoniumnitratebepiledhigheratanypointthan3 ft(0.9m)belowtherooforsupportingandspreaderbeamsoverhead. 6.3.3 Ammoniumnitrateshallnotbeacceptedforstoragewhenthetemperatureofthe productexceeds130F(54.4C). 6.3.4 Dynamite,otherexplosives,andblastingagentsshallnotbeusedtobreakuporloosen cakedammoniumnitrate.

Chapter7Contaminants
7.1Separation. 7.1.1 Ammoniumnitrateshallbeinaseparatebuildingorshallbeseparatedbyapproved firepartitionsofnotlessthan1hourfireendurancefromstorageofanyofthefollowing: CopyrightNFPA

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Organicchemicals,acidsorothercorrosivematerials Materialsthatcanrequireblastingduringprocessingorhandling Compressedflammablegases Flammableandcombustiblematerials Othercontaminatingsubstancesincluding,butnotlimitedtothefollowing: (a) animalfats (b) baledcotton (c) baledrags (d) baledscrappaper (e) bleachingpowder (f) burlaporcottonbags (g) causticsoda (h) coal (i) coke (j) charcoal (k) cork (l) camphor (m) excelsior (n) fibersofanykind (o) fishoils (p) fishmeal (q) foamrubber (r) hay (s) lubricatingoil (t) linseedoilorotheroxidizableordryingoils (u) naphthalene (v) oakum (w) oiledclothing (x) oiledpaper (y) oiledtextiles

CopyrightNFPA

(z) paint (aa) straw (ab) sawdust (ac) woodshavings (ad) vegetableoil 7.1.2 Wallsreferredtoin 7.1.1shallonlyhavetoextendtotheundersideoftheroof. 7.1.3 Inlieuofseparationwalls,ammoniumnitrateshallbepermittedtobeseparatedfrom thematerialsreferredtoin 7.1.1byaspaceofatleast30ft(9.1m)ormoreasrequiredby theauthorityhavingjurisdiction,andsillsorcurbsshallbeprovidedtopreventmixingduring fireconditions. 7.1.4 Flammableliquidssuchasgasoline,kerosene,solvents,andlightfueloilsshallnotbe storedonthepremises. Exception:WheresuchstorageconformstoNFPA30,FlammableandCombustible LiquidsCode,andwherewallsandsillsorcurbsareprovidedinaccordancewith7.1.1 through7.1.3. 7.1.5 LPGasshallnotbestoredonthepremises. Exception:WheresuchstorageconformstoNFPA58,LiquefiedPetroleumGasCode. 7.2ProhibitedArticles. 7.2.1 Sulfurandfinelydividedmetalsshallnotbestoredinthesamebuildingwith ammoniumnitrate. Exception:WheresuchstorageconformstoNFPA495,ExplosiveMaterialsCode. 7.2.2 Explosivesandblastingagentsshallnotbestoredinthesamebuildingwithammonium nitrate. Exception:Explosivesandblastingagentsshallbepermittedtobestoredinthesame buildingwithammoniumnitrateonthepremisesofmakers,distributors,and usercompoundersofexplosivesorblastingagents. 7.2.2.1 Whereexplosivesorblastingagentsarestoredinseparatebuildings,otherthanon thepremisesofmakers,distributors,andusercompoundersofexplosivesorblastingagents, theyshallbeseparatedfromtheammoniumnitratebythedistancesorbarricadesspecifiedin Table64.2of NFPA495,ExplosiveMaterialsCode. 7.2.2.2 Storageoroperationsonthepremisesofmakers,distributors,and usercompoundersofexplosivesorblastingagentsshallconformtoNFPA495,Explosive MaterialsCode.

