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Title# Gipsy Life being an account of our Gipsies and their children $uthor# George Smith

%elease &ate# $pril ', ())' Language# 0nglish

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Transcribed from the 1880 Haughton and Co. edition by David Price, email ccx0 !"

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6All Rights Reserved.7

#. iv& give my 8armest than9s to 0. H. *2%-%'D, %s:., for the bloc9 forming

the ,rontis#iece, 8hich he has 9indly #resented to me on the condition that the #icture occu#ies the #osition it does in this boo9; and also to the #ro#rietor of the Illustrated London News for the bloc9s to hel# for8ard my 8or9, the #ictures of 8hich a##eared in his <ournal in 'ovember and December of last year and =anuary in the #resent year, as found herein on #ages !>, !8, ??, ?, @?, 108, 118, 1>>, 1 !, 1@>, >A?, >8A. & must at the same time ex#ress my heartBfelt than9s to the manager and #ro#rietors of the Graphic for the bloc9s forming the illustrations on #ages 1, 1A>, 1 0, >>>, >>8, >!8, > >, > , and 8hich a##eared in their <ournal on 1arch 1Ath in the #resent year, and 8hich they have 9indly #resented to me to hel# for8ard my ob<ect, connected 8ith 8hich s9etches, at the 9ind re:uest of the %ditor, & 8rote the article. 0. H. *2%-%'D, %s:., 8as the artist for the s9etches in the Illustrated London News, and H%-$%-T =*H'.*', %s:., 8as the artist for the s9etches in the Graphic. & also tender my 8armest than9s to the Press generally for the hel# rendered to me during the crusade so far, 8ithout 8hich & should have done but little. p. vTO THE MOST HONOURABLE



& have ta9en the liberty of humbly dedicating this 8or9 to you, the ob<ect of 8hich is not to tic9le the critical ears of ethnologists and #hilologists, but to touch the hearts of my countrymen on behalf of the #oor (i#sy 8omen and children and other roadside )rabs flitting about in our midst, in such a 8ay as to command attention to these neglected, dar9, marshy s#ots of human life, 8hose seedlings have been running 8ild among us during the last three centuries, s#reading their #oisonous influence abroad, not only detrimental to the gro8th of Christianity and the s#read of civilisation, but to the #resent and eternal 8elfare of the children; and, 8hat & as9 for is, that the hand of the .choolmaster may be extended to8ards the children; and that the vans and other tem#orary and movable abodes in 8hich they live may be brought under the eye and influence of the .anitary &ns#ector. 2ery res#ectfully yours, (%*-(% .1&TH, Of Coalville. April A0th, 1880. p. viiINDEX.

Part I. -)1$/%. &' (&P.3D*1.

*rigin of the (i#sies and their 'ames )rticle in The Daily News The Travels of the (i#sies )cts of Parliament relating to the (i#sies )rticle in The Edin urgh Review ,, The !aturday Review Professor $ott on the (i#sies The Changars of &ndia The Doms of &ndia The .anseeas of &ndia The 'uts of &ndia (rellmann on the (i#sies

1 8 @ 1? >A >C >@ A> AA AC A? A@

(i#sies of 'otting Hill -ev. Charles 0esley The 'umber of (i#sies
p. viiiPart II.

!0 !> !!

C*11%'C%1%'T *, TH% C-+.)D%. 0or9 begun /etter to The !tandard and Daily Chronicle /eading )rticle in The !tandard Corres#ondence in The !tandard 1r. /elandDs /etter, 5c., 5c. 1y -e#ly Leicester "ree #ress )rticle in The Der y Daily Telegraph E The "igaro /etter in The Daily News 1r. (orrieDs /etter 1y -e#ly /eading )rticle in The !tandard $ay%s Aldershot Advertiser )rticle in &and and &eart )rticle in The Illustrated London News /eading )rticle in The Daily News .ocial .cience Congress Pa#er )rticle in 'ir(ingha( Daily $ail E The )ee*ly Dispatch E The )ee*ly Ti(es E The Croydon Chronicle E #ri(itive $ethodist E Illustrated London News E The +uiver !8 C1 CA C@ ?0 ?? ?@ 0 A C 8 @ 8> 8 @0 @1 @> @C 10> 10? 10@ 11 11@ 1>1 1>?

and the Dying (i#sy 1r.iction and the (i#sies Hubert PetalengroDs (i#sy Tri# to 'or8ay %smeraldaDs .ad %xam#le 1y 2isit to Canning To8n (i#sies 1@> 1@A 1@C 1@@ >01 >0A >08 >1A >>0 1!> 1!C 1C0 1CC 1?1 1?! 1?? 1?@ 1 ! 1 18A 1@0 .ong (eorge $orro8Ds Travels in . and -omance The (i#sy Contrast and #unch (i#sy .#ain -omance and Poetry about the (i#sies Dean .. and Denmar9 %fforts #ut forth to im#rove their Condition His 1a<esty (eorge &&&.nitarian &erald E )ee*ly Ti(es p. (&P. ixPart III. 1issionary %fforts.outham#ton in 18> .tanleyDs PriFe Poem Part IV. Persecution.lang -ees and $orro8Ds Descri#tion of the (i#sies /eland among the -ussian (i#sies $urning a -ussian . 1> 1>@ 1A> 1A! 1AC TH% T-%)T1%'T TH% (&P.. ). C*+'T-3. The .P%CT. !unday !chool Chronicle E ./etter in Daily News and Chronicle )rticle in Christian )orld .ortuneBteller ) 0elsh (i#syDs /etter -yley $osvil and his Poetry4 a . Crabb at .cotland.3 /&. H)2% -%C%&2%D &' TH&.&%.#ain. .ocial History of our Country )cts of Parliament concerning the (i#sies Treatment of the (i#sies in .% &' ) 2)-&%T3 *.

.ixty 3ears ago 1ission 0or9 among the (i#sies (i#sy Children u#on Turnham (reen and 0ands8orth Common .ic9ness among the (i#sies ) (i#sy 0omanDs . (i#sy $eauty and . TH% (&P. >>> >> >>8 TH% .ortuneBtelling and other .ad Condition of the (i#sy Children The Hardshi#s of the (i#sy 0omen %fforts #ut forth in Hungary and other Countries >A >A@ >A@ >!> >!A >!! >!8 >!@ >C! >C@ >?0 >?> >?! >?! >?? > 0 > 1 > ! > ! > C > ? > >81 >8> .)rticle in The )ee*ly Ti(es 1y .cotch (i#sies (i#sy Tric9ery 1y 2isit to the (i#sies at Gensal (reen .onDs 2isit to $ar9ing -oad 1rs. xPart V. a Christian (i#sy p. .+((%.ood of the (i#sies ) (i#sy 0omanDs *#inion u#on -eligion (i#sy .mart and Crofton ) /ittle (i#sy (irlDs /etter . 0&TH ..TH%&&1P-*2%1%'*'.idelity ) 2isit to Hac9ney 1arshes .aithfulness and .ongsters (i#sy Poetry .&%.)D C*'D&T&*' *.uneral (i#sies and the 0or9house %ducation of the (i#sy Children .ins 0retched Condition of the (i#sies Hungarian (i#sies 2isit to Cherry &sland The Cleanliness and .*.

.im#sonDs &nside a (i#sy .ix Children (i#sies Cam#ing among the Heath (i#sy Juarters.ortuneBtelling (i#sy en<oying her Pi#e &nside a Christian (i#syDs 2anK1rs.rontis#iece. and %leven Children. P)(% .amily Hon the -oadI ) $achelor (i#syDs $edBroom ) (i#syDs 2an. and in 8hich HDeliveranceI 8as born ) (i#sy Gnife (rinderDs Home ) (i#sy (irl 0ashing Clothes ) -es#ectable (i#sy and his .Things made by the (i#sies Pity for the (i#sies 0hat the . 1ary Place ) .our /ittle (i#sies sitting for the )rtist 1 !> !8 ?? ? @? 108 118 1>> 1A> 1 0 1 ! 1@> >>> >>8 >A? >!8 > > > .armerDs Pig that does not li9e a (i#syDs Tent (i#siesD 0inter Juarters.ortune tellers Coo9ing their %vening 1eal *utside a Christian (i#syDs 2an .tate has done for the Thugs The -emedy 1y -easons for (overnment &nterference p.ortuneBtellerDs 2an (i#sy . )mong the (i#sy Children. ) (i#sy $eauty ) (entleman (i#syDs Tent and his dog H(rabI ) (i#syDs Home for 1an and 0ife and . /atimer -oad ) (i#sy Tent for T8o 1en. xiI >8! >8C >8? >8 >8@ !"trati#$". their 0ives. near 'otting Hill ) .

and the conse:uence has been. they have trotted out 9ings. Hungarians. s9irting the edge of forest and dell. nobles. snea9ing. surrounded. their religious vie8sKif anyKtheir habits and modes of life have been during the last three or four centuries 8ra##ed. 8ise men. -oumanians. bisho#s. 8hile they have been standing by laughing in their sleeves at the foolishness of the foolish. a chest of secret dra8ers into 8hich the curious delight to #ry. 8hen they became regarded as a #eculiar race of 8andering. %gy#tians. delighting in the <ungle. cruelty. Persians. follo8ing the shores of the ocean. or allured on8ards by the love of gold. all it aims at. and you at once ma9e him a riddle for the cunning. xii p. and an unreadable boo9 for the author. Peruvians. ladies and gentlemen of all grades. These are #oints 8hich it is not the ob<ect of this boo9 to attem#t to clear u# and settle. 8hether they 8ere &ndians. Paint the 8ords HmysteryI and HsecrecyI u#on any manDs house. a 9no8ledge of the Hlittle onesI 8hose #itiable case & have ventured to ta9e in hand. :ueens.I little 8anderers. #rinces. or $ohemians. by the side of the river and valley.I and H*ur Canal Po#ulation. envious. designing dar9 deeds of #lunder. the end of their destination. and fanatics. and crafty to try to solve. and encircled in mystery. according to some 8riters 8ho have been studying the (i#sy character. %Part I. to fill their coffers. or #itching their tent in the desert. Tur9s. a difficult #roblem in %uclid for the mathematician to solve. The origin of the (i#sies. s9ul9ing. fools. a #uFFle for the historian.) To# $edBroom in a (i#syDs 2an >81 #.I is. as in the case of my HCry of the Children from the $ric9Byards of %ngland. dar9 #ilgrimage. to tell H) Dar9 Cha#ter in the )nnals of the Poor. and murder. houseless.#aniards. and friendless in our midst. ragamuffin vagabonds.&Ra'( )" i$ Gip"*+#'. 8hether over hill and dale. )t the same time it 8ill be necessary to ta9e a glim#se at some of the leading features of the historical #art of their lives in order to get. and this has been the case 8ith the (i#sies for generations. They have been a theme u#on 8hich a Hboo98ormI could gloat. 8hether they 8ere driven at the #oint of the s8ord. or anxious to see9 a haven of rest. the route by 8hich they travelled. or to##ing the mountains. to some extent. >scholar. the #rimary ob<ect they had in vie8 in setting out u#on their shuffling. . as to 8ho they are. 8astrel. and a sub<ect for the novelist. &shmaelites. ) conglomeration of languages for the #. homeless. .

rance from $ohemia.ome derive the 8ord $ohemians from the old .I signifying a sorcerer. 8here they are very numerous. ) motley cro8d of halfBna9ed savages. and the best results are being achieved.I or HPharaohDs Peo#le.I H$ooB#ee#. fro8ning loo9s. 8omen. it 8as felony. ministers. The (ermans gave them the name of HMiegeuner. the #reacher has #reached against them. and the 8orst of it is they are reducing our o8n HriffBraffI to their level. The name of $ohemians 8as given to them by the .I to be seen in their com#any. 1aria Theresa in 1 ?8.I These H=ac9BoDBthDB/antern.I H1oonshine 2agrants. ho8ever. The emanci#ation of the 0allachian (i#sies is a fact accom#lished. but they are loo9ed u#on as strangers. and language being totally different from those of either the Co#ts or . carrion eaters. and la8yers have s#it their s#ite at themKstill they came. . and yel#ed out H(i#sy.I #. #overty and starvation staring them in the faceKstill they came. buttonedBu# #oc9ets. of . !HDitchban9 . 8ithout the Hbenefit of the clergy. The ex#eriment is no8 being tried in -ussia 8ith signal success. dressed in rags. #robably on account of their coming to . they are called HPharaoh 'e#e9. and shreds.8edes. there are many (i#sies no8 in %gy#t. still they 9e#t coming. too9 measures for the education of these #oor outcasts in the habits of a civilised life 8ith very encouraging results.&n . la8s more merciful than in former times have ta9en a more humane vie8 of them and been contented by classing them as Hvagrants and scoundrelsIKstill they came. the s8earer has s8orn at them.#ain they are called H(itanos. Doors slammed in their faces. and Charles &&&. 1agistrates.I or 8anderers. The . &n (ermany they 8ere shot do8n li9e 8ild beasts. usually called men.I or heathens. and our HgutterBscum gentlemenI have told them to Hstand off. tatters. manners.I &n &taly they are called HMingari. a change has come over several of the %uro#ean (overnments.#ain they 8ere banished by re#eated edicts under the severest #enalties.I &n Tur9ey and the /evant.iganos.rench. 'ot8ithstanding that edicts have been hurled against them. The novelist has 8ritten about them. &n %ngland during the reign of %liFabeth. the drun9ards have garbled them over in their mouths.I H0illBoDBthDB0is#. HTschingenes. #ersecuted and hunted li9e vermin during the 1iddle )ges.cul9s.#ain in 1 8A. #. The Danes and .I The Dutch called them HHeiden.I The notion of their being %gy#tian is entirely erroneousKtheir a##earance. sour faces.tate of *rleans decreed that they should be #ut to death 8ith fire and s8ordKstill they 9e#t coming.rench 8ord H$oLm. HTartars.I and stuttered Hscam#I in disgust. and .I &n . dogs set u#on their heels. and are ever and anon flitting before our eyes. AThe (i#sies have various names assigned to them in different countries.I HHedgero8 -odneys.I of 8hom there are not a fe8. doctors. are blac9 s#ots u#on our horiFon. &n &taly they 8ere forbidden to remain more than t8o nights in the same #lace. /ater on.I &n Hungary and Transylvania. &n the last century. The Portuguese named them H. and ignorant babblers hooting at themKstill they came.ellahs.

old men and 8omen tottering along Hleaning u#on their staffs. idle &ndians from HindustanKnot ashamed to beg. ga#ing. to me. some running. Their habits. CroftonKat the close of my .children. the t8o latter :uestions. The first 8or9 touching the (i#sy :uestion & ever handled 8as #resented to me by one of the authorsK1r. they li9e8ise com#ose.I (rellmann asserts that the Hindustan language has the greatest affinity 8ith that of the (i#sies. 8ithout calling in the aid of the #. 8ithout any disres#ect to the authorsKand & 9no8 they 8ill overloo9 this 8ant of res#ectKremained uncut for nearly t8o months. extem#ore. & 8ould say. and staring. shouting. before they set out u#on their #ilgrimage. don9eys loaded 8ith sac9s. 1usic is the only science in 8hich the (i#sies #artici#ate in any considerable degree. the follo8ing is an extract from HHoylandDs Historical . . He also infers from the follo8ing consideration that (i#sies are of the lo8est class of &ndians. as exhibited in their musical tendencies and love of gaudy colours. trai#sing. and not to have my mind 8ar#ed or biassed in any 8ay. in the first #lace. than a #ellBmell gathering of many thousands of lo8Bcaste. manners. %uro#e. good for nothing. the 8omen 8ith children on their bac9s. at any rate. #ast and #resentN Ho8 are they to be dealt 8ith in any efforts #ut forth to im#rove their conditionN These are :uestions & shall in my feeble 8ay endeavour to solve. and the :uestion arises in the mind of those 8ho ta9e an interest in this singularly unfortunate race of beings4 . is a sufficient test. entitled HThe Dialect of the %nglish (i#sies. as they are called in Hindustan.uders. & may here remar9 that in order to get at the real condition of the (i#sies as they are at the #resent day in this country. and exce#t in rare instances. 8ithout any true religious motives or influences. C#hilologist to decide the #oint of their originality. mules 8ith tents and stic9s. 0ith further reference to their &ndian origin. and )frica. 8ith some amount of sentiment in their nature.ocial . hul9ing men 8ith lurcher dogs at their heels. and goes on to say that the 8hole . & #ur#osely 9e#t myself in ignorance u#on the sub<ect as to 8hat various authors have said either for or against them until & had made my in:uiries and the movement had been afloat for several months. that it is my decided conviction that the (i#sies 8ere neither more nor less. &t may be 8orth 8hile to notice that & have come to the conclusion that they 8ere originally from &ndia by observing them entirely in the light given to me years ago of the different characters of human beings both in )sia. sauntering along in idleness.I in 8hich the author says4KHThe (i#sies have no 8riting #eculiar to themselves in 8hich to give a s#ecimen of the construction of their dialect. and their vans and 8aggons carrying illBgotten gain and #lunder.I 8hich 8or9. but it is after the manner of the %astern #eo#le. 8al9ing. Parias.rom 8hence came theyN Ho8 have they travelledN $y 8hat routes did they travelN 0hat is their condition. and in their arms.urvey.I hordes of children follo8ing in the rear. namely. s#otting out their #rey. or.cience Congress #a#er read at 1anchester last *ctober. the first :uestions can be dealt better 8ith by abler hands than mine. and customs. loitering.

and their children are brought u# 8ithout restraint or information.I HThat the (i#sies and natives of Hindustan resemble each other in com#lexion and sha#e is undeniable.onneratt confirms this in the account he gives of the dancing girls of . 8ithout either disci#line or instruction.uders. Castes. and they are abhorred because they eat flesh. they do not consider lying and cheating to be sinful. The first 8ere a##ointed by $rahma to see9 after 9no8ledge. or . The missionary <ournal before :uoted says 8ith res#ect to matrimony among the . the second contains the Tschechterias. The caste of the . and they are considered infamous and unclean from their occu#ation. but the #eculiar 9ind #rofessed by the (i#sies. *f these castes. Hthey act li9e beasts. 8ho are musicians. a hammer. . a beetle. but #articularly to attend to the breeding of cattle. and have 8ic9ed dis#ositions. or 0aFFiers. are called Parias and Pariers. the $rahmins is the first.uders. 'euhof assures us. he goes on to say. to give instruction.uders are fond of horses. . The second 8ere to serve in 8ar.ortuneBtelling is #ractised all over the %ast.etreas. and his forge about 8ith him.I 5c. to cultivate science. custom has rendered them to the greatest degree sus#icious about their language. as the $rahmins. &t is related in the HDanish 1ission &ntelligencer. dancing 8ith lascivious and indecent gesture to divert any #erson 8ho is 8illing to give them a small #.. )nd 8hat is asserted of the young (i#sy girls rambling about 8ith their fathers. and his 8hole a##aratus is a #air of tongs.I nobody can deny that the Parias are the dregs and refuse of all the &ndians. viF. gratuity for so acting.I (rellmann goes on to say Hthat the (i#sies hunt after cattle 8hich have died of distem#ers in order to feed on them.I HThe . are held in disdain. He has a stone instead of an anvil. and as to education. or stoc9s. is li9e8ise #erfectly &ndian.uders 8as to be subservient to the $rahmins. chiromancy.uders. 8hich are called by a Portuguese name. #. in &ndia to have their huts outside the villages of . the third consists of the $eis. the Tschechterias. The third 8ere. ha##y or unha##y in marriage. 5c.uders are a filthy #eo#le and 8ic9ed cre8. constantly referring to 8hether the #arties shall be rich or #oor.almon says that the nearest relations cohabit 8ith each other. . so are the (i#sies. they dry it in the sun. &t is usual for Parias.onneratt says4KHThe &ndian smith carries his tools. 8here their condition is the same as in Hindustan. u#on the #eninsula of 1alabar. they are thievish. $aldeus says the Parias or . each of 8hich has its o8n #articular subBdivision. and a file. .uch is the constant custom 8ith the . These . Hthe Parias are full of every 9ind of dishonesty. the fourth is the caste of the aboveBmentioned . and 8hen they can #rocure more of the flesh than is sufficient for one dayDs consum#tion. 8ho. or .I . Professor Pallas says of the &ndians round )stracan.great nation of &ndians is 9no8n to be divided into four ran9s.uders or (i#sies.. his sho#. the three other castes living entirely on vegetables. This is very much li9e (i#sy tin9ers. ?and to ta9e care of religion.urat. and the $eis. is no8here met 8ith but in &ndia. and 8or9s in any #lace 8here he can find em#loyment. their children gro8 u# in the most shameful neglect.uders in &ndia.I The (i#syDs solicitude to conceal his language is also a stri9ing &ndian trait.

.urat. and enter the %u#hrates 2alley at $agdad. third. and commence their <ourney at Hydrabad. 8hich forcibly illustrates my meaning. and during the tenth and eleventh centuries by 1ahmood the Demon. 1adras. #ersons of this mixture become #o8erful for good or evil. #. This is one of the leading features of the (i#sies of this country. Poonah. overB #o#ulated as it 8as. has come under my o8n observation lately.rom )ttoc9. suffers so much #eriodically. and other #arts of the country.. they 8ould 8ander along to the mouth of the river &ndus. Tribes branching off at Gurnah. and others 8ould go to =erusalem. 1ecca. $angalore. massive forehead. .000 of human beings. )urungabad. and for the last t8enty years in her efforts to do good among #ersons of her class. (ombaroon. they 8ould tram# through Persia by did in the former #art of her life. 687 & am inclined to thin9 that it #.ueF. =abbul#oor. numbering close u#on >00. 8hen they 8ould travel by $ushino to $assora. follo8ing the course of the river Tigris to 1osul and Diarbe9er. as she has travelled about the country. is al8ays loo9ed u#on as a land of gold. Delhi. &ndia ex#erienced some terrible bloody conflicts. )llahabad. 8hich. is the route of the #ro#osed rail8ay to &ndia. and )ntioch.. it is only natural to su##ose that under those circumstances the (i#sies 8ould leave the country to esca#e the conse:uences follo8ing those calamities. and. Damuscus. crossing over . 'ag#oor. the commencement of the Persian (ulf. first. 8and as in the years of 1!08 and 1!0@. on #ur#ose to ma9e #roselytes to the 1ohammedan faith. . *thers 8ould ta9e the %u#hrates 2alley route. second. flo8ing 8ith mil9 and honey. s:uare. by the 8ay. Hydrabad. to the insatiable love of gold and #lunder bound u# in the nature of the (i#siesKthe 0est. for it should be noted that =ohn $unyan 8as a (i#sy tin9er. both as regards the evil 1rs. and many years #revious to these dates. 8here the (i#sies encam#. @8ould be hunger and starvation u#on their heels that 8ould be the #ro#elling #o8er to send them for8ard in :uest of food. from an &ndian #oint of vie8.eringa#atam. to famine. &n isolated cases a strong religious feeling has manifested itself in certain #ersons of the $unyan ty#e of character and countenanceKa strong frame.imla. ) case in #oint. till they arrived at )lle#o and )lexandretta. 1rs. that our (i#sies are &ndians. $enares. . as a rule. ma9ing their head:uarters near 1olah. 8ith not an im#robable mixture of the blood of an %nglishman in his veins.rom Calcutta. The exodus of the (i#sies from &ndia may be set do8n. of 8hich &ndia. as 8e all and her family. /ahore. Here may be considered the startingB#oint from 8hich they . and getting into %gy#t in large numbers. 8omen. 8ill satisfy any one u#on this #oint. . the hatred the (i#sies have for 8ars. viF. Cabul. Pesha8ur. viF.other castes. such as $unyan #ossessed. )t this #lace they 8ould begin to scatter themselves over some #arts of )rabia. and travelling by the shores of the &ndian *cean. and also among others. 8ith large. (oa. and Herat. and children 8ere butchered by the cruel monster Timur $eg in cold blood.000. 8hen hundreds of thousands of men. ) visit to the outs9irts of /ondon. some to $agdad. . stragglers coming in from $un#ore. .

the same thing may be said of the other countries they #assed through on their 8ay 8est8ard. arises from the affinity there is bet8een the &ndian.uders.I is of o#inion also that the (i#sies fled from Hindustan 8hen Timur $eg ravaged &ndia 8ith a vie8 of ma9ing 1ohammedans of the heathens. scorns the man 8ho 8ould tell him a lie. he says that the (i#sies. The religious crusades to the Holy /and commenced in the year 10@C and lasted to 1> 0. or &ndiansKcalled by some .000 of these #oor lo8Bcaste and outcast &ndians. and #rior to the commencement of the 8ars by Timur $eg. for 8e do not read of their being #ersecuted in these countries to anything li9e the extent they have been in %uro#e. Persian. &t 8as during the latter #art of the time of the Crusades. and in this vie8 & am su##orted by the fact that t8o of our o8n countrymenK. and. and dis#lay of gold in their #ilgrimage to the Holy /and. This. loafers. . &n a #a#er read by Colonel Herriot before the -oyal )siatic . in his observations in HPo#ular )nti:uities. loafing &ndians. and in this 8or9 they 8ere encouraged by the Persians as they #assed through their territory. and es#ecially is this so in %ngland. and the Deccan. for #. but in the 0est the system cannot thrive. ado#ting the #lan they have done subse:uently in #eo#ling %uro#e and %ngland during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. holy friarsKon their #ilgrimage to the Holy /and in 1A>>. and other monsters #revious. and on this account 8ere called %nglish (i#sies. 118e find that during the 8ars of &ndia by Timur $eg. and there found some (i#siesK& am inclined to thin9 only a fe8 sent out as a 9ind of advanceBguard or feeler. till they arrived before Constantino#le at the commencement of the fourteenth century. 10. The Persians have al8ays been friendly to these 8andering.traggling (i#sies no doubt found their 8ay 8est8ard #rior to the 8ars of Timur $eg.ociety.000 &ndians. and it is calculated that during his deeds of blood he butchered C00.ome 8riters su##ose that the (i#sies. #.imeon and Hugh the &lluminator. liars. and 1ohammedism.itFB. no doubt. called at Crete. (u<erat. 0hile the rich merchants and #rinces 8ere trying to outvie each other in their costly e:ui#ages. came into %uro#e through %gy#t. and 8ould give the thief 8ho #uts his hands into his #oc9et the catBoDBnineBtails most unmercifully. and (i#sy races. (i#sy life may find favour in the %ast. and thieves. The #ersecutions of . the second dancer or tumblerKare to be met in large numbers in that #art of Hindustan 8hich is 8atered by the (anges.s#read over )siatic Tur9ey in large numbers. $rand. in order to esca#e the s8ord of this human monster. grandeur. ) real %nglishman hates the man 8ho 8ill not 8or9. the (i#sies 8ere busily engaged in singing songs and #lundering. by others 'aths or $enia. as 8ell as the 1al8a. that the (i#sies floc9ed by hundreds of thousands to )siatic Tur9ey. they 8ere harbouring >0. and the disli9e the %uro#eans have to8ards idlers. in fact. and the tremendous deathBstruggles bet8een Christianity. the first signifying rogue. &dolatry.

/ater on 8e find them at )rnheim in 1!>@. He readily #rotects all those 8ho tread u#on %nglish soil. their favourite s#ot and stronghold. and 1!> .#ain. li9e bees. The (i#sies a##earing #. (ermany. (reece. =ohn $ull disli9es 9ee#ing the idle. 'ear to Paris there 8ere to be seen numbers of (i#sies in 1!>!. 8ill begin to Hbuc9leBto. say t8o to fifty men.000 (i#sies 8ho had emigrated to 0allachia and 1oldavia. they 8ill not visit a country 8here 8ar is going on till after it is over. 0henever a 8ar is about to ta9e #lace in the country in 8hich they are located they 8ill begin to ma9e themselves scarce. and frittering their time a8ay in idleness. instead of cadging from door to door. 8omen. by themselves. and rodneys cannot grumble if they get 9ic9ed out of the hive.the (i#sies in this country from time to time has been brought about. a##eared in 1!1 at /Oneburg. they are al8ays loo9ed u#on as longBsighted. doing little else but fiddling u#on the national conscience and sym#athies.ecani. and then. 8ith some honourable exce#tions. and in 1!18 at $asil and $ern in . no doubt. 1!18. o8ing to the internal troubles of . 1!>?. The >00. but it is not li9ely they remained long in Paris. 8as. but in return for this 9indness he ex#ects them. %gy#t. *ne thing is remar9able concerning the (i#siesK8e never hear of their being actually engaged in 8arfare. in a most 8retched. %rfurt in 1!A>. &f >0. This feature is one of their leading characteristics. . on the other hand. .I and set themselves out for real hard 8or9. 1Ain small bands in . and others of the same class in this country.000 %nglishmen 8ere to tram# all over &ndia. =ohn $ull and his motley floc9. and <ustly so. and children. in bands of from. to be all 8or9ers. and. bastard children of other nations. . for it 8as during 1!>@ that =oan of )rc raised the siege of *rleans. the inhabitants 8ould begin to H9ic9. Persia.ome 8ere seen at )ugsberg on 'ovember 1. & ex#ect. Cy#rus. dee#. =ohn $ull #.I The idea of cold steel in o#en day frightens them out of their 8its. They left &ndia for )siatic Tur9ey before the great and terrible 8ars bro9e out during the fourteenth century. )merica. 1>extending to them the hand of brotherhood and sym#athy.I and the #lace 8ould no doubt get rather 8arm for 1r.8itFerland. . or . Hungary. miserable condition. The reason they a##eared at these #laces at those #articular times. and the days of #ersecution #assed. Drones. #ilfering. and in $avaria in 1!AA. they s8oo# do8n u#on the #rey. sa8 8hat 8as bre8ing. they 8ill find.or a number of years #rior to the ca#ture of Constantino#le by 1ohammed &&. designing s#ecimens of fallen humanity. Tur9ey.outh )frica. and had begun to divide themselves into small bands.rance. &f the (i#sies. bloodBsuc9ing the hard8or9ing #o#ulation. ragamuffins. not8ithstanding they are called (i#sies. ) band of A00 of these 8anderers. they fled to 0estern %uro#e. vultureBli9e. Thus it 8ill be seen that they H8ould sooner run a mile than fight a minute. in 1!CA the (i#sies had commenced to 8end their 8ay to various #arts of %uro#e. calling themselves .rance. and at 1etF in 1!A0. to a great extent. dar9. and filth. and before the great religious 8ars concerning the 1ohammedan faith in Tur9ey. during the fourteenth century.

