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CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN MASS CONCRETE
Saeed Ahmad*, University Engineering & Technology Taxila, Pakistan Safdar Iqbal, University Engineering & Technology Taxila, Pakistan Imran A Bukhari, University Engineering & Technology Taxila, Pakistan
34th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 16 - 18 August 2009, Singapore
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Three Trial Mixes of ratio 1 : 1. This study was carried out at Dubai International Airport(DIA) project during expansion phase2.8 m. University Engineering & Technology Taxila. temperature increases due to generation of more heat of hydration therefore management of concrete temperatures is necessary to prevent damages. University Engineering & Technology Taxila. Most of this heat generation occurs in the first few days after placement. In case of massive structures. Pakistan Abstract Concrete generates heat as the cementitious material hydrate and for thin sections. to minimize cracking is categorized as mass concrete. Continuous casting also takes advantage of the ability of ready-mixed concrete companies to supply concrete at high delivery rates. In addition. Singapore CONTROLLING TEMPERATURES IN MASS CONCRETE Saeed Ahmad*. During the study different Trial Mixes were used and their suitability was ascertained through temperature monitoring data. Case-2: Effect of GGBFS on temperature and strength of mass concrete. For thin items such as . All concretes generate heat as the cementitious materials hydrate and an exothermic reaction occurs. having actual Rebar of Raft were made for each trial Mix. It was also concluded that GGBFS is a useful material to control the temperature in mass concrete although it reduces the 28 days cylinder’s strength of concrete. Use of concrete with high cement contents for durability and rapid strength gain demands to treat increasing number of placements as a Mass Concrete.1 any volume of concrete with dimensions large enough to require that measures be taken to cope with generation of heat from hydration of the cement and attendant volume changes. Moreover the elimination of potential cracks at construction joints results in a monolithic unit. One of the major benefits of mass concreting is cost effective as it reduces stop ends and speed up construction. Results indicated that increasing the quantity of cementitious contents results in increase of the concrete temperature as well as strength. heat dissipates almost as quickly as is generated. Temperature monitoring was carried out for both blocks. This work was studied under two cases: Case-1: Effect of increasing the quantity of cementitious contents (cement and slag) on temperature and strength of mass concrete. some more experimental work was carried out to study the effects of cement and slag combinations on temperature as well as on strength. According to ACI 116R. Plastic settlement and Heat of Hydration. A successful completion of mass concrete pour demands special attention to the logistical and technical considerations like Concrete supply.34th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 16 – 18 August 2009. INTRODUCTION Mass concrete is extensively being used in the construction industry all over the world. Pakistan Imran A Bukhari.86 were made with constant workability and varied percentage of Cement and GGBFS as follows: One Heat Block Cube of plain concrete (3x3x3 m) and one Scaled Model of dimensions 3x3x2. Casting sequence. A lot of research work has been done on behavior of mass concrete all over the world however there is still a need of further evaluation especially in hot climates. Traditionally mass concrete has been associated with dams and other extremely large placements but this is no longer the case. minimize delays and meet specifications. Cold joints. Pakistan Safdar Iqbal.40 : 2. University Engineering & Technology Taxila.
Using this method. Terminal Building: The Terminal Building is a totally underground Structure comprising of 6 Levels.3) can be used according to which every 45 kg of cement increase the temperature of concrete 70 C. CONCOURSE 3: Concourse 3 (C3) is an extension and continued development of Concourses 1 (C1) and 2 (C2). Significant Tensile stresses in mass concrete are developed from volume changes associated with Heat of Hydration. and accommodates passengers processes. a simplest method (described in a PCA document. cooling arrangements during pouring. thin slabs and walls. Phase II of Dubai International Airport was selected. The LRT related facilities are located above the Car Park. Capacity is about 3000 cars. 3. However for thicker concrete sections (mass concrete). Duty Free Area and electromechanical equipments. concrete surface insulation and using aggregates with low thermal expansion-e. cement type. the lower and upper levels of C3 are connected by means of a special vertical transportation system (sky train) that acts as a focal point feature in a central atrium. thermal coefficeient of aggregates and ambient temperature. heat dissipates almost as quickly as it is generated. The Terminal Building is connected to the public Levels of Concourse 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Three trial mixes of concrete were prepared with varying ratios of cement and GGBS to study various properties. If proper measures are not taken. Air Line and governmental service offices. when tested as per ASTM C186. is dedicated to the Emirates Airlines passengers. This Concourse accommodates ground operation and immigration services.g Limestone. Excessive seepage 3. type of formwork.Phase II:The major structural details about the project are given in Table 1. The Hotel levels are also situated in C2. the maximum concrete temperature of a concrete element that contains 365 kg/m3 of concrete (as in case of Raft at a Case Study project) and is cast at 300C. Duty Free Areas and all special airport systems. 