Chapter8GeneralPrecautions
CopyrightNFPA

8.1ElectricalInstallations. 8.1.1 Electricalinstallationsshallconformtotherequirementsof NFPA70,National ElectricalCode ,forordinarylocations.Theyshallbedesignedtominimizedamagefrom corrosion. 8.1.2 Electriclampsshallbelocatedorguardedsoastoprecludecontactwithbagsorother combustiblematerials. 8.2Housekeeping. 8.2.1 Goodhousekeepingshallbemaintained. 8.2.2 Ifcontentsofbrokenbagsareuncontaminated,theyshallbepermittedtobesalvaged byplacingthedamagedbaginsideaclean,newslipoverbagandclosingitsecurely.Other spilledmaterialsanddiscardedcontainersshallbepromptlygatheredanddisposedofina safemanner. 8.3SourcesofIgnition. Openflamesandsmokingshallbeprohibitedinstoragebuildings,andthisshallnotinclude heatingunitsapprovedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. 8.4Signs. Allpointsofentrytocommercialwarehousesinwhichammoniumnitrateisstoredshallbe properlyidentifiedwithdurablesignsmeetingthefollowingspecifications: (1) (2) Signsshallhavebackgroundandlettersincontrastingcolors. SignsshallbewordedAMMONIUMNITRATE,withlettersatleast2in.(50.8mm) high.

8.5VehiclesandLiftTrucks. 8.5.1 Internalcombustionmotorvehicles,lifttrucks,andcargoconveyorsshallnotbe permittedtoremainunattendedinabuildingwhereammoniumnitrateisstored. Exception:Suchvehiclesshallbepermittedtoremainunattendedinabuildingwhere ammoniumnitrateisstoredifparkedinanareathatwillpreventavehiclefirefrom spreading. 8.5.2* Forktrucks,tractors,platformlifttrucks,andotherspecializedindustrialtrucksused withinthewarehouseshallbemaintainedsothatfuelsorhydraulicfluidsdonotcontaminate theammoniumnitrate. 8.6*HandlingEquipment. Hollowspacesinnitratehandlingequipment,wherenitratecouldcollectandbeconfined undersufficientlyhighpressuretobecomeasourceofexplosionintheeventoffire,shallbe avoided. CopyrightNFPA

8.7*Lightning. Inareaswherelightningstormsareprevalent,lightningprotectionshallbeprovided. 8.8ControlofAccess. Provisionsshallbemadetopreventunauthorizedpersonnelfromenteringtheammonium nitratestoragearea.

Chapter9FireProtection
9.1AutomaticSprinklers. 9.1.1 Notmorethan2500tons(2268metrictons)ofbaggedammoniumnitrateshallbe storedinabuildingorstructurenotequippedwithanautomaticsprinklersystem. Exception:Aquantityofbaggedammoniumnitrategreaterthan2500tons(2268metric tons)shallbepermittedtobestoredinabuildingorstructurenotequippedwithan automaticsprinklersystemifapprovedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. 9.1.2 Whendeterminingwhethergreaterquantitiesshallbepermittedwithoutsprinkler protection,theauthorityhavingjurisdictionshalltakeintoconsiderationproximityofthe storagebuildingtocongestedareasandthepossiblepresenceofcontaminantsinthestorage building. 9.1.3 Sprinklerprotectionshallbepermittedtoberequiredbytheauthorityhaving jurisdictionforthestorageoflessthan2500tons(2268metrictons)ofammoniumnitrate wherelocationofthebuildingorthepresenceofotherstoredmaterialscanpresentaspecial hazard. 9.1.4 Sprinklersystemsshallbeoftheapprovedtypeandinstalledinaccordancewith NFPA 13,StandardfortheInstallationofSprinklerSystems. 9.1.5 SprinklersystemsshallbedesignedinaccordancewithNFPA230,Standardforthe FireProtectionofStorage.Ammoniumnitrateinnoncombustibleorcombustiblecontainers (paperbagsornoncombustiblecontainerswithremovablecombustibleliners)shallbe designatedasaClassIcommodity.Wherecontainedinfiberpacksornoncombustible containersincombustiblepackaging,itshallbedesignatedasaClass3commodity.Where containedinplasticcontainers,itshallbedesignatedasaClass2commodity. 9.2ExtinguishingDevices. 9.2.1* Suitablefirecontroldevicessuchassmallhoseorportableextinguishersshallbe providedthroughoutthewarehouseandintheloadingandunloadingareas. 9.2.2* Watersuppliesandfirehydrantsshallbeavailableinaccordancewithrecognized goodpracticesandasrequiredbytheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. 9.2.3 Therequirementsforautomaticsprinklers,watersupplies,andfirehydrantssetforth in 9.1.4and9.2.2shallbepermittedtobewaivedbytheauthorityhavingjurisdictionwhere CopyrightNFPA

