ADVERB CLAUSES ADJECTIVE CLAUSES GERUNDS/INFINITIVES PARTICIPIAL PHRASES: Forms: studying, studied, having studied, being studied

, having been studied, having been studying Function: modify a noun or pronoun Examples: CJ, having studied all weekend, will certainly pass the exam. Galloping across the field, the horse appeared majestic. Having worked all day, I was exhausted by the time I got home. ABSOLUTE PHRASES: Form: noun or pronoun directly followed by participle Function: adds to meaning of ENTIRE sentence, not just modifying one noun or pronoun Examples: With her luxurious hair flowing, Amanda stepped out of the car and into the movie theater. I walked out of the classroom with my head held high. With the snow falling furiously, I pedaled anxiously towards home.

Adjective Clause: John, who is a teacher at EWU, attended the University of Vermont. Participial phrase: John, having attended UVM, then came to EWU to teach writing courses. Absolute phrase: With his UVM degree attained, John moved to Chicago to teach at EWU.

SENTENCE FRAGMENTS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Paragraph with many, and you ID them. You must also fix them.

I worked hard all weekend with Rachel. On cooking dinner. She is a great friend. And a good cook. I worked hard cooking dinner all weekend with Rachel. She is a great friend and a good cook. Walking the dog down the street. I picked up a newspaper on the front porch. I saw a headline. About the traffic accident. As I was walking the dog, I picked up a newspaper on the front porch. I saw a headline about the traffic accident. The class struggled for thirty minutes on the problem. Without coming close to a solution. The class struggled for thirty minutes on the problem but didn’t come close to a solution.

DANGLING MODIFIERS Stepping into the boat, my camera fell into the water.   Stepping into the boat, I dropped my camera into the water. I dropped my camera into the water when stepping into the boat.

Working all morning, my desk was uncomfortable.   I was uncomfortable at my desk while working all morning. After working all morning, I became sore and uncomfortable from sitting at my desk.

Covered with mud and dirt, we could not read the map.   The map was covered with dirt and mud, so we could not read it. We could not read the map because it was covered in dirt and mud.

PARALLEL STRUCTURE False series BAD: I like pizza, chocolate, and eating ice cream. GOOD: I like pizza, chocolate, and ice cream. GOOD: I like eating pizza, chocolate, and ice cream. BAD: Nell’s class is exciting, thrilling, and should be mandatory. GOOD: Nell’s class is exciting, thrilling, and necessary/useful/important.

BAD: Our teacher was young, beautiful, and had blonde hair. GOOD: Our teacher was young, beautiful, and blonde. Comparisons BAD: The storage capacity of this phone is much greater than the old one. GOOD: The storage capacity of this phone is much greater than the storage capacity of the old one. OR: The storage capacity of this phone is much greater than that of the old phone. BAD: Nell is funnier than any teacher at EWU. GOOD: Nell is funnier than any other teacher at EWU. BAD: CJ is smarter than any student here. GOOD: CJ is smarter than any other student here.

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