-ichard &&&. recollections of &ndia. for it 8as in the year 1!A8. )nother remar9able coincidence connected 8ith their a##earance in this country came out during my in:uiries. . 8ould at this time be mentioned to #ersons high in #ositionKit should be noted that the (i#sies at this time 8ere favourably received at certain headB:uarters amongst merchants and #rincesKfor 8e find that 8ithin fourteen years after the landing of the &ndians u#on our shores attem#ts 8ere made to reach &ndia by the 'orthBeast and 'orthB8est #assages.cotland in 1C1!. for the golden cities of the 0est commenced.. 0irmar. and dece#tion. their disli9e to crossing the 8ater.lodden. The first a##earance of the (i#sies in large numbers in (reat $ritain 8as in . as 1r. hideous in com#lexion. there a##eared before the gates of /Oneburg. ) cloa9 made of the fragments of oriental finery 8as generally used to disguise the filth and tattered garments of their slight remaining a##arel. -oumania. and their 8hole exterior shado8ed forth the lo8est de#ths of #overty and degradation.lodden too9 #lace in . no doubt. in 8hich the .or it should be remembered that the 0ars of the -oses commenced in 1!CC. uncouth in form.various #arts of the Continent at this #articular time 8ere. craft. the elder children. 1!for &ndia. Dra9eDs ex#edition set out #. un9em#t and halfBclad. 8hich #roved a disastrous affair. (room says in his article in the H%ncyclo#Pdia $ritannica. no doubt. the unsettled state of our o8n country during this #eriod. . and 1oldavia. calling 8ith shrill cries and mon9eyBli9e faces and grimaces to the #assersBby to their feats of <ugglery. a s#ace of about eightyBseven yearsKexce#t s#iesKthey 8ere content to remain on the Continent 8ithout visiting our shores. 8hich. #ro<ecting foreheads and eyebro8s. from underneath their lo8.I sent for8ard by the main body of (i#sies left behind in )siatic and %uro#ean Tur9ey. and in 1C1A the $attle of . in 1C @ . and in all #robability follo8ed the trac9 by 8hich the (i#sies travelled from &ndia to the Holy /and in the fourteenth century. . casting fierce and sus#icious glances on those they met. second. again. by the %u#hrates valley and Persian ( . The 8omen and young children travelled in rude carts dra8n by asses or mules. and . /Obec9. a herd of s8arthy and strange s#ecimens of humanity. but 8hether there is any foundation for it further than it is an idea floating in my brain & have not yet been able to ascertain.cots 8ere defeated. s8armed in every direction. that the great exodus of (i#sies from 0allachia. To8ards the end of the year 1!1 .ield. the year after the $attle of . the men trudged alongside. in the Hanseatic to8ns on the $altic coast and at the mouth of the %lbe. thiefBli9e. and later on at Hamburg. to s#y out the land 8hither they 8ere anxious to bend their 8ays. fifteen years before the terrible struggle by the 1ohammedans for Constantino#le.cotland. 8ould retain and hand do8n some of their #leasant. &t seems reasonable to su##ose that the (i#sies. &n 1C8@ the /evant Com#any made a land ex#edition. as nothing is mentioned of it in any of the 8ritings & have #erused. Then. 8as 9illed at the $attle of $os8orth .tralsuna. #robably from t8o causesKfirst. as 8ell as some of the bitter.rom the #eriod of 1!> to 1C1!. -ostoc9.

religious #ersecution in &ndia. . after 8andering about for a fe8 months only. they turned their ste#s to8ards . a decree signed by the Ging of Hungary. fully one hundred #ersons. 1Cinhabitants 8ere more gullible. converted heathens. #ro#hets. the class of #eo#le they had in their midst. the Po#e. as a 9ind of s8eetener. 1?. *ne detachment crossed the $otFberg and created :uite a #anic amongst the #eaceable inhabitants of .000 had been reBba#tisedKto rob 8ithout #enalty or hindrance 8herever they travelled during seven years. and encam#ed during six days before the to8n. and they received a fresh #ass#ort from #. some of the selfBimagined lost #restige. they have . according to Dr. #ermitting them. and the result 8as their leaders decided to ma9e a #ilgrimage to -ome to regain.ultan of Tur9ey.8itFerland. )t these #laces they 8ere not long in letting the inhabitants 9no8. to ma9e themselves miserably less. 8itchcraft.oon after leaving Murich. sometimes laying their misfortunes at the door of the Ging of %gy#t. successful. o8ing to their return to the Christian faithKstating at the same time that !. counts. carrying 8ith them. )fter leaving )siatic Tur9ey. reaching Murich on )ugust 1st. as they alleged.ometimes they 8ould a##ear as renegade Christians. lying ex#edition to -ome 8as all they could 8ish. for a time. devilry. and murderers. and a thousand other (orgios since them. /ei#sic. and in this they 8ere. exciting much sym#athy by their #ious tale and sorro8ful a##earance. named Du9e )ndre8. 8ho have been figuring before 8estern nations of the 8orldKsometimes as 9ings. the . under the cloa9 of religion. fed them 8ith a hundred loaves. sanctimonious. and the soft #arts of their nature 8ere easily getatable. and Herse. and in their 8anderings through -ussia and (ermany. liars. 8omen and children. the 8anderers divided their forces. at any rate. and then return to &ndiaKaye.isteron. and induced them. gained by robbing and #lundering all they came in contact 8ith. )fter the ex#iration of this term they told the o#enBmouthed inhabitants. in fact. 1!>>. &n . for their deeds of dar9ness had ooFed out.8itFerland the #. the )siatic. 8itches. and a number of them #aid the #enalty u#on the gallo8s. and the conse:uence 8as the (i#sies made a good thing of it for the s#ace of four years. and the result 8as their s#eedy banishment from (ermany. for the good of their health. *n the 11th day of =uly.orsa9ing the $altic #rovinces the dus9y band then sought a more friendly refuge in central (ermanyKand it 8as :uite time they had begun to ma9e a move. 8ho. #ious hy#ocrites 8ere in clover. 8ith men. as a re8ard for their #rofessed reBembracing Christianity. the Ging of Hungary. . and the rest scam#ered off to 1eissen. and other abominations. religious halo. borro8ed from their idolatrous form and notions of the 8orshi# of (od in the %ast. fearing and imagining all sorts of evils from these satanicBloo9ing #eo#le. martyrs. Here these longBfaced. 1i9liosch. arrived at $ologna. 0e next hear of them in &taly. and in 1!18. had suffered much from ex#osure to the civilising and Christianising influences of the 0est. thieves. The result of their deceitful. in 1!>>. a leader of the (i#sies. 8ith the s#oils of their lying cam#aign. as9ing for alms from his faithful floc9 on behalf of these 8retches.. by their de#redations. -oman Catholics. that they 8ere to #resent themselves to the Po#e.

and li9e s#orts. ca#. 10. bearBbaiting.hortly after their first arrival in %ngland. bearing them in hand. and s#read themselves over %uro#e. 8ho have come into this realm and gone from shire to shire. ca#. the #ractice of 8hich in those dar9 ages 8as thought to be the highest #itch of culture and refinement Kno more instances of this 9ind 8ere thro8n into the balance. regards them under the denomination of Hrogues and 1atthe8 Hale informs us that at the .I says4 H. crafty means to deceive the #eo#le. #. and in c. for the #ublic conscience had become some8hat a8a9ened. or 8hich hath disguised him or herself li9e them. on #enalty of the galleys.I . it 8as enacted that the )ct of %liF. +sing no craft nor seat of merchandise. $y an ordinance of the .. 8hich is u#8ards of three centuries since.#ain in 1C@1. C. 8hich hath been seen or found in the fello8shi# of such %gy#tians. ca#. and used great subtile. )nd if the %gy#tians themselves remain one month in this 9ingdom. $ut to the honour of our national humanityK8hich at the time of these executions could only have been in name and not in reality. and. The first time 8e hear of them in %ngland in the #ublic records 8as in the year 1CA0. 1 it 8as after8ards enacted by statutes 1 and > Ph. shall remain in the same one month. or if any #erson being fourteen years old R8hether naturalBborn sub<ect or strangerS. the days of enlightenment had begun to da8n. ca#.I it did not matter ho8 or by 8hom it came. 0herefore they are directed to avoid the realm. in #age 10 of his H$ible in . and not to return under #ain of im#risonment and forfeiture of their goods and chattels.. is re#ealed. or if several times it is felony. for those 8ere the days of bullBfighting. Hthat if any such #erson shall be im#orted into this 9ingdom. as Han outlandish #eo#le calling themselves %gy#tians. the im#orter shall forfeit Q!0.. >0. ! and C %liF. and #lace to #lace.I )s if the above enactment 8as not sufficiently strong to #revent these 8retched #eo#le multi#lying in our midst and carrying on their abominable #ractices. (eorge &&&. for by statute >A. that they by #almistry could tell menDs and 8omenDs fortunes. 8hen they 8ere described by the statute >> Hen. >0. They 8ere ex#elled from ...uffol9 )ssiFes no less than thirteen (i#sies 8ere executed u#on these statutes a fe8 years before the -estoration. and so many times by craft and subtilty have deceived the #eo#le of their money. and the statute 1 (eorge &&. in great com#any. so long as the Hgrist 8as coming to the mill. 8ithout the benefit of the clergy. ca#.been everything to everybody.I and such is the title given to them at the #resent day by the la8 of the landKH-ogues and 2agabonds. 2&&&.I $orro8. C1. a dreadful . and u#on their trials for any felony 8hich they may have committed they shall not be entitled to a <ury de (edietate lingu-. and also have committed many heinous felonies and robberies.#ain. +#on this they dis#ersed into lesser com#anies.tate of *rleans in the year 1C?0 it 8as en<oined that all those im#ostors and vagabonds 8ho go tram#ing about under the name of $ohemians and %gy#tians should :uit the 9ingdom.

have ever #rofessed it. HDabbling in sorcery is in some degree the #rovince of the female (i#sy. they fairly divided the land amongst them. and causing disease among the cattle. 1@had con<ointly. 8hen . The matter came to the 9no8ledge of the husbands. under the shelter of the hedges and trees. and such is the credulity of the human race. at various times. 8ere tried some years since in %ngland for the murder of their husbands. and to #re#are #hilters by means of 8hich love can be a8a9ened in any individual to8ards any #articular ob<ect. by the roadside. a thing in itself im#ossible. their #ersecutors became 8eary of #ersecuting them. and sometimes em#loy their time in mending the tin and co##er utensils of the #easantry. not only the %nglish (i#sies. and #. even in the more enlightened countries. but the #rinci#al 8ere theft. . Till the moment of conviction these 8retched females betrayed neither emotion nor fear. neighbours and friends. $ut these days #assed by. and their hands and feet small. they #. they 8ere successful in their #rinci#al ob<ect. but the 8hole race. sorcery. 8hatever misery they may have suffered on that account they may be considered as having called it do8n u#on their o8n heads. 8ho. the females tell fortunes. their features regular. and the miserable survivors 8ere literally obliged to cree# into the earth in order to #reserve their lives.he affects to tell the future. H&n %ngland the male (i#sies are all dealers in horses 6this is not exactly the case 8ith the (i#sies of the #resent day7. and the gibbets of %ngland groaned and crea9ed beneath the 8eight of (i#sy carcases. the aim of 8hich 8as their utter exterminationKthe being a (i#sy 8as esteemed a crime 8orthy of death. 8ere res#ectively #oisoned by their 8ives. that the #rofits arising from their #ractices are great. H0ith res#ect to sorcery. and each tribe or family choosing a #articular circuit.#ersecution 8as raised against them. HThe crimes of 8hich these #eo#le 8ere originally accused 8ere various. and in no #art of the 8orld is the a##earance of the (i#sies so #re#ossessing as in that country. ta9ing means to brea9 off this connection. therefore. 18sho8ed their heads from the caves 8here they had hidden themselves. but then their consternation 8as indescribable. their foreheads rather lo8. they ventured forth increased in numbers. and there is every reason for su##osing that in none of these #oints they 8ere altogether guiltless. for the #erson in :uestion carried on for some time a criminal intercourse 8ith both. 0hatever little effect the charm might #roduce. They generally #itch their tents in the vicinity of a village or small to8n. but not disagreeably so. The climate of %ngland is 8ell 9no8n to be favourable to beauty. &t a##eared that they 8ere in love 8ith the same individual. their faces are oval. #aid sums of money to a (i#sy 8oman to 8or9 charms to ca#tivate his affection. Their com#lexion is dar9. The follo8ing is a case in #oint4 KT8o females.

I certain ethnological false shado8s and #hilological mystifications. 1ohammedism. and.ocialists. 8ould emigrate to 0allachia. and hundreds of thousands of the inhabitants 8ere butchered in cold blood. and death 8ould not be loo9ed u#on by the (i#sies as #leasant com#anions. in this overB #o#ulated country. emigrating to 0allachia in such large numbers.I and Hcertain resultsIK8e shall find that the same thing has ha##ened to the (i#sies. that hundreds of thousands of the idle. that has ha##ened to all nations at one #.000 of these emigrants. #roves to my mind that there 8as a greater #o8er behind them and before them than is usually su##osed to be the case. -oumania.I Hsurmises. 8hich countries. it only affecting the head. t8elfth. too co8ardly to fight in o#en day. HPoisoning cattle is exercised by them in t8o 8ays4 by one. such as horses and co8s. other than to as#ire to the #osition similar to bands of 'ihilists.enians of the #resent day. during the tenth.I Hob<ects sought. famine.eniansKan ar9 of safety and the land of 'od. and 0allachia 8as to the (i#sies. the direst conse:uences of 8ar. as no8. Then they a##ly at the house or farm 8here the disaster has occurred for the carcase of the animal. 8hat )merica has been to the . or &ndians. commonBsense #oint of vie8 Kdivested of Ho#inions. and affecting the brain. There can be no doubt but that terrible internal struggles too9 #lace. for some time. many centuries ago. >0time or other. $y fleeing for their lives they esca#ed death. it is more than #robable. at that day. Communists. This 8ay is only #ractised u#on the larger cattle. the little glo8B 8orm in the hedgeBbottom on a dar9 night. from the sim#le fact that it 8as decreed by (od.they after8ards confessed that the (i#sy 8ho had visited them in #rison had #romised to shield them from conviction by means of her art. 8ould suffer. and then they feast on the flesh. $y the other.I Hsimilarities. also. about 8hom. #ractical. and Hnatural conse:uences. too laFy to 8or9. The (i#sies. 8hich our great minds have been running after for generations. they say. 8hich is not in<ured by the #oison. 8hich they #ractise chiefly on s8ine. or 1oldavia. The #oison is generally administered by #o8ders cast at night into the mangers of the animals. 8hich is generally given them 8ithout sus#icion. the drug administered being of a highly intoxicating nature. there can be no :uestion.I Htechnicalities. there is not much mystery. did not believe in yo9es being #laced round their nec9s. centuries ago. soldiers. and thirteenth centuries. and than that attending 8andering minstrels.I &n loo9ing at the sub<ect from a #lain. in various forms. eleventh. lo8Bcaste &ndians. s#eedy death is almost invariably #roduced.000 inhabitants. they merely cause disease in the animals. 8ere loo9ed u#on as %ngland is at the #resent time. after all. The fact of >00.000. im#elling them for8ard. . that his descendants should . 1any of the (i#sies themselves imagine that they are the descendants of &shmael. 8ith no honourable ambition or true religious instincts in their nature. in &ndia. 8ith the vie8 of receiving money for curing them u#on offering their services. or . that the >00. and bloodshed.

&taly. #hysically. Hindus. Then. has brought. . )rabia. &n no country in the 8orld is there so much caste feeling. Tur9ey. during five or six centuries. Their tram#ing over the hills and #lains of &ndia.8itFerland. and other nationalities. 1oldavia. ToBday (i#sies are to be found in almost every #art of the civilised countries. and 0ales. o8ing #rinci#ally to our isolation. >>as being the ancestors of the (i#sies.cotland. %gy#t. & am sorry to say. -oumania.undayBschools and the hearthstones of #ious #arents. The )rabian 8omen. the diabolical &ndian elements are easily recognisable in their 8ig8ams. (ermany. the Tur9ish 8omen. *f course their intermixture 8ith Circassians and other nations. and ex#osure to all the changes of the climate. %gy#t. 8ith their thin.iberia and the burning sands of )frica. The different nationalities to be seen among the (i#sies. may be said to be :ueens 8hen set u# in com#arison 8ith the #oor (i#sy 8oman in this country. and. not8ithstanding this mixture of blood and races. outside their mystery boxes. till the time they arrived at our doors.rance. to the surface the blighted flo8ers of humanity. among others. >1&ndia. is the old (i#sy character losing itself among the streetBgutter rabble as in our o8n. 0allachia. -oumanians. the . flimsy veil of romance and su#erstitious turn of their faces. this little dar9 stream has been casting forth an un#leasant odour and a horrible stench in our midst. )rabs. These are true ty#es and traits of &ndian character.8ander about in tents. 8hich has so long been fed and augmented by the dregs of %nglish society from . )rab.#aniards sin9 into insignificance 8hen com#ared 8ith the )fghans. may be loo9ed u#on as so many bastard offBshoots from the main trun9 of the trees that have been met 8ith in their 8anderings. the Tur9s. and %gy#tian 8omen. )ny one observing the (i#sies closely. This erroneous im#ression 8ants removing. they s:uat u#on the ground differently to the Tur9. es#ecially of the lo8er orders and those 8ho have lost caste. 8ill soon discover their &ndian character. as & have been trying to do for some time. has no doubt fitted them. Hungarians. %gy#tians. for the 9ind of life they are leading in various #arts of the 8orld. . and they 8ere to be against everybody. and is still bringing. (reece. 8hose ancestral tree derived its nourishment from the soil of )rabia. . again. bet8een the froFen regions of . or the (i#sies 8ill never rise in #osition. devilish <ealousy. their &ndian origin can be traced in many of their social habits.#ain. s:uatting about in their tents. and everybody against them. &n no #art of the globe. &n Tur9ey. in their cam#s and tents. and some other %astern nations. . The treatment of the 8omen and children by the men corres#onds exactly 8ith the treatment the 8omen and children are receiving at the hands of the lo8Bcaste &ndians. &reland. 'or8ay. 8ho are #ointed to by some 8riters #. as the muddy stream of (i#syism has been 8inding its 8ay for ages through various #arts of the 8orld. and diabolical revenge manifested as in #. in the course of their travels from &ndia. %ngland. and other inhabitants of some of the 8orst #arts of &ndia. Hungary. and .

to my mind. and this adds another #roof to those & have already adduced. considering all the changes that have ta9en #lace since the (i#sies emigrated. vulgar 8oman. dece#tion. %thnologists and #hilologists may find certain 8ords used by the (i#sies to corres#ond 8ith the &ndian language. after their first introduction to the various countries.8omen are 9e#t in the bac9ground. )n %nglish emigrant. is not the most convincing argument. the most subtle arts of doubleBdealing. the #retty. so far as their influence is concernedKdo8n8ard to the ground and to the dogs they go. dar9Beyed girl soon becomes the coarse. but among the lo8Bcaste &ndians and (i#sies the 8omen are brought to the front divested of the modesty of those nations 8ho claim to be the #rimogenitors of the (i#sy tribes and races. there are a certain fe8 8ords used by all nations 8hich. 'e8 Mealand. idle and loose habits. )ny one visiting the (i#sy 8ig8ams of the #resent day 8ill soon discover the relationshi#. the conse:uence has been. by their actions. loafers 8ho sought to ma9e their fortunes among the %uro#eans by #ractising. the outcome of hierogly#hics. some of the girls are #retty and interesting. #. as among the &ndians. debauchery. . have. thieving. and dishonesty. %uro#e 8as the field for certain lo8Bcaste #oor emigrants from &ndia during the t8o #receding centuries. if their roots and derivations 8ere thoroughly loo9ed into. the (i#sy emigrants. &n early life. in li9e manner. immorality. cruelty. This cannot be said of the emigrant from %ngland to )merica and our o8n or other colonies. &n the country 8here an &ndian emigrant of the (i#sy tribe enters the tendency is the reverse of this. &f any one 8ith but little 9een sense of observation 8ill #ee# into a (i#syDs tent 8hen the man is ma9ing #egs and s9e8ers. )mong the lo8er orders of &ndians. but 8ith ex#osure. a similarity 8ould be found in them. 'o doubt. lying. any more than our forms of letters. and the fate that attends individuals follo8ing out such a course as this has attended the (i#sies in all their 8anderings. straightfor8ard character. >Abut. after the la#se of so many centuries. so. most extraordinary ty#es of characters and countenances are to be seen. 8ith the last trace of virtue blo8n to the 8inds. &n any country an %nglish emigrant enters. this. on account of his o#en conduct. and contrast him 8ith the lo8Bcaste &ndian #otter at his 8heel and the car#enter at his benchKall s:uatting u#on the groundKhe 8ill not be long in coming to the conclusion that they are all #retty much of the same family. )ustralia. and industry. an im#rovement ta9es #lace. disgusted those 8hom they 8ished to cheat and rob. 8ithout 8or9. &n these t8o cases the difference bet8een civilisation and Christianity and heathenism comes out to a mar9ed degree. hence the treatment they have received. has been al8ays res#ected. #rove that 8e 8ere once %gy#tians. and )frica have been fields for emigrants from China and %uro#e during the last century. )s )merica. o8ing to his industrious habits. from 8hom the (i#sies are the outcome. 8ith this differenceKthe emigrants from &ndia to %uro#e 8ere idlers.

&n a leading article in the Edin urgh Review, =uly, 18 8, u#on the origin and 8anderings of the (i#sies, the follo8ing #. >!a##ears4KH0e next encounter them in Corfu, #robably before 1A!?, since there is good reason to believe them to be indicated under the name of ho(ines vageniti in a document emanating from the %m#ress Catharine of 2alois, 8ho died in that year; certainly, about 1A 0, 8hen they 8ere settled u#on a fief recognised as the feudu( Acinganoru( by the 2enetians, 8ho, in 1A8?, succeeded to the right of the House of 2alois in the island. This fief continued to subsist under the lordshi# of the $arons de )bitabulo and of the House of Prosalendi do8n to the abolition of feudalism in Corfu in the beginning of the #resent century. There remain to be noted t8o im#ortant #ieces of evidence relating to this #eriod. The first is contained in a charter of 1iracco &., 0ai8ode of 0allachia, dated 1A8 , rene8ing a grant of forty TtentsD of (i#sies, made by his uncle, /adislaus, to the monastery of .t. )nthony of 2odici. /adislaus began to reign in 1A@8. The second consists in the confirmation accorded in 1A@8 by the 2enetian governor of 'an#lion of the #rivileges extended by his #redecessors to the )cingani d8elling in that district. Thus 8e find (i#sies 8andering through Crete in 1A>>, settled in Corfu from 1A!?, enslaved in 0allachia about 1A 0, #rotected in the Pelo#onnesus before 1A@8. 'or is there is any reason to believe that their arrival in those countries 8as a recent one.I 'iebuhr, in his travels through )rabia, met 8ith hordes of these strolling (i#sies in the 8arm district of 3emen, and 1. .auer in li9e manner found them established in the froFen regions of .iberia. His account of them, #ublished in 180>, sho8s the (i#sy to be the same in 'orthern -ussia as 8ith us in %ngland. He describes them as follo8s4KH& 8as sur#rised at the a##earance of detached families throughout the (overnment of Tobols9, and u#on in:uiry & learned that several roving com#anies of these #eo#le had strolled into the city of Tobols9.I The governor thought of establishing a colony of them, but they 8ere too cunning for #. >Cthe sim#le .iberian #easant. He #laced them on a footing 8ith the #easants, and allotted a #ortion of land for cultivation 8ith a vie8 of ma9ing them useful members of society. They re<ected houses even in this severe climate, and #referred o#en tents or sheds. &n Hungary and Transylvania they d8ell in tents during the summer, and for their 8inter :uarters ma9e holes ten or t8elve feet dee# in the earth. The 8omen, one 8riter says, Hdeal in old clothes, #rostitution, 8anton dances, and fortuneBtelling, and are indolent beggars and thieves. They have fe8 disorders exce#t the measles and smallB#ox, and 8ea9nesses in their eyes caused by the smo9e. Their #hysic is saffron #ut into their sou#, 8ith bleeding.I &n Hungary, as 8ith other nations, they have no sense of religion, though 8ith their usual cunning and hy#ocrisy they #rofess the established faith of every country in 8hich they live.

The follo8ing is an article ta9en from the !aturday Review, December 1Ath, 18 @4KH&t has been re#eated until the remar9 has become acce#ted as a sort of truism that the (i#sies are a mysterious race, and that nothing is 9no8n of their origin. )nd a fe8 years ago this 8as true; but 8ithin those years so much has been discovered that at #resent there is really no more mystery attached to the beginning of those nomads than is #eculiar to many other #eo#les. 0hat these discoveries or grounds of belief are 8e shall #roceed to give briefly, our limits not #ermitting the detailed citation of authorities. ,irst, then, there a##ears to be every reason for believing 8ith Ca#tain -ichard $urton that the =ats of 'orthB0estern &ndia furnished so large a #ro#ortion of the emigrants or exiles 8ho, from the tenth century, 8ent out of &ndia 8est8ard, that there is very little ris9 in assuming it as an hy#othesis, at least, that they formed the &auptsta(( of the (i#sies of %uro#e. 0hat other elements entered into these, 8ith 8hom 8e are all familiar, 8ill be considered #resently. These (i#sies came from &ndia, 8here caste is established and callings are #. >?hereditary even among outBcastes. &t is not assuming too much to su##ose that, as they evinced a mar9ed a#titude for certain #ursuits and an inveterate attachment to certain habits, their ancestors had in these res#ects resembled them for ages. These #ursuits and habits 8ere, that4K They 8ere tin9ers, smiths, and farriers. They dealt in horses, and 8ere naturally familiar 8ith them. They 8ere 8ithout religion. They 8ere unscru#ulous thieves. Their 8omen 8ere fortuneBtellers, es#ecially by chiromancy. They ate 8ithout scru#le animals 8hich had died a natural death, being es#ecially fond of the #ig, 8hich, 8hen it has thus been Tbutchered by (od,D is still regarded even by the most #ros#erous (i#sies in %ngland as a delicacy. They flayed animals, carried cor#ses, and sho8ed such a#tness for these and similar detested callings that in several %uro#ean countries they long mono#olised them. They made and sold mats, bas9ets, and small articles of 8ood. They have sho8n great s9ill as dancers, musicians, singers, acrobats; and it is a rule almost 8ithout exce#tion that there is hardly a travelling com#any of such #erformers, or a theatre in %uro#e or )merica, in 8hich there is not at least one #erson 8ith some -omany blood. Their hair remains blac9 to advanced age, and they retain it longer than do %uro#eans or ordinary *rientals. They s#ea9 an )ryan tongue, 8hich agrees in the main 8ith that of the =ats, but 8hich contains 8ords gathered from other &ndian sources. )dmitting these as the #eculiar #ursuits of the race, the next ste# should be to consider 8hat are the #rinci#al nomadic tribes of (i#sies in &ndia and Persia, and ho8 far their occu#ations agree 8ith those of the -omany of %uro#e. That the =ats #robably su##lied the main stoc9 has been admitted. This 8as a bold race of 'orthB0estern &ndia 8hich at one time had such #o8er as to obtain im#ortant victories over the cali#hs. They 8ere bro9en and dis#ersed in the eleventh century by 1ahmoud, many thousands of them 8andering to the 0est. They 8ere 8ithout religion, #. > Tof the horse, horsey,D and notorious thieves. &n this they agree 8ith the %uro#ean (i#sy. $ut they are not habitual eaters of (ullo alor, or Tdead #or9;D they do not

devour everything li9e dogs. 0e cannot ascertain that the =at is s#ecially a musician, a dancer, a mat and bas9etBma9er, a ro#eBdancer, a bearBleader, or a #edlar. 0e do not 9no8 8hether they are #eculiar in &ndia among the &ndians for 9ee#ing their hair unchanged to old age, as do #ureBblood %nglish (i#sies. )ll of these things are, ho8ever, mar9edly characteristic of certain different 9inds of 8anderers, or (i#sies, in &ndia. ,rom this 8e concludeK hy#otheticallyKthat the =at 8arriors 8ere su##lemented by other tribes. H'ext to the 8ord -om itself, the most interesting in -omany is Mingan, or Tchen9an, 8hich is used in t8enty or thirty different forms by the #eo#le of every country, exce#t %ngland, to indicate the (i#sy. )n incredible amount of farBfetched erudition has been 8asted in #ursuing this #hilological ignis. fatuus. That there are leatherB8or9ing and saddleB8or9ing (i#sies in Persia 8ho call themselves Mingan is a fair basis for an origin of the 8ord; but then there are Tchangar (i#sies of =at affinity in the Pun<ab. 0onderful it is that in this 8ar of 8ords no #hilologist has #aid any attention to 8hat the (i#sies themselves say about it. 0hat they do say is sufficiently interesting, as it is told in the form of a legend 8hich is intrinsically curious and #robably ancient. &t is given as follo8s in TThe Peo#le of Tur9ey,D by a ConsulDs Daughter and 0ife, edited by 1r. .tanley /ane Poole, /ondon, 18 84K HT)lthough the (i#sies are not #ersecuted in Tur9ey, the anti#athy and disdain felt for them evinces itself in many 8ays, and a##ears to be founded u#on a strange legend current in the country. This legend says that 8hen the (i#sy nation 8ere driven out of their country and arrived at 1e9ran, they constructed a 8onderful machine to 8hich a 8heel 8as attached.D ,rom the context of this im#erfectly #. >8told story, it 8ould a##ear as if the (i#sies could not travel further until this 8heel should revolve4KT'obody a##eared to be able to turn it, till in the midst of their vain efforts some evil s#irit #resented himself under the disguise of a sage, and informed the chief, 8hose name 8as Chen, that the 8heel 8ould be made to turn only 8hen he had married his sister (uin. The chief acce#ted the advice, the 8heel turned round, and the name of the tribe after this incident became that of the combined names of the brother and sister, Chenguin, the a##ellation of all the (i#sies of Tur9ey at the #resent day.D The legend goes on to state that, in conse:uence of this unnatural marriage, the (i#sies 8ere cursed and condemned by a 1ohammedan saint to 8ander for ever on the face of the earth. The real meaning of the mythKfor myth it isKis very a##arent. Chen is a -omany 8ord, generally #ronounced Chone, meaning the moon, 8hile (uin is almost universally rendered Gan or /an. /an is given by (eorge $orro8 as meaning sun, and 8e have ourselves heard %nglish (i#sies call it *an, although *a( is usually assumed to be right. ChenB9an means, therefore, moonBsun. )nd it may be remar9ed in this connection that the -oumanian (i#sies have a 8ild legend stating that the sun 8as a youth 8ho, having fallen in love 8ith his o8n sister, 8as condemned as the sun to 8ander

for ever in #ursuit of her turned into the moon. ) similar legend exists in (reenland and the island of $orneo, and it 8as 9no8n to the old &rish. &t 8as very natural that the (i#sies, observing that the sun and moon 8ere al8ays a##arently 8andering, should have identified their o8n nomadic life 8ith that of these luminaries. &t may be ob<ected by those to 8hom the term Tsolar mythD is as a red rag that this story, to #rove anything, must first be #roved itself. This 8ill #robably not be far to see9. &f it can be found among any of the 8anderers in &ndia, it may 8ell be acce#ted, until something better turns u#, as the #ossible origin of the greatly dis#uted Mingan. &t is :uite #. >@as #lausible as Dr. 1i9lioschDs derivation from the )cinganiK ̓UVWXyYZ[\KTan unclean, heretical Christian sect, 8ho d8elt in Phrygia and /ycaonia from the seventh till the eleventh century.D The mention of 1e9ran indicates clearly that the moonBsun story came from &ndia before the -omany could have obtained any (ree9 name. )nd if the -omany call themselves =engan, or Chen9an, or MinBgan, in the %ast, it is extremely unli9ely that they ever received such a name from the (orgios in %uro#e.I Professor $ott, in his HDie Migeuner in %uro#a und )sien,I s#ea9s of the (i#sies or L0ry as follo8s4KH&n the great Persian e#ic, the T.hahB'amehDK in T$oo9 of Gings,D ,irdusiKrelates an historical tradition to the follo8ing effect. )bout the year !>0).D., $ehr]m (^r, a 8ise and beneficent ruler of the .assanian dynasty, finding that his #oorer sub<ects languished for lac9 of recreation, bethought himself of some means by 8hich to divert their s#irits amid the o##ressive cares of a laborious life. ,or this #ur#ose he sent an embassy to .han9al, Ging of Cana< and 1ahara<ah of &ndia, 8ith 8hom he had entered into a strict bond of amity, re:uesting him to select from among his sub<ects and transmit to the dominions of his Persian ally such #ersons as could by their arts hel# to lighten the burden of existence, and lend a charm to the monotony of toil. The result 8as the im#ortation of t8elve thousand minstrels, male and female, to 8hom the 9ing assigned certain lands, as 8ell as an am#le su##ly of corn and cattle, to the end that, living inde#endently, they might #rovide his #eo#le 8ith gratuitous amusement. $ut at the end of one year they 8ere found to have neglected agricultural o#erations, to have 8asted their seed corn, and to be thus destitute of all means of subsistence. Then $ehr]m (^r, being angry, commanded them to ta9e their asses and instruments, and roam through the country, earning a livelihood by their songs. The #oet concludes as follo8s4KTThe /Ory, agreeably to this mandate, no8 8ander about the 8orld in search of em#loyment, #. A0associating 8ith dogs and 8olves, and thieving on the road, by day and by night.DI These 8ords 8ere #enned nearly nine centuries ago, and correctly describe the condition of one of the 8andering tribes of Persia at the #resent day, and they have been identified by some travellers as members of the (i#sy family. Dr. 2on $ott goes on to say this4KHThe tradition of the im#ortation of the /Ory from &ndia is related by no less than five Persian or )rab 8riters4 first,