4. These consist of 5-star (46 keys) and 4-star (207 keys) rooms along with a business centre and a health club. and 3 dimensional analyses to predict maximum concrete temperatures and temperature differences. Generally higher the cement content. There are various factors which effect Heat of Hydration like cement content.as pavements.Grade 100 or 120. This consists of two elliptical structures. Worst effect can occur in Dams and other Hydraulic Structures where cracks are more objectionable. It is also connected to Concourse 3 building via an Automated People Mover (APM). Similar to C2. 2. out of which 18 are for A-380. Esthetically objectionable 5. Shortening of the service life of the structure. Use of OPC –Type-1 with max heat of Hydration 325 Kj/kg. concrete temperature. 2. The Roof of the Terminal Building forms a part of the air side Apron. size of concrete pour. There are some other methods like Fitz Gibbon method. 2. To predict concrete temperature. flight/baggage information display (FIDS/BIDS). the more will be heat of hydration. Following requirements for mass concrete were specified: 1. Car Park: The Car Park is totally underground Structure on 3 Levels and connected to Terminal 3 Arrival and Departure levels . post-cooling of concrete. (26 contact gates of which five for A380 aircraft stands). This research work was carried out to evaluate the behavior of mass concrete with respect to temperature effects and as a case study. The one closer to the Terminal is the Ticketing Hall and the other is the actual station / platform. Loss of structural integrity and monolithic action. Use of Ground Granular Blast Furnace Slag(GGBS) which complies with ASTM C989. C3 is partially an underground structure comprising the APM stations (both arriving and departing) and extends above ground under a metal shell to accommodate 20 aircraft stands. which is directly linked to Terminal 3. CONCOURSE 2: The Concourse 2. heat dissipates more slowly than it is generated and the temperature of the mass concrete increases. Similarly there are various methods of controlling temperatures in mass concrete like use of low-heat Materials (replacement of cement with Pozzolanic Materials or Slag). Max size of coarse aggregates was 20 mm . Overview of Dubai International Airport Expansion project. Gates /Holding Lounges. cracking due to thermal behavior may occur in mass concrete which may cause: 1. Schmidt’s method etc and software has also been developed for more accuracy and precision which can be used for 1. baggage handling systems (BHS). Food Courts. is approximately 860C which is above the safe limit (650C). pre-cooling of concrete ingredients.
Concrete Temperature at time of placement should be maintained below 300 C.8 m with actual reinforcement was also done for each of the concrete trial mix. Concrete Temperature at core of the structural elements shall not exceed 650 C. Tests were carried out on different materials to confirm their compliance with the specified requirements for Trial Mix Design. High Range water-Reducing Admixture (Super plasticizer) complying with ASTM C494 To be in line with the specification for massive cast in place concrete at Dubai International Airport. Each block was cast using different concrete mix designs. However. For the temperature monitoring. three Heat Blocks of 3m*3m*3 m each was casted. In addition to the trial mixes. it was decided that Peak temperature to be further reduced. Temperature within the mass of raft (excluding reading of corner top and corner bottom) remained within the specified limit of 25 degree Celsius. Center Middle-1 and Center Middle-2 positions to find the accurate value of core temperature with higher degree of certainty. 4xconcrete blocks with 500mmx500mmx500mm were cast at Dubai International Airport Site Concourse 3. The details are given in Table 2 and temperature monitoring data for the heat block and prototype raft are given in Figures 4 and 5 respectively.80 m) was poured with Mix Design no-3 and results were recorded. following design criteria for the temperature control was established.5 days from completion of casting). Results of Trial Mix-2 show that both probes at central location have very consistent results.4. However this was not replicated within the body of raft or between core and surfaces and no detrimental effects (e. about 68 hours after completion of casting of Raft and remained at peak around 62 hours (until 5. Due to smaller size of the block. Eight probes were installed to monitor the temperature in the massive structure of an actual size raft. In Trial Mix-3. concrete temperature at poring time. The details are given in Table 2 and temperature monitoring data for the heat block and prototype raft are given in Figures 6 and 7 respectively. Temperature monitoring was recorded for minimum fourteen days of each block. Although core temperature noted (63 degree) is meeting the specified requirement which is 65 degree maximum. Casting of prototype section of raft 3m*3m*2. Core to surface temperature differentials average was less than 10 degree Celsius for the first four days and then gradually increased. cracking) were observed on removal of insulation. again only two probed were installed at center of the mass concrete i. The core temperature peak was observed 58 degree Celsius (Well below specified limit of 65 degree Celsius) as recorded by probes (Center Middle -1 & 2). 