storagefacilitiesarelocatedinremoteareas.

AnnexAExplanatoryMaterial
AnnexAisnotapartoftherequirementsofthisNFPAdocumentbutisincludedfor informationalpurposesonly.Thisannexcontainsexplanatorymaterial,numberedto correspondwiththeapplicabletextparagraphs. A.1.1.4 SeeNFPA495,ExplosiveMaterialsCode. A.3.2.1Approved.TheNationalFireProtectionAssociationdoesnotapprove,inspect,or certifyanyinstallations,procedures,equipment,ormaterialsnordoesitapproveorevaluate testinglaboratories.Indeterminingtheacceptabilityofinstallations,procedures,equipment, ormaterials,theauthorityhavingjurisdictionmaybaseacceptanceoncompliancewith NFPAorotherappropriatestandards.Intheabsenceofsuchstandards,saidauthoritymay requireevidenceofproperinstallation,procedure,oruse.Theauthorityhavingjurisdiction mayalsorefertothelistingsorlabelingpracticesofanorganizationthatisconcernedwith productevaluationsandisthusinapositiontodeterminecompliancewithappropriate standardsforthecurrentproductionoflisteditems. A.3.2.2AuthorityHavingJurisdiction(AHJ). Thephraseauthorityhavingjurisdiction, oritsacronymAHJ,isusedinNFPAdocumentsinabroadmanner,sincejurisdictionsand approvalagenciesvary,asdotheirresponsibilities.Wherepublicsafetyisprimary,the authorityhavingjurisdictionmaybeafederal,state,local,orotherregionaldepartmentor individualsuchasafirechieffiremarshalchiefofafirepreventionbureau,labor department,orhealthdepartmentbuildingofficialelectricalinspectororothershaving statutoryauthority.Forinsurancepurposes,aninsuranceinspectiondepartment,rating bureau,orotherinsurancecompanyrepresentativemaybetheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. Inmanycircumstances,thepropertyownerorhisorherdesignatedagentassumestherole oftheauthorityhavingjurisdictionatgovernmentinstallations,thecommandingofficeror departmentalofficialmaybetheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. A.3.2.3Code.Thedecisiontodesignateastandardasacodeisbasedonsuchfactorsas thesizeandscopeofthedocument,itsintendeduseandformofadoption,andwhetherit containssubstantialenforcementandadministrativeprovisions. A.3.2.5Listed.Themeansforidentifyinglistedequipmentmayvaryforeachorganization concernedwithproductevaluationsomeorganizationsdonotrecognizeequipmentaslisted unlessitisalsolabeled.Theauthorityhavingjurisdictionshouldutilizethesystememployed bythelistingorganizationtoidentifyalistedproduct. A.4.1.4 Ammoniumnitrateiscapableofdetonatingwiththeblasteffectofabouthalfthe quantityofexplosivesifheatedunderconfinementthatpermitshighpressurebuilduporif subjectedtostrongshocks,suchasthosefromanexplosive.Thesensitivityofammonium nitratetodetonationisincreasedbyelevatedtemperaturesorbycontamination.(See Chapter7.) A.4.2.3 SeeNFPA203,GuideonRoofCoveringsandRoofDeckConstructions. CopyrightNFPA

