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Aggregates production technology

Table of Contents

1 Crushed Stone o 1.1 Use o 1.2 Technology 2 Sand and Gravel o 2.1 Use o 2.2 Technology 3 Recycled Aggregates from Concrete o 3.1 Use o 3.2 Technology 4 Recycled Aggregates from Reclaimed As halt !avement o 4.1 Technology " #urther Reading

Content Source: U.S. Geological Survey $other articles% Article Topic: &aterials This article has been reviewed and approved by the following Topic Editor: Carl 'outman $other articles% Last Updated: &arch 1() 2**(

Crushed Stone
&ore than +* ercent of the 1.33 ,illion tons of crushed stone consumed in 1((- .as used as construction aggregates) mostly for high.ay construction and road maintenance. Crushed stone is also used in the manufacture of concrete for road) ,uilding) and ,ridge construction) and nonconstruction a lications. A ro/imately 02 ercent of the crushed stone roduced came from limestone) a,out 1" ercent from granite) 0 ercent from ,asalt) and the remainder from a variety of other roc1 ty es.

#igure 12 Ty ical natural aggregates o eration. 3atural aggregates are roduced rinci ally from crushed stone or sand and gravel de osits similar to the one ictured here. $Source2 USGS% Construction aggregates are hard materials suita,le for forming concrete .hen a cementing or ,inding material is added) or used alone in other a lications. Aggregates derived from sand and gravel) crushed stone) or recycled sources generally ma1e u the ,ul1 of the volume of the concrete ,eing roduced. Although de osits from .hich crushed stone can ,e roduced are .ides read in the United States) they are not availa,le #actors such as mar1et availa,ility) trans ortation distances) local environmental im act) and ermitting factors must ,e considered in site selection. 4e osits suita,le for concrete aggregates roduction must meet strict technical s ecifications related to 5uality and 5uantity. S ecifications for crushed stone are develo ed ,y organi6ations such as2 The American Society for Testing and &aterials $AST&%) American Association of State 'igh.ay and Trans ortation 7fficials $AAS'T7% ) U.S. 4e artment of Trans ortation) #ederal 'igh.ay Administration $#'8A%) U.S. Army Cor s of 9ngineers) and the various State de artments of trans ortation $47Ts%. !roduct s ecifications are often mandated for all State or #ederal construction ro:ects. ;ocal trans ortation districts may select s ecifications suita,le for their needs) generally ,ased on State guidelines. Crushed stone s ecifications may ,e modified regionally to reflect local climatic conditions and availa,ility of materials.

Stone suita,le for roducing a crushed stone roduct is most often recovered ,y standard 5uarrying techni5ues. Underground o erations are occasionally used .here suita,le and in areas .here community resistance to surface mining is high. #or most surface o erations) once a suita,le de osit is selected and ac5uired) the stone is often recovered ,y removing any over,urden) loosening of the roc1 ,y ,lasting) crushing the roc1 to the

