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In this experiment you are going to prepare 250 cm3 of a 0.05 mol dm3 Na2CO3 solution. You are then going to use this standard solution to determine the concentration of the HCl solution provided. A. (i) Preparation Of A Standard Solution

Calculate the amount of anhydrous of sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, required for the preparation of 250 cm3 solution of a 0.05 mol dm3 Na2CO3 solution. Calculation 1 Mass of Na2CO3 = 0.05 mol dm-3 x 106 g mol-1 = 1.325 g 0.250 dm3 1. Weigh accurately the required mass of anhydrous sodium carbonate into a 50-cm3 beaker. 2. Add some deionised water into the beaker to dissolve the sample and then transfer it carefully into a 250-cm3 standard flask via a filter funnel. Rinse the beaker twice with deionised water and transfer it into the standard flask. Rinse the filter funnel as well. Then fill up to the mark with deionised water. Stopper the flask and shake well. Standardization Of Hydrochloric Acid Rinse the burette with the Na2CO3 solution use two 3- to 5-cm3 portions of Na2CO3 solution and tip it back and forth in the burette with Na2CO3 solution. If there are air bubbles, open the stopcock to flush them out. Check that there is no leakage before you do the titration. Using the pipette transfer dilute hydrochloric acid into a 250-cm3 conical flask. (The pipette should be rinsed with deionised water and then with diluted hydrochloric acid.) Add in two drops of methyl orange indicator. Place a piece of white tile underneath the flask. Before titration, record the initial burette reading. After each addition of Na 2CO3 solution, swirl the flask gently to mix the solution. Wash the neck of the conical flask with deionised water The end point is reached when the solution turns to yellow colour. Record the final burette reading. All burette readings must be recorded to the nearest 0.05 cm3. Repeat the titration three times.


B. 1.






In the space below you should record the results of you experiment, including the mass of Na2CO3 weighed the volume of HCl pipetted into the conical flask and a suitable table to record the volumes of Na2CO3 solution used during each titration that will allow to determine the volume of Na2CO3 consumed at end point.

Results 1 2 25.80 3 26.05

final burette reading / cm3 Initial burette reading / cm3 Volume of Na2CO3 (aq) used / cm3
Mean titration value = 25.30 + 25.25 + 25.40 = 25.30 cm3 3




0. 65




Summary _25.00__ cm3 of the hydrochloric acid solution required _25.30 cm3 of the Na2CO3 solution for complete reaction.

Skill Assessment Analysis a. Write a balanced equation for the reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq) CO2(g) + NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l)


Calculate the number of moles of Na2CO3 used in the titration.

Moles = volume of the solution (dm3) concentration (mol dm-3) = (25.30 10-3)dm3 0.05 mol dm-3 = 1.265 10-3 mol


Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen chloride used in the titration.

2 mol of HCl reacts with 1 mol of Na2CO3 So, mol of HCl = (1.265 10-3)mol 2 = 2.53 10-3 mol
d. Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen chloride in 1 dm3 of the acid and hence its concentration in g dm3.

Mol of HCl in 1 dm3 =

2.53 10-3 mol = 0.101 mol 0.025 dm3

Mass of HCl in 1 dm3 = 0.101 mol dm-3 36.5 g mol-1 = 3.69 g dm-3
e Calculate the % error in the volume of acid added at the end point.

0.05 100 % = 0.2 % 25

Skill Assessment Evaluation Look back at the experimental procedure. (i) Why was the conical flask placed on a piece of white tile?

To see the end point more clearly

(ii) to

Why were the pipette and the burette washed with the solutions they were going contain?

To prevent dilution of the solutions


Why was the conical flask not washed with the alkali solution it was going to contain?

To ensure no excess Na2CO3 was present before titration


Explain why it does not matter if there is water already in the flask.

It will not affect the reaction result as the reaction is between Na2CO3 and HCl. Presence of H2O will not affect the number of moles of HCl pipetted into the flask.
(v) Explain why a conical flask was used and not a beaker.

To prevent splashing during titration