A.6.2.2 Steelorwoodcanbeprotectedbyspecialcoatingssuchassodiumsilicate,epoxy coatings,orpolyvinylchloridecoatings. A.6.3.2 Pressuresettingisafactoraffectedbyhumidityandtemperatureinthestorage spaceandbypelletquality.Temperaturecyclesthrough90F(32C)andhighatmospheric humidityareundesirableforstorageindepth. A.8.5.2 ItisrecommendedthatelectricorLPGaspoweredtrucksbeemployedratherthan gasolineordieseltoreducethepotentialforcontaminationtoammoniumnitrate. A.8.6 Examplesofhollowspacesincludehollowconveyorrollersandhollowscrew conveyorshafts. A.8.7 SeeNFPA780,StandardfortheInstallationofLightningProtectionSystems. A.9.2.1 SeeNFPA10,StandardforPortableFireExtinguishers,andNFPA14,Standard fortheInstallationofStandpipe,PrivateHydrant,andHoseSystems. A.9.2.2 SeeNFPA24,StandardfortheInstallationofPrivateFireServiceMainsand TheirAppurtenances.

AnnexBPropertiesandUsesofAmmoniumNitrate
ThisannexisnotapartoftherequirementsofthisNFPAdocumentbutisincludedfor informationalpurposesonly. B.1 Ammoniumnitrate(asusedinthispublication,refersonlytosolidformsofammonium nitrate)isacompoundcontainingnitrogen,hydrogen,andoxygen(NH NO ).Itis 4 3 commerciallyproducedbyreactingnitricacidwithammoniaandevaporatingtheresultant solutionofammoniumnitratetomakeaconcentratedammoniumnitratemelt,whichisthen spraygranulatedinaprillingtowerorpelletizedorflakedbysomeothermeans. Forinterstateshipments,theU.S.DepartmentofTransportationclassifiesammoniumnitrate asanoxidizingmaterial,asitdoessomeotherfertilizerproductssuchassodiumnitrate, potassiumnitrate,andcalciumnitrate.Suchoxidizingmaterialscanyieldoxygenupon decompositionunderfireconditionsandwill,therefore,underproperconditionsofmixing, vigorouslysupportcombustionifinvolvedinafirewithcombustiblematerials.Ammonium nitrateiscapableofundergoingdetonationwithabouthalf theblasteffectofexplosives,if heatedunderconfinementthatpermitshighpressurebuildup,orifsubjectedtostrong shocks,suchasthosefromanexplosive.Thesensitivityofammoniumnitratetodetonation increasesatelevatedtemperatures. Industrialuseofammoniumnitrateextendstouseasaningredientinblastingagents.Whena carbonaceousororganicsubstancesuchasfuel(ordiesel)oil,nuthulls,orcarbonblackis addedandmixedinwithammoniumnitrate,themixturecouldbecomeablastingagent.A blastingagentisanymaterialormixtureconsistingofafuelandoxidizerthatisintendedfor blasting,nototherwiseclassedasanexplosive,andinwhichnoneoftheingredientsis CopyrightNFPA

classifiedasanexplosive,providedthatthefinishedproduct,asmixedandpackagedforuse orshipment,cannotbedetonatedbymeansofaNo.8testblastingcapwhenunconfined. (SeeNFPA495,ExplosivesMaterialsCode.) RecenttestdataonammoniumnitrateareincludedintheU.S.BureauofMinesReportof Investigations6746,SympatheticDetonationofAmmoniumNitrateandAmmoniumNitrate FuelOilReportofInvestigations6903,FurtherStudiesonSympatheticDetonationand ReportofInvestigations6773,ExplosionHazardsofAmmoniumNitrateUnderFire Exposure.Onthebasisofthesereports,aTableofRecommendedSeparationDistancesof AmmoniumNitrateandBlastingAgentsfromExplosivesorBlastingAgentshasbeen developed(SeeTable64.2ofNFPA495,ExplosiveMaterialsCode). Whileblastingagentsshouldnotbeconfusedwithfertilizerproducts,extremecareshouldbe takentoensurethatstoredammoniumnitratedoesnotbecomesensitizedbyintimatemixing withcarbonaceous,organic,orcombustiblematerial. Mixedfertilizerscontaininglessthan60percentammoniumnitratearenotcoveredbythis code. Withproperprecautionsagainstfireandexplosion,ammoniumnitratecanbestoredsafelyat aplant,indistributorswarehouses,oronafarm.