rom a remote #eriod there 8ere D<att settlements along the shores of the Persian (ulf. by . The 1ohammedans claim &shmael as their father. D2att. 8ithout fear of error. next. may be loo9ed u#on as #honetically e:uivalent. and. and cause them to bound li9e 8ild asses to the lanes. be classed as Persian (i#sies. the D<atts have acce#ted neither $rahma nor $udda.irdusi. and by a Persian historian of the fifteenth.. $urton 8rote in 18!@. that the &shmaelites are 8anderers. commons. 8ho may. ran through their nature li9e an electric 8ire. The t8o main reasons alleged by 1r. the )rabic 3 being the legitimate re#resentative of the &ndian d2. and on the other by a #eo#le d8elling in the valley of the &ndus. again. second.D in the fifteenth century by 1ir9houd. from several causes. (room and those 8ho try to establish this theory are. a name claimed. 8ith no dis#osition to earn their bread by the s8eat of the bro8. according to a #o#ular saying in Hungary. but. Then. The church of the (i#sies. in the year 11>? by the author of the T1od<melBalB 3evary9. and moors. as it is indifferently 8ritten. 8hich the chir# of a hedgeBs#arro8 in s#ringBtime 8ould bring into action. is one of the designations of the . and a slave to the su#erstitions of caste. that the D<atts are connected by consanguinity 8ith that singular race. born at &s#ahan. /iberty_ liberty_ free and 8ild as #artridges. H8as built of bacon. they have never been able to sho8 conclusively that such 8as the case. an )rab historian. the historian of the . in fact. and D<att is the tribal a##ellative of the ancient &ndian race still 8idely diffused throughout the Pun<ab and $eloochistan. in his 8or9 called the H. are not loo9ed u#on by the %gy#tians as in any 8ay related to them.I . D2att. . or 8or9ers in iron and brass. and have never ado#ted any national religion 8hatever. and the -aces that &nhabit the 2alley of the &ndus4IKH&t seems #robable. #lainly indicating the route by 8hich the (i#sies travelled 8est8ard from &ndia. others have tried to #rove that the (i#sies are the descendants of Hagar. 8ritten. at the #resent day. 'o8 Muth or Matt.assanides.about the year @!0 by HamFa. according to the &ndian orthogra#hy. from the a##earance and other #eculiarities of the race.yrian (i#sies. and long ago eaten by the dogs. that they are smiths. These 8ords are undistinguishable 8hen #ronounced.I The D<atts 8ere averse to religious s#eculation. rather than endure the life of an &ndian slave under the 1ohammedan tas9Bmasters. derive a traditional origin from certain &ndian minstrels called by an )rab author of the tenth century 1uth.ome 8riters have endeavoured to #rove that the (i#sies 8ere formerly %gy#tians. A1intimated.I Ca#tain -ichard . but this argument falls to the ground sim#ly because the connecting lin9s have not been found. and certainly they 8ould be in a better #osition to <udge u#on this . first. They have al8ays refused to submit to the 1ohammedan faith4 in fact. the (i#sies. and re<ected all sectarian observances. The trans#lanted musicians are called by HamFa 1uth. and in some manuscri#ts of 1ir9houdDs history the same name occurs. as & have before #. on the one hand by the (i#sies fre:uenting the neighbourhood of Damascus.indh. the Hindu 8as mystical and meditative. Thus 8e find that the modern /Ory. as 8e have seen. The 8andering (i#sies in %gy#t.

but they ma9e offerings at 1ohammedan shrines. and edited by Dr. They feed. 8hich are connected 8ith the aboriginal belief that still lingers among the descendants of the most ancient tribes of &ndia.o#uc9h. and #olygamy is common.hastras is . #ilfer. or sift and grind corn. and indeed. in li9e manner. 0allachia. they ma9e bas9ets and mats. ho8ever. the features of the 8omen in #articular being very ugly. in most res#ects the re#ulsiveness of the tribes can hardly be exceeded. never advancing in the social ran9.I #re#ared under the authority of the &ndian (overnment. The Changars. The Doms are a race of (i#sies found from Central &ndia to the far 'orthern frontier. . Changars are. 8hich usually end in foul orgies.#oint eleven centuries ago then 8e #ossibly can be at this late date. scale. 8here a #ortion of their early ancestry a##ear as the Domarr. and form one of the large class of unsettled 8anderers 8hich.. They are 8anderers. never im#roving. or cured hem# leaves. to a great extent. and live in small blan9et or mat tents. &n HThe Peo#le of &ndia. indulging freely in intoxicating li:uors. ta9en #. inadmissible to Hinduism and unconverted to the 1ohammedan faith. li9e other vagrants. occasionally. they say that these &ndians have an unenviable character for thieving and general dishonesty. 8hen shee# are 9illed and eaten. AAand other domestic occurrences feasts are #rovided. They marry exclusively among themselves.). The Hindus admit their claim to anti:uity. The 8omen ma9e bas9ets. or tem#orary sheds outside villages. as it 8ere.#ain. in general. and they so remain. &n s#ea9ing of the Changars. lives on in a miserable condition of life as outcasts from the more civilised communities. The follo8ing are s#ecimens of &ndian characters. Their food can hardly be #articularised. and of a strong aboriginal ty#e. The Changars are one of the most miserable and useless of the 8andering tribes of the u##er #rovinces.. A>from HThe Peo#le of &ndia.I 8e are told that the a##earance and modes of life of the Doms indicate a mar9ed difference from those 8ho surround them Rin $eharS. 8here it is alleged that the (i#sies s#rang from. and are inveterate drin9ers of s#irits. and is chiefly a #ro#itiation of malignant demons and malicious s#rites. &n a##earance. and at marriages #. are of dissolute habits. . meaning dogBeater.orbes 0atson. They ob<ect to continuous labour. and have no settled vocation. They have no settled #laces of residence.. beg. &n the clothes and #erson the Changars are decidedly unclean. Their designation in the . and are su##osed to be #reB)ryan.. )nd so. or utilityKoutcast and foul #arasites from the earliest ages. s#ending all their earnings on it. and is usually of the meanest descri#tion. . and smo9ing gan<ia. both men and 8omen are re#ulsively mean and 8retched. 1. -oumania. there are assemblies of the caste. They have #rivate ceremonies. and . They are #rofessedly Hindus and 8orshi##ers of Deree or $ho8anee. #etty thieves and #ic9#oc9ets. se#arate from those of any #rofessed faith. They have almost a mono#oly as . 1oldavia.-. never changing. and =ohn 0illiam Gaye. on the garbage left by others.

the ordinary Dom calls himself a Dom. These are distinctly (i#sies. doi. . she#herds.I #. called L0ri.I 6HTravels in $eloochistan and . a ruler of the .inally. 8ith the exce#tion of one 8ord.7 HThey s#ea9 a dialect #eculiar to themselves. 8hich is #robably an error of the transcriber.assanian dynasty in Persia. ) (i#sy 8ife. . and are notorious for 9idna##ing and #ilfering. and of a daring )ryan race 8hich 8ithstood the cali#hs. Their #rinci#al #astimes are drin9ing. es#ecially . #. Though lands 8ere allotted to them.. even in /ondon4K -om -omni ) (i#sy. and at the same time ThorseyD li9e the =ats. &s it not extremely #robable that during the HoutB8anderingI the Dom communicated his name and habits to his fello8BemigrantsN The mar9ed musical talent characteristic of the . 8hich are out of 9ee#ing 8ith the habits of 8arriors. . 'o8 in common -omany 8e have. and are #articularly fond of #or9 of this descri#tion. and minstrels. (rubbing in filth as if by instinct. living for drun9enness.hahB'ameh of . modes of divining 8hich #rocure them a ready admission into every society. male and female. they became from the beginning irreclaimable vagabonds. H'ot8ithstanding #rofligate habits. . as they no8 exist. They eat all animals 8hich have died a natural death. the 1ahara<ah of &ndia. eating carrion. they are 8anderers. 1CA. . . his 8ife a Domni. is 9no8n in %uro#e as roi. . or the collective (i#sydom. D in Hindustani is found as r in %nglish (i#sy s#eechKe4g4. and music. a 8ooden s#oon. nomads.lavonian and other %uro#ean (i#sies a##ears to lin9 them 8ith the /Ori of Persia. Travellers s#ea9 of them as H(i#sies.I The Domarr are a mountain race. &t may be observed that there are in the &ndian Do( certain distinctlyBmar9ed and degrading features. -omni#en (i#sydom. A!*f this 8ord ro( 8e shall more to say. *f their burning cor#ses and handling all dead bodies. many of them attain the age of eighty or ninety. &n each com#any there are al8ays t8o or three members 8ho #rofess . have a 9ing to each Henry Pottinger says4K HThey bear a mar9ed affinity to the (i#sies of %uro#e.I This account. that is to say. 8ith corn and cattle. and the being a Dom.cinde. ma9ing bas9ets. be intelligible to any %nglish (i#sy. The . Domni#ana. dancing. and be called #ure -omany. fortuneBtellers.han9al. does not agree 8ith anything 8e can learn of the =ats. handling cor#ses. sent to $ehram (our.irdusi tells us that about the year !>0 ). and robbers. and it is not till sixty or sixtyBfive that their hair begins to get 8hite. thieves. characteristic of the %uro#ean (i#sy.D. . ten thousand minstrels.I ) s#ecimen 8hich 8e have of their language 8ould. 3et the %uro#ean (i#sies are all this. They are invariably attended by half a doFen of bears and mon9eys that are bro9en in to #erform all manner of grotes:ue tric9s.

yrian -icinari in %gy#t. . &t is. A?The . unless they are forcibly restrained by our (overnment and converted. but 9idna##ers of children. but 8ith all classes. 8andering tribe of &ndians. as the Thugs have been em#loyed in useful and #rofitable arts. The 8omen and children have the true 8hine of the #rofessional mendicant. identifies them 8ith the -icinari. they have not altered in any res#ect.yria Ralso called 'uriS. #. ) #arty of these lately came to %ngland.8ith the mention of trained bears and mon9eys. They are un:uestionably (i#sies. but are also found in the Deccan. The follo8ing is the descri#tion of another lo8Bcaste. 0hen they are not engaged in acts of crime. and continue to #rey u#on its #o#ulation as they have ever done. ministered to by no #riests. but only as a cloa9 to other enter#rises. They . and -oumania. and as a #retence of an honest calling. or to be educated by #rofessional classes for the #ur#ose of #rostitution. admitted to no other caste fello8shi#. (enerally a fe8 families in com#any 8ander over the 8hole of 'orthern &ndia. called 1ooltanes. They are essentially outcasts. travelling merchants. totally ignorant of everything but their hereditary crime. and thus reclaimed from #ursuits in 8hich they have never 9no8n in regard to others the same instincts of humanity 8hich exist among ourselves. can become religious devotees. or bearBleading #. 0e have seen these . 8ithout any ostensible calling or #rofession. They may have accom#anied )ryan immigrants or invaders. #erha#s.I vagrants of no #articular creed. or a class of Dacoits. receiving charity and stealing 8hat they can. The men are clever at assuming disguises. and being often intelligent and even #olite in their demeanour. but 8hatever their origin. The editor. and for ever #reying u#on the #eo#le. These crimes are the #eculiar offence of the 8omen members of the tribe. 8omen and men.anseeas are not only Thugs and Dacoits. and ma9e their headB:uarters near Delhi. and it is #robable that many of them accom#anied the early migration of =ats and Doms. as they fre:uent thronged baFaars. they 8ander as they #lease over the land. and 8ith no settled #lace of residence 8hatever. says that they have been vagrants from the earliest #eriods of &ndian history. sometimes in association 8ith Ghim<urs. Tur9ey. but it is not im#ossible. . and 8ill continue to do as long as they are in existence. as the Thugs have been. or affecting the most ab<ect #overty. a difficult :uestion for (overnment to deal 8ith.ome of the 8omen are goodBloo9ing. assuming various religious forms.anseeas have as many 8ives and concubines as they can su##ort.anseeas. 8ho are readily sold even at very tender ages to be brought u# as household slaves. assuming any disguise they may need. s#ea9ing of this tribe. AC(i#sies of . exists an a##earance of sus#icion in their features 8hich is re#ulsive. and in #articular of female children. or 8hatever they need to further their ends. They are #erfectly unscru#ulous and very daring in their #roceedings. they are beggars. ta9en from HThe Peo#le of &ndia.I called H. They sell moc9 baubles in some instances. into useful members of society. or they may have risen out of aboriginal tribes. sometimes by themselves.

and li9e these. 8hich is regarded even by the 'ats and Doms and =ats themselves. 8ho are s#o9en of by travellers as H(i#sies. in fact. The 8omen attend their #erformances. acrobats. derived from a to8n in . A They are musicians. #ure Hindus. robbers. living from hand to mouth. He had also. &n %nglish -omany it is softened into (aro or (orro. as a class. con<urers. as #eculiarly and distinctly (i#sy. but s#ea9 a dialect of -a<#ootana. They live for the most #art in tents made of blac9 blan9et stuff. as he 8as certain.I says one 8riter. fortuneBtellers. as is common 8ith intelligent 1ohammedans. but this our exB(i#sy did not 9no8. 8ho corres#ond to the %uro#ean (i#sy tribes. Hin /ondon 8ith a #oor 1ohammedan Hindu of Calcutta. He merely said that he did not 9no8 it in any &ndian dialect exce#t that of the #. They are constant thieves. one of them. The men are clever as acrobats. 8hich in turn bears the )rabic name for Tri#oli. have no settled home. this man 8as carefully examined.yrians. 8hich is disguised by slang or argot terms of their o8n that is unintelligible to other classes.I . Tli9e %nglish (i#sies here. %ach tribe has its o8n.are. embodying in it a vocabulary of the &ndian (i#sy language. This slang extends even into Persia. disre#utable. &n it bread 8as called 1anro. dancers. He declared that these 8ere the real (i#sies of &ndia. and been. called 'uts.yrian (i#sies. or ']ths. and move from village to village through all #arts of the country. and sing or #lay on native drums or tambourines. a misa##lied 8ord. &n HThe Peo#le of &ndiaI mention is made of another class of 8andering &ndians.D 1anro is all over %uro#e the (i#sy 8ord for read.D TPeo#le in &ndia called them Trablus or . in a condition of miserable #overty. and d8ellers in tents. that there is in 'orthern and Central &ndia a distinct tribe. )mong all of these 8anderers there is a current slang of the roads. but the general name for it is Ro(. H0e have met. ho8ever. and generally distrusted 8herever they go. A8-om. as he su##osed. This 1. They are as a mar9ed race. This man had in his youth lived 8ith these 8anderers. &t has never been #ointed out. The 'uts do not mix 8ith or intermarry 8ith other tribes. They eat everything. as in %ngland.D 0ith the assistance of an eminent *riental scholar 8ho is #erfectly familiar 8ith both Hindustani and -omany. Ca#tain $urton has since informed us that (anro is the )fghan 8ord for bread. 8ithout any settled homes. exce#t garlic. There are also in &ndia the $an<ari. #. 8ritten his autobiogra#hy. and for the most #art 8ithout even habitations.I They are travelling merchants or #edlars. and that -om 8as the general slang of the road. had unfortunately been burned by his %nglish 8ife. 8ho informed the 8riter that she had done so Tbecause she 8as tired of seeing a boo9 lying about 8hich she could not understand. from the Trablus.yria. idle. and not . $ut they 8ere. They had a #eculiar language. derived. They have no distinct language of their o8n. and called both this tongue and themselves Ro(.. blac9smiths. restless.

as they are called Tartars in %gy#t and (ermany. and violent their language under its im#ulse. churi is a 9nife. They are so addicted to drin9ing as to sacrifice 8hat is most necessary #. conse:uently inconstant in their #ursuits. They see9 to avail themselves of every o##ortunity to satisfy their la8less desires. so called through #o#ular ignorance. but then it must be borne in mind that the 8ord -om. fic9le in the extreme. thievishness. dee#Brooted their revenge. li9e Dom. )nd the very great ma<ority of even %nglish (i#sy 8ords are Hindu. and there8ith stri9e the ob<ect of her anger. They are thieves. that a mother has been 9no8n in the excess of #assion to ta9e her small infant by the feet. they are cruel. li9e other timorous #eo#le. is one of 8ide dissemination. The mother endeavours by the most scandalous arts to train u# her daughter for an offering to sensuality. $ut 8hether they have or had any connection 8ith the migration to the 0est 8e cannot establish.yrian (i#sy 8ord for the race. and the 8ife is a Ro(ni. and 8here a mortality ha##ens among the cattle. . faithless to everybody. laFiness.o devilish are their hearts. Their universal bad character. the very (i#sies of (i#sies in &ndia. then. This indolence increases their #ro#ensity to stealing and cheating. and cunning. rage. that it is 8oe to the man 8ho comes 8ithin their . na*. even their o8n 9ith and 9in. and vagrants. void of the least emotion of gratitude. (rellmann in his (erman treatise on (i#sies.These are. 9navery. A@to them that they may feast their #alates 8ith ardent s#irits. let it stin9 ever so much. uncommonly lo:uacious and chattering. hairs. +nchec9ed by any idea of shame they give 8ay to every libidinous desire. says4KHThey are lively.I . 8e have a #ortion at least of the real stoc9. though not deficient in ca#acity and cleverness. renders them #eo#le of no use in society. The boys 8ill run li9e 8ild things after carrion. the nose. and she is scarcely gro8n u# before she becomes the seducer of others. revenge. &t is therefore not im#robable that in these Trablus. fre:uently re8arding benefits 8ith the most insidious malice.ear ma9es them slavishly com#liant 8hen under sub<ection. they 8ould hardly have bread for t8o of the seven days in the 8ee9. de#ravity. alia. for fic9leness. there these 8retched creatures are to be found in the greatest numbers. ingratitude. 8ith others 8hich 8ould be among the first to be furnished 8ith slang e:uivalents. infidelity. Their language and their name 8ould seem to indicate it. and so on. To such a degree of violence is their fury sometimes excited. malice. and they use 8ords 8hich are not Hindu in common 8ith %uro#ean (i#sies. 'othing can exceed the unrestrained de#ravity of manners existing among them. )nd yet these very (i#sies are Ro(. Dom being a . &t is to be desired that some resident in &ndia 8ould investigate the Trablus. fortuneBtellers. 8ith an admixture of Persian. )s in &ndia. Desire of revenge often causes them to ta9e the most des#erate resolutions. /aFiness is so #revalent among them that 8ere they to subsist by their o8n labour only. but having nothing to a##rehend. therefore. and not belonging to a slang of any 9ind.

clutches. chatting. This & ex#erienced myself a 8ee9 or t8o since. seemed to have raised the ire of the (i#sies in the neighbour hood of /BBB -oad R& 8ill not go so far as to say that the minister of Christ Church did it designedly. if he did. Ho8ever. he 8as in a fix. but did not thin9 & could tac9le them all at once. he 8ould give a shrug of the shoulders. that & should. and un8ise remar9s of a clergyman. and all he could say 8as. Hall his buttons on. !1H& 8as not afraid of halfBaBdoFen better men than he 8as if they 8ould come one at a time. had a number of faithful s9etches sho8ing (i#sy life round /ondon.. and o#ened my small #en9nife. as if in 8onder and amaFement at the 9ind of fello8 he had come in contact 8ith. & told him & 8as afraid that he 8ould find me a :ueer 9ind of customer. the Illustrated London News. He 8as s#ea9ing out in no unmista9able language. good humour. & thought it might do a little service in case he should Hclose in u#on me. the sun began to beam u#on their countenances. ) man 8ho desires to tac9le the (i#sies must have his hands out of his #oc9ets. H& should li9e to see you hung li9e a toad by the nec9 till you are dead. and set his heart a beating.I Hhis head scre8ed u#on the right #lace. and all #assed off 8ith smiles. that H& 8ould be li9ely to sto# his game. (i#sies as a rule are co8ards. and a fe8 little things.I This caused him to o#en his eyes 8ider than & had seen them before. 8ith his hands clenched. oranges to give to the children.I 0hen & as9ed him to #oint out anything & had said or done that 8as not correct. believing in the old $oo9. silly. and & 8ould go for it in a day or t8o. . reminding me of &ndian revenge. as if he felt not at all satisfied. & felt in my #oc9et. !0common sense. stating that the next time & 8ent to the neighbourhood of 'BBB Hill & Hmust loo9 out for a 8arm rece#tion.I and no fool. residing in the neighbourhood of 'BBB Hill. and sha9es of the hands. my friend. goodBhumouredly. 8ith the truthful descri#tion & have given of the (i#sies. after tal9ing matters over for some time 8e #arted friends. feeling than9ful that the storm had abated. & 8as met 8ith sour loo9s. and this feature & could see in his actions and countenance. sco8ls. and & mean it from my heart. such as Christmas cards.I accordingly & 8ent.I %very no8 and then he 8ould thrust his hands into his #oc9ets. ste# :uic9. and then again. till & came to a man 8ho had the colour and ex#ression u#on his face of his satanic ma<esty from the regions belo8.I =ust to feel his #ulse. occasionally. as if feeling for his clas#B9nife. #a#ers. and not over #olite language. and 8ith the idea of sto##ing the 8or9 of education among the (i#sy childrenKit is certain that this farthing rushlight has mista9en his callingS to such an extent that a friend 8rote to me. in my letters. 5c. his eye li9e fire. it seems. but 8ith a little #leasantry. that Hthe sooner & had it the better. or he 8ill be s8am#ed before he leaves the #lace. & told him.I to 8hich & re#lied. if he does not #ossess an amount of tact sufficient to co#e 8ith them. During the months of 'ovember and December of last year. &t too9 me all my time to smile and say 9ind things 8hile he 8as #acing u# and do8n o##osite his tent. that #.I +#on my first a##roach to8ards them. not overdone 8ith too much 8isdom and #. these. encouraged by the untruthful. H-esist the devil and he 8ill flee from thee.

They do not generally resort to o#en violence as the brigands of . and first #ublished by subscri#tion in his . had seen vast numbers of these 8andering %nglish heathens in various #arts of the country as he travelled about on his missionary tour. or country for the sa9e of #illage. after finding out that he had been sold by a lot of lo8Bcaste &ndians or (i#sies. H'o man careth for my soul.The (i#sies #lan of attac9ing a house. &n s9etching the #lan of cam#aigning for the day. and 8hen this has been done they bring all the arts their evil dis#osition can devise to bear u#on the 8ea9 #oints till they are successful.#ain. and 8hile the soldiers 8ere either lain do8n to rest or allured a8ay 8ith the (i#sy girlsD H8itching eyes. 8ho 8here cam#ing in the neighbourhood.ometimes they 8ill #ut on a hy#ocritical air of religious sanctity. and tearBfetching lines 8ere #enned by him in 1 !8. at least. they go to 8or9 u#on different lines. and this holds good of them even to this day. and at other times they 8ill endeavour to lay hold of the benevolent by sending out 8omen heavily laden 8ith babies. They are never to be seen living in the throng of a to8n or in the thic9 of a fight. at other times they 8ill try to lay hold of the #. and his soul flo8n to another 8orld to a8ait the rec9oning day. no doubt. city. #lunder. &n the first #lace. and the old 8omen 8ith the assistance of the servant girls face the brass 9noc9ers through the bac9 9itchen. The men are all this time either loitering about the tents or s9ul9ing do8n the lanes s#otting out their game for the night. They follo8 out an organised system. #lanting their encam#ments in the most degraded #arts on the outs9irts of our great city. until they besieged /ondon no8 more than t8o centuries ago.I the old (i#sies. elevating. and other useful things.I Charles 0esley. the 8omen 8ith babies tac9le the tradesmen and householders by selling s9e8ers. but in reality to beg. He can truthfully say as he leaves his tenement of clay behind. 0hen 1ahmood 8as returning 8ith his victorious army from the 8ar in the eleventh century 8ith the s#oils and #lunder of 8ar u#on their bac9s. . they send a 9ind of advanceBguard to find out 8here the loot and soft hearts lay and the 8ea9nesses of those 8ho hold them. numbering some hundreds. at other times they 8ill dress their #rettiest girls in *riental finery and gaudy colours on #ur#ose to catch the un8ary. and it is not at all im#robable but that they 8ere in his mind 8hen those soulBins#iring. clothesB#egs. to8n. !>sym#athic by sending out their old 8omen and tottering men dressed in rags. and gain remains the same toBday as it did eight centuries ago. bolted off 8ith their 8ar #riFes. this so enraged 1ahmood. Thus the (i#sy lives and thus the (i#sy dies. Tur9ey and other #arts of the %ast. and in this 8ay they have (i#syised and are still (i#syising our o8n country from the time they landed in . that he sent his army after them and sle8 the 8hole band of these 8andering &ndians.cotland in the year 1C1!. the girls 8ith #retty Heverlasting flo8ersI go in one direction. in his day. 8ith their lurcher dogs at their heels. and is buried li9e a dog. his tent destroyed.

H$eyond the bounds of time and s#ace. )nd all that to the end endure The cross.000 in %uro#e. in 18 A 1ontenegro #.rance from A. in -ussia they numbered in . To #atient faith the #riFe is sure. and Hungary 1C@. stated that there are not less than 00.acred Poems.?@1. )ccording to various official estimates in )ustria there are about 10. &n Transylvania in 18C0 there 8ere 8.ervia in 18 ! had >!.I > vols. )nd scale the mount of (od.candinavia. !Along as there is a 1ethodist family u#on earth to lis# its song of trium#h. 0ith regard to the number of (i#sies there are in )merica no one has been able to com#ute. the #rofits of 8hich enabled him to get a 8ife and set u# house9ee#ing on his o8n account at $ristol. 1y comrades through the 8ilderness. and have come to the conclusion that there 8ere not less than A. *n faithDs strong eagleB#inions rise. %uro#e. Tur9ey.000. )nd loo9 beyond this vale of tears. &n %gy#t of one tribe only there are 1?.000 to ?. )nd force your #assage to the s9ies.C00. $osnia and HerFegovina in 18 ! contained @. A!.@>A. for stragglers have been 8ending their 8ay there from %ngland. HCome on. in .. 0e shall before His face a##ear.000.000 families in Persia in 18C?. but by this time the number must be considerable. shall 8ear the cro8n. and in 18!? $ohemia contained 1A. 1.C00. 1 !@.000. #revious to the 8ar 8ith -ussia.000. They are 8ords that have healed thousands of bro9en hearts. 1i9liosch. in 18 8. C0. The saintsD secure abode. and in Hungary #ro#er there 8ere in 18?!. A?. in (ermany and &taly.000 (i#sies in )rmenia and )siatic Tur9ey.000.000 to A00.000. /oo9 for8ard to that heavenly #lace. 0ho still your bodies feel. H0ho suffer 8ith our 1aster here. and in -oumania there are at the #resent time from >00. .HHymns and . 10!. fixed the ho#es of the do8ncast on heaven. and they are 8ords that 8ill live as #. !!had C00.#ain there are !0.000. ) 8hile forget your griefs and fears.I &t is im#ossible to give anything li9e a correct number of (i#sies that are outside %uro#e. and sent the sorro8ful on his 8ay re<oicing. 1any travellers have attem#ted to form some idea of the number. &n . )nd by His side sit do8n. and in 18 1 there 8ere not less than ? . To that celestial hill. . my #artners in distress.8!>. and other #arts of the 8orld for some time.CA .

taffordshire. and #roviding there are only man.CA@.!> . &t seems some8hat strange that the number of (i#sies should be in 18!!.000. !C. )t a #retty good rough estimate & rec9on there are at least from 1C. and children is being verified as the Canal $oats )ct is being #ut into o#eration. /ong#ort. 5c. The census returns for the number of canalBboatmen gives under 1>. 18!A. Hoyland in his day. !8. )ugust 8. and s9ul9ing about in the dar9. 18 . Hoyland says that he endeavoured to obtain the number of #otBha89ing families of this descri#tion 8ho visited the earthen8are manufactories at Tunstall.000. in his time.000. Roopeno. as they are commonly called. ac9no8ledge that (i#sies have intermingled 8ith them.000 (i#sies in the +nited Gingdom. HTo ma9e u# such an aggregate the numerous hordes must have been included 8ho traverse most of the nation 8ith carts and asses for the sale of earthen8are. exclusive of Polish (i#sies. and thirtyB five years later the number should have been reduced to 11.enton. the same as they loo9 u#on #hotogra#hers. The last census sho8s that there 8ere under !.I 1r. .?C!.hovi.000 men. sho8s. regret that they are 8ithout education. and goes on to say this4 KH&t has come to the 9no8ledge of the 8riter 8hat foundation there has been for the re#ort commonly circulated that a member of Parliament had stated in the House of Commons. 181?.>! .000 and 18. and.to9eBonB Trent. They ta9e their children along 8ith them on travel. Ten years later they numbered 1. and other #laces in .000 (i#sy families living in tents and vans in the byBlanes. 1. the :uestion arises. viF.88C during the last thirtyBfive yearsN )s regards the number of (i#sies in %ngland. or even a posh. for 8hom (i#sy models 8ill sit for soona*ei.!> . )#art from /ondon. and in 18 the number is given as 11. but then it should be borne in mind that the (i#sies decidedly ob<ected to their numbers being ta9en. that there 8ere bet8een >@. and attending fairs.?C!. calculated that there 8ere bet8een 1C. Their reason for ta9ing this ste# and #utting obstacles in the 8ay of the censusBta9ers has never been stated. They told me that during the day the census 8as ta9en they made it a #oint to al8ays be u#on the move.!1C. $orro8. Presuming these figures to be correct. 0hat has become of the 1. 8omen. after the manner of the (i#sies. These #otters. and four children connected 8ith . and their habits are very similar. but 8ithout success.000 (i#sies in (reat $ritain. #ut the number as u#8ards of 10. and artists. there are close u#on A. li9e the (i#sies. exce#t that they loo9ed u#on it 8ith a su#erstitious regard and disli9e. The number & #ublished in the daily #a#ers in 18 A. #ainters. Hanley. 100.000.CA@. if & may ta9e ten of the 1idland counties as a fair average. 8hen s#ea9ing on some :uestion relating to &reland.000 to >0. The Du9e of -ichmond stated in the House of /ords.18A!. $urslem.. as 9ind of 'engaw..000 canal boatmen. 8ife.000 and 80. and live out of doors great #art of the year. /ongton. #. that there 8ere not less than A?.

there are not less than >. from /ondon. 8e have some A. 'ottingham. from 1anchester.000 (i#sies for every 1. 8ho slee# in common lodgingBhouses.C00 to >. the children running 8ild and forgetting in the summer. & counted u#8ards of ninety tents. you #ut them into a corner. . for the (oose . in one small van. !?so ta9ing either the 1idland counties or /ondon as an average. ! smallest man alive.000 (i#sies collected together at one time in the 'orth of %ngland. and symbols. 1C.000 children of school age loitering about the tents and cam#s.I Hthe greatest giant in the 8orld. 8retched abodes called domiciles. 8e arrive at #retty much the same numberK i4e4. *f this >0. and 8ho might be brought under educational su#ervision on the #lan & shall suggest later on in this boo9.000 to >0.000. and #atches of o#en s#aces.heffield. *f the 8hole number of (i#sy children #robably a fe8 hundreds might be attending .000 in our midst.000 children of school age Hon the roadI tram#ing 8ith their #arents. again. cheerless. and <udging from my o8n in:uiries and observation. 8e have some 1. 8e have a #o#ulation of over A0. Then.I H8ild beast sho8s.000 on the outs9irts of /ondon in various noo9s.000 there 8ill be 8. and not learning a single letter in the al#habet. 8ith the (i#sies. and living together regardless of either sex or age. )ltogether. /eicester. &n addition to these.taffordshire #otteries.air 8as on about the same time. at the last races. connected 8ith each there 8ould be an average of man. and read the mileB#osts for them. and three children.I Hmenageries. Thus it 8ill be seen. The highest state of their education is to ma9e crosses. and moving about from #lace to #lace. and sho8s. corners.undayBschools. *ne gentleman tells me that he has seen as many as C.each charmless. according to this statement. *ut of this >0.I H8onders of the age. signs. 8oman. /iver#ool. The others mostly 8ill tell you that they have Hfinished their education. the little education they receive in the 8inter.I Hrifle galleries.I Ha living s9eleton.000 of the inhabitants in our great /ondon.I H8axB8or9 models.I and 8hen :uestioned on the #oint and as9ed to #ut three letters together. and other manufacturing to8ns. $irmingham.000 or !. 8e shall have 1. /eeds. The full value of money they 9no8 #erfectly 8ell.I Hthe #.000. and they are as dumb as mutes. Caravans 8ill be moving about in our midst 8ith Hfat babies. this 8ould sho8 us 18. there 8ill be families of children. are receiving an education and attending any school.000 families of our o8n countrymen travelling about the country 8ith their families selling hard8are and other goods. and other #laces. #. and also from the reliable statements of others 8ho have mixed among them. none of 8hom. C0. and #ic9ing u# a fe8 crumbs of education in this 8ay. as a sho8B8oman told me. the . and to as9 #eo#le to tell them the names of the streets. +#on /eicester -ace Course. ) considerable number of (i#sies 8ould also be at 'ottingham.I and li9e things connected 8ith these caravans. vans. or at any rate but very fe8 of them.000 outside our .C00 cannot read a sentence and 8rite a letter. and this #ro#ortion 8ill be fully borne out throughout the rest of the country. 1@.