desired si6e) se aration of deleterious material) stoc1 iling of mar1eta,le material of various si6es and grades) and trans orting roducts to mar1et. 4e ending u on nature of the de osit and roc1 ty e) not all of these ste s may ,e re5uired. The ca acity of a crushed stone o eration in the United States ranges from less than 2" thousand tons to over " million tons er year. The relative layout of the rimary and secondary crushers) screening lant) stoc1 iles) and ancillary e5ui ment determines ho. efficiently materials can move throughout the o eration. <ecause trans ortation among resource) rocessing lant) and mar1ets is one of the most im ortant factors in site rofita,ility) efficient site location and design are critical. &ost crushed stone o erations em loy surface mining methods to recover the resource. Truc1s and shovels are commonly used at larger o erations or .here material must ,e moved longer distances or over u,lic roads. #ront=end loaders or scra ers are used at smaller o erations or .here shorter haulage distances are necessary. 4raglines may ,e used .here material to ,e moved is under .ater and hydraulic shovels may ,e used .here the roc1 surface is irregular. The nature and geometry of the de osit determine the drilling and ,lasting re5uirements. 7 eration si6e may determine .hether com any or contract drilling is used. 9nvironmental) regulatory) and social considerations also affect ty e of drilling and scheduling of ,lasting) articularly if the site is located in or near an ur,an area. Crushed stone lants are generally classified as either .et or dry lants) de ending u on stone classification) the ty es of contaminants resent) availa,ility of .ater and land area) 6oning) and environmental considerations. >n the .et rocess) clay and contaminants are removed ,y .ashing and .aste .ater is sent to settling onds. 8et lants do not have the dust ro,lems often associated .ith dry lants) ,ut re5uire a larger site area in order to accommodate the s ace re5uired for settling onds. 4ry lants often re5uire dust collectors or other dust su ression systems to reduce the amount of dust generated in rocessing. <oth ermanent and orta,le lants or a com,ination of the t.o ty es may ,e used) de ending u on such things as lant ca acity) de osit life) roduct mi/) e5ui ment and s ace availa,ility) and time constraints. !orta,le lants are often used to su ly stone for s ecific construction ro:ects) and may ,e sited at the ro:ect rather than at the resource location. Such lants are designed to travel on u,lic roads and are generally used for large ro:ects or .here no ermanent o erations e/ist. A orta,le lant may not ,e as efficient as a com ara,le ermanent lant. A ermanent lant is generally referred .hen a .ide range of roducts is desired. Crusher selection de ends on a num,er of factors including roc1 characteristics) roducts desired) the 5uantity and ty e of deleterious material) screening ca acity) and economic factors. >m act and com ression crushers are used to reduce the si6e of stone articles. >m act=ty e crushers have greater ca acity=to= cost ratios than do com ression=ty e crushers) ,ut a,rasive stones may cause increased .ear on im act crushers.

After crushing) the stone is se arated to desired s ecifications ,y means of screening) classifying) and .ashing circuits. #actors considered in designing the circuits include the num,er and ty es of roducts re5uired) the nature of the rocessed material) amount of .et or stic1y material) article sha e) amount of oversi6e or fine material) the relative densities of each material) and economic factors. Construction aggregates can ,e used .ith or .ithout a ,inder) such as as halt. Road ,ase) macadam surfacing material) ri ra ) and railroad ,allast are construction a lications that do not re5uire ,inders. Aggregates for cement and ,ituminous concrete in high.ay construction and re air) and residential and commercial construction a lications re5uire ,inder material. The ,inding agent is generally added at the concrete lant or construction site. !roducts of crushed stone o erations are often stoc1 iled rior to sale. Automated stoc1 ile systems re5uire less la,or and less e5ui ment for handling the stone) ,ut are higher cost and generally not used at smaller o erations. 7ther factors to consider include the amount of availa,le storage s ace) trans ort re5uirements) lant ca acity) and storage time. Trans ortation is a ma:or factor in the delivered rice of crushed stone. The method of trans ortation is generally determined ,y cost and availa,ility. Although trains and ,arges are used) truc1 haulage is the most common mode of trans ortation. <ecause of the high cost of trans ortation and the large 5uantities of material hauled) haulage distances seldom e/ceed 1-* 1ilometers. Crushed stone is usually mar1eted locally) although increasing land values) land=use decisions) and environmental concerns are moving crushed stone 5uarries farther from end=use locations. Crushed stone o erations are su,:ect to 7ccu ational Safety and 'ealth Administration $7S'A% and &ine Safety and 'ealth Administration $&S'A% regulations and must conform to esta,lished environmental regulations ertaining to air) .ater) noise) and safety. The ty e of control rogram selected de ends u on the amount and ty e of dust generated? availa,le .ater and ond s ace? local 6oning) and environmental regulations? the ty e of rocessing utili6ed) and economic considerations. S ecial regulations are im osed on siliceous dust) due to otential health ris1s if inhaled. Regulatory limits vary de ending u on location) site design) and the enforcing agency.