AnnexCSuggestedFireFightingProcedure
ThisannexisnotapartoftherequirementsofthisNFPAdocumentbutisincludedfor informationalpurposesonly. C.1 Shouldafirebreakoutinanareawhereammoniumnitrateisstored,itisimportantthatthe massbekeptcoolandtheburningbepromptlyextinguished.Applylargevolumesofwater asquicklyaspossible.Iffiresreachmassiveanduncontrollableproportions,firefighting personnelshouldevacuatetheareaandwithdrawtoasafelocation. C.2 Provideasmuchventilationaspossibletothefirearea.Rapiddissipationofboththe productsofdecompositionandtheheatofreactionisveryimportant. C.3 Approachthefirefromupwindasthevaporsfromburningammoniumnitrateareverytoxic. SelfcontainedbreathingapparatusoftypesapprovedbytheU.S.BureauofMinesshouldbe usedtoprotectpersonnelagainstgases. C.4 Afterextinguishmentofthefire,thelooseandcontaminatedunsalvageableammonium nitrateshouldbeburiedordumpedinwater,wherepermissible.Anyresiduethatcannotbe CopyrightNFPA

removedbysweepingshouldbewashedawaywithhose.Flushingandscrubbingofallareas shouldbeverythoroughtoensurethedissolvingofallresidue.Wetemptybagsshouldbe removed,permittedtodryout,andthenburnedoutdoors.

AnnexDSuggestedProvisionsforMunicipalLegalRegulations
ThisannexisnotapartoftherequirementsofthisNFPAdocumentbutisincludedfor informationalpurposesonly. Wherethiscodeisusedasthebasisformunicipallegalregulations,thefollowing provisionsaresuggestedasanaidtoenforcement. D.1Title. Thisordinanceshallbeknownasanordinanceregulatingthestorage,having,andkeeping ofammoniumnitrateintheCityof[]andshallbepermittedtobereferredtoasThe AmmoniumNitrateStorageOrdinance. Notethatthetitleshouldconformwithlocallawandpractice. D.2Definitions. D.2.1Chief.TheChiefoftheFireDepartmentorhisorherauthorizedrepresentativeis herebydesignatedastheauthorityhavingjurisdictionwhereverthatexpressionappearsin theordinance. D.2.2Jurisdiction.JurisdictionwhereverusedinthisordinanceshallmeantheCityof[ ]. D.2.3Permit.ThetermPermit,whereverusedinthisordinance,shallmeanthewritten authorityofthe[]issuedpursuanttothisordinancetostore,have,orkeeppure,fertilizer, orothergradesofammoniumnitrateandmixturescontaining60percentormorebyweight ofammoniumnitrateandthatareclassifiedasoxidizingmaterialsbytheauthorityhaving jurisdiction(usuallybytheU.S.DepartmentofTransportation). D.3Application. Thisordinanceshallapplytoallpersons,firms,corporations,partnerships,governmental agenciesexceptfederal,andassociationsstoring,having,orkeepingammoniumnitrateand totheownerorlesseeofanybuildingorpremisesinoronwhichammonium nitrateisstored orkept. D.4PermittedLocations. D.4.1 Thestorageofammoniumnitrateinquantitiesof1000lb(454kg)ormoreis prohibitedwithinthefollowinglimits. Notethattheselimitsaretobespecifiedaccordingtolocalzoningordinances.Theyshould includeallresidential,mercantile,andothercongesteddistricts. CopyrightNFPA