I D-.unday at Home.)-T. they 8ere Hstruc9 u#.)')$t #/ t0) Gip"* Cr!"a+). H'o8. H.I and the conse:uence 8as that u#on all occasions. C#'')$. 8ith our hands tied behind us. fast drifting into a state of savagery and barbarism. !@8hen they had been robbing the #otato field to have Ha #otato fuddle. &t 8as a #uFFle & 8as .DI )nd as a result more 8or9 8as ground out of the little %nglish slave.I 8hile they 8ere Hoven tentingI in the night time.educational and sanitary la8s. 8hen excitement 8as needed as a 8hi#.I es#ecially 8ould it be the case 8hen the limbs of the little bric9 and clay carrier began to totter and 8ere Hfagging u#. es#ecially as the lads used to sing it 8ith HgustoI #.-Part 0hen as a lad & trudged along in the bric9Byards. no8 more than forty years ago.I & have often vo8ed and said many times that & 8ould. a long time ago. & remember most vividly that the #o#ular song of the e(ploy5s of that day 8as H0hen lads and lasses in their best 0ere dressDd from to# to toe. -oasted #otatoes and cold turni#s 8ere al8ays loo9ed u#on as a treat for the Hbric9ies. Those 8ords made such an im#ression u#on me at the time that & used to 8onder 8hat Hgi#syingI meant. if s#ared. ) long time ago. p. 8orn. stri9e u# 8ith the4 HT&n the days 8e 8ent aBgi#sying. H& 8as a bruised reed Pluc9Dd from the common corn. thieving and stealing in one form or other.I 0hen the tas9Bmaster #erceived the HgangI had begun to Hslin9erI he 8ould shout out at the to# of his voice.I II.omeho8 or other & imagined that it 8as connected 8ith fortuneBtelling. &n the days 8e 8ent aBgi#sying ) long time ago. aside. try to find out 8hat Hgi#syingI really 8as. )nd flung aside. &n the days 8e 8ent aBgi#sying. rudeBhandled. lads and 8enches. PlayDd on. . and unable to render them hel#.I %very Hbric9Byard ladI and Hbric9Byard 8enchI 8ho 8ould not <oin in singing these lines 8as al8ays loo9ed u#on as a Hstu#id don9ey. (-*. .

&n meditation and solitude. scarcely a 8ee9 has #assed 8ithout the 8ords H0hen lads and lasses in their best 0ere dressDd from to# to toe. at the to# of the hill. aye.I He 8as fre:uently telling me that he had Hfetched men from 1anchester in the dead of the night flying through the air in the course of an hour.I %xce#t an occasional glance at the (i#sies as & have #assed them on the roadBside. The stories this fortuneBteller used to relate to me as to his 8onderful #o8er over the s#irits of the other 8orld 8ere very amusing.enton. and over Hthe men and 8omen of this generation. matters 8ent on till one day in =uly last year. *n my return home one evening & found a lot of (i#sies in the streets. H&n the days 8e 8ent aBgi#syingI 8ould be running through my mind.I a 8ellB9no8n character in the Potteries. under the strictest secrecy. 8hen & mentioned the matter to my friends.rom the days 8hen carrying clay and loading canalBboats 8as my toil and Hgi#syingI my song. to see Hold %li<ah Cotton. the sub<ect has been allo8ed to rest until the commencement of last year.I /i9e Thomas called Didymus. and in this 8ay. in the throng and battle of life.al8ays anxious to solve. it struc9 me very forcibly that the time for . H&n the days 8e 8ent aBgi#sying.I and this 9ind of rubbish he used to relate to those 8ho #aid him their shillings and halfBcro8ns to have their fortunes told. 8hen the voice of Providence and the 8retched condition of the (i#sy children seemed to s#ea9 to me in language that & thought it 8ould be #erilous to disregard.ometimes he 8ould loo9 at my hands. bet8een hesitation and doubt. and do8n dee# in the dale. at other times he 8ould give me some of this #. 1any times & have been li9e the horse that shies at them as they cam# in the ditch ban9. this had the effect of causing a little hesitation to come over my sensibilities. at the deathbed scene. . a distance of six miles. as & 8as Hnot one of his sort. &n the days 8e 8ent aBgi#sying ) long time ago. by night and by day. half frightened out of my 8its. 8hen in my teens & used to 8al9 after 8or9ing hours from Tunstall to . and hold it 8hile he 8as reading out of the $ible. Hhard of belief. through evil re#ort and good re#ort these 8ords. . at other times he 8ould #ut my hand into his. The other #art of the song & :uic9ly forgot. 1y visits lasted for a little time till he told me that he could do nothing more.I ringing in my ears. but these 8ords have stuc9 to me ever since. and at times 8hen busily engaged u#on other things. *n #ur#ose to try to find out 8hat fortuneBtelling 8as. and some & had to burn exactly as the cloc9 struc9 t8elve at night. 8ho got his living by it. and burning something li9e brimstoneBloo9ing #o8derKthe forefinger of the other hand had to rest u#on a #articular #assage or verse. in re#ly. 8ho. said & should find it a difficult tas9. and felt anxious to 9no8 either more or less of them. to as9 him all sorts of :uestions. C0yello8Bloo9ing stuff in a small #a#er to 8ear against my left breast.I 8ere ever and anon at my tongueDs end.

& 8as getting all the information & could out of him about the (i#sy childrenKthis 8ith some additional information given to me by 1r.taffordshire lanes. -ecently & came across some of these 8andering tribes. d8elling in calico tents. 8ho are #ut through excruciating #ractices to #lease a $ritish #ublic. and 8ho attend fairs. and her brother died and 8as buried . and they 8ould have done 8ell also if they had #ut out their hand to rescue from idleness. and 8as Tlaid outD by last =anuary. and he 8as the leader of the gangKto call into my house for some 9nives 8hich re:uired grinding. stones.I brought forth my first letter u#on the condition of the #oor (i#sy children as it a##eared in the!tandard. 1oses Holland.he says that she 8as married out of one of these tents. . i4e4. and nearly every other daily #a#er on )ugust 1!th of last year4KH. Derbyshire. says he 9no8s about t8o hundred and fifty families of (i#sies in ten of the 1idland counties and thin9s that a similar #ro#ortion 8ill be found in the rest of the +nited Gingdom.oar. and it 8as also buried out of one of those 8retched abodes on the roadside at $arro8Bu#onB. He has seen as many as ten tents of (i#sies 8ithin a distance of five miles. He thin9s there 8ill be an average of five children in each tent. 8a9es. and .action had no8 arrived. C1of %ngland. mentioned in my HCry of the Children from the $ric9Byards #. 0hen the #oor thing died he had not six#ence in his #oc9et.ome years since my attention 8as dra8n to the condition of these #oor neglected children. )t another time later on & came across $aFena Clayton. and they 8ould have done 8ell at the same time if they had ta9en ste#s to #revent the 8ar#ing influence of a vagrantDs life having its full force u#on the tribes of little (i#sy children. . fifteen of 8hom are alive. several of them being born in a roadside tent. ignorance. He has seen as many as ten or t8elve children in some tents. and 8ith this vie8 in mind & as9ed 1oses HollandK for that 8as his name. 8ho said that she had had sixteen children. and mud. stic9s. C>them able to read or 8rite. died. for 8hich & had to #ay t8o shillings. and he said that & 8as the first 8ho had held out the hand to him during the last t8enty years. 8ithin the sound of church bellsKif living under the body of an old cart. and 8hile his mate 8as grinding the 9nives. His child of six months oldK8ith his 8ife ill at the same time in the tentKsic9ened. and the follo8ing facts gleaned from them 8ill sho8 that missionaries and schoolmasters have not done much for them. the children living in vans. of 8hom there are many families e9ing out an existence in the /eicestershire. ho#ing that some one 8ith time and money at his dis#osal 8ould come to the rescue. a fe8 8ee9s since our legislators too9 #ro#er ste#s to #revent the maiming of the little sho8 children. &n sha9ing hands 8ith him as 8e #arted his face beamed 8ith gladness. and heathenism our roadside arabs. together 8ith a (i#sy 8omanDs tale to my 8ife. and not many of #. #rotected by #atched coverlets. but & have deferred doing so till no8. 5c. Clayton and several other (i#sies at )shbyBdeBlaBMouch. T8o years since a #itiful a##eal 8as made in one of our local #a#ers as9ing me to ta9e u# the cause of the #oor (i#sy children. Daily Chronicle. 8ho has been a (i#sy nearly all his life. can be called living in tentsKon the roadside in the midst of grass.

Her mother. Telling fortunes to servant girls and old maids is a source of income to some of them. near )shbyBdeBlaBMouch. although doubtless she 9no8s 8ell enough ho8 to T9air her #atteran. and has herself. and become Christianised and civilised as other children. That she can neither read nor 8rite goes 8ithout saying. are to be allo8ed to live in these #laces. as it a##eared in the !tandard.mith. . is an almost #ure .anscrit 8ord cognate 8ith our o8n T#ath. . as 1r.he 8as born in a tent. in 8hich the 8riter says4KH0e yesterday #ublished a letter from 1r. as a mar9 for those of his tribe 8ho may come u#on his trac9. $aFena Clayton. To have bet8een three and four thousand men and 8omen.he has travelled all her life. and a Holland al8ays holds high ran9 among the T-omanyD fol9Kassures 1r. in 8hich he calls attention to the deserted and almost ho#eless lot of %nglish (i#sy children. and gameB#reserves. (eorge . but one can scarcely tell ho8. is not a #leasant loo9Bout for the future. that if these #oor children. has brought u# a family of sixteen children. . named . they shall be registered in a manner analogous to the Canal $oats )ct of 18 . and ex#ects to breathe her last in a tent. TPatteran. 8hich are a##lied in many instances to 8rong #ur#oses. but in many instances lie crouched together. and thin9s that not one (i#sy in t8enty can. )ugust 1Cth. They have blood. that carries #eril 8ith it. They sell a fe8 clothesBlines and clothesB #egs. CAclaim on the grounds of <ustice and e:uity. an old lady of caste. they generally locate for a time near henBroosts.he has lived in tents all her life.he said she could not read herself. regardless of either sex or age. all of 8hom 8ere born in a tent. and & #. 0ashing 8ould destroy their beauty. four lots of (i#sies travelling in /incolnshire at the #resent time.D or to ma9e that strange cross in the dust 8hich a true (i#sy al8ay leaves behind him at his last #lace of so<ourn.mith that in ten of the 1idland counties he 9no8s some t8o hundred and fifty families of (i#sies.D and the least #hilological ra9ing among the chaff of the (i#sy dialect 8ill sho8 their secret argot to be. almost e:ual to that of a /ee or a Holland. turni#Bfields. and brains. #otatoBcam#s. under the same friendly shelter. li9e so many dogs. but they seldom use such things themselves. so she says. confirms the story. married from a tent. living in vans and tents and under old carts. 8hose efforts to ameliorate and humanise the floating and transitory #o#ulation of our canals and navigable rivers have already borne good fruit. brought forth the follo8ing leading article u#on the sub<ect the follo8ing day. .out of a tent at Pac9ington. . 1oses HollandKthe Hollands are a (i#sy family almost as old as the /ees or the .D it may be remar9ed.I The foregoing letter. in ignorance and evil training. more or less. This #oor 8oman 9no8s about three hundred families of (i#sies in eleven of the 1idland and %astern counties. roaming all over the country. and that none of their children can read or 8rite. so that the children may be brought under the Com#ulsory Clauses of the %ducation )cts. is the mother of fifteen children. bone. .tanleys.mith. ) (i#sy lives. muscle. They slee#. and fifteen thousand children classed in the census as vagrants and vagabonds. of 8hom there are not a fe8.

and 8hether the nomad (i#sy may not still hate the T(orgioD as much as Cain hated )bel. classed in the census as vagrants and vagabonds. . and & claim that if these #oor children.D to see is to Tdic9er.anscrit. /eland describes him. &t 8ould be interesting to s#eculate 8hether. He has no belief in another 8orld. To him all 8ho are not (i#sies.D or. #otatoBcam#s.mith. as then. His 8hole attitude of mind is #. so utterly at variance 8ith our ordinary conce#tions of humanity. after instances so #regnant. Ta curious old tongue. but they seldom use such things themselves. The true (i#sy is absolutely irreclaimable. roaming all over the country in ignorance and evil training. To have bet8een three and four thousand men and 8omen. as 1r. no su#ernatural ob<ect of either 8orshi# or dreadKnothing beyond a fe8 old .D to get or ta9e to Tlell. and gameB#reserves. . His anxiety is to see the (i#siesKand es#ecially the (i#sy childrenK reclaimed. Tlives. living in vans and tents and under old carts.D The true (i#sy is. a road is a Tdrum. ho8ever civilised he may a##ear. are T(orgios. leading the same life. Certain in any case it is that the (i#sy. They sell a fe8 clothesBlines and clothesB#egs. not merely allied to . as devoid of su#erstition as of religion. so that the children may be brought under the %ducation )cts. ta9es another vie8 of the :uestion. in the (i#sy tongue.D he reminds us.D and to the true (i#sy a T(orgioD is as hateful as is a Tco8anD to a . and become Christianised and civilised. and eight or ten thousand children. . CCnegative. and %sau =acob. hardly a##reciates the insu#erable difficulty of the tas9 he #ro#oses. being a #hilanthro#ist rather than a #hilologist. to begin 8ith. but #erha#s in #. no fear of a future state. nor ho#e for it. He 8as a 8anderer and a vagabond u#on the face of the earth before the foundations of 1ycenP 8ere laid or the #lough dra8n to mar9 out the 8alls of -ome./eland calls it. . s#ea9ing the same tongue. they generally locate for a time near henBroosts. turni#Bfields. and no8. ho8ever. and such as he 8as four thousand years ago or more. &shmael &saac. but one can scarcely tell ho8. T) (i#sy. li9e himself. is not a #leasant loo9Bout for the future.D H1r. the T(orgiosD 8ere notKas the name 8ould seem to indicateKthe farmers or #ermanent #o#ulation of the earth. to agree 8ith Professor von Gogalnitschan that Tit is interesting to be able to study a Hindu dialect in the heart of %uro#e. 8hen the -omany fol9 first began their 8anderings. 0ashing 8ould destroy their beauty . Ta character so entirely strange.D 'o . entertaining the same 8holesome or un8holesome hatred of all civilisation. they shall be registered in a manner analogous to the Canal $oats )ct.anscrit or even (ree9 scholar can fail to be struc9 by the fact that.mith.D and to go to T<all. it is to be feared. are to be allo8ed to live in these #laces. such he still remains. that it is no exaggeration 8hatever to declare that it 8ould be a very difficult tas9 for the best 8riter to convey to the most intelligent reader any idea of such a nature. utterly devoid of even the sim#lest rudiments of religious belief. remains. C!#oint of age an elder though vagabond sister or cousin of that ancient language.reemason. cherishing the same habits.D 1r.

so the (i#sy.tanley. 0e can domesticate the goose.tuart 1ill. 8hich he has #ic9ed u# from time to time. to amount to a #ositive restraint u#on his liberty. from the %nglish 1idlands. or rather 8ants of belief. and to 8in their affection. after generations had #assed. )nd it is #ossibly because he has no #ro#erty of his o8n that he is so slo8 to recognise the rights of #ro#erty in others. $orro8 alone exce#ted. ) little of our . and exactly as the #risoned cuc9oo #. some Christian.D 9no8n only to himself and to those of his bloodKis the 9eynote of his strange life. Teach the (i#sy to read. He can live on hedgehog and acornsKthough he may #refer a fo8l and #otatoes not strictly his o8n.e#tember dra8s near.anscrit T#atterD or T<ib. but al8ays a##roach him in a semicircle. $ut 8herever the true (i#sy goes he carries his tongue 8ith him. some Pagan. Their funeral ceremonies are e:ually remar9able. 8ill T#atterD fluently 8ith a /ee. or even to 8rite. for there are certain strange old (i#sy customs 8hich still constitute a freemasonry. C of the first year 8ill beat itself to death against its bars 8hen . they still burn the dead manDs clothes and all his small #ro#erty. are as much #art of their nature as is their #hysical organisationN Dar8in has told us ho8. 'ot Guhleborhn nor +ndine herself is less susce#tible of alien culture than the #ureBblooded (i#sy. barbarous . 'or is this all. C?u# and slee#. &n s#ite of every effort that has been made to fathom it. His love of 8andering is as 9een as is the instinct of a migratory bird for its annual #assage. 0herever a hedge gives shelter he 8ill roll himself #. $ut the distinction bet8een affection and esteem is one 8hich he cannot fathom. corru#t. and ma9e his Tru99erbenD at once easily understood. 8e can tame the goldfinch and the linnet. or accustom the s8allo8 to a cage. a /oc9e. He is 9indly by nature. and a -omany from Hungary. The (i#sy feels a house. he remains a (i#sy still. and by ta9ing the strictest care never to even mention his name. and al8ays anxious to #lease those 8ho treat him 8ell. or indeed anything at all a##roaching to the idea of a #ermanent d8elling. and to 8hich he holdsKmuch as a child holds to its fairy talesK uncritically and indifferently. 8ill never so far forsa9e the traditions of his tribe as to stay long in any one #lace. a . His mind is not as ours. or a Holland. the (i#sy dialect is still unintelligible to T(orgiosDKa fe8 ex#erts such as 1r. To ma9e the true (i#sy 8e have only to add to this an absolute contem#t for all that constitutes civilisation. 'ot being allo8ed to burn their dead. ignorant of %nglish as a Chi##e8ay or an %s:uimaux. 8hile they mourn for him by abstainingKoften for yearsKfrom something of 8hich he 8as fond. H0hat are 8e to do 8ith children in 8hom these strange habits and beliefs. the #u##y 8ith a taint of the 8olfDs blood in it 8ould never come straight to its masterDs feet.stories. but 8e shall never reclaim the guineaBfo8l. %thical distinctions are as un9no8n to him as to a 9itten or a mag#ie. even 8hen most #ros#erous. $ut above all. his tongueKthe 8eird. =ohn . The marriage rites of (i#sies are a definite and very significant ritual. and the #recise shade of (eu( and tuu( is as absolutely unintelligible to him as 8as the Hegelian antithesis bet8eennichts and seyn to the late 1r.

indeed. They are tin9ers. in all human #robability. be s#o9en on the other side of the )tlantic years after the last traces of it have vanished from amongst ourselves. . They are not dying out. or travel from fair to fair 8ith 9noc9BDemBdo8ns. a #ros#erous horseBdealer. The ex#ression of o#inion 8as as na`ve and artless as that of $lucher. 8here life is free.civilisation 8e can teach him. or scissorBgrinders. horrible incantation of %astern origin. and must be some8hat too dis#osed to overloo9 the marvellously #ersistent influences of race and tongue. of to alter habits of life and mind 8hich have remained unchanged for centuries. and. the strange dress. amongst other sights. -omany 8ill. The follo8ing are some of the letters that have a##eared in the !tandard in re#ly to mine of the 1!th instant. as he may learn to re#eat by rote the signs of the Fodiac or the multi#lication table. it is true. or to use a table na#9in. 8here game is not #ro#erty. becoming 8ealthy. or bas9etBma9ers. His sole #. the nomadic habits. $ut the lesson sits lightly on him. $. 8as sho8n a goldsmithDs 8indo8. or itinerant sho8s. C8remar9 8as that the man must be a big thief indeed to have so many s#oons and 8atches all at once. )lready. *ften they have some ostensible #lace of residence.I -ather than the cause of the children should suffer by #resenting garbled or oneBsided statements. under the searching #ersecution of the &n:uisition. & #ur#ose :uoting the letters and articles u#on the sub<ect as they have a##eared. There is a :uaint story of a 3or9shire (i#sy. for the sa9e of some small 9indness or gratuity.D 1r. The flattering allusions and com#liments relating to my humble self & am not 8orthy of. 8here land is not yet enclosed. $ut if he ho#es to ma9e the (i#sy ever other than a (i#sy. the original im#ort of 8hich is in all #robability a #rofound mystery to her. and he remains in heart as irreclaimable as ever. to #ass over them as though such com#liments 8ere not there. 8hen observing that /ondon 8as a magnificent city Tfor to sac9. and & beg of those 8ho ta9e an interest in the cause of the little ones. a (i#sy 8oman has allo8ed her child to be ba#tised. and deem this boo9 8orthy of their notice. he must be singularly sanguine. $ut they #reserve their inner life as carefully as the =e8s in .mithDs benevolent intentions s#ea9 for themselves. came u# to to8n. and attem#ts to undo the effect of the ceremony by sub<ecting the infant to some 8eird. H$. or rifle galleries. They are ma9ing their 8ay to the .I 8rites on )ugust 1?th4KH0ould you allo8 an &rish (i#sy to ex#ress his vie8s touching (eorge . or to decorously dis#ose of the stones in a cherry tart. 0e begin even no8 to miss the #ictures:ue as#ects of (i#sy lifeKthe tent. %nglish (i#sies are no longer #ure and sim#le vagrants. she summons her friends. 8ho. to transform the -omany into a (orgio.mithDs letter of this date in your #a#erN 0ithout in the least desiring to 8ar# his efforts to . #reserved their faith for generation u#on 0est. To do other8ise 8ould not be fair to the authors or <ust to the cause & have in hand.#ain. and even no8 it is a belief that 8hen. and 8here there is al8ays and every8here room to Thatch the tanD or #ut u# the tent. and he 8ill learn it. our (i#sies are leaving us.

I H)n *ld 0omanI 8rites as follo8s4KH&n the article on (i#sies in the !tandard of toBday & 8as struc9 8ith the truth of this. lived. *nce u#on a time my grandfather o8ed a considerable sum of money. fine.D in the midst of grass. 8ho 8as a miller and farmer. let them get it. long ago.D & believe some arrangement had been made about the debt. as a rule. /iving under the body of an old cart. it seems to me that the #oor (i#sy calls for much less sym#athy. and to 8in their affections.ome of the (i#sies 8ould often call at my grandfatherDs house. alas_ could not #ay it. Tas long as they had any. clothesBsto#s. although it ha##ened long.D they said.D & can give you one instance of this in my o8n family. 8here they 8ere al8ays received 9indly. and al8ays anxious to #lease those 8ho treat him 8ell. the 8omen of the tribe. as9ing to see my grandmother. on business or other8ise. and there gre8 u# a very 9indly feeling bet8een the head of the tribe and my grandfather and his family. sufficient intelligence to discharge the duties of farmBlabourers. in a #int measure. to see TPeBtee. The $os8ell tribe of (i#sies used to encam# once a year near the village in 8hich my grandfather Rmy motherDs fatherS. as in the old ballad of TThe $eggar of $ethnal (reen. as regards his moral and social life. . and a host of small commodities. 8hose Christian name 8as Peter. any of his fello8Bcreatures. the chief and one or t8o more a##eared at the farmBhouse. The head of the tribe 8ore guineas instead of buttons to his coat. & su##ose. and 8hen his daughter 8as married her do8ry 8as measured in guineas.D the suitor 8ould give measure for measure. ?0grandfatherDs debt. C@that the #oor (i#sy fulfils a 8or9 8hich is a very great convenience to d8ellers in outBofB theB8ay #lacesKbrushes. )s to educationK8ell. if #ossible. but 8hich enable this tribe to e9e out a living 8hich com#ares very favourably 8ith the hundreds of thousands in our large cities 8ho set the la8s of the land as 8ell as the la8s of decency at defiance. and. and his 8ife and children 8ere much distressed. and already they are beginning to su##ly a felt 8ant to the agriculturist 8hose educated assistant leaves him to go abroad. %verything is 9no8n in a village. The villagers all turned out to gaFe each year 8hen they heard the T$os8ell gangD 8ere coming do8n the one long street. remar9KTHe is 9indly by nature. & believe they feared he 8ould be arrested. tubs. The should never be distressed for the money. but it 8ill be found they #ossess. 8ith blac9 feathers . T8ithin the sound of church bells. than more favoured classes of the community. &t should be remembered #. and oftener still. They told her they had come to #ay my #. in Tblac9 beaver bonnets.D as they called my grandfather. handsomeBloo9ing 8omen. and the ne8s of 8hat 8as feared reached the (i#sies. and stones. bas9ets. and if your corres#ondent loo9s u# our criminal statistics he 8ill not find one (i#sy registered for every five hundred criminals 8ho have not only been 8ithin hearing of the church bells but also listening to the #reacherDs voice. by no means argues moral degradation. but nevertheless my grandmother felt <ust as grateful for the 9indness. The idea of their friend PeBtee being in such trouble 8as not borne :uietly. stic9s. at the mill. in themselves a##arently insignificant.