Sand and Gravel

&ost of the (14 million tons of construction sand and gravel roduced in 1((- in the United States .as used in construction a lications) rinci ally ortland cement concrete) road ,ase) as haltic concrete) and as general fill. 7f the material consumed in 1((- .ith a s ecified use) a,out 43 ercent .as used for concrete aggregates? 23 ercent for road ,ase) coverings) and sta,ili6ation? 13 ercent as as halt concrete aggregates and other

,ituminous mi/tures? and 12 ercent as construction fill. >n the United States) sand and gravel roduction ran1s second in the nonfuel minerals industry ,ehind crushed stone and is the only mineral roduct recovered in all "* States. The 5uality of aggregates de ends not u on roc1 ty e) ,ut rather on hysical and chemical ro erties and su,se5uent changes related to .eathering) tectonic history) or chemical alteration. Suita,le material is often found in unconsolidated ,each) stream) alluvial) and glacial sedimentary de osits. The construction industry uses sand and gravel chiefly in concrete aggregates) as halt) or road ,ase. Concrete mi/es commonly contain 1"@2* ercent .ater) 0@14 ercent cement) and --@0+ ercent aggregates. The hysical ro erties of sand and gravel most significant for concrete use include a,undance and nature of fractures and ores) article sha e and surface te/ture) and volume changes resulting from .eathering) free6ing) or 3onreactive mineral and roc1 articles that are strong and ca a,le of resisting .eathering .ithout decom osition are suita,le candidates for concrete. As halt concrete mi/tures redominantly used for aving consist of sand) gravel) and mineral fines coated .ith as halt derived from the refining of etroleum. Crushing is generally re5uired in high=5uality as halt a lications to rovide freshly fractured faces that rovide ma/imum adherence for the as halt ,inder. Concrete aggregates have to meet hysical and chemical re5uirements and s ecifications similar to those for crushed stone. &aterials used in construction and trans ortation a lications must conform to a ro riate #ederal and State s ecifications related to characteristics of a,rasion) soundness) s ecific gravity) si6e and grading) reactivity) a,sor tion) dura,ility) and sand e5uivalent. Sand and gravel s ecifications may ,e modified to reflect local climatic conditions. As .ith crushed stone) sand and gravel are a high=volume) lo.=unit=value commodity .ith an industry characteri6ed ,y thousands of o erations serving local and regional mar1ets. Resources are .ides read ,ut shortages e/ist locally) either ,ecause the resource doesnAt e/ist in an area) or ,ecause of land=use conflicts and environmental concerns associated .ith ra id ur,ani6ation. 4e osits are recovered ,y standard surface mining techni5ues. >deally a commercial de osit .ould contain a,out -* ercent gravel= si6ed articles and 4* ercent sand=si6ed articles) .here the gravel .ould ,e used for road ,ase or ,ituminous aggregates and the sand .ould ,e used for ma1ing concrete. This ratio can vary significantly) ho.ever) de ending u on de osit ma1eu .

Sand and gravel de osits are mined .ith shovels) draglines) front=end loaders) or dredges. The choice of e/cavating e5ui ment de ends u on o eration si6e) resource ty e) economic considerations) and .hether the resource is mined ,y .et or dry methods. >n a dry o eration) shovels) loaders) or draglines load the sand and gravel into truc1s or onto conveyor ,elts for transfer to the rocessing lant. <ecause the material is unconsolidated) drilling and ,lasting are generally not re5uired. A .et o eration recovers sand and gravel from de osits ,elo. the .ater ta,le. The material is e/cavated ,y a land=