1. with a core temperature of 67 degree Celsius while specification allow only 65 degree Celsius. Temperature Differential within the concrete body shall not exceed 250 C. The Temperature Monitoring Data of the raft is shown in Figure 8. In addition. A steep rise observed (especially in core temperature) during the first three days after concrete pouring.g.e. high importance of the project ie Dubai International Air port Airport Project and expected improper handling of concrete at site. Water Cement ratio of 0. another suitable option was selected for the next Trial and that was use of slag (GGBFS) with Reducing Blaine (fineness). Hence first Raft with actual size (28m*28m*2. . The details are given in Table 2 and temperature monitoring data for the heat block and prototype raft are given in Figures 2 and 3 respectively. A max differential of 21 degree was recorded at approx 08 days after casting. Two probes were installed at center of the mass concrete i. As the Trial Mix no-3 meets the core temperature requirement it was decided that this mix design should be further studied in actual site condition. Core temperature reached at its peak. Again a steep rise was observed during the first three days after concrete pouring. Center Middle-1 and Center Middle -2 positions to find the accurate value of core temperature and temperature was noted using a data logger as shown in Figure 1. Results indicate that both probes at central location have very consistent results. The temperature differentials between the mass of raft and extreme outer corners peaked at 31 degree. always kept less than 30 degree Celsius which is as per the specification requirement.e. Probes at other points were not installed to save time and cost.4 5. with a core temperature of 60 degree Celsius which is within safe acceptable limits. Trial mix was rejected due to high core temperature and ingredients of mix were revised. however keeping in view the worst weather conditions in Gulf region. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results of Trial Mix-1 indicate that both probes at central location have very consistent results. with a core temperature of 63 degree Celsius which is in acceptable limits. Since cement contents were already reduced to 30% . only one transducer/ probe was placed at the center of the block and activated just after the completion of pouring of each block. 3. 2.
pp212. “Effect of Restraint. 1997.43. “Cooling and insulating systems for mass concrete” Farmington Hills. 1998.2R-95)”. p207.600 m2 2.editor. 7. 16. “Cement and Concrete Terminology (ACI 116R-00)”. ACI Committee 207.000 tons Table 1: Major Civil Structural Statistics . D and Thorne. 1988(RILEM Report 15). B. REFERENCES ACI Committee 116.. Munich. ACI Committee 207. No. vol. “Mass Concrete (ACI 207. III. The details of the mix designs are given in Table 3. pp212.125 and 390 kg/m3.pp 39-48.F. 2.4R-93.000 tons 3 C3 4560 Nos. G. 10 million m 57. GGBS was also used in varying quantities in three concrete mixes A.            KEY ELEMENTS Piles Excavation Diaphragm Walls Concrete Reinforcement Structural Steel C2-T3 & CP 8700 Nos. “Numerical and experimental adiabatic hydration cure determination”. Rate of exothermic reaction in mass concrete can be controlled by using GGBFS with reduced Blaine(fineness) For temperature monitoring in mass concrete. 5. Proceedings of the International RILEM Symposium: Thermal Cracking in Concrete at early ages. 4.Y. Vol 38. “ Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures” 13th Edition. C and D were cast and temperature was monitored using one transducer/ probe placed at the center of each block for minimum fourteen days.4 million m3 450. 1994.1R-96)”. “Prevention of thermal cracking in concrete at early ages” London: Spon.4R-7.A. “Laboratory test procedures to predict the thermal behavior of concrete” Journal of SAICE. Special Publication 31. Cement content of the concrete mixes was kept 115.000 tons 29. Taylor. E. No 3. Michigan: American Concrete Institute. Springenschmd.15.000 m2 1. Increasing the cementitious material results in increased peak temperature and compressive strength. K.Four concrete blocks (500mmx500mmx500mm) of different concrete mix designated as Mix Design A. Campbell-Allen. GGBFS slows down the strength gaining process of concrete. 2nd Edition. March1963.P “The thermal conductivity of concrete”. R.B and C whereas it was not used in mix D.B. H. 122. Test results indicate that mix design no-3 fulfils the specified requirements and hence recommended for Mass Concrete in raft for any project especially in Gulf region where weather conditions are very hot and humid.W Cement Chemistry. 1. The compressive strength of the mix D (with no cement replacement) was found higher than the other mix designs as shown in Figure 9. center point was found critical and gives maximum temperature. Portland Cement Association. 1988. The CIRIA Guide to concrete construction in the Gulf Region. ACI 207.2 million m3 220. Peak temperature in mass concrete can be achieved in first 3 to 4 days of pouring of concrete. Koenders. Magazine of Concrete Research. 3. Volume Change and Reinforcement on Cracking of Mass Concrete (ACI 207. pp 3-10. C. Increase in the peak temperature was also observed with the increase in quantities of cementitious materials as shown in Figure 10. and Van Breugel. CONCLUSIONS Replacement of cement with GGBFS is an effective remedial measure to control the HOH in mass concrete at design stage and upto 70% replacement of cement can be made. 6.1996.000 tons Approx. 4 million m3 35. London: Thomas Telford. Stokie. pp21-23. Gibbon.J and Ballim.