D.4.2 Nopermitshallbeissueduntilapprovalhasbeengivenfortheproposedstorage locationwithrespecttoproximitytoplacesofpublicassembly,schools,hospitals,and churches,andadequacyofwatersupplyforfirecontrol. D.5Retroactivity. Thechiefcanissueapermitforthecontinueduseofanexistingwarehouse,storagefacility, handlingequipment,building,andstructureforthestorageofammoniumnitratethatisnot instrictcompliancewiththetermsofthisordinanceincaseswherecontinuedusewillnot constituteadistincthazardtolifeoradjoiningproperty.Incaseswheresuchpermitis denied,thechiefshallnotifytheapplicantandspecifythereasonsfordenialinwriting. D.6Permits. D.6.1 Apermitissuedpursuanttothisordinanceshallbeobtainedfromthechieftostore, have,orkeep,inquantitiesof1000lb(454kg)ormore,pure,fertilizer,andothergradesof ammoniumnitrate,andmixturescontaining60percentormorebyweightofammonium nitrateandthatareclassifiedasoxidizingmaterials(usuallybytheDepartmentof Transportation)bytheauthorityhavingjurisdiction. D.6.2 Permitsshallnotbetransferable. D.6.3 Eachpermitgrantedbythechiefshallbevalidforsuchperiodasmightbespecified butnottoexceedoneyear,shallbearevocablelicense,andshallexpirewhenrevoked. D.7InspectionandApproval. D.7.1 Applicationforapermittouseoroperatefacilitiesforthestorage,having,orkeeping ofammoniumnitrateashereinrequiredshallbemadeinwritingtothechief.Thechiefshall thencauseaninspectiontobemadeofthepremisesandequipmentproposedtobeused.If theyarefoundtobeincompliancewiththisordinance,astatementtothateffectshallbe notedontheapplicationandtheapplicationsignedbythepersonmakingtheinspection.The chiefshallthereuponissueapermitasappliedfor. D.7.2 Thechiefcanatanyreasonabletimeinspectpremises,buildings,installations,or equipmentforthestorageandhandlingofammoniumnitrate.Ifaviolationofthisordinance isfoundtoexist,thechiefshallfilewiththeowner,occupant,oroperatoranoticecitingthe violationandorderingitscorrection.Ifsuchorderisnotcompliedwith,thechiefcan suspendthepermitissuedforsuchfacility. D.7.3 Intheeventthataninspectionrevealsaviolationofthisordinanceseriousenoughin thechiefsopiniontoconstituteaclearandpresentdangertothepublicsafety,thechiefshall takewhatevermeasuresarenecessarytocorrect,abate,orremovethehazardorcondition. D.8Modification. Thechiefshallhavethepowertograntexemptionfromapplicationoftheordinanceupon request,inwriting,todosowhensuchrequestshowsthattheenforcementoftheordinance willcauseunnecessaryhardshiptothepetitioner,providedthatsaidrequestshallnotbe grantedwheretherequestedusewillconstituteadistincthazardtolifeoradjoiningproperty. CopyrightNFPA