,ased dragline) floating dredge) or hydraulic mining o eration. Conveyors or i elines trans ort the slurry to ad:acent rocessing lants. Commercial rocessing lants are most often located at the resource) .here ,lending can ,e erformed to roduce a variety of roducts. As .ith crushed stone) rocessing consists of crushing) screening) and .ashing. Si6ed material is then stoc1 iled ,ased on roduct re5uirements rior to trans ort to mar1et. !lant ca acities range from less than 23)*** tons for small) intermittent o erations to more than 4." million tons er year. &ost o erations are small) turning out one roduct or a limited range of roducts) ,ut the ,ul1 of total U.S. roduction comes from large o erations. &ost lants are designed to roduce different roducts. There is usually a dry side) .here material is crushed and screened for use as road ,ase or ,ituminous aggregate) and a .et side) .here sand and gravel are .ashed and screened for use as concrete aggregate. A :a. crusher is commonly used for rimary si6e reduction. Gyratory) roll) or im act crushers further reduce the si6e of the gravel. Rod mills are used to manufacture sand to su lement natural sand that is deficient in fine si6es. The sand fraction is ordinarily .ashed and classified in s iral classifiers. Cyclones may ,e used to recover fine sand from classifier overflo.. Settling tan1s may ,e used to se arate sand into various si6es. The desired ,lend of sand is then dra.n off and de.atered in a second series of s iral classifiers. !lants rocessing clay=rich material may use scru,,ers or log .ashers to remove the clay. &echanical vi,rating screens se arate the gravel into a ro riate si6es. 'eavy media se arators are used .here soft orous articles such as shale are resent. Bigs may also ,e used in selected a lications. #or large construction ro:ects or in remote areas .here no ermanent o erations e/ist) a semi=mo,ile lant may ,e set u ) .hich .ill remain at the construction site until com letion of a s ecific ro:ect) then relocated to the ne/t ro:ect. >n ur,an areas) ho.ever) most roduction is done from ermanent facilities. >t is common for as halt concrete and ready=mi/ concrete lants to ,e located at the sand and gravel roduction site. <ecause trans ortation ma1es u a significant ortion of the overall cost of sand and gravel o erations) most construction sand and gravel continue to ,e mar1eted locally. Truc1 haulage is the main form of trans ortation? a ro/imately 0( ercent of sand and gravel roducts is trans orted ,y truc1. 7nly a small ercentage is trans orted ,y either rail or ,arge. A ro/imately 1- ercent of construction sand and gravel is not trans orted) ,ut used at the roduction site. Sand and gravel o erations are also governed ,y 7S'A and &S'A regulations. As .ith crushed stone) regulatory re5uirements vary de ending u on location and the enforcing agency.

Recycled Aggregates from Concrete

As recycling of construction materials increases) aggregate roducers) ,uilding contractors) and road aving contractors are recycling a greater amount of material each year. >n 1((-) a total of 1.2 million tons of cement concrete .as re orted to ,e recycled ,y 43 aggregate roducers in 1- States. These figures do not include the numerous recyclers not associated .ith natural aggregates roduction. >t is estimated that a,out 0.3 million tons of scra concrete .as recycled in 1((-) rinci ally as road ,ase $T. 4. Celly) oral commun.) 1((0%. Recycled aggregates resently re resent a small fraction of the total amount of aggregates consumed) ,ut recycling otential increases as the amount of material availa,le from traditional sources is increasingly affected ,y regulation and land=use issues. Recycled concrete has many a lications in road construction. >t is commonly used as road ,ase? 44 States allo. recycled concrete in road ,ase a lications. in the use of recycled concrete for retaining .all ,ac1fill) ortland cement concrete mi/) landsca ing roc1) drainage aggregates) and erosion control is also occurring. Sources and the nature of recycled material can vary over time from ro:ect to ro:ect2 the DresourceE is the material ,eing recycled. 9ach construction ro:ect re5uires material that meets s ecific s ecifications? therefore) the recycler must ,e a,le to ad:ust material feed to meet those s ecifications. As .ith crushed stone and sand and gravel o erations) s ecifications are develo ed ,y a variety of #ederal and State agencies) and often vary considera,ly ,y location and climatic conditions.

!rocessing of recycled material is a relatively sim le rocess) ,ut one that can re5uire e/ ensive) heavy=duty e5ui ment) ca a,le of handling a variety of materials. Technology ,asically involves crushing) si6ing) and ,lending to meet the re5uired roduct mi/. Concrete and as halt recycling lants can ,e used to rocess natural sand and gravel) ,ut sand and gravel lants cannot rocess recycla,le materials efficiently in most cases. &uch construction concrete contains metal and .aste materials that must ,e detected and removed at the start of rocessing ,y manual ic1ing or magnetic se aration. #eed for recycling may ,e non=uniform in si6e or com osition) so e5ui ment must ,e ca a,le of handling variation in feed materials. 95ui ment must ,e versatile yet efficient for a variety of materials. #igure 2 ictures a ty ical construction site recycling o eration.