8hen visiting her native village.I 1r. or Thouses. and fight in their TshiftD sleeves. or real (i#sy.and red cloa9s. but his life at best re:uires great strength and endurance. or even a good. horse or t8o for sale. or even t8enty. /eland 8rote as follo8s in the !tandard. Thither the dar9 children of ChunB(8in. 8ho cannot in an emergency find his ten. . 8ith a bad.D &n after years. sa8 the #rocession several times sto# in the middle of the village. there are -omanys. The (i#sy year may be said to begin 8ith the races. a good rough rider and #edestrian. posh an% posh RhalfBandBhalfS. stood :uietly about till the fight 8as over. & 8rite under a fresh im#ression. old and young. ?11r. and is #roud of his stamina and his #luc9. 8ho #ic9 u# money by occasional du**erin. 8ith all my res#ect. or a country fair. and this must. #ounds is a very exce#tional character. )s & have. 0hile summer lasts this is the life of the #oorer sort. he lives 8ell. T8o or three times my mother accom#anied him. He leads a very hard life. and as many of your readers are giving their o#inions on this curious race. /et me ex#lain ho8 this is generally done. #articularly during the 8inter. and 9no8ing ho8 to use his fists. using their fists li9e men. and on very familiar footing 8ith a great number of -omanys of different families of the dar9 blood 8ho s#o9e the T<ibD 8ith unusual accuracy. &n fact. ) tacho Ro(.mith is one of those honest #hilanthro#ists 8hom it is the duty of every one to honour. not by any means generally dishonest. #. much better than the agricultural labourer. and 8henever and 8herever they met her they 8ere al8ays very 9ind and res#ectful to TPeB teeDs little girl. and t8o 8omen Rsometimes moreS 8ould fall out of the ran9s. )ugust 1@4KH)s you have 9indly cited my 8or9 on the %nglish (i#sies in your article on them. and it 8ould have been an offence indeed if he had not #arta9en of some refreshment. and my mother. & do not thin9 he understands the travellers. she often in:uired if it 8as 9no8n 8hat had become of the tribe. 0herever there is an o#en #icBnic on the Thames. The (i#sy is almost invariably strong and active. or stic9s. at last she heard from some one it 8as thought they had settled in Canada4 at any rate they had #assed a8ay for ever from that #art of %ngland. . 8hether #ure blood. The men of the tribe too9 no notice. and & for one. be su##orted by a generous diet. honour him most sincerely for his 9ind 8ishes to the -omany. #erha#s you 8ill #ermit me to ma9e a fe8 remar9s on the sub<ect. 8ith hardly a dro# of the *alo. or that they re:uire much aid from the T(orgios. floc9 8ith their cocoaBnuts and the balls.ratt. 0ith them go the sorceresses. *ther small callings they also have. *f late years he *airs. or fortuneBtelling. stri# off cloa9 and go8n.D being :uite ca#able of loo9ing out for themselves. 1y grandfather never #assed the tents 8ithout calling in to see his friends. hand their bonnets to friends. been in com#any. then a girl. 8hich have of late ta9en the #lace of the *oshter. or a regatta at this season. of course. . and then the 8hole bevy #assed on to their cam#ingBground. or churedis. even 8ithin a fe8 days.D more than of old.ometimes they a##ear loo9ing li9e #etty farmers.D sometimes :uarrelled. but.

the theft is al8ays at once attributed to him. or mothers. and their guest 8ill al8ays ex#erience *riental hos#itality. 0ith this and begging. 8hich goes about gaily. The childBli9e ingenuity 8hich some of them manifested in contriving little gratifications for myself and for . they are li9e children in many res#ects. as they no8 often must. and #ay.HThis merry time over. they cannot act li9e their ancestors. or stealing a horse. or cut 8oodKi4e4. 8ho understand them. are Ta8ful beggars. Gent. 0hen the nights are coldK HCould anything be more alluring Than an old hedgeN H)s for (i#sy lying. they ma9e butchersD s9e8ers and clothesB #egs. they go. They en<oy hugely being lied unto. and occasional <obs of honest hard 8or9 8hich they #ic9 u# here and there. Ho##ing over. but.D as much by habit as anything. Here they 8or9 hard. 8ho are the most unso#histicated and the most #urely -omany. )mong the 0elsh (i#sies. The )merican 8ho a##reciates the #hrase Tto sit do8n and s8a# liesD 8ould not be ta9en in by a #. (i#sies are not dishonest. they li9e successful efforts of the imagination. being shar#ly loo9ed after by everybody. & admit. 8hich they get in Houndsditch. brooms. as a family. *8ing to their entire ignorance of ordinary house and home life. or ho#BlandKi4e4. &f a (i#sy is cam#ed any8here. not neglecting #. $ut it must be a realaficion. Their crimes are not generally of a heinous nature. almost en (asse. can earn from t8elve to eighteen shillings a 8ee9. nor do they regard stealing 8ood for fuel as a great sin. To such #eo#le they are even more honest than they are to one another. to /ondon to buy . Chiving a gry. HConsidering the lives they lead. 8hat bet8een manufacturing and selling them. they #refer to buy them. %ven this is not un#rofitable. ?>the beerB#ot. not a merely amateur affectation of 9indness. &n this matter they are sub<ect to great tem#tation. /i9e many naughty children. is. The result is that. it is so #eculiar that it 8ould be hard to ex#lain. . as do all )rabs or Hindus. as a rule. they go to the Livinengro te(. and li9e them. find themselves in beer. &n 8inter the men begin to chiv the *osh. and es#ecially by the #olice. *f late years they send more for the bas9ets to be delivered at certain stations. 0hile the 8eather is good they live by selling bas9ets. nor 8ould an old salt 8ho can s#in yarns. & have met 8ith touching instances of gratitude and honesty. but they 8ill give as freely as they 8ill ta9e. and a hen is missing for miles around. and other small 8ares. and confine themselves to certain districts. loo9ed u#on by them 8ith 3or9shire leniency. for #ermission to cam# in fields. or 8ithin a fe8 days.rench and (erman bas9ets. though so shre8d in others. )ltogether they 8or9 hard and retire early. they contrive to feed 8ell. &n this life they have great advantages over the tram#s and /ondon #oor. 1ost families have their regular TbeatsD or rounds. ?A-omany chal. They are very fond of all gentlemen and ladies 8ho ta9e a real interest in them. clothesBlines.ome of them ma9e bas9ets themselves very 8ell. The old dyes.

but something should be allo8ed to one 8hose ancestors 8ere called TdeadBmeat eatersD in the . )s for suffering as a traveller he does not 9no8 it. )ll 8rong doubtless. 8ho had been very 9ind to them.D Point out to him those 8ho have done the same.ay 8hat you 8ill and do 8hat you can. as chronicled by . . they #referred those 8hich they had heard several times and learned to li9e.D HThe only 9indness he re:uires is a little charity and #. and that he can 9ee# a horse and tra# and go to the races or ho##ing Tgenteely. being no8 in use. Tell him that for his childrenDs sa9e he had better rent a chea# cottage.hastras. that his 8ife can <ust as 8ell #eddle 8ith her bas9et from a house as from a 8aggon. but. or living in a house. no(en est o(en. 'o 8ashing eDer 8hitens the blac9 Mingan. li9e children. ?!forgiveness 8hen he steals 8ood or 8ires a hare.D 5c. & have observed that some (i#sies of the more rustic sort loved to listen to stories.o much so. but neither his faults nor his virtues are exactly 8hat they are su##osed to be. such as TGnife. This is one of the reasons 8hy the Tshuelche language is constantly fluctuating. and the identity of custom is still further carried out. the road_ the road_DI 1r. but fe8 of the 8ords ex#ressing a #ro#er meaning. They 9ne8 8here the laugh ought to come in. and he is certainly a most amusing and eccentric one. He is certainly something of a scam#K and. & once as9ed a (i#sy girl 8ho 8as sitting as a model if she li9ed the dro( RroadS best. )s .hould the reader 8ish to reform a (i#sy. inasmuch as 8ith the former. the name of the deceased is never uttered. and all allusion to him is strictly avoided. let him ex#lain to the -omany that the days for roaming in %ngland are ra#idly #assing a8ay. as 8ith the latter. 8ere as na`ve as amiable.erdusi sings4 HT. To those curious in such matters it may be of interest to 9no8 that the custom of burning all the goods and chattels of a deceased member of the tribe #revails among the Patagonians as among the (i#sies. that in those cases 8hen the deceased has borne some cognomen ta9en from familiar ob<ects. some other sound being substituted instead. but he 8ill ta9e care of himself.itFroy and Dar8in R18A>S. The (i#sy is both bad and good.Professor %. HThere is not the least use in trying to ameliorate the condition of the (i#sy 8hile he remains a among themKbut he is not a bad scam#.D T.D T0ool.lint. $eerbohm 8rites under date )ugust 1@th4KH&n reading yesterdayDs article on the customs and idiosyncrasies of (i#sies & 8as struc9 by the similarity they #resent to many #eculiarities & have observed among the Patagonian &ndians. 0ith s#ar9ling eyes and cla##ing her hands she exclaimed. .. Toh. Palmer. the 8ord is no longer used by the tribe. H. and stimulate his ambition and #ride. He 8ill tell you #iteous stories.I . there is a tribe of .

8ho died 'ovember.t.The -ev. (. )s9 a to8nsman of 3etholm 8hat he thin9s of the (i#sies. 8hat is more singular.. Tto the memory of 1istress Paul .I 8rites4KH*ne of your corres#ondents suggests that the silence of the (i#sies concerning their dead is carried so far as to consign them to nameless graves. 1y o#inion of the (i#siesKand & have seen much of them during the last forty yearsKis that they are a laFy.D as he is calledS & sa8 at . and he 8ill tell you they are sim#ly vagabonds and im#ostors. $aird. The JueenDs son RTthe Prince.cotch (i#siesK 3etholm RGir9S. alighted and entered the cottage. Here & sa8 the abode of the Jueen. *ne might as9. and 8as lithe and strong. in remembrance of it.air.I H. . and fight.D the said 1istress .tanley tribe. There are but t8o #olicemen in #. & may say that the to8nsfol9 do not fraternise 8ith the (i#sies. and that. bas9ets made of rushes. or steal. 8ith 8ellBtrimmed garden in front. &n the month of )ugust there are fe8 (i#sies resident in 3etholm4 they are generally on their travels selling croc9ery8are Rthe country #eo#le call the (i#sies Tmuggers. but sometimes the assistance of some of the to8nsfol9 is re:uired to bring about order in that #ortion of the village in 8hich the (i#sies reside. He8ett 8rites to the !tandard. Paul . and. to say that he ba#tised t8o (i#sy children in #. four ladies. =amesDs . they seem :uite satisfied to remain as they are.D )s & #assed the cottage a carriage and #air drove u#. 1r. a neat little cottage.outh. #referring to beg.tanley. to settle them. & 8as after8ards told that they 8ere much #leased 8ith their visit. and smo9e. the then Ging of the (i#sies. or #oach. offering to fight any man. &n my childhood & remember that annually some of the members of the tribe used to . and the old lady herself 8as as clean Tas a ne8 #in. He had a 9een ha89 eye. and that.tanley having been the Jueen of the . ?C18 1. and drin9. a small village nestling at the foot of the Cheviots in -oxburghshire. He 8as @C 8hen & 9ne8 him. There 8as hardly a trout hole in the $o8mont 0ater but he 9ne8. &n my churchyard there is a headstone. they are the very scum of the human race. and his com#any used to be eagerly sought by the flyBfishers 8ho came from the .D from the fact that they sell mugsS.aa. He 8as considered both a good shot and a famous fisher.I H0hat are these among so manyNI The follo8ing letter from 1r. under date )ugust 1@th. 8hich 8as not dimmed at that extreme age. dissolute set of men and 8omen. &n fact.tanley. and horn s#oons. & have a distinct recollection of 0ill . re#udiating every attem#t at reformation. Harrison u#on the sub<ect a##eared on )ugust >0th4 KH& have <ust returned from the headB:uarters of the . and the occu#ants. & believe he 8as subse:uently loc9ed u#. &nside all 8as a #erfect #attern of neatness. 8ho are regarded 8ith the greatest sus#icion by the former. both of 8hich they manufacture themselves. although many efforts have been made Rmore es#ecially by the late -ev. they are irreclaimable. to 8or9. each of the four #romised to send a ne8 froc9 to the JueenDs grandchild. of 3etholmS. 1r. in the language of one of the H*ld $oo9.. 8ife of 1r. 1 @ . 8ho lounge about. 8here he 8as s8aggering about in a drun9en state. ??3etholm and Gir9 3etholm.

& may not be able. chavi. ? Christendom. to find. no doubt. & must leave that #art of the 8or9 to fiction 8riters. the singing of the 8ood songster. (oosh. ra*le. cha i.D Tred cloa9s. The tendency of human nature is to loo9 on the bright side of things. stones. <ust as other unB Christianised and uncivilised human beings can. 8hose home in the 8inter is cam#ing halfB na9ed in a hut. or the #lural of the masculine genderdada. gor2o. roamers and ramblers. ra*li. ?8ditch and roadside. enra#turing imagery. thoroughly substantiated and bac9ed u# the cause of my young clientsKi4e4. the #oor (i#sy children and our roadside arabsKso far as they have gone. & am led to contem#late. and & 8ould much li9e to see another 8ith the same inscri#tion to mar9 the restingB#lace of the head of a leading tribe of these interesting #eo#le.I To these letters & re#lied as under.unday and 8ee9 day ali9e. but. mud. in the midst of 8oodbine. pen penya. as in the canal movementKfor the 8retched condition of some eight to ten thousand little (i#sy children. beautiful green fields. ra*lia. being a matter of fact 9ind of manKout of the region of romance.. nor do & #rofess. there is a fear that the attention of some of your readers may be dra8n from the cause of the #oor uneducated children. 2oovel. & am sorry to say. s8eetbriar. )t the same time. ditches. on the borders of a #ictures:ue #. though my friends say it is im#ossibleK<ust because it is im#ossible it becomes #ossible. & do not #rofessKat any rate. so called. ra*lo. the remedy. and to sho8 u# (i#sy life in some of its brightest as#ects. clever lying and cleverer dece#tion. 8interly delights. and 8ren. clear running rivulets. conse:uently. 8ho certainly can ta9e care of themselves. a de#utation of the tribe than9ed him for so doing. . fantastical notions. and a hand ready to hel#. nicely coloured imagination. to understand the singular number of the masculine gender of dad. & have reason to thin9 they still visit the s#ot. bullfinch. . a heart to feel. as a re#erusal of the letters 8ill sho8 the most casual observer of our hedgeBbottom heathens of #. chavo. the fortuneBtelling of the old 8omen. in the midst of TslushD and sno8. un8ittingly. and #olicemen. and 8hen my father had restored the stone. not for the #resentKto ta9e u# the cause of the men and 8omen ditchB d8elling (i#sies in this matter. and rosesK8ith an eye to observe. the feminine gender dei. abler hands than mine. clergymen. pal palla. the stone so decayed no8 as to be #ast restoration. the Ts#ar9ling eyesD and Tcla##ing of hands. and to find out if #ossible. and concentrated u#on the Tguinea buttons.D and Tt8o#enny ho#sD of the young 8omen. and. chavo. and game.come and scatter flo8ers over the grave. ti*eno.usans. gairo. aye.D Tscarlet hoods. on )ugust >1st4KHThe numerous corres#ondents 8ho have ta9en u#on themselves to re#ly to my letter that a##eared in your issue of the 1!th inst.D the cunning craft of the old men. & 8ould say the tendency of some of the remar9s of your corres#ondents has s#ecial reference to the adult (i#sies.D Tblac9Bhaired . on its falling into decay. have. and the feminine gender deia. ti*eno. living in the midst of stic9s.

it is fearful to contem#late. and the .mith. The sooner 8e get the ideal. rent. and drain the #oisonous 8ater from the roots of vegetation. buttercu#s. it has to be done. of Coalville. exce#t #erha#s at the races. &t is true something has been done.D if not brought in daily contact 8ith them. *ne clergyman. and (i#sies are increasing. so as to be able to earn an honest livelihood. than to ta9e the s#ade. tells us that some eight or nine years since he #ublicly ba#tised t8o (i#sy children. ?@u#on the system.choolBboard officer. fanciful. the Feal of the ministers of ChristDs Church.riend. and the li9e. and see things as they really are.choolBboard officer must begin to do their #art in reclaiming these 8andering tribes.or the life of me & cannot see anything romantic in dirt. (eorge . instead of TcadgingD from door to door. starvation. conse:uently. to have had these #lague s#ots continually flitting before our eyes 8ithout anything being done to effect a cure. in siFe com#ared 8ith other nations not much larger than a garden. and misery.and it is much more #leasant to go to the edge of a large s8am#. 1inisters and missionaries have com#letely failed in the 8or9. His TCry of the $ric9Byard ChildrenD rang through %ngland. the schoolmaster and . and a Tfe8 9ind 8ordsD and Tgentle touchesD 8ill never cause them to see it in any other light. and return home and extol the fine scenery and #raise the richness of the land. 'evertheless. and the activity of the schoolmaster. and neglect. the better it 8ill be for us.mith has #ut in a good 8ord for (i#sy children. loafers. and 8ill increase. to find ho8 . in shirtBsleeves and heavy boots. gorgios.I &n the Leicester "ree #ress the follo8ing a##eared on )ugust 1?th4KH1r. &t 8ill sur#rise a good many 8ho seldom see or hear of these (i#sies. . lie do8n and bas9 in the summerDs sun. and buried under a clod 8ithout the shedding of a tear. ignorance. ma9ing TbuttonBholesD of daisies. &t does not s#ea9 very much for the #o8er of the (os#el. and romantic side of a vagrantDs and vagabondDs life removed from our vision. in our midst. . from the sim#le fact that by #ac9ing u# 8ith 8ife and children and Tta9ing to the road. and this can only be done in the manner stated by me in my #revious letter. &t is not creditable to us as a Christian nation. The idlers. as if ba#tism 8as the only thing re:uired of the #oor children for the duties and res#onsibilities of life and a future state. for the sim#le reason that they have never begun it in earnest.D he thus esca#es taxes. 8ho has Thad o##ortunities of observing them. mongrels. and telling all sorts of silly stories and lies. )nother tells us that some time since he ba#tised many (i#sy children. His descri#tion of the canalBboat children has also resulted in legislation for their relief. Ho8 many #oor childrenDs lives have been sacrificed at the hands of cruelty. s:ualor. if the Tstrong active limbsD and Tbright s#ar9ling eyesD are to be turned to better account than they have been in the #ast. is earning the title of the ChildrenDs . rodneys. and issued in measures being ado#ted for their #rotection. This they see. unless 8e #ut our hand #. $etter a thousand times have told us ho8 many #oor roadside arabs and (i#sy children they have ta9en by the hand to educate and train them. to have had for centuries these heathenish tribes in our midst. 'o8 & see 1r.

mith goes about for the #ur#ose of doing good. 0e 8ere gloomily told that they could not be reached. . $ill .mith.mith. under date )ugust 1?th. but she said she 8ent to church on a . %mma . . & do not thin9 the number is at all exaggerated. )t first the young. 8ho had run some hundreds of yards ahead. The sym#athies of the #ublic 8ere effectually roused by the narratives 8hich revealed to us the de#lorable de#ths of human de#ravity into 8hich vast numbers of %nglish #eo#le had fallen. He does not content himself 8ith glibly tal9ing of 8hat needs to be done. *f education the child had had none. Charley . but it is vastly different from 8hat it 8as a short time bac9.mith may be credited 8ith having bro9en do8n this discreditable state of things. 0ac9ford .:ueersD celebrated educational #rinci#le. *rators at fashionable missionaryBmeetings 8ere 8ont to s#ea9 of them as irreclaimable heathens 8ho bid defiance to civilising influences from im#enetrable fastnesses. 0#itched not far from the side of the lane. &t 8as only a fe8 days ago that the Du9e of -ichmond. .e8 more s#lendid monuments of #ractical charity have been reared than the amelioration of the social state of our canal #o#ulationKan achievement 8hich has mainly been brought about by 1r. The man is a humanitarian to the manner born. the follo8ing leading article 8as #ublished4KH0hen the social history of the #resent generation comes to be 8ritten a #rominent #lace among the list of #ractical #hilanthro#ists 8ill be assigned to (eorge . in :uic9 succession.mithKthus. His character and labours serve to remind us of the broad line 8hich se#arates the real a#ostle of benevolence from 8hat may be termed the T#rofessionalD sam#le. 1r. 8ith 8hat result it is not #. but on being as9ed to mention their names she rattled them over. He #refers to act u#on the s#irit of 1r. s8arthy damsel declared she did not 9no8 ho8 many brothers and sisters she had. This is a sam#le of the 9ind of thing 8hich #revails. all of 8hom lived 8ith their #arents in a tent 8hich 8as #. )t this #resent moment the lot of these #oor 8aifs is far from being inviting. He brought us face to face 8ith this unfortunate section of our fello8Bcreatures. giving to each Christian name the surname of .numerous they are even in this county.mith. and the li9e.unday 8ith her sister. 8ill be acting a good #art to numerous children 8ho.mithDs indomitable #erseverance and selfBdenial. andKhe does it.miths. (eorge . and 8hat ought to be done.mith. of Coalville. ) fe8 years ago 8e 8ere accustomed to s#ea9 of the d8ellers in these floating hovels as beings 8ho dragged out a degraded existence in a farBoff land.anny . although unable to claim relationshi#. re<oice in the same #atronymic as himself.mith.I &n the Der y Daily Telegraph. dar9Beyed.mith. till she had enumerated either thirteen or fifteen <uvenile . #estiferous cabins used for TlivingD #ur#oses es#ecially excited the countryDs #ity. in order to o#en a gate. of Coalville. in . Having discovered a s#here of Christian duty he goes and T8or9sD it. . 1necessary to say. and in his last generous movement 1r. The sufferings of the children in the gloomy. (eorge . ) fe8 days ago 8hile driving do8n a rural lane in the country & Tintervie8edD one of these children.

The tent of the (i#sy he finds to be as filthy and as re#ulsive as the cabin of the canalBboat. for instance. in common 8ith other tribes of the romantic #ast.mithDs labours. and our neighbouring counties have offered him the exam#les he re:uires 8ith his ne8 cam#aign. seem to invest the scenes from our old friend.mith has no8 embar9ed u#on a fresh crusade against misery and ignorance.D 8ith something a9in to #robability. Derbyshire. &t is. >being by force of circumstances. it is barely #ossible to say. . 8e confess. H1r. TThe $ohemian (irl. $ut there is. -. 8earisome round of s:ualor and 8retchedness 8hich is found.mith 8ill cause to be #resented to our vision. of course. Perchance it ha##ens that our old heroes of song and story have. =ames and 9indred 8riters 8ill find it hard to substitute for the <oyous scenes of sunshine and freedom he has associated 8ith the nomadic existence. The lot of the roamers 8ho e9e out a living in the ad<acent lanes and road8ays is. 0e fear 1r. the dull. so far as %ngland is concerned. 8ith their beautiful Jueen. in a modern story declared to be founded on fact.mith has ta9en in hand. He does not #retend to carry his ex#erience of the (i#sies further than the 1idlands. He has turned his attention from the T8ater (i#siesD to their brethren ashore. to constitute the #rinci#al condition of the (i#sy to no less a #ersonage than the )rchbisho# of Canterbury. He does not #retend to sho8 us the romantic. it is declared that (i#sy life is #retty much 8hat it is re#resented to be in our o8n glo8ing #ages of fiction. He has already began to busy himself 8ith the condition of Tour roadside arabs. degraded. 0hether it is that in this a8fully #rosaic #eriod of the 8orldDs history the #ictures:ue and <ovial rascality 8hich novelist and #oet have insisted in connecting 8ith the &shmaelites is stam#ed ruthlessly out of #.mith in #rosecuting this good 8or9 of his is doomed to #erform a serious act of disenchantment. Those of our readers 8ho have formed their notions of (i#sy life u#on the strength of the assurances 8hich have been given them by the late 1r. fantasticallyBdressed creature 8hose #rototy#es have long been in the imaginations of many of us as ty#es of the (i#sy s#ecies. The late 1a<or 0hyteB1elville. . . . Perha#s (i#sies. restless fello8 though he 8asS 8ould #ersistently have lin9ed his lot 8ith that of the #oor. and that 8ith more favoured climes they are to be seen in much of their #rimitive glory. deteriorated as a conse:uence of the moneyBma9ing. rather difficult to believe that $amfylde 1oore Care8 R8ild.D as he calls them. The ideal (i#sy is destined to be scattered to the 8inds by the unvarnished #icture 8hich 1r. Human beings of both sexes and of all ages are huddled together 8ithout . announced that ex#ress arrangements had been made by the (overnment to meet the educational re:uirements of the once hel#less and neglected victims. a limit to even 1r. #overtyBstric9en 8retches 8hom 1r. . he ex#lains to us. businessBli9e atmos#here that they are com#elled to breathe. &n Hungary. introduces us to a com#any of these continental 8anderers 8ho. (.taffordshire. P. as #itiful as anything of the sort 8ell could be. u#on examination. . have gradually become denuded of their old attractiveness. Hungary is beyond his <urisdiction.

but 8e are bound to say 8e doubt a little 8hether he 8ill be able to tame the offs#ring of the merry Mingara. He is a bold and energetic man. and the floating 8aifs and strays of our barge #o#ulation. and #ass them all through the regulation educational standard. and become Christianised and civilised as other children. . %s#ecially does this contention a##ly to the children. !become chairman of a society for changing the s#ots of the leo#ard. if they are to be allo8ed to live in these #laces they should be registered in a manner analogous to the Canal $oats )ct of 18 . . )ugust A0th4KHThe follo8ing facts may not be 8ithout some interest to those 8ho have read the letters 8hich have recently a##eared in the #ages of the !tandardres#ecting (i#sies. 8e shall be thenceforth sur#rised at nothing. and conse:uently a social danger. . but be :uite #re#ared to hear that 1r. 1r. near )shbyBdeBlaBMouch. as it really exists. .he also tells 1r. of 8hom 1r. & buried the head of the family in 18 !.mithDs counsel as to the children is that Tliving in vans and tents and under old carts. 8ith a vie8 of bringing them under the su#ervision of the . &t is to be ho#ed many months 8ill not be allo8ed to ela#se before this difficulty is seriously and successfully gra##led 8ith.mith has #. 1orally. . .D The Du9e of -ichmond and his de#artment may do much to facilitate 1r. and she did not believe one in t8enty could. as (i#sies. Children are born.inch. members of the $os8ell family have been almost constantly resident here. suffer from disease. a rural dean. in the 1idland . and her brother died and 8as buried out of a tent at Pac9ington. Aroadside. and die in the canvas hovels. but the 8ea9er sex and their little charges are reduced to the lo8est #aths of misery. fifteen of 8hom are alive. . . (i#sy life. =. as 8ell as from a sanitary #oint of vie8.chool $oard system no8 general in this country. He 8as a regular attendant at the #arish church. The men are able to rough it.mith that she could not read herself. is a social #lagueBs#ot. )s a necessary se:uence the 8omen and children are the chief sufferers in a social evil of this sort.mith Tthat she had had sixteen children.mith estimates that there are ten thousand roaming over the face of the country as vagrants and vagabonds. 8ho died at the age of 8 . His burial 8as attended by several sons resident. . several of them being born in a roadside tent. or honorary director of an association for changing the %thio#ianDs s9in_I The follo8ing letter from the -ev. and are committed to the dust by the #.hould he succeed. a##eared in the !tandard. and failed not to bo8 his head reverently 8hen he entered 8ithin the House of (od. *ne old 8oman told 1r.mithDs crusade 8ithout tem#orising 8ith the #re<udices of redB ta#eism.I "igaro 8rites )ugust > th4KH*ur old friend having successfully tac9led the bric9Byard children.regard to comfort.D The ex#erience of this old crone is a9in to that of most of her class. During the thirty years & have been rector of this #arish. has no8 ta9en the little (i#sies in hand. .he says that she 8as married out of one of these tents. so that the children may be brought under the com#ulsory clauses of the %ducation )cts.

I and is as follo8s4KH&t has been the custom for yearsK& might almost say centuriesK8hen s#ea9ing of the (i#sies. & never sa8. not 9no8ing 8hither. 8here she 8as confirmed by $isho# .D &t is true also that there are vast numbers of the (i#sies 8ho. . 8in9 of the eye.counties. is the outcome of that Hrun out. any harm of the man. 8hose #arents 8ere travelling through the #arish. and the follo8ing letter.D or some member of the Troyal familyD is being married or visiting them. for neither clergyman or other ministers could tell me 8here they 8ere to be found.crubs. & should thin9 that there is scarcely a county in . side grin and a sneer. 8hich a##eared in the Daily News. or heard. #. an infant of the same tribe. & buried in her fatherDs grave t8o years ago. &f he had rather a shar# eye for a little gift. )fter his death she and her mother removed to an ad<oining #arish. 8ith a chuc9le.D TPrince. glad to receive the ministrations of the Church. say they have these im#ortant #ersonages amongst them. &n 18C@ & ba#tiFed. to say that this extraordinary being is nothing but a mythological <ac9BoDBthDBlantern. the creation of lying tongues #ractising the art of dece#tion among some of the Tgreen hornsD in the country lanes. tongue in chee9. they 8ill be sure to tell them that either the T9ing. &t is true there are some ThorseBleechesD among the (i#sies 8ho have got fat out of their less fortunate hedgeBbottom brethren and the $ritish #ublic. that is a trait of character by no means confined to (i#sies.e#tember ?th of last year.D Tthe Jueen. in the neighbourhood of stra8Byards. ?to believe their tales and lies. & never could #ersuade his 8ife to come. and after as9ing the #oliceman. #rivately.el8yn in 18 ?. 8retchedness. *ne of his daughters 8as married here to a member of the $os8ell tribe. & too9 the Dbus to 'otting Hill. -egular as 8as the old man at church. and 8or9ed industriously as a tinman 8ithin a short time of his death. but my earliest association came to my relief. Cthat (i#sies 8ere to be found in the outs9irts of this $abylon.D &t may sur#rise many of your readers 8ho cling to the romantic side of a (i#syDs life. #hantom of the brain. He 8as a :uiet and inoffensive man. illusion.D T:ueen. and 8hose mother 8as named %lvira.amily. (reat 8as the admiration of my domestics at the sight of the beautiful lace 8hich ornamented the robe in 8hich the child 8as brought to my house. or on the village greens.I & next turned my ste#s to8ards /ondon. and misery there is amongst them.D TJueen. and another.D or TPrincess.D or some other member of Tthe -oyal . Gno8ing that (i#sies are generally to be found in the neighbourhood of bric9Byards. 8ho delight in calling them either Tthe Ging. 8ho re<oiced in the name of $ritannia. ignorant (i#sies better than to get the bystanders. and nothing #leases the #oor. and those of a 8ellB9no8n tribe. and if any little extra stir is being made at a fairB time in the country lanes. Clearly there are (i#sies. and shut their eyes to the fearful amount of ignorance. and a headstone mar9s the grave 8here his body rests. & 8ended my 8ay to 0orm8ood . to introduce in one form or other during the conversation either Tthe Ging of the (i#sies. having heard #. & set off early one morning in :uest of them from my lodgings. 8ith mouths o#en.