Theparticularsofsuchexemptionswhengrantedshallbeentereduponthepermitissued.A copythereofshallberetainedbythechief. D.9Appeals. D.9.1 Anowner,lessee,agent,operator,oroccupantaggrievedbyanyorderissued pursuanttothisordinancecanfileanappealtotheCityCouncilwithintendaysfromthe serviceofsuchanorder,andtheCityCouncilshallfixatimeandplacenotlessthanfive daysnormorethantendaysthereafterwhenandwheresuchappealcanbeheardbyit.Such appealshallstaytheexecutionofsuchorderuntilithasbeenheardandreviewed,vacated,or confirmed.Nothinginthissectionshallbeconstruedaspreventingthechieffromtakingany actionindicatedelsewhereinthisordinance. Notethatthissectionshouldconformtolocallawandpracticewithrespecttoterminology anddesignationofagencytohearappeals. D.9.2 TheCityCouncilshallatsuchhearingaffirm,modify,revoke,orvacatesuchorder. Unlessrevokedorvacated,suchordershallthenbecompliedwith. D.9.3 Nothingthereincontainedshallbedeemedtodenytherightofanyperson,firm, corporation,partnership,orvoluntaryassociationtoappealfromanorderordecisionofthe CityCounciltoacourtofcompetentjurisdiction.Suchappealshallstay theexecutionof suchorderuntilithasbeenheardandreviewed,vacated,orconfirmed. D.10Penalties. Anypersonwhoshallviolateanyoftheprovisionsofthisordinanceorfailtocomply therewith,orwhoshallviolateorfailtocomplywithanyordermadethereunder,orwho shallbuildinviolationofanydetailedstatementofspecificationsorplanssubmittedand approvedthereunder,oranycertificateorpermitissuedthereunder,andfromwhichno appealhasbeentaken,orwhoshallfailtocomplywithsuchanorderasaffirmedormodified bytheCityCouncilorbyacourtofcompetentjurisdiction,withinthetimefixedhereinshall severallyforeachandeveryviolationandnoncompliance,respectively,beguiltyofa misdemeanor,punishablebyafineofnotlessthan[]orbyimprisonmentfornotlessthan[ ]daysnormorethan[]daysorby bothsuchfineandimprisonment.Theimpositionofone penaltyforanyviolationshallnotexcusetheviolationorpermitittocontinueandallsuch personsshallberequiredtocorrectorremedysuchviolationsordefectswithinareasonable timeandwhennototherwisespecified,eachtendaysthatprohibitedconditionsare maintainedshallconstituteaseparateoffense.Theapplicationoftheforegoingpenaltyshall notbeheldtopreventtheenforcedremovalofprohibitedconditions. D.11RepealofConflictingOrdinances. Allformerordinancesorpartsthereofconflictingwiththeprovisionsofthisordinanceare herebyrepealed. D.12Severability. TheCityCouncilherebydeclaresthat,shouldanysection,paragraph,sentence,orwordof thisordinancebedeclared,foranyreason,tobeinvalid,itistheintentofsaidCityCouncil CopyrightNFPA

thatitwouldhavepassedallotherportionsofthisordinanceindependentoftheelimination herefromofanysuchportionasmightbedeclaredinvalid. D.13EffectiveDate. Thisordinanceshalltakeeffectupon[]of[].

AnnexEInformationalReferences
E.1ReferencedPublications. Thefollowingdocumentsorportionsthereofarereferencedwithinthiscodefor informationalpurposesonlyandarethusnotpartoftherequirementsofthisdocument unlessalsolistedinChapter2. E.1.1NFPAPublications.NationalFireProtectionAssociation,1BatterymarchPark,P.O. Box9101,Quincy,MA022699101. NFPA10,StandardforPortableFireExtinguishers,1998edition. NFPA14,StandardfortheInstallationofStandpipe,PrivateHydrant,andHoseSystems, 2000edition. NFPA24,StandardfortheInstallationofPrivateFireServiceMainsandTheir Appurtenances,2002edition. NFPA203,GuideonRoofCoveringsandRoofDeckConstructions,2000edition. NFPA495,ExplosiveMaterialsCode,2001edition. NFPA780,StandardfortheInstallationofLightningProtectionSystems,2000edition. E.1.2OtherPublications. E.1.2.1U.S.GovernmentPublications. U.S.BureauofMines,PittsburghMiningand SafetyResearchCenter,4800ForbesAvenue,Pittsburgh,PA15213. ReportofInvestigations6746,SympatheticDetonationofAmmoniumNitrateand AmmoniumNitrateFuelOil,1966 ReportofInvestigations6773,ExplosionHazardsofAmmoniumNitrateUnderFire Exposure,1966 ReportofInvestigations6903,FurtherStudiesonSympatheticDetonation,1966 E.2InformationalReferences.(Reserved) E.3ReferencesforExtracts.(Reserved)

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