Table 1: Crusher combinations commonly used in concrete and asphalt recycling. Category Capacity Horizontal-shaft Jaw/roll combination impactor 1+*=3-* tons er hour F(*=3-* tons er hour 22*=32* tons er hour Ba. crusher can handle re,ar and .ire mesh? Accommodates re,ar Accommodates .ide cone and variety of feed material crusher cannot? .ood .ire mesh a ro,lem for ,oth 8ear lo. for :a. crusher? Amount of .ear on 8ear higher than .ear for roll high if e5ui ment is lo. :a.Gcone com,ination aggregates are a,rasive Accommodates Accommodates ,oth concrete? &ainly suita,le for as halt and concrete less suita,le for soft as halt materials as halt concrete &ore difficult to 9asy to control 9asy to control control Jaw/cone combination 'igh Semi=s1illed A,out half of :a.Gcone 'igh S1illed Semi=s1illed


!ear on e"uipment

#rimary feed

$ust control Capital investment %abor re"uirement &ther

&aintenance critical 8ide variation in on crusher 3ot a lica,le cone crusher design Ada ted from Bustice) 1((3. ;ocation) e5ui ment selection) and lant layout are in many cases critical to the efficiency of a recycling o eration. 95ui ment si6e and ty e im act ro:ect erformance. >tems that need to ,e considered for ,oth stationary and orta,le lants include the amount of s ace the lant re5uires) otential for fines ,y ass) crusher discharge area considerations) magnetic se aration re5uirements and effectiveness) de,ris removal) and dust control. !orta,le lants need to consider the a,ility to set u and relocate the lant easily and 5uic1ly and must ,e small enough to fit on e/isting roads and under over asses. &ost recycling occurs in ur,an areas .ith access to ade5uate trans ortation routes and infrastructure. 8hether a mo,ile or a fi/ed lant is used) the site of the recycling o eration must ,e located close to sources of ra. materials and roduct destinations.

!ermanent lant sites tend to ,e small in area) usually ,et.een 2 and 4 hectares. 9ven .ith mo,ile sites) a small 5uantity of land is usually re5uired for resource and e5ui ment storage. &oving and setu for orta,le lant affect rofita,ility. Such o erations fre5uently move 4@2* times a year) and time ta1en for trans ort and setu results in lost roduction. A shorter trans ortation and setu time minimi6es the im act on cash flo.. Recycled concrete can result in more .ear on e5ui ment than some forms of natural aggregates) de ending u on the roc1 ty e from .hich it .as derived. #or e/am le) a crushed stone roducer may get a 1*=year life out of a conveyor ,elt) .hereas a recycler may only get a -=month life out of a similar ,elt ,ecause of the hysical characteristics $coarseness) angularity% of the rocessed material and the resence of deleterious material $such as re,ar or .ire%. Recycling also re5uires more la,or than natural stone roduction on a er unit ,asis) as ic1ers are re5uired to e/tract de,ris from the concrete ,eing re rocessed.

#igure 22 Ty ical recycled aggregates o eration. $Source2 USGS% The rinci al ste in rocessing recycled concrete is the crushing of the material) generally conducted in t.o stages. Several ty es of crushers are used in recycling? each ty e has advantages that must ,e considered. Ta,le 1 outlines some com,inations and considerations for this e5ui ment. A t.o=stage crushing system is generally referred unless the o erator is doing multi le small ro:ects. #or small as halt ro:ects or .here concrete does not contain re,ar or other de,ris) a orta,le single trailer o eration may ,e suita,le. #eed material must ,e free from de,ris and the feed must ,e fairly uniform in com osition. &aterial to ,e recycled can ,e dum ed directly into the rimary crusher? ho.ever) a gri66ly can ,e laced ahead of the crusher to increase roduction and reduce crusher .ear. 4irt and fines generated from the gri66ly may ,e se arated ,y the loader o erator rior to crushing) and stoc1 iled as .aste) eliminating the necessity to rocess this material further. S acing ,et.een the gri66ly feeder and the crusher must ,e sufficient to

