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Muhammad Awais M.

A Eng (PU)
0345-4521350
Najm-ul-Huda School System Habib Abad
IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) Phonetics
Consonant: A sound in the production of which the air is completely or partially obstructed.
Plosive: A consonant sound which is made by closing air passage and then releasing the
air that can be heard. Plosives are also called stop sound.
Voice less Examples Voiced Examples
p Bilabial Pick=/pk/, push=/p/ b Bilabial Bat=/bt/, brought=/brt/
t Alveolar Tool=/tul/, foot=/ft/ d Alveolar
Dog=/d/,
doctor=/dkt/
k Velar Cock=/kk/, cook=/kk/ g Velar Gate=/et/, girl=/l/
Fricatives: Air pressure is narrowed to such an extent that the air gets friction against the
wall of the air passage. This friction causes a hissing sound which is called
fricatives.
f
Labiodentals
Fish=/f/, foul=/foul/ v
Labiodentals
Van=/vn/, cave=/kev/
s Alveolar Sad=/sd/, slice=/slas/ z Alveolar Zeal=/zil/, rise=/raz/
Palatal Shy=/a/, wash=/w/ Palatal
Vision=/vn /,
pleasure=/ple/
Dental Tooth=/tu/, both=/ b/ Dental That=/ t /, there=/ e /
h
Glothalic Hook=/hk/, how=/ha/
Affricatives: Plosives in the beginning and fricatives in the end.
t Palatal Watch=/wt/, chain=/ten/ d Palatal
Jug=/d!/,
manage=/mnd/
Nasals: The speech sound in which the air comes out of the nose.
m " Bilabial Man=/mn/, missed=/mst/ n # Alveolar Nose=/nz/, nice=/nas/
$ %&' Velar Fling=/fl$/, shrink=/r$k/
Approximants:
These are the sounds in which the air is neither obstructed like consonant nor
completely let free like vowels.
l( Palatal Long=/l$/, liar=/la/ r) Palatal Wring=/r$/, roll=/rl/
Semi vowels:
j* Velar Yes=/jes/, yolk=/jk/ w Bilabial Where=/we/, why=/wa/
Vowels: A sound in the production of which the air is not obstructed.
!
Strong/
short
Mother=/m!/,
other=/! /
+
Strong/
long
Rather=/r+/,
bath=/b+/

Weak
About=/bat/,
writer=/rat/
.
Strong/
long
Bird=/bd/, birth=/b/


Strong/
short
Twin=/twn/, rip=/rp/
i


Strong/
long
Niece=/nis/, seat=/sit/

Strong/
short
Put=/
e.
Strong/
short
Pet=/

Strong/
short
Wrath=/
Diphthongs:
It is a combination of two vowels sound. It is a glideness from one vowel to
another vowel. The
e .

Late=/


Oil=/
a


Five=/


Know=/





Pharynx:
It is a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is
cm long in men. At its top end it is divided into two, one part begin the back of the
mouth and other being the beginning of the way through the nasal cavity.
Alveolar
Ridge:
It is between top front teeth and the hard palate. You can feel its hard surface with your
tongue. Its surface is much rough than its feels and is covered with little ridges.
Hard Palate:
It is often called the roof of the mouth. You can feel its smooth a
your tongue. It is located between soft palate and alveolar ridge.
Soft palate:
It starts from the place where hard palate ends. Its surface is very soft. It can be touched
by the tongue. When we make the sound k and g tongue touches the velum.
Vocal Cords:
The larynx contain two small bands of elastic tissues which can be thought o
strips of rubber, lying opposite each other across the air passage.
Linking r:
In R.P (Received Pronunciation) we dont pronounce ending r. If a word finishes with
a vowel sound and the next word also starts with the vowel sound weve go
It is called linking r.

Muhammad Awais M.A Eng (PU)
0345-4521350
Put=/pt/, hook=/hk/
u
Strong/
long

Pet=/pet/, get=/et/ . .
Strong/
long

Wrath=/r/, moss=/ms/

Strong/
long
It is a combination of two vowels sound. It is a glideness from one vowel to
another vowel. The glideness id very smooth.
Late=/let/, place=/ples/ e
Oil=/l/, annoy=/n/
Five=/fav/, drive=/drav/
Know=/n/, goal=/l/ a

Bilabial
Alveolar
Velar
Labiodentals
Palatal
Dental
It is a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is
cm long in men. At its top end it is divided into two, one part begin the back of the
mouth and other being the beginning of the way through the nasal cavity.
It is between top front teeth and the hard palate. You can feel its hard surface with your
tongue. Its surface is much rough than its feels and is covered with little ridges.
It is often called the roof of the mouth. You can feel its smooth a
your tongue. It is located between soft palate and alveolar ridge.
It starts from the place where hard palate ends. Its surface is very soft. It can be touched
by the tongue. When we make the sound k and g tongue touches the velum.
The larynx contain two small bands of elastic tissues which can be thought o
strips of rubber, lying opposite each other across the air passage.
In R.P (Received Pronunciation) we dont pronounce ending r. If a word finishes with
a vowel sound and the next word also starts with the vowel sound weve go
It is called linking r.
Strong/
long
Shoot=/ut/, rude=/rud/
Strong/
long
Fan=/fn/, van=/vn/
Strong/
long
Fourth=/f/, force=/fs
It is a combination of two vowels sound. It is a glideness from one vowel to
id very smooth.
. Air=/e/, there=/e/

Poor=/p/. tour=/t/


Near=/n/, fear=/f/

Down=/dan/,
sound=/sand/

labial = Both Lips
Alveolar =
Tip of the tongue +
Alveolar Ridge
Velar =
Back of the tongue +
Velum
Labiodentals = Lower lip + upper teeth
Palatal =
Middle of the tongue +
Hard Palate
Dental =
Blade of the tongue +
Upper Teeth
It is a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is about 7 cm long in women and 8
cm long in men. At its top end it is divided into two, one part begin the back of the
mouth and other being the beginning of the way through the nasal cavity.
It is between top front teeth and the hard palate. You can feel its hard surface with your
tongue. Its surface is much rough than its feels and is covered with little ridges.
It is often called the roof of the mouth. You can feel its smooth and curved surface with
your tongue. It is located between soft palate and alveolar ridge.
It starts from the place where hard palate ends. Its surface is very soft. It can be touched
by the tongue. When we make the sound k and g tongue touches the velum.
The larynx contain two small bands of elastic tissues which can be thought of as two flat
strips of rubber, lying opposite each other across the air passage.
In R.P (Received Pronunciation) we dont pronounce ending r. If a word finishes with
a vowel sound and the next word also starts with the vowel sound weve got to add r.

s/



about 7 cm long in women and 8
cm long in men. At its top end it is divided into two, one part begin the back of the
It is between top front teeth and the hard palate. You can feel its hard surface with your
nd curved surface with
It starts from the place where hard palate ends. Its surface is very soft. It can be touched
f as two flat
In R.P (Received Pronunciation) we dont pronounce ending r. If a word finishes with
t to add r.