The follo8ing #articulars.D their marriages and deaths. related to me by a 8ellB9no8n (i#sy 8oman in the neighbourhood of T0orm8ood . another at %##ing . and 8as al8ays #leased to hear of their 8elfare. crafty (i#sies as TdaFFlers. & can assure you.chool $oard. and only one could read and 8rite a little.%ngland but 8hat a (i#sy 9ingDs or :ueenDs 8edding has not ta9en #lace there 8ithin the last t8enty years. and. and young men. %xce#ting the language of some of the oldBfashioned real (i#sies. Then again. 8ill tend #. to sho8 that my #revious statement as regards the amount of ignorance #revalent among the #oor (i#sy children has not been overBstated. and the #oor (i#sy children are brought under the .D and T#rinces. honesty. .he has had six brothers and one sister. . one of the /ees has a tombstone erected to his memory in Han8ell Cemetery.crubsD and the T'orth Pole.D T:ueens. and the last & heard of this 8onderful airy being 8as that he had ta9en u# his headB:uarters at the -oyal Hotel. old maids. and u#rightness.he said she had heard that & had ta9en u# the cause of the #oor (i#sy children to get them educated. and only one of the eight could read a little. and such silly nonsense is #ut out by the cunning. .D .he has had nine children born in a tent.he has seventeen grandchildren. 8ill come to the conclusion that there is much among them to com#are very unfavourably 8ith the most neglected in our bac9 streets and slums. and a fe8 other little #eculiarities. 8hich left no doubt of her meaning. The #oor (i#sy children are #oor. . 8ith hands u#lifted and tears in her eyes. four of 8hom are alive. /iver#ool. any one studying the real hard facts of a (i#syDs life 8ith reference to the amount of ignorance. and their #arents com#elled to send them to school as other #eo#le are. 8ith reference to the (i#sies having a religion of their o8n.he tells me that she got a most fat living for more than t8enty years by telling lies and fortunes to servantBgirls.D to enable them more readily to #ractise the art of lying and dece#tion u#on their gullible listeners. *f course. all born in a tent. )gain. There is a beautiful headstone #ut in a little churchyard about t8o and a half miles from $arnet in memory of the $rin9ly family.he also said TDoes the Jueen 8ish all our #oor (i#sy children to be educatedND & told her that the Jueen too9 s#ecial interest in the children of the 8or9ingBclasses. and a carriage 8ith eight 8heels and six #iebald horses had been #resented to him as a 8edding #resent from the (i#sies. ignorant things. as 8ith other TragamuffinD ramblers. and everything that is bad among them. are innumerable among the Troyal family. (i#sy T9ings. and only t8o of them can read and 8rite a little. There is not a 8ord of truth in this imaginative notion #revalent in the minds or some 8ho have been trying to study their habits.D &t is e:ually believing in moonshine and airBbubbles to believe that the (i#sies never s#ea9 of their dead. 8ith tears tric9ling do8n her . T& do ho#e from the bottom of my heart that (od 8ill bless and #ros#er you in the 8or9 till a la8 is #assed. there are some good among them. There 8as one in $edfordshire not long since. or tell a letter. and thin9s this a fair average of other (i#sy children. . said.D remar9able for her truthfulness. and it is carefully loo9ed after by members of the family. mostly out of a boo9 of 8hich she could not read a sentence.orest.

that are in #erfect accord 8ith 1r.ummer Day. & do bless her. . Daniel (orrie. in their #ilfering :uest *f stic9s and #ales to ma9e their evening fire. . neglected of its o8n. and a##eared in the Daily News under date .face. free. and hate constraint )nd every cognisance. 3et. entitled T) . . $y stealthy holes their ragged. & too9 the shilling.D there are some lines 8hich. and after a sha9e of the hand.I The foregoing letter brought forth the follo8ing letter from 1r. Do Thou. 8beautiful 8hite cloth. ho#ing to meet again on some future day. and.mithDs 8ise and 9indly suggestion.tate to do the large design. after ma9ing her a #resent of a co#y of the ne8 edition of my TCry of the Children from the $ric9Byards of %ngland.D 8hich she 8ra##ed in a #.tate seiFed and taught and trained To social duty and to Christian life. manifold. The lines are these4K HT&n yonder sheltered noo9 of nibbled s8ard. 8ith 8ealth and #o8er li9e hers. 8e #arted.tate claimed should be. 8hich ma9es restraint Part of its freedom. To let so many of her sons gro8 u# &n untaught dar9ness and consecutive viceN True. *ur liberties have limbs. & should li9e to :uote. not to name a higher #rinci#le. 8hose letter on the above sub<ect a##ears in your im#ression toBday.D . Coalville. bra8ny brood Cree# through the hedges. &n one of the late Thomas )irdDs #oems. T/ord. 8ho are allo8ed to gro8 u# as ignorant as savages that never sa8 the face nor heard the voice of a Christian missionary.o let the national 8ill. T& do than9 the /ord for such a good Jueen. a (i#sy band are cam#ed. and for such a nobleBhearted 8oman.mith. $eside the 8ood. )nd there theyDll slee# the summer night a8ay. as under4KH1r. Po8erBarm the .tate. /eicester. that it is to be ho#ed he 8ill attain e:ual success in dra8ing attention to the #itiful condition of the (i#sy children. . DT8ere but an institute of 8ise #olice That every child. as from a #oor (i#sy 8oman. bless her_D )fter some further conversation. and ta9ing dinner 8ith her in her humble 8ay in the van. oft the soundest #art. succeeded so 8ell in his efforts on behalf of the #oor slaveBchildren of the 1idland bric9Byards. she said she ho#ed & 8ould not be insulted if she offered me. a shilling to hel# me in the 8or9 of getting a la8 #assed to com#el the (i#sies to send their children to school.e#tember 1Ath. 8e are <ealous. 3et is it 8ise. (eorge . she said. +ntutored things scarce brought beneath the la8s )nd mee9 #rovisions of this ancient . 8ith your #ermission. oDer #rivate life.

sho8 children. vans. and the #arents com#elled Tby hoo9 or by croo9D to send their children to school at the #lace . and #rivilege should have taught them better things. the outcome of ignorance. and must be ta9en hold of. colleges. at these #oor children has had more to do in bringing about their #itiable and ignorant condition than can be imagined. (i#sy. & am see9ing to have all movable habitations. 8ill before long bring about the education of the canalBboat children.Kbut by bringing them in daily contact 8ith the children of these #arents. #otters. education. )s many #arents might not li9e the idea of (i#sy children attending the same $oard schools as their o8n. &t 8ould be 8ell for us to rub do8n class feeling among children as much as #ossible as regards their education. canalBboat. 8ere 8ritten by the #oet Rin losing 8hom 1r. 8ould it not be #ossible to establish s#ecial schools in those #arts of the 1idland counties 8here (i#sies Tmost do congregateDNI To 8hich & re#lied as under. canalBboat. and have to content themselves by having their children educated at either the national. tradesmen. registered and numbered.D by those 8hose duty. & may add. 5c. in tents. and other roadside arabs under the %ducation )cts. it is #leasing to note ho8 glad the #arents of (i#sy. 8ords. sho8s. if 8isely carried out. 5c. for their use solely. vans. as in the case of canalBboats. and actions are generally #ic9ed u# bet8een school times. & confess that it is not #leasant to hear that our children have #ic9ed u# vulgar 8ords at school. 80children higher u# the social scale. & consider that it 8ould be un8ise and im#racticable to build se#arate schools for either the bric9Byard. and also under some of the influences of our little missionary civilisers 8ho are brought u# and receiving some of their education in dra8ingBrooms. not by isolating them from other 8or9ingBclassesKcolliers.e#tember 1Ath4 KH&n re#ly to 1r. 0hat & have been and am still aiming at is the education of these children. $etter by far #ut u# 8ith these little ills than others 8e 9no8 not of. in 8hich the families live 8ho are earning a living by travelling from #lace to #lace. The Canal $oats )ct. @HThe above lines. educated. care. and (i#sies are of us and 8ith us. or $oard schools. i4e4. or other children moving about the country. es#ecially 8ould it be so in the case of (i#sy children and roadside arabs. 5c. and 8hose #arents cannot afford to send them to boardingB schools. and it re:uires #atience. $ritish. *n the other hand. The children of bric9Bma9ers.. Thomas Carlyle lost one of his oldest and most valued friendsS many. canalBboatmen. 5c. The Tturning u# of the nose. (orrieDs letter 8hich a##ears in your issue of this morning.. and elevated in things #ertaining to their future 8elfare. $ad habits. factory hands. and bric9Byard children are 8hen their children #ic9 u# Tfine 8ordsD and become more TgentlerifiedD by mixing 8ith #.#. and 8atchfulness on the #art of #arents to counteract some of the do8n8ard tendencies resulting from an uneven mixing of children brought u# and educated under such influences. tents.. iron8or9ers. in the Daily News bearing date . many years before the %ducation )cts no8 in force came into existence. and in order to bring the (i#sy children.

That the terms of this enactment should be excessively severe is hardly matter of astonishment. and has s9etched the natural history of the sturdy vagabond 8ho infests our roads and high8ays from early s#ring to late #. #. and it has been #rovided that any habitual tram# ma9ing his 8ay from #lace to #lace. #ublic o#inion has naturally run high. and that tram#s 8ho enter d8ellings 8ithout #ermission. Pennsylvania in this is but reverting to the old la8 of %ngland in the Tudor days. or other 8ea#ons. The education of these children should be brought about at all ris9s and inconveniences. Pennsylvania. and . They then sent letters demanding a large sum of money for his restoration. 8ere attem#ting to raise the money. 8ith a minuteness and #o8er of detail 8orthy of a $urton. and as it relates to the sub<ect & have in hand & :uote it in full4KH'ot only in his T+ncommercial Traveller. $y an act of %liFabeth idle soldiers and marines. until no less than t8enty thousand dollars 8as insisted u#on. or 8ho threaten to in<ure either #ersons or #ro#erty. and from that day to this the fate of Charley -oss has remained a mystery. %arly in the year 18 ! a cou#le of men 8ho 8ere travelling u# and do8n the country in a 8aggon stole from the home of his #arents in (ermanto8n.tate of Pennsylvania more es#ecially it has been found necessary to #ass 8hat may be described as an Habitual 2agrants )ct for his su##ression. &n the time of Henry 2&&&. There 8ere other enactments even more severe. 0hile the #arents. . and it 8as not until the year 1 @1 that the 8hi##ing of 8omen 8as ex#ressly forbidden by statute. ho8ever. 8ithout earning an honest livelihood. vagrants 8ere 8hi##ed at the cartDs tail. confined in its interest to the 1etro#olis and its ad<acent #arts. +nder these circumstances. source of #ositive danger. The ransom increased.e#tember 10th. as he 8as once amongst ourselves. on the one hand. 18 @. 8andering about the realm. 8hen 8e bear in mind the fate of little Charley -oss. or #ersons #retending to be soldiers or marines. 8>together 8ith the stoc9s. or $oard school. 8ere held ipso facto guilty of felony. 8ho carry fireBarms. be it national. $ritish.tates the habitual beggar has become as serious a nuisance. The 8hi##ingB#ost. and 8hile the #olice 8ere endeavouring to arrest the 9idna##ers. The t8o men believed to have been concerned in the abduction 8ere shot do8n in the act of committing a burglary on -hode &sland. Dic9ens. a boy of some seven years named Charley -oss. indeed. shall be #ut to 8or9 in the common #enitentiary for a #eriod of three years. 81autumn. &n the +nited . The sub<ect of vagabondage is not. shall be liable to im#risonment 8ith hard labour for a #eriod of t8elve months. 8as a cons#icuous ornament of every #arish green. and in the .I The follo8ing leading article u#on (i#sies and other tram#s of a similar class a##eared in the !tandard. all negotiations fell through.8herever they may be tem#orarily located. has described the intolerable nuisance inflicted by tram#s u#on residents in the home counties. or 8e may ex#ect a blac9er #age in the social history of this country o#ening to our vie8 than 8e have seen for many a long day. 8ho for many years lived in Gent.D but in many other scattered #assages of his 8or9s. and. 8ithout distinction of either sex or age.

8hen 8e remember ho8 many horrible outrages have 8ithin the last fe8 years been committed by ruffians of this 9ind.#aniard (arcia murdered an entire family in 0ales. he 8ill demand food and money. *nly recently the . they have given alms to an amount 8hich #ractically made the solicitation an act of brigandage. #etty violence is far from uncommon. it is :uite easy to understand the severity necessary in less civilised times. his mode of #rocedure is more or less the same. to 8hom. a small household 8as butchered for the sa9e of a fe8 shillings and such little #lunder as the humble cottage afforded. #ersons #laying or betting in the #ublic street. $ut 8hatever may be his #retence. or is in :uest of a ho#B#ic9ing <ob. or is a discharged soldier or sailor. and not giving a good account of themselves. &ndeed. and routs about. and tend to become rarer. or a labourer out of em#loyment. in des#air.uffol9 )ssiFes no less than thirteen (i#sies 8ere executed on the strength of this barbarous act. and in HaleDs TPleas of the Cro8nD 8e learn that at one . &f he can come u#on a roadside cottage left in the charge of a 8oman. chic9ens stolen. )nd although grave crimes of this 9ind are ha##ily rare. the sturdy tram# renders the country to a #. #ersons 8andering abroad to beg or causing any child to beg. )t the #resent #eriod of the year the country in the neighbourhood not of the 1etro#olis alone.D is a brief #eriod of hard labour under the #rovisions of the 2agrant )ct.hundreds of such offenders 8ere #ublicly executed. and if the demand be not instantly com#lied 8ith 8ill never hesitate at violence. and the 8orst that can no8 befall Tidle #ersons and vagabonds. or #ossibly only of a young girl. *stensibly he is a vendor of combs. of 8hom some are deemed Tidle and disorderly #ersons. &ndeed. not having any visible means of subsistence.D other Trogues and vagabonds. and outbuildings #lundered. but of all large to8ns. at Denham. by 8hich any (i#sy. 1any ladies resident in the country can tell ho8 they have been beset u#on the high8ay by sturdy tram#s of forbidding as#ect. +nder this com#rehensive statute are s8e#t together as into one common net a vast variety of #etty offenders.D +nder one or other of these heads are unlicensed ha89ers or #edlars. is filled 8ith offenders of this 9ind. near +xbridge. and no man 8ot from 8hence they come ne 8hither they go. or buttons. . and some fe8 years ago. such as 8a9e on the night and slee# on the day. *nly too often the rogues are in direct league 8ith the 8orst offenders in /ondon. and haunt customable taverns and aleBhouses.tatute $oo9 has long since been modified. or any #erson over fourteen 8ho had been seen or found in their fello8shi#. )nother act of the same 9ind 8as directed against (i#sies. #ersons lodging in any outhouse or in the o#en air. The farmerDs 8ife and the bailiff tell us ho8 haystac9s are converted into tem#orary lodgingBhouses. and 8ithout any other reason or cause 8hatever. and notorious thieves loitering about 8ith intent to commit a felony. HThe ancient severity of our . or bootlaces. 8Avery great extent unsafe for ladies 8ho have ventured to go about 8ithout #rotection.D and others again Tincorrigible rogues. 8as guilty of felony if he remained a month in the 9ingdom.

&n 8inter he becomes an inmate of the 8or9house. as often as not. indeed. and our local #olice and #oorBla8 officers are illBadvised if they do not follo8 the good exam#le thus set.D 8ho is the #lague of consuls and aversion of merchant s9i##ers. He . There is no a##reciation of the country about him. indeed.0hitecha#el su##lies a large contingent of the Gentish ho#B#ic9ers. The tram#. often #hysically unfit for 8or9. is a relic of uncivilised life 8ith 8hich 8e can very 8ell afford to dis#ense. and the TtravellerD 8ho is ostensibly in search of a hayma9ing or ho##ing <ob is. )s soon as it becomes 8arm enough to slee# in a haystac9. 2agabondage is not a heritage 8ith him. of any 9ind he sim#ly regards as 8ea9ness. ) romantic imagination #ictures him as a sort of #eri#atetic #hiloso#her. and constitutionally mutinous. living from hand to mouth. asthetic enthusiasm of this 9ind is a#t to be severely chec9ed by the #rosaic realities of actual existence. as it is 8ith the genuine (i#sies. is the sturdy idler of the roadsKa cousinBgerman of the TbeachB comber. as destitute of all 8orldly ends and aims as are the very violets of the hedgeBro8. in reality. as ha##y as the s8allo8s. &n almost every #ort of any siFe the harbour is beset by a gang of idle fello8s. 0or9 of any 9ind. no love of 'ature for its o8n sa9e. and a very #. much about the tram# that is #ictures:ue. safe in the assurance that should things go amiss the nearest 8or9house must al8ays #rovide him 8ith gratuitous board and lodging. slee#ing in the o#en air. and if he had the necessary #ersonal courage. HThere is. subsisting on the scantiest fare. and can immediately distinguish him from the on6. but 8ho are. and sho8 the tram# as little mercy as #ossible. or under a hedge. as #ur#oseless as the butterflies. and only begging to be allo8ed to live his o8n childli9e and innocent life. /eniency. Ca#tains 9no8 only too 8ell that the true TbeachBcomberD is al8ays incom#etent.fide Tharvester. 8!'ature. 9no8 the tram# at once. 8here he almost al8ays #roves himself turbulent and disorderly. living in constant communion 8ith #. 0hen his other resources fail. The tram#. led by that unerring instinct 8hich is the unconscious result of long ex#erience.D is utterly abhorrent to him. He 8ould be a high8ayman if the existing conditions of society allo8ed it. he thro8s himself u#on the nearest consul of the nation to 8hich he may claim to belong. sla9ing his thirst at the running broo9. no doubt. 8hose #retence is that they are anxious to sign articles for a voyage. although he vigorously #retends to be in T8ant of a <ob.D . )s it is.D in :uest of honest em#loyment.rom to8n to to8n he begs or steals his 8ay. li9e the noble savage. 8Cconsiderable sum is yearly 8asted in #roviding such ramblers 8ith free #assages to 8hat they #lease to assert is the land of their birth. HarbourBmasters and #ort authorities generally are a#t to treat notorious offenders of this 9ind some8hat summarily. Home county farmers. or in a thic9 clum# of furFe and brac9en. s#ying out the land. and an eyesore on our roads. he is a blot u#on our country life. and #lanning #rofitable burglaries to be carried out in 8inter 8ith the aid of his colleagues. he discharges himself from Tthe +nionD and ta9es to Tthe roads. 8ith more of =ac:ues in him than of )utolycus.

or 1s. familiarity 8ith 8hich at once tells its o8n tale. if not actually dangerous. these idle vagabonds 8ould be made to earn an honest living.outh 3or9shire. .I The foregoing article u#on (i#sies and tram#s brought from a corres#ondent in the !tandard. as & do. 8retched manD on his 8ay. . if only it be resolutely administered. There 8ill al8ays be 8ea9Bminded fol9 to #ity the #oor man 8hom the hardBhearted magistrates have sent to gaol for slee#ing under a haystac9Kforgetting that this interesting offender is. 3ou 8ill find that nine out of ten tram#s have been in #rison . 8hich occu#ies him all day. exce#t to8ards evening. and 8ho never 8ill. 8here. and if he is luc9y enough to meet a benevolent old lady out for her afternoon drive he 8ill get ?d. as long as they can get a living for nothing. ?d. or >s. but & am sure 8or9 could be found at 1s. 8hich is on the high road bet8een t8o of the #rinci#al to8ns in . and & am :uite sure if every householder 8ould ma9e a rule never to relieve tram#s 8ith money. ?d. The tram#. and even then he may come again at night as a burglar. the number 8ould soon be decreased. ho8ever. #assing from one to8n to another. exce#t it be in #rison. as you say in your article. and the more miserable and 8retched he can ma9e himself a##ear. ) tram# in a ten mile <ourney. as a mere migratory gaol bird. 0e seldom meet tram#s in to8n. 8ill fre:uently ma9e 1s. 8ith food. our existing la8 is sufficient to 9ee# the nuisance in chec9. as a rule.D and then go home thin9ing ho8 she has hel#ed Tthat #oor. they are an intolerable nuisance. and. or >s. 8ho 9no8s no tongue of the roads beyond the cant or T9ennic9D of thievesKa 0hitecha#el argot. a day by our cor#orations or on the high8ays. & am sure they 8ill soon find in their o8n to8n or village many cases more 8orthy of their charity than the high8ay tram#. They s#end their day in the country.e#tember 1>th. they 8ill continue to be. T) blot u#on the country and an eyesore on our roads. and the same may be #. Tram#s are a class of #eo#le 8ho never have 8or9ed.D H& al8ays find the :uic9est 8ay of getting rid of a tram# is to threaten him 8ith the #olice. under date .has ta9en to it from choice. or 8hat 8as formerly the coach road. 8ho 8ill steal 8hatever he can lay his hands on. no better than a common thief at large. besides being su##lied 8ith food. and the trueBbred -omany 8ill al8ays regard him 8ith contem#t. and 8ho ma9es our lanes and #leasant country by8ays un#leasant. & do not recommend anybody to find a tram# even tem#orary em#loyment.he 8ill say TPoor man. 8hen they come in for the casual 8ard. from her. a day. the more sym#athy he 8ill get. under #ro#er su#ervision. and only those 8ho are cri##led. &f you could stand at my gate for one day. &f #eo#le have any old clothes or s#are co##ers to give a8ay.ortunately. unless they can stand over him and then see the man safe off the #remises. trades u#on s#urious sym#athy. 8?said of any #lace in %ngland situated on the main road. you 8ould be astonished to see the number of tram#s #assing through our village. the follo8ing letter4KH& have <ust been reading the article in your #a#er on the sub<ect of tram#s. and to those 8ho reside near the high road.

sans c5r5(onie. and fodder stolen for their over8or9ed and cruellyBtreated :uadru#eds. the follo8ing is a leading article u#on the condition of (i#sies4KHThe incoming of . .D they really do not mean it. as they are free from the conventional rule 8hich re:uires the houseBd8elling #o#ulation. The . PoliceBConstable )rgus receives authority by 8hich he. the 8andering -omanyN True. but & al8ays tell them that there is as much 8or9 in one #lace as another.D & fancy & hear the benevolent old lady saying. %xce#ting that some of them #ay for a ha89erDs licence.actory )ct #revents the em#loying of boys or girls under a certain age. the only class for 8hom there is so little legislation. to T9ee# u# a##earances. 88for recreation. 18 @. his child of the tender age of nine or ten years. commands them to Tmove on. at carrying heavy lum#s on its head. untaxed and uncontrolled.D are <ust no8 receiving the s#ecial attention of 1r. $ut 8ho cares for. dignified by the name of Tcabin. there is not to be found in #rivileged %ngland a #eo#le so utterly debased and regardless of the characteristics of civilised life.mith. his field has been tres#assed u#on. The canal #o#ulationKthey 8ho are born and die in the circumscribed hole at the end of a barge. and & ex#ect 8hen they find Ttram#ingD is such a #leasant and easy mode of living they 8ill <oin the ran9s and become roadsters also.e#tember reminds us that in the ho# districts this is the season of advent of those $ritish nomadsKthe (i#sies. by turning itKboy or girlKinto the bric9Byard to toil.and have no character. or 8ith 8hose actions and habits. and secures for those 8ho are legally em#loyed a sufficient time #. they roam about as they list. and unless they really have a situation in vie8 they should not go tram#ing from to8n to to8n. 8 T8ant 8or9. often at great inconvenience.D should he come across any by the roadside in his diurnal or nocturnal #erambulations. . of Coalville. though the earnings of most of them amount to a considerable sum every year. shoeless and ragged. They also en<oy certain immunities 8hich are 8ithheld from other classes. or thin9s about.I &n $ay%s Aldershot Advertiser. *f course. and certainly. the agents of the la8 so seldom interfere. 1any of them have no characters to #roduce. The bric9ma9er may no longer debase and ruin. 'ot long ago & caught a great rough fello8 trying to get the dinner from a little girl 8ho 8as ta9ing it to her father at his 8or9. The farmerDs hedge has been made to su##ly them 8ith fuel for 8armth and for culinary #ur#oses. The miners of the $lac9 Country o8e the su##ression of <uvenile labour and the short time la8 to the long exertions of the generousB hearted -ichard *astler. la8less as they are. exce#ting the section of 8hom & am 8riting. so.e#tember 1Ath. and although they may say they #. during the last year 8e have had many men Ton the roadD 8ho are really in search of 8or9. $ut it often occurs that the ob<ect for 8hich they Tcam#edD in the s#ot has been accom#lished.D it often ha##ens that the 8earer of . TPoor man_ he must have been very hungry. the Tmove onD sim#ly means a little inconvenience resulting from their having to transfer their #ara#hernalia to another Tcam# groundD not far off. both morally and #hysically.

a registry is made of them. saving the time a census is ta9en. and natural la8. 8ithout inconvenience. and at night #itch their tent or dra8 their van on some common or 8aste land.D 'o ins#ector of nuisances #ays them a visit. and s#end lavishly.K=. The loss of a #. buy no corn for their horses.dwellers. find from Q!0 to Q80. or Q100 for a ne8Btravelling van 8hen they 8ant one. the taxBgatherer 9no8s not their 8hereabouts. and ma9e a #rolonged so<ourn.D their children are not #rovided 8ith #ro#er and necessary education. civil. they 8ent ho#B#ic9ing. nor s#end any money for coal or 8ood. and can. at the e7pense of the house. he is off to some other moneyBma9ing industry. and that being done he enters .I . they do 8ith im#unity. 8hen. moral. . and having done all there is to do of the 9ind he chooses.ome idea of his gross earnings may be obtained from the follo8ing fact4K T8o ableBbodied men. @0#ony from a common simultaneously 8ith their exodus is a sus#icious fact occasionally. T&t is only the (i#sies :uarrelling. and more. the u#roar. first he goes Tu# the country. and.urrey for ho#B#ic9ing R#reviously securing a TbinD in one of the gardensS. Ploughing or stoneBbrea9ing is not the em#loyment. the screams. and t8o 8omen. an old 8oman of #.D That over. 8hich the (i#sy usually see9s_ He ta9es the cream and leaves the s9immed mil9 for the cottier. yet no school attendance officer serves them 8ith a summons. T1ore than they have here. in ans8er to my :uestion. 8@about C years of age. Their existence is not 9no8n officially. yet no re#resentative of the $oard of Health troubles himself about the number of cubic feet of air #er individual there may be in their tent or van. the cries of TmurderD heard from their rendeFvous HT1a9e night hideous. obliviousness. said. ) (i#sy 8ill ma9e four harvests in one year. a disgrace to the legislature. THo8 much 8ill they earn thereND the farmer. 8ho is a ho#Bgro8er. the rateBcollector troubles them not 8ith any Tdemand note. or do the authorities believe that the im#urities and unsanitary exhalements are sufficiently oxidised to #revent any diseaseN &t is 8orthy of remar9 that they are not liable to the e#idemics 8hich afflict others. )fter that. They live in defiance of social. for T#easBhac9ing. indifference.D These o#erations 8ere #erformed in less than a :uarter of the year. The labour 8hich they choose is the most remunerative 9ind.D as he calls going into 1iddlesex. he goes into . &s this neglect. They can and do live s#aringly. returns to8ard Ham#shireK'orth HantsKto TfagD or tie. $. &n the #laces through 8hich they #ass to their 8or9 they sell 8hat they can. earned on a farm in one harvest. &f they locate themselves on the margin of a 8ood.the most tattered garments earns the most money. no less than Q!>. 0.D )ll this. and on that being done. *vercro8ding and numerous indecencies exist in galore among them. im#erial or local. 'ot a farthing do they contribute to the government.ussex RChichester KD8heatBfaggingD or tyingS. though many of them are in a #osition to do it.

0hen the #oor thing died he had not six#ence in his #oc9et. last =anuary. several of them being born in a roadside tent. so that the children may be brought under the com#ulsory clauses of the %ducation )cts. 1r. He thin9s there 8ill be an average of five children in each tent. heathenism.D *f the idleness. He has seen as many as ten or t8elve children in some tents.mith. roaming all over the country.DI The Illustrated London News. so she says. . *ne old man. and thin9s that a similar #ro#ortion 8ill be found in the rest of the +nited Gingdom. dra8s attention to the state of another neglected class. are to be allo8ed to live in these #laces. four lots #. he says.e#tember 1@th of last year. indeed. near )shbyBdeBlaBMouch. and thin9s that not one (i#sy in t8enty can.D 1r.he said that she had had sixteen children. Here. all of 8hom 8ere born in a tent. is a gentleman 8ho is certainly neither a dealer in crotchets nor a rider of hobbies. died. calculates that Tthere are about >C0 families of (i#sies in ten of the 1idland counties.mith has done admirable service on behalf of the #oor children on board our barges and canalBboats.he has travelled all her life. named . ignorance.oar. and eight or ten thousand children classed in the Census as vagrants and vagabonds. says4KH)mong the #a#ers to be read at 1anchester is one on the condition of the (i#sy children and roadside TarabsD in our midst. and has herself. 8hose efforts to better the condition of the 8retched canal #o#ulation have met deserved success. and 8as Hlaid outI by him. and her brother died and 8as buried out of a tent at Pac9ington. and to his #hilanthro#ic exertions are mainly due . 8hose ac:uaintance 1r. (eorge .mithDs conclusion R8hich 8ill not be dis#utedS is that Tto have bet8een three and four thousand men and 8omen. (eorge . /eicester. the editor says. is not a #leasant loo9Bout for the future. This #oor 8oman 9no8s about three hundred families of (i#sies in eleven of the 1idland and %astern counties. He has seen as many as ten tents of (i#sies 8ithin a distance of five miles. .he said she could not read herself. @1of (i#sies travelling in /incolnshire at the #resent time. T. fifteen of 8hom are alive. and general misery #revailing among these strange #eo#le he gives some curious instances. of 8hom there are not a fe8. Her mother.D )n old 8oman bore similar testimony. . they should be registered in a manner analogous to the Canal $oats )ct of 18 . in ignorance and evil training that carries #eril 8ith it. and it 8as also buried out of one of those 8retched abodes on the roadside at $arro8Bu#onB.D He contends that Tif these #oor children. and not many of them able to read or 8rite. His child of six months oldK8ith his 8ife ill at the same time in the tentKsic9ened. living in vans and tents and under old carts. . and the even more #itiable boys and girls in our bric9Bfields. Parliament.mith. .mith made. . of Coalville. is the mother of fifteen children. and become Christianised and civilised as other children. Tour roadside arabs. 8ith reference to our roadside arabs4KH1r. *ctober !th.he says that she 8as married out of one of these tents. 8hich has lately been reforming so many things.&n the &and and &eart.mith. by 1r. of Coalville. . 8ould have done 8ell to consider the case of the (i#sies.

0hether those restraints ta9e the form of orderly and cleanly living in houses of bric9 and of stone. is #retty much a matter of indifference to him. .000 to >0. or of school attendance. $ric9Byards and canalBboats have not exhausted 1r. but useless institutions.000 (i#sy and TarabDKthat is to say.DI The follo8ing leading article. and deliberate forgery that has been set afloat on the sub<ect of the (i#sies. *ctober ?th4KH)t the . Their vagrant habits. enable them.chools. The #. 1r. they are degenerate.mith has obligingly sent me a #roof of his address. .I a##ears in the Daily News. their children ought to be 8ithin reach of . The #hilanthro#ic )lexander is seldom in the unha##y condition of his 1acedonian original. from 8hich & gather that. and in the second. because. idle s#eculation.000 (i#sy men and 8omen. His o##ortunity is an . *ur most advanced #laces of technical education do not teach fortuneBtelling. and the successfully cunning attem#ts on their #art to baffle the enumerators. and the field he has no8 entered u#on is 8ider and #erha#s harder to 8or9 than either of these. is a detestable thing to them. that all the %nglish 8orld shall be examined. &t is only the (i#sy #ro#er 8ho has the o##ortunity of evading this vigilance. . o8ing to a su#erstitious disli9e 8hich the (i#sies entertain to8ards the Census. in the first #lace. relating to my #a#er u#on HThe Condition of the (i#sy Children. or that interesting branch of the tin9erDs art 8hich enables the #ractitioner in mending one hole in a 9ettle to ma9e t8o. on the other hand. %ducation and (i#sies seem at first sight to be 8ords mutually contradictory. @>result of 1r.mith desires to bring the (i#sy children under the o#eration of the %ducation )ct. (eorge . 0e may #ass over those degenerate members of the race 8ho have elected to #itch #ermanent tents in the slums and roo9eries of great to8ns. tram#Kchildren roaming about the country Toutside the educational la8s and the #ale of civilisation. it is only by con<ecture and guess8or9 that 8e can form any idea of the number of $ohemians in this country.cience Congress 1r.mithDs diligent in:uiries has led him to the assum#tion that there are not less than !. may be regarded from the (i#sy #oint of vie8 as not merely ir9some. indeed. exce#t of certain dubious 9inds.the recent amendments in the . one thing has been made tolerably clear.chool $oard visitors 8ho do their duty diligently. 8ithout much difficulty. or of military service. %xce#t for music the (i#sies do not seem to have much a#titude for the arts. they are more or less indifferent to literature. and generally has #lenty of 8orlds remaining ready to be con:uered. and that is the intense aversion 8hich the #ure bred (i#sy has to any of the restraints of civilised life. 8ill toBmorro8 o#en a fresh cam#aign of #hilanthro#y. He has no8 ta9en the case of the <uvenile T-omaniesD in hand. . HThe condition of the (i#sies is a sufficiently gloomy one. )mid the mass of imaginative fiction. and & 8ish him 8ell in his benevolent crusade.mith.ocial . .actory )cts regulating the labour of young children.mithDs energies. 1r. of Coalville. and from 1C. to evade #. and business. @Athe great commandment 8hich has gone forth.

and that in their o8n time the strangers. and the constant habit of aliases and double names ma9e identification still more difficult. Country residents. 8hich are #retty shar#ly #reserved. and to exist in the condition of undisturbed freedom and filth 8hich a##ears to be all that they desire. The chea#ness of modern manufactures has interfered a good deal 8ith the various trades of mending. but even this is meddled 8ith by the (orgio and his la8s. &nterference 8ith them is a#t to bring do8n a #. are of the most fluid. 8hen a (i#sy encam#ment comes near them. cannot legally be #ractised until the age of seventeen. and as this goes on the li9elihood of his #ractices becoming more and more undisguisedly criminal is .ortuneBtelling is a resource to some extent. the admission does not extend to the #resent day. and the average (i#sy child 8ould a##ear to be brought u# in a condition 8hich is the ne plus ultra of both. unless the 8hole race of moralists have combined to re#resent things falsely. &dleness and ignorance. &t is true that (i#sies do not very often ma9e their a##earance in courts of <ustice. and though the hardshi#s to 8hich young children are ex#osed thin it considerably. and until that time the (i#sy child has nothing to do exce#t to s#ra8l and loaf about the cam#. is difficult. $ut even if 8e admit that it might have been merry in good green8ood under the conditions #ictures:uely described in ballads. . the #ro#ortion of children to adults is still very large. There is no good green8ood no8. The #artnershi#s bet8een men and 8omen are rarely of a legal 9ind.o the &shmaelites are left #retty much alone to 8ander about from roadside #atch to roadside #atch to #ic9 u# a living someho8 or other. . not to say intangible character. if not interfered 8ith. exce#t on a small scale and at considerable ris9.excellent one. Ha89ing. man9ind having made u# their minds that it is better to buy ne8 things and thro8 them a8ay 8hen they fail than to have them #atched and cobbled. exce#t a fe8 insignificant #atches. @!visit from that very un#leasant fo8l. and still more to the mild but very definite terrorism 8hich they exercise. are the #arents of every sort of vice. their chief ostensible occu#ation. HThe gloss has long been ta9en off the #icture 8hich imaginative #ersons used to varnish for themselves as to the -omany. and the 9illing of game. 0hether in our climate o#enBair living 8as ever thoroughly satisfactory is a :uestion not easy to ans8er.D 8hose cro8ings usually cost a good deal more than a stray chic9en here and a vanished blan9et there. The raison d%8tre of the vagabond (i#sy is getting smaller and smaller in %ngland. )s a rule. 'or. 8ill go. (i#sy households. but this is #artly o8ing to the cunning 8ith 8hich their #eccadilloes are #ractised. and to indulge in his o8n devices. %ngland is every year becoming more and more enclosed. #artly to their 8ellB9no8n habit of stic9ing by one another. 9no8 that a certain amount of blac9mail in this 8ay or that has to be #aid. and he fully avails himself of it. the race is remar9ably #rolific. the Tred coc9. #erha#s is any country in %uro#e so little fitted for these gentry as ours. if they can be so called. and the s#aces 8hich are not enclosed are more and more carefully loo9ed after.