allo. long sla,s of concrete to di into the crusher. Careful ins ection of feed for deleterious material ,y the loader and crusher o erators can revent .or1 sto ages and rolong crusher life. A crusher discharges onto an underlying ,elt conveyor. Clearance ,et.een the t.o ieces of e5ui ment should ,e at least 122 centimeters? larger distances allo. long ieces of re,ar to fall free of the crusher .ithout :amming the machine. A smaller clearance height may ,e necessary on orta,le lants to allo. for trans ort and ,ridge clearance. &aterial is often hand ic1ed at this oint to remove .aste material. &agnets are an im ortant iece of e5ui ment .hen recycling concrete) as they aid in the removal of re,ar and .ire mesh commonly found in concrete demolition de,ris. Se arator design and layout are im ortant? se arators commonly used in other mining a lications often have features $ ulley design) metal ,elt) for e/am le% that are costly in recycling. #or o timum efficiency) the conveyor ,eneath the magnetic se arator should ,e running at the same s eed as the se arator ,elt. 7nce the material has undergone rimary crushing) it generally is screened to se arate usa,le si6es of material from .aste. Screens that ma/imi6e o en area are generally the most efficient ,ut .ear out ra idly in recycling o erations. Screened material is either sent to a secondary crusher) conveyed to stoc1 iles) or sent directly to the construction ro:ect as feed. 4e,ris removal at a recycling facility can ,e minimi6ed ,ut not eliminated. 7 erators at ermanent lants can ,e selective in the materials acce ted) ,ut orta,le o erations acce t most of .hat is availa,le for re rocessing on=site. #or ,oth lant ty es) manual ic1ing stations located ,oth rior to crushing and during screening se arate out rags) a er) .ood) and other de,ris. At sites that rocess various materials) the loader and crusher o erators can also serve to sort) ,lend) and 1ee the feeder ro erly filled) im roving the roductivity of the o eration. <ecause recycling o erations are often located near construction sites in ur,an areas) the need for good dust control ,ecomes increasingly im ortant. An engineered .ater s ray system .ith a .etting agent can meet most regulatory agency re5uirements for dust control. #or dusty crushers) a ,aghouse may ,e used. Small ,aghouses designed for orta,le crushers and smaller stationary o erations have ,een sho.n to meet regulatory re5uirements.

Recycled Aggregates from Reclaimed Asphalt #avement

>n 1((") a total of 1.- million tons of as halt concrete .as re orted as ,eing recycled ,y -2 com anies in 2- States. Although only a small fraction of the total material availa,le is re orted to ,e recycled) it re resented a (2 ercent increase over the amount recycled

in 1((4. An estimated 4".4 million tons of scra as halt avement .as recycled in 1(($T.4. Celly) oral commun.) 1((0%. As halt lants allo. u to 4" ercent of the roduct to contain recycled material from reclaimed as halt avement? recycled material ty ically ma1es u 2*@2" ercent of the as halt concrete mi/ in most U.S. locations. !ar1ing lots may utili6e u to 1** ercent of recycled as halt material in selected hot=mi/ a lications. A lications for recycled as halt concrete in road construction include avement hot= mi/es) road ,ase) ar1ing lot and residential drive.ay surfacing) and road shoulder .or1. Technical s ecifications for recycling as halt concrete are similar to those of rimary as halt concrete? local or State s ecifications must ,e met for each construction ro:ect. 7ften) s ecifications are different de ending u on location or a lication.