6 690 355 2.6 690 355 2.6 Min = 350 kg/m3 Max 0.79 7 0.37 510 380 365 0.36 585 690 345 2.6 Table 2: Trial Mix Designs for mass concrete Figure 1: Thermocouple affixed to steel reinforcement Pour Temperature Profile Heat Block-1 (Trial mix-1) 80 70 60 Temperature (C) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 Time in Hours cen-top cen-middle-2 cor-top edge-top cen-middle-1 cen-bottom cor-bottom edge-middle .Materials Cement (Kg/m3) Specified limits ASTM C 150 -Type -1 Weight Kg/m3 Trial Mix 1 135 (35%) 245 (65%) 420 Trial Mix 2 Trial Mix 3 110 (30%) 110 (30 %) 255 (70%) 255 (70%) 420 365 0.37 510 GGBS Replacement (Kg/m3) ASTM C 989 -Grade 100/120 Blaine Fineness of GGBS Total Cementations Content Max Water Cement Ratio Fine Aggregate:(kg/m3) Course Agg :(kg/m3) .4 380 0.79 7 0.20 mm lime stone .79 6 0.10 mm lime stone Specific Gravity Admixture (Lit/m3) Fiber reinforcement Core Temperature Max=65 C Min=2.
Heat Block) Pour Temperature Profile Prototype Raft (Trial Mix-2) 70 60 50 cen-top cen-middle-2 cor-top edge-top cen-middle-1 cen-bottom cor-bottom edge-middle Temperature (C) 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 Time in Hours .Figure 2: Temperature Monitoring Data (Trial Mix 1.Prototype raft) 70 60 50 Temperature (C) Pour Temperature Profile Heat Block (Trial Mix-2) cen-top cen-bottom edge-top cen-middle-1 cor-top edge-middle cen-middle-2 cor-bottom 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 Time in Hours Figure 4: Temperature Monitoring Data (Trial Mix 2.Heat Block) Pour Temperature Profile of Prototype Raft (Trial mix-1) 80 cen-top cen-m iddle-2 cor-top edge-top cen-m iddle-1 cen-bottom cor-bottom edge-m iddle 70 60 50 T e m p e r a t u r e( C ) 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 Time in Hours Figure 3: Temperature Monitoring Data (Trial Mix 1.
Figure 5: Temperature Monitoring Data (Trial Mix 2.Heat Block) Pour Temperature Profile Prototype Raft (Trial Mix-3) cen-top cen-middle-2 #REF! cor-bottom edge-middle cen-middle-1 cen-bottom cor-top edge-top 70 60 50 Temperature (C) 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 Time in Hours Figure 7: Temperature Monitoring Data (Trial Mix 3.Prototype raft) Pour Temperature Profile Heat Block (Trial Mix-3) 70 60 50 cen-top cen-middle-2 cor-top edge-top cen-middle-1 cen-bottom cor-bottom edge-middle Temperature (C) 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 Time in Hours Figure 6: Temperature Monitoring Data (Trial Mix 3.Prototype raft) Pour Temperature Profile Actual Raft -Trial Mix-3 cen-top cen-middle-2 cor-top 70 60 50 cen-middle-1 cen-bottom cor-bottom Temperature (C) 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 Time in Hours .
10 mm lime stone Admixture Reobuild 858 (Lit/m3) 687 318 6 Table 3: Mix Design 721 329 5.5 744 227 7 662 198 7 655 195 12 675 202 12 Min = 350 Max 0.37 265 380 390 0.5 720 325 5.36 115 122 125 390 A(Block 1) Mix Design-Weight Kg/m3 B(Block 2) C(Block 3) D(Block 4) Figure 9: Compressive Strength gain with time Figure 10: Peak temperature and Cementatious Material .4 -Type -1 ASTM C 989 -Grade 100 245 380 360 0.5 730 333 5.37 0 0 390 0.Actual raft) Specified Materials limits ASTM C 150 Cement (Kg/m3) GGBS Replacement (Kg/m3) Blaine ( Fineness) of GGBS) Total Cementitous Content kg/m3 Max Water Cement Ratio Fine Aggregate:(Kg/m3) 0-5mm crushed sand Dune sand Microsilica(Kg/m3) Course Aggregate: .20 mm lime stone .37 258 380 380 0.Figure 8: Temperature Monitoring Data (Trial Mix 3.
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