Leicester Daily $ercury. @Cother influences have been sufficient to 8or9 u#on them. romance. & #ur#ose follo8ing out very briefly the same course on the #resent occasion as & ado#ted on the three times & have had the honour to address the . Record. under the #residency of Dr. though less tragically.cience Congress 8ith reference to the bric9B yard and canalBboat childrenKviF. for immediately & began to read it in the large room. )lthough it 8as at the Hfag endI of the session. the conduct of that #romising . ) (i#sy at school suggests odd ideas. $ut it is by no means certain that this 8ould be the case. @?8ould be done in the 8ay of legislation. &f they can live in to8ns at all. ) century or t8o ago the innate $ohemianism of the race might have made this difficult. it 8as manifest & 8as to be honoured 8ith a large audience. The #a#er caused some excitement in the country.outh )frican #rince 8ho. Nottingha( 9ournal.ox. and the chairman said that the result of my labours 8ith regard to the (i#sies 8ould be that something #.chool $oard. of the /ondon . culture. it 8as evident the announcement in the #a#ers that my #a#er 8as to be read on Tuesday morning had created a little interest in the (i#sy children :uestion. they can live in them after the manner of civilised to8nsmen. and sentiment. to catch him young and educate him. Nottingha( Guardian. of /ondon. including the Leicester Daily #ost.I The follo8ing is a co#y of my #a#er u#on the HCondition of (i#sy Children. H.I Dr. Collins. from his o8n observation and 9no8ledge of the #ersons & had :uoted. Dr. (ladstone. .ocial . the hall 8as nearly full of merchant #rincesK8ho could afford to leave their bags of gold and cottonKand ladies and gentlemen desirous of listening to my humble tale of neglected humanity. #. o#ened the discussion and said that he could. and others nearly in full. of course. in %ngland. and other gentlemen too9 #art in the discussion. and the outcasts of society.I as read by me before the . testify to the truthfulness of my remar9s. before & had #roceeded very far 8ith it. 1r. commonly called H(i#siesD children. Crofton. solemnly too9 off his trousers Ras a more decisive 8ay of sha9ing our dust from his feetS. in musical sounds of the highest #itch of refinement. and imagery. 1r. The best 8ay to #revent this is. and 8as co#ied lengthily into many of the daily #a#ers. and began vigorously to 9ill colonists. the other day. and the last #a#er but t8o.cience Congress. and one might ex#ect that the #u#ils 8ould imitate some day or other. that of attem#ting to #lace a fe8 serious. !unday !chool Chronicle. The old order of (i#sy life has. at any rate. $ut it is clear that even if the (i#sy blood has not been largely crossed during their four centuries of residence in %ngland. &t has ceased to be even #ictures:ue. H. held at 1anchester on *ctober th. 18 @.obvious. become something of an im#ossibility and everything of a nuisance.ocial . . that. and 8as read as follo8s4K H)s it is not in my #o8er to o#en out a #ainful sub<ect in the flo8ery language of fiction. and it 8as the unanimous feeling of those #resent that something should be done to remedy this sad state of things. so much so. if not im#ossible. Haviland..

sac9ing. ) tent as a rule is about ft. reside in houses 8hich. 5c.ound *ut. tells me a similar story. 8hose Paradises are in the neighbourhood of 0orm8ood . ta9ing these things along 8ith others.ome fe8 (i#sies 8ho have arrived at 8hat they consider the highest state of a res#ectable and civilised life. 'e8 . and 1C. and li9e #laces. and stands on the dam# ground.crubs. *f ha89ers. ?in. Dul8ich Common. and the number given in the Census. ) (i#sy 8oman 8ho has moved about all her life says she 9no8s about A00 families #. and !ft. no correct number has been arrived at. @ in ten of the 1idland counties. high at the to#. Their beds consist of a layer of .000 in the neighbourhood of /ondon. to 9ee# the rain and sno8 out. )nother (i#sy. *thers have their tents and vans. not less than A. 'otting Hill Pottery. among the scum and offscouring of all nations. 1itcham Common. it may be fairly assumed that & am under the mar9 8hen & state that there are not less than !. and it is only by guess 8or9 and con<ecture 8e can form any idea of the number of (i#sies there are in this country. H*8ing to a su#erstitious regard and disli9e the (i#sies had to8ards the Census. and li9e locusts they leave a blight behind them 8herever they have been. and their endeavours to evade being ta9en. $arnes Common.orest. Cherry &sland.000 (i#sy men and 8omen. and others 8ho live in caravans 8ith their families. The fire by 8hich they coo9 their meals is #laced in a 9ind of tin buc9et #ierced 8ith holes. They are covered 8ith #ieces of old cloth. The other #art of the smo9e hel#s to 9ee# their faces and hands the #ro#er (i#sy colour.ome of the smo9e or sul#hur arising from the stic9s or co9e finds its 8ay through an o#ening at the to# of the tent about >ft. %##ing .000 to >0. long. H. commonBsense vie8. auctioneers. there 8ould be. and there are many others 8ho & have tents only. broad dar9 facts in a #lain. in diameter. are in the lo8est and most degraded #art of the to8ns. sho8men. ?in. and com#elled you to extend the hand of sym#athy and hel# to rescue my young clients from the dreadful and #erilous condition into 8hich they have fallen through long years of neglect. at a rough calculation. ) gentleman 8ho has lived and moved among them many years 8rites me to say that there cannot be less than >. The Census #uts the number at bet8een !.000 children. /ordshi# /ane.. and says the same #ro#ortion 8ill be borne out all over the country. the o#ening to allo8 the (i#sies to go in and out of their tent is covered 8ith a 9ind of coverlet. in a different #art of %ngland. so as to #ermeate your nature till they have reached your hearts and consciences. in @@ cases out of 100. 1?ft.000. $attersea.hard.000 (i#sy and other children moving about the country outside the educational la8s and the #ale of civilisation. . #ractical. Gensal (reen. 8ide.000 and C. ) gentleman told me some time since that he gave a tea to over 1C0 (i#sies residing in the neighbourhood of Gensal (reen.

but this is a business they do not indulge in too often. and the 9nives and for9s they #rinci#ally use are of the 9ind )dam used. thieving. 8ho #reaches occasionally. covered 8ith a sac9 or sheet. not more than half living as men and 8ives are married. They are not overdone 8ith coo9ing utensils. +#on the shoulders of the 8omen rests the res#onsibility of #roviding for the herds of ditchBd8elling heathens. but in vain do & loo9 for any im#rovement among the children.D & am also assured by /evi $os8ell. another in their arms. lie huddled together in such a state as 8ould shoc9 the #. bringing to their heathenish tents sufficient to 9ee# the family. and the %ducation )cts not being sufficiently strong to lay hold of their dirty. )n old soa#box or teaBchest serves as a chest of dra8ers. and every other abominable. T8e are either li9e devils or li9e lambs. and there is an end of it. %ast8ood. and a heavilyBladen bas9et by their side.D &n the case of some of the adult (i#sies living on the outs9irts of /ondon an im#rovement has ta9en #lace. begging. Tthey go together. There is some good among them as 8ith others. ChairBmending.aturday afternoons. 1any of the 8omen en<oy their short #i#es :uite as much as the men. as the case may be. H=udging from the conversations & have had 8ith the (i#sies in various #arts of the country. and sensitive 8hen a##lied to hot 8ater. *8ing to the act relating to #edlars and ha89ers #rohibiting the granting of licences for ha89ing to the youths of both sexes under seventeen. a Christian 8oman and a (i#sy. live. she becomes fearful. travelling tribes to educate themKexce#t in rare casesKthey are allo8ed to s9ul9 about in ignorance and evil training. and ta9ing the 8ords of a res#ectable (i#sy 8oman. and die. idle. men. 8omen. tin9ering.D as has been re#orted of them. ) (i#sy in 0iltshire has built himself a house at the cost of Q?00. )s in other cases 8here idleness and filth abounds. and can be seen very often 8ith a child u#on their bac9s. ta9e each otherDs 8ords. &n some instances these things are carried out to such a #itch as to render them more li9e imbeciles than human beings endo8ed 8ith reason. and as one said to me a fe8 days since. @@been illBused. as many of the 8omen go by t8o names.stra8 u#on the dam# ground. not even T<um#ing the broomstic9. 8hat little 8ashing they do is generally done on the . cunning craft that ignorance and idleness can devise. to 8hom 8e send missionaries to sho8 them the blessings of Christianity. and a 1rs. lo8. 0hen once a (i#sy 8oman has #. /ying. @8modesty of . dra8ingBroom table. cheating. and clothesBbox.D 8hile the 8omen and children go about the country begging and fortuneBtelling. Considerable difficulty is ex#erienced sometimes in finding them out. and ha89ing are in many instances used only as a Tblind.outh )frican savages. gro8nBu# sons and daughters. 'o form or ceremony has been gone through. They ta9e their meals and do their 8ashing s:uatting u#on the ground li9e tailors and Mulus. that not half the (i#sies 8ho are living as men and 8ives are married. a real res#ectable (i#sy. &n these #laces children are born. they #ractise. The #oor 8omen are the slaves and tools for the 8hole family. 8ithout being taught ho8 to get .

1rs. unless ta9en hold of by the . 'o ray of ho#e enters their honest living. and only t8o can read and 8rite a little. Trodneys. has eight brothers and sisters. and die li9e dogs. u# to the #resent. a (i#sy 8oman and a Christian. 8ho no8 and then ta9e their flight from the Tstone cu#D and settle among them as they are cam#ing on the ditch ban9s. and nineteen grandchildren. a Christian and a (i#sy. as a rule.he herself has fifteen sons and daughters alive. some #. and that but very little indeed. and have given the (i#sies a 8ide %ast8ood.D and gaol birds. . Children born under such circumstances.tate. 2ery much. and 1r. and he also thin9s that about half the (i#sy men and 8omen living as husbands and 8ives are unmarried. says she has six sons and daughters and sixteen grandchildren. %ast8ood thin9s this #ro#ortion 8ill a##ly to other (i#sies. 1rs. generally bet8een eight and sixteen children are born in their tents. has fifteen brothers and sisters. *8ing to their ex#osure to the dam# and cold ground they suffer much from chest and throat com#laints. vagabonds. 101of 8hom have large families. $ut of the 8hole of . 1r. their highest ambition is to live and loll about so long as the food comes. This is a redeeming feature in their character. the men hel#ing themselves to gameKto locate in the neighbourhood until they have received the ti# from the farmer to #ass on to his neighbours. ) (i#sy 8oman. have been encouraged by servant girls and farmersKby su##lying their 8ants 8ith eggs. 8hose headB:uarters are near )shbyBdeBlaBMouch. (i#sies. the follo8ing cases. $os8ell. #robably their offences may have been 8in9ed at by the farmers and others 8ho do not li9e the idea of having their stac9s fired and #ro#erty destroyed. 0ith regard to their education. 100have been brought in contact 8ith. Trayleer has six brothers and sisters. The real oldBfashioned (i#sy has become more le8d and demoralised Kif such a thing could beKby allo8ing his sons and daughters to mix u# 8ith the scam#s. mil9. selected from different #arts of the country. 8ill turn out to be a class of most dangerous characters. and the result has been that but fe8 of the real (i#sies have found their 8ay into gaols. the 8ants of the 8omen and children have been su##lied through gulling the largeBhearted and liberalBminded they #. may be fairly ta9en as re#resentative of the entire (i#sy community. have very large families. a res#ectable (i#sy. . &n many instances they live li9e #igs. and none of them can read or 8rite. /arge numbers of the children die young before they are Tbro9enD in. the conse:uence is our lanes are being infested 8ith a lot of dirty ignorant (i#sies. in addition to this number they have bet8een them from 1A0 to 1C0 first and second cousins. bacon. and there is scarcely one among them 8ho can tell a letter or read a sentence. #otatoes. 8ho. many among them have large families. %ast8ood says she has nine brothers and sisters.D )nd it is a Tbrea9ing inD in a tremendous sense. fraught 8ith fearful conse:uences. says he has had nine sons and daughters Rsix of 8hom are aliveS. and not one can read or 8rite. 8ith their tribes of s:ualid children. no matter by 8hom or ho8 it comes so that they get it. some of 8hom are married. among 8hom there are not more than t8o 8ho can read or 8rite. 1rs. ma9ing a total of adults and children of about fifty of all ages. all (i#sies.

and li9e #laces used as d8ellings registered and numbered.mith. 0ith regard to the education of the children 8hen once the tent or van is registered and numbered. t8addle. The (i#sies are a strange race. auctioneers. and #ush. 8hether travelling as (i#sies. 10>sho8ing that the child 8as attending school.ocial . yesterday. if 8e do our duty. and sound education could be im#arted to. these #oor little (i#sy children and roadside arabs. & 8ould have all tents. not more than three or four can read or 8rite. and the children com#elled to go to schoolKin fact. and a great deal of this may lay at the door of flattery. a #lain. nearly all gro8nBu#.chool $oard officers in every to8n and village.. the children. and . and obtained by. are mostly idle during the day. 8hose exertions on behalf of the canal #o#ulation and the children em#loyed in bric9Byards have been accom#anied 8ith so much success. and & have not found one (i#sy but 8hat thin9s it 8ould be a good thing if their tents and vans 8ere registered. &n the case of the bric9Byard and canalBboat children. is no8 turning his attention to the education of the (i#sies.I The follo8ing is a leading article in the 'ir(ingha( Daily $ail. #ractical. nieces. 1atthe8s has a family of seven children. auctioneersD vans. The education obtained in this 8ay 8ould not be of the highest order. thus it 8ill be seen that & shall be under the mar9 8hen & state that not five #er cent. of the (i#sies. caravans. *ctober 8th4 KH1r. these children and roadside arabs. but through the 9indness of the schoolmasterKfor 8hich extra trouble he should be com#ensated. 1rs. a boo9 similar to the halfBtime boo9. grandchildren. as he ought to be under the Canal $oats )ctKand the vigilance of the . 5c. and it could be endorsed by the schoolmaster #. and not one out of the 8hole of these can read or 8rite. (eorge .cience Congress. they could ta9e from #lace to #lace as they travel about.chool $oard visitor. sho8s. 5c. travelling about the country in tents and vans can either read or 8rite. ambition. in 8hich their names and attendance at school could be entered. conse:uently. animation. ne#he8s.these brothers and sisters. 8ith a romantic history.. #etting. and they 8ho can but very im#erfectly. 8ho. and under #ro#er sanitary arrangements and su#ervision of the sanitary ins#ectors and .. are indulging in #ractices that are fast 8or9ing their o8n destruction and those they are brought into contact 8ith. suggesting that the same #lan of registration 8hich had #roved advantageous in the case of the canalBboatmen and their families should be ado#ted for the more nomadic class 8ho roam from #lace to #lace. for the 8ant of education. 8ith no settled home and no local habitation. numbering not less than 100 of all ages. HThe #lan & 8ould ado#t to remedy this sad state of things is to a##ly the #rinci#les of the Canal $oats )ct of 18 to all movable habitationsK i4e4. He read a #a#er on this sub<ect at the . many of them are anxious for such a thing to be brought about. &n the case of the (i#sy children. and fear. they 8ere overB8or9ed as 8ell as ignorant. 8ill be :ualified to fill the #laces of those of our best artisans 8ho are leaving the country to see9 their fortunes abroad. 5c.

having neither house.D 8ith its freedom from all the restraints of a conventional state of society. 8ho go #eddling through the 8ide 8orld. $ut the #retty (itana of the stage is altogether a different sort of being from the bro8nBfaced. or 9insmen of the $aFeegars of Calcutta. varied 8ith a rude sort of magic. and the mysteries of their religion during a long career of restless movement and fre:uent #ersecution. 8hence they s#rang. H&t is very easy to give a romantic and even a sentimental colouring to the 8andering -omany. living in a mysterious aloofness from their fello8Bmen. &n the days of our infancy 8e are frightened 8ith tales of their childBthieving #ro#ensities. There is but small chance of $ohemian (irls finding themselves in dra8ingBrooms no8adays. or are descended from the robbers of the &ndus.D That descri#tion 8ould hold good at the #resent day. 0ithout education. is not 8ithout its attractive sideK in boo9s and in ballads.D and #lays and o#eras have been #. they transmit their vagrant habits to generation after generation. *#inion. 10!8ritten to illustrate the su#eriority of vagabondage over civilisation. Pilfering. but 8hether they are the Tshandalas referred to in the la8s of 1enou. but not o#enly. and the s8indling arts of divination and chiromancy for the s#ecial behoof of credulous servantBgirls. The (i#sies are still a laFy. )nd they have 9e#t. are the stoc9BinBtrade of the modern Mingaris. follo8ing in the 8a9e of the learned -udiger. and ho8 they came to be so largely scattered over three of the four :uarters of the globe. and Tsna##ing u# unconsidered triflesD li9e )utolycus of old. The last ex#eriment of the 9ind 8as . and #ossibly they never 8ill be. and not too creditable habits. and even 8hen years and reason have asserted their influence 8e are a#t to regard 8ith a survival of our childish a8e the 8andering Tdiviners and 8ic9ed heathensD 8ho roam about the country.their vagabond life is surrounded 8ith enough of the mysterious to give them at all times a s#ecial and curious interest. but 8ith the real motive of #ic9ing u# 8hatever may be lying in her 8ay. their languageK8hich is a sort of daughter of the old . or are identical 8ith the 'uts and D<atts of 'orthern &ndia. The (y#tologists are not yet agreed u#on the ancestry of this ancient but obscure race. and #er#etuate all the vices of a la8less and nomadic life. 0e 9no8. elfBloc9ed. telling fortunes. 10Afrom &ndia. thieving set of rogues. nor home.cores of theories have been #ro#ounded as to the origin of the (i#sy race. %arly in the t8elfth century an )ustrian mon9 described them as T&shmaelites and braFiers. 1inor #oets have told us that Tthe (i#syDs life is a <oyous life. and ta8drily dressed female 8ho haunts bac9 entries 8ith the ostensible ob<ect of selling clothesB#egs. ho8ever. that the (i#sies have 8andered u# and do8n %uro#e since the eleventh century. The Tgreen8ood home. and that they have #reserved their $ohemian characteristics. and deceiving man9ind. and 8ithout industry. . if not from a still earlier #eriod. 8ho get their living by robbing henBroosts. cheating the #eo#le 8ith their tric9s. has finally settled do8n to the vie8 that they came #. their indolent.anscritKtheir traditions. too. has not been ascertained 8ith any degree of certainty.

&t does not loo9 so grand on #a#er. H&t is #ro#osed that the #rinci#les of the Canal $oats #. and gro8nBu# sons and daughters lie huddled together. that is. restless s#irit 8as untameable. caravans. 1r. 'early half a century ago the -ev. and the divorce court #roved that the su##osed #rece#t of fidelity.mith #oints out that 8hen once a tent or van had been registered and numbered.outh )frican savages. Crabb. . and brea9 a8ay from the s:ualor and #recarious existence 8hich has held so many generations of them in thrall. it remains for our more enlightened times to deal 8ith them on a humaner #lan. and not five #er cent. 1r. auctioneersD vans. but the scheme 8as com#aratively futile. #ast failure is no reason 8hy a ne8 attem#t should not be made. and in many cases they Tlive li9e #igs and die li9e dogs. the attendances at school could be endorsed by the schoolmasterKfor 8hich extra trouble he should be com#ensatedKas the children travelled about from #lace to #lace. 1r. and #ut under #ro#er sanitary su#ervision. but it is a nobler . outside the educational la8s and the #ale of civilisation. but the 8ild.D for men. 8hich is said to guide the conduct of (i#sy 8ives. &t is only by the ex#anding influence of education that the little minds of their children can gain a necessary ex#erience of the utility and dignity of honest labour. in 8hich the names of the children having first been entered.000 (i#sy men and 8omen. sho8s. .made by the 8riter of a charming boo9 on the (i#sies. of them can either read or 8rite. The (i#sies have nothing in common 8ith our conventional 8ays and habits. and education is the only thing that is li9ely to have any #ractical results. formed a society 8ith the ob<ect of amalgamating the (i#sies 8ith the general #o#ulation. 0hen they have received some measure of instruction they 8ill be fitter to emerge from the aimless and vagabond life of their forefathers. 1r. 8ho 8as so fascinated by one of their number that he married her. 10C)ct shall be a##lied to all movable habitations. $y this means something tangible 8ould be done to #revent the roadside 8aifs from gro8ing u# in the ignorance 8hich is the #arent of idleness. 8e admit. &n #ast ages the (i#sies have been sub<ected to harsh la8s and barbarous edicts. and from 1C. shall be registered and numbered. and 8hether it is #ossible ever to remove the barrier that se#arates them from civilisation is a :uestion 8hich only ex#eriment can satisfactorily ans8er. it could be furnished 8ith a boo9 similar to a halfBtime boo9. .mithDs scheme is not the first. of . by many. that has been made to im#rove the conditions of (i#sy life.mith says there cannot be less than !. there is no sentimental halo around its history 8hich it 8ould be cruel to dis#el. is not 8ithout its exce#tions. 1r. Their mode of life is such as T8ould shoc9 the modesty of .D There is certainly room enough here for education.000 to >0. . There are no traditions of (i#sy life 8orth #er#etuating. 0hy should these ten or fifteen thousand little nomads be allo8ed to remain in the neglected condition 8hich has characterised their strange race for centuriesN &t is time that the s#ell 8as bro9en.mithDs idea is 8orthy the attention of legislators.000 (i#sy children moving about the country. 8omen.outham#ton. and li9e #laces used as d8ellings. .till. that all tents.

&f he is not the Cro:uemitaine of every floating nursery <ourneying inland from the metro#olis he ought to be. or even in a generation. .mith of Coalville. 8ould be a smiling re8ard of #hilanthro#y and an im#ortant addition to our civilisation. and for ta9ing a8ay from them their Tfree mountains.chool $oard visitors to see that the (i#sies render their children amenable to the terms of the act to the extent of their 8andering ability. of course. and he 8ould ordain it as the duty of . and closer intimacy 8ith the conditions of industrial life may teach them that civilisation has some com#ensations to offer for the sacrifice of their roaming #ro#ensities. ho8ever.thing to educate the young barbarian at home than to ma9e 8ar u#on the unoffending barbarian abroad. eventually #. and become absorbed into the general #o#ulation of the country. . ) generation of bargemen 8ho had a less uncom#romising vocabulary of oaths. #erha#s.ocial . nothing can be lost by conferring on the young T)rabsD of the tents the rudiments of an education 8hich 8ill hereafter be hel#ful to them if they are desirous of abandoning their s:ualor and indolence.mithDs name as one associated #. 8ho could beguile some of the tedium of their voyaging 8ith reading. su#ervised and ins#ected. in a leading article. says4KH1r. therefore. 0hether that absor#tion ta9es #lace sooner or later. it may be ex#ected that each <uvenile of the 8harves and loc9s no8 associates his most unha##y moments. The instincts and habits 8hich have been transmitted from father to son for hundreds of years are not. and 8ho in other im#ortant res#ects sho8ed the influences of halfBtime. he has been #ut on the road to 9no8 things that must necessarily disillusionise him of the blac9 enchantments of life on the 8ater high8ay.I The )ee*ly Dispatch. and the 8indsD 8hich are the com#anions of their free and unfettered. *ctober 1Ath. that having recovered from the first discomforts of civilising soa# and #rimers. but the time 8ill. has an eye for the nomads of the country.mith antici#ates some such re8ard is evident from the eagerness 8ith 8hich he has been #ushing the #rinci#le in another :uarter. the stars. to be eradicated in a day. 10 8ith 9indly intent and generous as#irations in his behalf. His name must already be unfavourably 9no8n throughout most of the canal barges of the +nited Gingdom. by the Canal $oats )ct of 18 .cience Congress he has <ust #ro#ounded a scheme of educational annexation for (i#sy children similar in every res#ect to that a##lied to the occu#ants of the canalBboats. but 8asted and #ur#oseless lives. for it 8as mainly he 8ho thrust a halfBtime boo9 into the hands of the bargee and com#elled him. Their dread of fixed and continuous occu#ation may die out in time. he 8ould have every tent and van numbered and furnished 8ith a halfBtime boo9. )t the .mith. their #lains and 8oods. (eorge . &t is allo8able to ho#e. 10?come 8hen the (i#sies 8ill cease to exist as a se#arate and distinct #eo#le. and of earning an industrious livelihood. That 1r. he 8ill yet live to a##reciate 1r. -egistered and numbered. the sun. 0ith . under . to soa# his infantsD faces and #ut #rimers in their 8ay. That is. of Coalville. The halfBtime boo9 of the act comes bet8een him and the blessed state of his #revious ignorance.

threat of the usual #enalties. &t is a curious reflection. He is a 8ellBloo9ing artistic vagabond. and that the #im#les did not de#art from the *liver face. fe8 of them being able even to 8rite their names.D after 8hich the name of the herb 8ould be givenKon the follo8ing day.chool $oards. that such strange credulity as that dis#layed by the $ournemouth sho#9ee#er in this case can be found in the #resent year of grace.mith. . $y certain #roceedings 8hich too9 #lace at Christchurch PoliceBcourt on Tuesday. 8aistcoat. The T(i#syDs homeD for the next t8o months 8ill be in the county gaol. 8ith its gigantic machinery for educating the masses. but it is e:ually im#ossible to be sanguine as to results. 8ho are leaving the country to see9 their fortunes abroad.D $efore doing so. has the follo8ing notice4KH1r. has many arteries of untameable blood 8ithin him. and marriage are as un9no8n to him as the commonest distinction bet8een mine and thine. The true (i#sy.I . immortality. (eorge . has lately turned his attention to the 8andering (i#sy tribes 8ho infest the roadside.outh )frican savages. He says that the (i#sies are lamentably ignorant. 108be no better than a standing <o9e to be crac9ed 8ith im#unity at the ex#ense of the rural . . and some silver to Tsteam in hot 8ater. 8ho is not to be confounded 8ith the desultory ha89er of %nglish origin. it 8ould almost seem that some of the dar9Bfaced 8anderers already are educated a little too much.D &t is im#ossible not to 8ish 1r.000 8ill be rescued from a #osition 8hich. )t all events.I The !ports(an of *ctober 1?th. she re:uired -ichardDs coat and 8aistcoat. 8ith the vie8 to #rocuring at least a modicum of education for their children. 8hose #hilanthro#ic efforts on behalf of Tour canalBboat #o#ulationD are 8ell 9no8n. &t seems that *liver is troubled 8ith #im#les on his face. 18 @. and 8ill thus be brought in to honest industry and T:ualified to fill the #laces of our best artisans. of Coalville. and silver did not return to the *liver home. by the 8ayKsaid she could cure these by means of a certain herb. ho8ever. The #ros#ect 8hich he foresees from such treatment is that a body of 8anderers numbering not much belo8 >0. )t the court in :uestion a (i#sy 8oman named %mma $arney 8as brought to tas9 for Tim#osing by subtle craft to extort moneyD from a $ournemouth sho#9ee#er named -ichard *liver. he says.uch ideas as those of (od. &t is needless to say that the coat. . and that %mma $arneyKnot an ina##ro#riate name. they occasionally manifest an ability to Tta9e a staveD out of the rest of the community. ho8ever. He has never as yet sho8n the slightest concern about the %nglish #hases of civilisation 8hich 1r.mithDs scheme 8ell.mith 8ould li9e to #ress u#on his notice. to 8hom a halfBtime boo9 and a #enalty 8ill in all #robability #. the name of 8hich she 8ould divulge Tfor a consideration. es#ecially as he contends that the (i#sies themselves are not averse to having their children educated. 8ould at #resent shoc9 .

though he su##osed the #revailing de#ression of trade might have had something to do 8ith it. or #ieces of TcommonD over 8hich no authority claims any rights. and this 8as that out of the fortyBfive #risoners t8enty had been #reviously convicted. 8ho 8ill move a8ay again before an authoritative o#inion can be #ronounced u#on any :uestion affecting =ohn Duc98orth. . 8hich s#rang from an examination of the gaol delivery. and some of these t8iceBca#tured vermin of our community might tell a #iteous tale of the obstacles that lie in the 8ay of honesty. ta9en from the Daily Telegraph. 8ith all their failings. 8omen. ta9ing the last five years. and still are. 8ill sho8 that crime is far from abating among the classes of the (i#sy #. 3et. They do not cause rents to rise. members of the (i#sy tribeKcam#ed in the outlying districts of /ondon. the heaviest. and to a certain degree ineradicable by #unishments. or if there are rights. 9no8n for many years. had to tell them that the calendar 8as very heavy. has the follo8ing article u#on the (i#sies near /ondon. under date *ctober >?th. There 8ere fortyBfive #risoners for trial. and children. in fact. 8hereas the average number is t8entyBfive. The (i#sies. 18 @.essions. as Chairman of the Devon Juarter . they fulfil the fate im#osed u#on them 8ith a degree of .uch a #ercentage goes far to #rove that the criminal #ro#ensity is innate. and this only enhances the immense im#ortance of national education. ho8ever. and crave a sufferance on account of their hard lot. under date *ctober 1 th of last year. $its of ground that 8ill ere long be occu#ied by houses. yards belonging to =ohn could assign no #articular reason for such a lamentable increase. meted out to them. 8e ought also to remember that such serious figures further #rove the difficulty encountered by released #risoners in living honestly. certainly cause very fe8 inconveniences in such #laces as the metro#olis.I The )ee*ly Ti(es. . The locality described is not one hundred miles from 1aryDs Place and 'otting Hill Potteries. The 8riter goes on to say that HThere are at the #resent time u#8ards of t8o thousand #eo#leKmen. $ut he #ointed out a very notable fact indeed.The follo8ing leading article. fe8 of them being ever guilty of robbing a man of an honest dayDs 8or9. 10@fraternity4KHThe melancholy truth that there exists a TbreedD of criminals in all societies 8as 8ell illustrated at %xeter this 8ee9. Constrained by an irresistible force to 9ee# ever moving. ) rat 8ill not steal 8here tra#s are set if it can only find food in the o#en. and to su##ly it 8ith the means and the instincts of industry. to the existing generation of criminals. . They are settled u#on 8aste #laces of every 9ind. in the 8inter. &n <ustice. the (i#sies have al8ays found friends ready to ta9e their #art in times of trouble. 110seem to be of no good for anything. 8aste corners that #. the authority is too obscure to interfere 8ith such #oor settlers as (i#sies. and they certainly do not affect the balance of labour. They are satisfied to #ut u# their tent 8here a /ondoner 8ould only accommodate his #ig or his dog. and the scanty measure 8ith 8hich the good things of this life have been. by 8hich alone society can ho#e to con:uer the #redatory tendency in certain baser blood. in charging the grand <ury.

or tin9er #ots and #ans. and. to s#end a fe8 hours amongst some of these #eo#le. #ass their summer.o 8hen the cold 8inds begin to blo8. free life. and after8ards to the children labouring in canalBboats. (eorge . (eorge . there can be little 8onder that they should gro8 u# 8ith certain loose notions about right and 8rong. ignorance. 8hile the more s9ilful go round 8ith ro#e mats. the farm labourer finds it difficult to em#loy the 8hole of his time #rofitably. and the leaves are falling. 1r. of Coalville. these restlessBfooted #eo#le. )s the a##roach of 8inter reduces outdoor #ursuits to the fe8est #ossible number. &t 8as not from any feeling of romance or #ity that 8e 8ere induced the other day to acce#t an invitation from 1r. and in the lanes and 8oods. The old fol9s do a little grinding of 9nives. 111day or a #leasure fair calls forth all the useful mouths and hands from their tents and caravans.o the 8inter months #ass a8ay. and bring u# children. . #oets have sung their 8ild. the (i#sies come to to8n. if a fine #. no8 that 1r. or on the commons of the country. *ur (i#sies have al8ays been a favourite study 8ith ethnological fol9. he has found one more class still left outside every )ct of Parliament. (eorge . laces. 8hile the sun #aints their chee9s the colour of the ancient %gy#tians. and every form of chair or stool that can be made of rushes and canes. and eat and drin9. +nable to read or 8riteKtheir #o8ers of thought #.cheerfulness 8hich no other class of #eo#le 8ould exhibit. and settle u#on the odd noo9s and corners. These are the (i#sies and their children. but. earning a #recarious subsistance Khonestly if they canKcontent 8ith hard food and #oor clothes. 8ho have been let alone so severely by all soBcalled rightBthin9ing men and 8omen that there is great danger of their becoming a sore evil in our midst. and fill u# the unused yards. in the very #laces 8here their fathers and grandfathers have done the same before them. the babies 8ill ta9e care of themselves in the stra8 8hich ma9es the #onyDs bed until some member of the cam# returns home in the evening. and it 8as #leasant to have the o##ortunity of going 8ith such a sim#leBhearted hero amongst those in 8hom he ta9es a dee# interest. . and a manner of life the reverse of that 8hich #revails amongst Christian #eo#le. go forth again. Having devoted many years of his life to the #oor bric9Byard children. or other 8omenDs vanities. 8hose origin no man is ac:uainted 8ith. and beyond every chance of being hel#ed in the right 8ay to earn an honest living and become industrious members of society. and misery. so that they may feel the free air of heaven blo8ing about them night and day. The young men get a dayDs 8or9 8here they can. if the careless. 8hen the cuc9oo begins to call.mithDs life has been devoted to the amelioration of the condition of many very #oor and almost entirely neglected classes of the community. and those 8ho only follo8 an outdoor life for the #leasures it yields naturally gravitate to8ards the shelter of large to8ns in 8hich to s#end the 8inter months of every year. and told #itiful tales of their degradation.mith.mith has got his eyes . se#arated from the #eo#le in 8hose midst they live. the young 8omen ha89 8ool mats. 8hile #hilanthro#ists have occasionally gone amongst them. 11>thereby cram#edK8ith no one to loo9 after them. and in the s#ring. and #ainters have ta9en them as ty#es of the ha##y.