Site location and e5ui ment selection criteria are similar to those re orted for recycled concrete o erations. &uch of the e5ui ment has ,een ada ted from roc1 crushing a lications) .ith modifications for efficiently handling the oil,ased as halt mi/ture. As .ith concrete recycling) technology ,asically involves crushing) si6ing) and ,lending to meet the re5uired roduct mi/. Crusher ty es used for as halt concrete recycling are re orted in ta,le 1. As .ith concrete recycling) much feed material is not uniform in characteristic and com osition) so the e5ui ment must ,e a,le to treat a .ide variety of materials and remove nonrecycla,le de,ris. Although smaller :a. crushers have ,een used at some o erations) it is generally agreed that unless the o eration is a orta,le one) the ,igger units rovide ,etter .ear and roductivity than smaller units. #or orta,le o erations) the si6e of the unit should generally ,e as large as local movement restrictions allo.. 8hen recycling as halt concrete) o erators ma1e rovisions for removing dirt from the feed material. A gri66ly feeder located rior to the crusher can accom lish this tas1. 4irt removal can also reduce the moisture content of the as halt concrete and reduce the amount of as halt that adheres to the machinery. As halt is often cleaner and easier to se arate than cement concrete de,ris. >n many o erations) loads of as halt are rocessed se arately from loads of cement concrete de,ris) using the same e5ui ment.

'urther Reading

American Society for Testing and &aterials $AST&% American Association of State 'igh.ay and Trans ortation 7fficials $AAS'T7% <olen) 8.!.) 1((0. Construction sand and gravel) Cha ter in U.S. Geological Survey 1((- &inerals Hear,oo1) . 144. <usse) R.) 1((3. Ti s for recycling concrete2 Roc1 !roducts) v. (-) no. () . "1= "-.

Goldman) '.<.) 1((4. Sand and gravel) in Carr) 4.4.) ed.) >ndustrial minerals and roc1s) Si/th 9dition2 ;ittleton) Colo.) Society for &ining) &etallurgy) and 9/ loration) >nc.) . +-(=+00. 'a.1ins) R.) 1((-. Recycling concrete and as halt) an a roach to rofit) in Conference on Used <uilding &aterials) Se tem,er 1((-) 8inni eg) &an.) !roceedings2 8inni eg) &an.) Used <uilding &aterials Association) . 30. Bustice) &i1e) 1((3. 7 timum design and layout of cId recycling lants2 Roc1 !roducts) v. (-) no. () . "+=-*. Socolo.) A.A.) 1((". Construction aggregate resources of 3e. 9nglandJAn analysis of su ly and demand) in !roceedings of the 3e. 9ngland GovernorAs Association) 3e. Hor1) 3.H.) . 0=3. Te ordei) K.K.) 1((-a. Crushed stoneJU.S. Geological Survey &ineral Commodity Summaries 1((") . 1-*. o JJJ1((-,) Crushed stoneJStatistical com endium2 U.S. Geological Survey 1((" &inerals Hear,oo1) . +*". o JJJ1((-c) Crushed stone2 Cha ter in U.S. Geological Survey 1((" &inerals Hear,oo1) . 0+3=+*(. JJJ1((0a) Crushed stone2 Cha ter in U.S. Geological Survey 1((&inerals Hear,oo1) " .) accessed &ay 23) 1((+) at UR; o JJJ1((0,) 3atural aggregatesJ#oundation of AmericaAs future2 U.S. Geological Survey #act Sheet #S=144=(0) 4 . Te/as 4e artment of Trans ortation) 1((-) T/47T recycles2 Austin) Te/.) University of Te/as) C4=R7&. U.S. Army Cor s of 9ngineers U.S. 4e artment of Trans ortation) #ederal 'igh.ay Administration $#'8A% USGS) 2**0. &inerals >nformation2 3atural Aggregates. U.S. Geological Survey.

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Citation U.S. Geological Survey $Content source%? Carl 'outman $To ic 9ditor%. 2**(. LAggregates roduction technology.L >n2 9ncyclo edia of 9arth. 9ds. Cutler B. Cleveland $8ashington) 4.C.2 9nvironmental >nformation Coalition) 3ational Council for Science and the 9nvironment%. M!u,lished in the 9ncyclo edia of 9arth &arch 1() 2**(? Retrieved 3ovem,er 2-) 2**(N. Fhtt 2GG....eoearth.orgGarticleGAggregatesO roductionOtechnologyP 9diting this Article 8e invite all scientists) environmental rofessionals and science attentive individuals to hel im rove this article and the 9o9 ,y clic1ing here 94>T C>T9

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