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RESPIRATION ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVE A

The challenge is to transform information about cell respiration, which you learn in class, or read or resource, into one single diagram, which shows ALL the core syllabus content. Your starting point should be the syllabus content (on the Blog). That will be followed by explanations in class, using three diagrams (on the Blog). From there, you should have the information you need, and will be able to combine all this information into one diagram. WHAT THE DIAGRAM MUST SHOW: LOCATION 1. Glucose is taken in across the cell surface membrane from outside the cell 2. Cell respiration occurs in a cell 3. Glycolysis (anaerobic respiration) occurs in the cytoplasm 4. In aerobic respiration, the products of glycolysis are transferred from the cytoplasm into mitochondria 5. Acetyl co-enzyme a is found, and the Krebs (Citric acid) cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix 6. The electron transport chain and greatest synthesis of ATP occurs across the inner mitochondrial membrane GLYCOLYSIS 1. The initial substrate is a C6 compound, GLUCOSE 2. Glucose is split into two C3 molecules of PYRUVIC ACID 3. 2 molecules of ATP are required in order for glycolysis to start, but 4 molecules are synthesised ie a net production of 2 ATP from glycolysis FERMENTATION (in anaerobic respiration) 1. If oxygen is not present for aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid is converted into either LACTIC ACID or ETHANOL 2. The products of fermentation are removed from the cell AEROBIC RESPIRATION STEP 1 THE LINK REACTION 1. The two molecules of C3 pyruvic acid each lose 1 molecule of CO2 and become two C2 compounds, ACETYL CO-ENZYME A (in the mitochondrial matrix) 2. The hydrogens released when each C3 is catabolised into a C2, pass into the inner mitochondrial membrane STEP 2 THE KREBS CYCLE 1. Acetyl co-enzyme a enters the KREBS (CITRIC ACID) CYCLE (in the mitochondrial matrix) 2. In the Krebs cycle each C2 molecule is catabolised completely, leaving 4 molecules of CO2 to be excreted from the cell 3. The reactions of the Krebs cycle, catabolising the two C2s, release energy sufficient to re-synthesise 2 more molecules of ATP 4. The hydrogens released from the Krebs cycle pass into the mitochondrial membrane STEP 3 - ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC) 1. The hydrogens (from the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl co-enzyme a and from the Krebs cycle) pass into the inner mitochondrial membrane 2. By a process known as chemiosmosis, hydrogen protons and electrons are pumped and flow across the inner mitochondrial membrane, releasing sufficient energy to re-synthesise 34 ATP molecules 3. The process of chemiosmosis requires OXYGEN (O2) and releases WATER (H2O) for the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose, 6 molecules of oxygen are required, and 6 molecules of water are released as a waste product