)ll his stories 8ere of 8hat (i#sies he had met. and 8hen she returned the case 8as there. and vigour enough to do any amount of 8or9. and then 8e came to the cam#ingBground 8e 8anted. The Mulus 8ere to be #itied because theirs 8as a sort of (i#sy life. and even our fello8B travellers in the train 8ere only noticeable because they loo9ed li9e some (i#sy man or 8oman 8hom he had met else8here. 1r. but 8hat had some relation to the (i#sies and their mode of life. and the most im#ortant event that may ha##en for the country.unday afternoon nearly all the inhabitants #. &t 8as a s#acious yard. entered through a gate.mith never ta9es u# more than one thing at a time. .he left the s#ectacles one day 8hen she 8as going Tho##ing. and as it 8as . 8hose bac9 yards formed the enclosure. 1r. and the (i#siesD tents 8ere nothing more than 9raals. there 8ill surely be something done 8hich. Her husband. There 8as a handsome young 8oman sitting in the . 8ho had many years before gone the 8ay of all beefKinto a butcherDs sho#. . The floor 8as common earth. and add to the body cor#orate a tribe #ossessed of many amiable characteristics. 8arming his hands over the fire. 8as a 8oman over fifty. 0e had a short ride by rail. )lice. 8ithout 8hich she solemnly declared she could not read a line. and for the smo9e from the fire in the buc9et to find a 8ay out if it chose. but the s#ectacles 8ere gone. and 8hat they had said. sa8 nothing. There 8ere tiles on the lo8 roofKin #lacesK but #lenty of o#enings 8ere left for the rain to come in. 8ith a face the colour of leather. until the time came 8hen she could ha##ily beg the gift of a #air of ne8 ones. and very uneven in #laces. 8ill redeem these #eo#le from many of the disadvantages under 8hich they labour. remembered nothing. a 8hiteBhaired old man. until the moment 8e #arted at night.he carried her licence to ha89 in her s#ectacleBcase. The 9raals 8ere not all constructed on the same #atternKt8o 8ere circular in form and the third 8as s:uare.undayBschool. and surrounded 8ith houses. but 8hile he is about a 8or9 he becomes thoroughly #ossessed by his sub<ect. and u#on the accom#lishment of it he concentrates all his energies. 8hither they 8ent of their o8n free 8ill and 8ith the a##roval of their #arents. )s 8e entered. . loses all value in his eyes unless it bears directly u#on the accom#lishment of the ob<ect in hand. Thus it ha##ened that. sat on a lum# of 8ood. . . Those 8ho 8ere absent 8ere a fe8 children able to go to . the mistress of this abode. in the near future. 11A8ere at home. This 8as on the right hand at entering. This attribute is the one 8hich has enabled him to carry to successful conclusions the acts for the relief of the bric9Byard and the canalBboat children. or for the 8orld. and a tram# through a denselyB#o#ulated district.D hidden under a tile above her head. and had at one time been a tumbleBdo8n shelter for a calf. from the time 8e sallied out together in search of a (i#sy cam#. s#o9e of nothing.mith a #iteous tale of the loss of her s#ectacles.mith thought of nothing.and his heart fixed u#on them. He said littleKhis 8ife scarcely allo8ing an o##ortunity for any one else to s#ea9Kbut seemed to consider that he 8as a fortunate man in having such a remar9able 8ife. There 8ere three caravans and three 9raals erected there. she told 1r. 8ith a loo9 of innocent 8onder in his face.

tried to negotiate for the #ossession of the youngest. $ut 8e did not acce#t their invitation to 8al9 u#. so li9e some face 8e had seen else8here. 8ho chaffed us as to the ob<ect of our visit. fastened in their #laces by 8ooden s9e8ers. only of heroic siFe. and a variety of odd things. and neither of them #ossess any stri9ing characteristic in their faces. but the mother is an *xfordshire 8oman. but the curious may loo9 u#on her counter#art. said )lice. defying ali9e the frosts and sno8s and rains of the most severe 8inters. His 8ife. that 8e 8ere confused and #uFFled. and begged hard for some 9ind of remembrance to be left 8ith them. this family had resided. and her brother lay extended on a bed made of indescribable things in one #ortion of the cabin. 'or could they be made to admit that a cottage 8ould be more comfortable. and a young man lay stretched on a dirty mattress. yet all their girls are singularly beautiful. Here. and then a girl of nineteen. of 8hom eleven 8ere living. They have got a re#utation for beauty no8. so beautiful. from the sounds 8e heard. that hut had served them 8ell enough so many years. in Clytie. and 8ould be good enough as long as they lived. 0e loo9ed u# in amaFement. and the 8hole yard only cost >s. a 8ee9. for six or seven 8inters. and their sons handsome fello8s. the girlDs face a##eared li9e an a##aritionKso fair. but #assed do8n the yard. 8here the tiles in the roof sho8ed no o#enings to the s9y. thorough (i#sies in face and tongue. at the $ritish 1useum. in the occu#ation at the time of t8o young 8omen. the (i#sy model.only chair in the #lace. 8e had met 8ith the fairest (i#sy model that ever stood before the students of the )cademy. the rent 8as a consideration. 'ever . 8here. 8here a buc9et containing coal 8as burning. but 8ithout success. to the ste#s of another caravan. 11C0hen she 8as a very little girl. of 8hom eight 8ere living. a thoroughbred (i#sy. and a boy of four 8as the third. sat nursing a babyKtheir firstBbornKon the edge of the bed. by hea#s of manure and refuse of all 9inds. This 8oman 8as the mother of eighteen children. Her mother had had nine children. &t can only fall to the lot of a fe8 to see )nnie. high <in9s 8ere going on 8ith some children. and adorned 8ith a fe8 #ots and #ans #. and three of the family are constantly em#loyed as models. she told us. &n a moment the mystery 8as solved. 11!used in coo9ing. the young fello8 8ho 8as 8atched over by the bantam 8as another. and a little bantam 9e#t 8atch beside him. sac9ing. )t the sound of a ta# on the door there 8as an instant hush. and ladies have. ha89ing laces in a bas9et one day. and from that day to the #resent )nnie has earned a livingKand at times of great distress maintained all the familyKby the fees she received as a model. )nnie is one. $esides. )nnie has a face of ex:uisite (recian form. as9ed us to come in. by another 9raal. Dra8n u# close by 8as a caravan. The 8ood 8alls 8ere covered 8ith old clothes. 8e had seen that face before in several of the choicest canvases that have hung in recent years u#on the 8alls of the )cademy. a gentleman met her at the 0estBend 8ho 8as a #ainter. 8ho had a baby in her arms. daughter of the old cou#le. The father is of #ure (i#sy blood.D #. and a hand so delicate that it has been #ainted more than once in the T#ortrait of a titled lady. the favourite ali9e of the young artist and the head of his #rofession.

and 8al9ed as u#right as a young man to his death. 11?from the ho# grounds. as under4KHThe follo8ing touching incident may slightly sho8 the thorough heartfelt desire there isKbut lac9ing the #o8erKamong the (i#sies to be #arta9ers of some of the sanitary and educational advantages the (orgios or (entiles are the reci#ients of. and it a##eared in the Daily Chronicle and Daily News. Comfort amongst the number. lending enchantment to the life of a vagabond. laid great em#hasis on the assertion that he 8as a fine man. and the child fixed her blac9 eyes u#on her sisterDs face. huts. dirt. There 8as more refinement about )nnie and her mother than 8e had discovered amongst others 8ith 8hom 8e had conversed.D )ll the family 8ere neatly dressed.000 (i#sies have accom#lished in the #. He lived to be 10!. (arrett /ane. living in a state of indescribable ignorance. and misery. and all the old ladies em#loyed him because he 8as so handsome. exce#t in the eyes of those 8ho see beautiful colours and delights in the aroma of stagnant #ools and beauty in the s#ar9ling hues of the gutter. s#ea9ing of her grandfather. as 8ere #ossessed by the (i#sy occu#ants of that caravan.I ) visit to a batch of (i#sy 8ig8ams. such ex:uisite eyes. and divested of the last tinge of romantical nonsense. Connected 8ith this encam#ment not more than . the caravans 8ere u#set. )nnie 8as as modest and gentleBvoiced and mannered as she 8as beautiful. and eleven 8ere dro8ned. filth.D re#lied )nnie. the caravans had to cross a river. T0hat is babyDs name. #oor (i#sy children. Thus. and crooned 8ith baby #leasure. 8e caught sight of a dish of small currant #uddings. u# to 8ithin a short time of his death. 11 8orld during the last three or four centuries. and revel in adding tints and #ictures to the life and death of a 8easel. 0ardlo8 . induced me to send the follo8ing letter to the /ondon and country daily #a#ers. Tand there 8as a young 8oman in the #arty & too9 to very much. and vans near 0ands8orth Common. if & may <udge from the amount of good the >0. 0ands8orth.o & christened baby after her in remembrance.D in that very locality. 'ovember >0th. and once. T0e 8ere ho##ing one yearD said the mother. and 8hile 8e 8ere in the 8ater one day the river suddenly rose. Coming a8ay #.before had 8e seen such fair faces. .treet. 8hen )nnie o#ened the cu#board door for an instant. such dainty limbs. mostly s:uatting u#on the ground.D 8e as9edN TComfort. )nnie. breeding all 9inds of sin and im#urities. to behold the #itiable s#ectacle of some sixty halfB na9ed. . and there came a flush of trouble over her fair face as she told us that not being able to read or 8rite had Tbeen againstD her all her life. she said. and admire the nonBintellectual develo#ment of beings many of 8hom are only one ste# from that of animals.he 8as #laying 8ith a baby girl as she tal9ed 8ith us. to hide from #ublic vie8 the mass of human corru#tion 8hich has been festering in our midst for centuries. ma9ing their beds u#on #eg shavings and stra8. He 8ent about crying Tchairs to mend. ) fe8 days since & 8ended my 8ay to a large number of (i#sies located in tents. and her name 8as Comfort. 8hich is little better in this caseKused as a deal of it isKthan #a#er #asted u#on the 8indo8s. and thirty (i#sy men and 8omen.

one #enny and t8o farthingsN 0ith much #ersuasion and hesitation. anti:uated. and the children com#elled to attend school 8herever they may be tem#orarily located. and do as much for them generally as he has done for the bric9Bfield and canal children. He told me that one of the (i#sy 8omen had been confined. for the #ur#ose of gaining information as to the condition of the s8arms of children 8ho live in s:ualor and ignorance under tents. and & have no doubt myself that he 8ill succeed. trouble.D & have been told that this sounds li9e the name of a ne8 ironclad. He is visiting all the (i#sy grounds he can find and reach. to get all the (i#sy tents. the other day he as9ed me to have a run round 8ith him.D into one of the tents. 118about u#on 1itcham Common.he said that Providence 8ould see that she 8as no loser for the mite she had given to me. and other movable habitations in the country registered and under #ro#er sanitary arrangements.D 8e #arted. 0e loo9ed . & acce#ted them. )lthough 1rs. good 9ind of (i#sy 8oman named $ritannia /ee. and that she 8anted him to give the child a name. &n cree#ing almost u#on TallBfours. her face beamed 8ith gladness to find that & 8as trying in my humble 8ay to do the (i#sy children good. and ex#ense. & entered into conversation 8ith the family about the ob<ects of my in:uiriesKof 8hich they said they had heard all aboutKviF. He did not 9no8 8hat to call it. & came across a real. )fter a great deal of careful deliberation he decided that 8hen 8e reached the common the child should be called TDeliverance. *ur visit 8as made on a fine day.four or five of the #oor creatures could read a sentence or 8rite a letter. 8hen it 8as not #articularly cold.I The /ondon corres#ondent of the Croydon Chronicle 8rites as under. and 8e 8ent to 1itcham Common to see some of the families there. 0ith many ex#ressions of T(od bless you in your 8or9 among the children_ 3ou 8ill be re8arded some day for all your time. 8hich she found 8hen coo9ing. and in a 9ind of maternal feeling she said she should be #leased to sho8 her dee# interest in my 8or9. on 'ovember >>nd. and #erha#s it 8ould have done as 8ell for one as for the other. 8hich & #ur#ose 9ee#ing as a to9en of a 8omanDs desire to do something to8ards im#roving her T9ith and 9in. )mong other things he says4KH& have had a day in your neighbourhood 8ith (eorge . so 8e had to #ut our heads together and settle the matter. 0ell.mith. and under fear of offending her. touching a visit 8e both made to a number of #oor (i#sy children s:uatting #. of Coalville.D . /ee 8as ill and #oor. vans. 8ho boasted that she 8as a /ee of the fourth generation. viF. and in sitting do8n u#on a seat that brought my 9nees u#on a level 8ith my chin. He once sent her. a shilling in the middle of a #otato. in her extremity. and to receive an education 8hich 8ill in some degree hel# to get these #oor unfortunate #eo#le out of the heartrending and des#onding condition into 8hich they have been allo8ed to sin9. He is of o#inion that he 8ill be able to get them into schools.. and as9ed me if & 8ould acce#t all the money she had in the 8orld. The tents 8ere much of a characterKsome 9ind of stitchedBtogether rags thro8n over stic9s. and the first tent 8e came to had been o#ened at the to#.. live.

They have only a rag bet8een them and the sno8. the eldest being a girl of about eight or ten. and so the 8or9 goes on. &t 8as inhabited by t8o families. The encam#ment 8as made u# of a number of tents. 0ith a fe8 8ords. but TDeliveranceD 8ill do for either one or the other.mith. 0e visited about halfBaBdoFen. and contained some sixty halfBna9ed #oor (i#sy children and thirty (i#sy men and 8omen. and she uncovered the baby to sho8 it to me. 'ovember > th4KH1r. 0hen they have devoured such scra#s and #ic9ings as are brought. sitting on the ground 8ith a fire in the middle of them. and 8e then 8ent to name the child. and #. they lie do8n 8here they have 8or9ed and as they are. & tal9ed a little time 8ith the 8oman lying on the ground. so that they may secure at least a small share in the educational advantages of the country. of Coalville.over Rthese tents are only about five feet highS. -ecently he #ublished an account of a visit to an encam#ment of the (i#sies near 0ands8orth Common. 8ere ma9ing clothesB#egs. to 8al9 to 1itcham Common and see ho8 the children are there. and & did so. The stic9s are cho##ed into the necessary lengths and #ut into a #an of hot 8ater. and misery. as they al8ays do. or other8ise ma9ing their beds u#on #eg shavings and stra8. & do not 8ish to ma9e any #articularly violent remar9s. 11@ha89ing 8ith anything she may have #ic9ed u#. 0e stayed in this tent for about ten minutes. bring them under some sort of su#ervision.he as9ed me to 8rite the name on a #iece of #a#er.mith. but & should li9e some of the comfortable clergymen of your neighbourhood. 8e cra8led out. and it turned out u#on in:uiry that not more than four of these #oor creatures could read a . living in an indescribable state of ignorance. &t is a 8onderful and mysterious arrangement of Providence that they can slee#. This & su##ose s8ells the 8ood and loosens the bar9. 8hen they have done buying their toys and #resents for young friends at Christmas. ) good 8ind 8ould blo8 their homes over the trees. They 8ould then find out 8hat humbugs they are. huts. and the mother 8as a8ay ha89ing. Then there is a boy 8ho #uts tin round them. The #rocess seemed sim#le. and beheld six children. and it is evident that these 8anderers 8ithout any settled #lace of abode loo9 on his efforts 8ith some considerable a##roval. as <olly as 8e could ma9e them. 1>0vans. dirt. (eorge . These children. than9s and blessings follo8ing (eorge . and ho8 it is they do the 8or9 of the 1aster. . & do not 9no8 8hether it is a boy or a girl.I /eading article in the #ri(itive $ethodist. and go to slee#. mostly s:uatting u#on the ground. numbering in all about t8enty. *ne tent is very much li9e another. The father 8as any8here to suit the imagination. 0hen the day is done they loo9 for the mother coming home from #. ) child on the other side ta9es out the stic9s as they are done and bites off the bar9 8ith its teeth. filth. is endeavouring to do a 8or9 for the children of (i#sies similar to that he has done for the children em#loyed in bric9Byards and the children of canalBboatmenKthat is.

articles and #aragra#hs. may have a chance of learning something better. the first a##earing 'ovember >@th. and a /ee of the fourth generation. and other movable habitations in the country. connected 8ith 8hich 8ere the follo8ing remar9s4KH)nother s9etch of the 8ild and s:ualid habits of life still retained by vagrant #arties or clans of this singular race of #eo#le. so that she might contribute a little.mith found an old (i#sy 8oman #roud of her name and descent. They are. of Coalville.I *8ing to my letters. at any rate. and to receive an education 8hich 8ill in some degree hel# to get them out of the lo8. /eicester. /ee listened 8ith #leasure to this narration of 1r. often living on board these vessels. (eorge . He 8anted. and the children com#elled to attend school 8herever they may be tem#orarily located. 8hose families. 8ill be found in our <ournal. is that of 1r.sentence or 8rite a letter.mith may succeed in his 8or9. 8ho a##ears to be conversing 8ith the (i#sies in their 8aggon encam#ment. #a#ers. but this she insisted u#on giving.I The editor also inserted my Congress #a#er fully. so that these (i#sy children. . 8ith #leasureKto have a series of s9etches of (i#sy life in his <ournal. Tto get all the (i#sy tents and vans. and efforts in other directions during the last several months. not indis#osed to be sub<ect to regulations that 8ill contribute to their #artial education. sitting on a lo8 seat under the cover of the tent 8ith his 9nees on a level 8ith his chin.mithDs #ur#ose.crubs. he said. if to nothing more. are sadly in 8ant of domestic comfort and of education for the children. as in more rural #arts of the country. . and succeed s#eedily. 'otting Hill. )nd evidently. registered and under #ro#er sanitary arrangements. 8ithout any difficulty. 8ho are trained u# to a vagabond life. The figure of a gentleman introduced into this s9etch. though in great #overty. . To this old 8oman he ex#lained his #ur#ose.mith.mithDs ex#erience. heartrending condition into 8hich they have been allo8ed to sin9. 1>1have made good head8ay. &n #assing from one of these miserable habitations to another. sho8 the habits of living fol9 8ho are to be found as 8ell in the outs9irts of /ondon. desired to aid this good 8or9. 0e may again direct the readerDs attention to the account of them 8hich 8as contributed by . and. to8ards the im#rovement of her #eo#le. 0e ho#e 1r. for she 8as a /ee. and in 8hich he says4KH*ur illustrations. from a s9etch ta9en by one of our artists in the neighbourhood of /atimer -oad. ho8ever. Her stoc9 of cash amounted to threeBhalf#ence. 1r. from 1r. the 8ellB9no8n benevolent #romoter of social reform and legislative #rotection for the longBneglected class of #eo#le em#loyed on canalBbarges. connected 8ith 8hich 8as the follo8ing notice. . conse:uently the #ro#rietor of the Illustrated London News.D 1rs. 8here there are many chances of #ic9ing u# a stray bit of irregular gain. often met 8ith in the neighbourhood of suburban villages and other #laces around /ondon. the (i#sy sub<ect might no8 be fairly considered to #. 8as induced Kin fact. The follo8ing 8ee9 another s9etch of (i#sy life a##eared in the same <ournal. 8hich is not far from 0orm8ood . there is no hostility to such a measure as he 8ishes to have made la8 among the (i#sies themselves.

8hich lies <ust outside of .mith. vans. as the #arasites of civilisation. close on the suburban outs9irts of our 8ealthy metro#olis. sho8s. $ut. s:uatting 8ithin an hourDs 8al9 of the -oyal #alaces and of the luxurious to8n mansions of our nobility and o#ulent classes. and. be it 'ational.he#herdDs $ush and 'otting Hill. registered and numbered.cience Congress at 1anchester. /eicester. (.ord. 5c. That 8ellB9no8n advocate of social reform and legal #rotection for the neglected vagrant classes of our #o#ulation rec9ons the total number of (i#sies in this country at three or four thousand men and 8omen and ten thousand children.mith. is not Hac9ney 1arshes. and 8hich 8as re#rinted in our last 8ee9Ds #ublication.ocial . 1>Aand forlorn. &t is a curious . to the late . /eicester. . The follo8ing is 1r. to the very 8est of the fashionable 0estBend. 9no8ing that (i#sies are fond of outlandish names. tents. follo8ing those 8hich have a##eared in the last t8o 8ee9s. and about fourteen children of all ages4 t8o or three of these 8ere almost men and 8omen. but it is the tract of land. the next older child is named H1oses. beyond the gentility of $ays8ater and 0hiteleyDs avenue of universal sho##ing.uch 8as the 8retched and miserable condition they 8ere in that & could not do other8ise than hel# the #oor 8oman. their 8ives. & could thin9 of nothing but HDeliverance.1r. an additional s9etch. is #resented by our artist. (eorge . 1r. beyond *ld . 8e readily dedicate these local illustrations to the furtherance of his good 8or9. . to 8hich 8ere added the follo8ing remar9s4KH)nother s9etch of the singular habits and rather de#lorable condition of these vagrant #eo#le. and the #arents com#elled to send their children to school at the #lace 8herever they may be tem#orarily located. she said she 8ould name the baby anything & 8ould li9e to chose.IDI *n December 1Ath. and gave her a little money. The 8ife of one of the men had been confined of a baby the day before & calledKher bed consisting of a layer of stra8 u#on the dam# ground. and the #oor child is named Deliverance (BBB. .I This seemed to #lease the #oor 8oman very much. 8as given.mithDs note u#on 8hat 8as to be seen in the (i#siesD tent on 1itcham Common4K HT&nside this tentK8ith no other homeKthere 8ere t8o men. He is no8 see9ing to have all movable habitationsK i4e4. There it is that the (i#sy encam#ment may be found. half consisting of fields laid 8aste in ex#ectation of the houseBbuilder. $ritish. The ugliest #lace 8e 9no8 in the neighbourhood of /ondon. of Coalville. the most dismal #.trange to say. . )fter turning the thing over in my mind for a fe8 hours. in her feelings of gratitude to me for this sim#le act of 9indness.Kin 8hich the #. 8ho hang about. & 8as in a difficulty. 8ith com#ulsory education for their children. having ta9en in hand the :uestion of #roviding due su#ervision and #olice regulation for the (i#sies. as in the case of canalBboats. half torn u# for bric9Bfield clay. or $oard school. at the %astBend. sho8ing the inside of a van. 1>>families live 8ho are earning a living by travelling from #lace to #lace. of Coalville. or those of the /ea.

A. 'otting Hill. at least e:ually 8ith those of the %nglish labouring . there 8ill be several adult #ersons ta9en in as lodgers. fre:uent the neighbourhood of /ondon. 1>!*n =anuary Ard.9etch near /atimer -oad. and standing their 8aggons or 8heeled cabins. ) Tent at Hac9ney 1arshes. and they esca#e the la8 of vagrancy by #aying a fe8 shillings of 8ee9ly rent for #itching their tents or booths. &t 8ould seem to be the duty of somebody at the Home *ffice. They are not all thieves. . might tem#t the (i#sies so inclined to ta9e a clean shirt or #etticoatKcertainly not for their o8n 8earing.he#herdDs $ush or Hammersmith sees a vast :uantity of family linen hung out to dry in the gardens and courtyards of small d8ellingBhouses. bordered to8ards 0orm8ood . not even all beggars and im#ostors. additional illustrations 8ere given in the Illustrated London News. )mong these are doubtless not a small #ro#ortion of idle runa8ays or TloselsD from the more settled classes of our #eo#le. ?. to call u#on some local authorities of the county or the #arish to loo9 after these eccentricities of (i#sy life. Tent at Hac9ney.000.I #. 1itcham Common.mith informs us that these rece#tacles of vagabond humanity are often sadly overcro8ded.mith. >.000 #eo#le called by that name. The interior of one of the vans. 8hich is sho8n in our artistDs s9etch. 8ho ought to be. furnished as a d8ellingBroom. &t is estimated by 1r. C. but 1r. /eicester. (eorge . This may be situated at the bac9 of a ro8 of res#ectable houses. . #laced on some #iece of 8aste ground. ) GnifeBgrinder at Hac9ney 0ic9. may exist among this odd fragment of our motley #o#ulation. living in the manner of Mulu Gaffirs rather than of %uro#ean citiFens. 8ho has recently been ex#loring the :ueer outcast 8orld of (i#sydom in different #arts of %ngland. The total number of (i#sies no8 estimated to be living in the metro#olitan district is not less than >. ) $achelorDs $edroom. 8hich ta9es u#on itself the correction of every savage tribe in . The 8estern side of 'otting Hill.s#ectacle in that situation. for 8hich the (i#sy #arty have to #ay a fe8 shillings a 8ee9 of rent. of Coalville. 1. and might suggest a fe8 serious reflections u#on social contrasts at the centre and ca#ital of the mighty $ritish nation. $esides a man. Tent at Hac9ney. and their o8n children. and in full vie8 of their bedroom or #arlour 8indo8s.crubs by a dismal ex#anse of bric9Bfields. 1880. but of very mixed race. . %ncam#ment at 1itcham Common. that some >. The encam#ment is usually formed of t8o or three vans and a rude cabin or a tent. the little ones sto8ed in bun9s or cu#boards. $ut 8e are not a8are that the #olice ins#ectors and magistrates of that district have found such charges more numerous in their official record than has been ex#erienced in other :uarters of /ondon.outh and 0est )frica and Central )sia. continuing those of this sub<ect 8hich have a##eared in our <ournal. does not loo9 very miserable. H) fe8 additional s9etches. !. &t is for the sa9e of their children. and it is #ossible that honest men and 8omen. on #ieces of 8aste ground. his 8ife. are engraved for the #resent number. though of irregular and slovenly habits. not much to the satisfaction of the :uiet inhabitants. for the sa9e of #ublic health and good order. 8here the rail8ay #assenger going to .

or #ig. (eorge . 8here the #leasant 8ooded hills of %##ing and Hainault . 8hile their children should be loo9ed after by the local . for it actually concerns the moral and social 8elfare of more than thirty thousand #eo#le in our o8n country. should not be #ersecuted. There is many a rich and s#lendid establishment at the 0estBend su##orted by . or #erha#s. . such is the magic of %gy#tian craft and the innate su#eriority of an *riental be it from us to say or sus#ect that the (i#sy stole the horse.chool $oard. or co8. the 8ise it call. These measures. combined 8ith <udicious offers of industrial hel# for the adults and industrial training for the <uniors. 8ith the s#ecial exercise of PoorB/a8 (uardian administration. in a caravan dra8n from #lace to #lace by some lost and strayed #loughBhorse. if scam# he truly be. duc9 or tur9ey. the la8ful o8ner of 8hich is a farmer in 'ortham#tonshire. 1>?There lur9s the free and fearless (i#sy scam#. for they are a less active nuisance than the &talian organBgrinders in our city streets. of 8hich the fashionable 0estBender 9no8eth nought. so long as they refrain from #ic9ing and stealing. 1>CThe (i#sies. and the rest of Gaffirdom. in a 8ig8am hastily constructed of hoo#s and #oles and blan9ets. might #ut an end to vagabond (i#sy life in %ngland before the commencement of the t8entieth century.classes. and a strict licensing system. that 1r. if the Home . and do not obstruct the high8ays. and some #arochial or missionary religious efforts. on summer holidays. are masters of a secret science of mysterious ac:uisition. for their tem#orary encam#ments. as remote from #roved crime of theft or fraud as from the 8ays of earning or 8inning by ordinary industry and trade. inviting the <aded to8nsman. if coc9 and hen. $ut it is ex#edient that there should be an )ct of Parliament. 8here the marshB meado8s of the river /ea.D and if horse or don9ey. to establish com#ulsory registration of the travelling (i#sy families. 8hose tormenting #resence 8e are content to suffer. #rovided 8ith means of decent Christian education. if he be the 8ealthy shei9h of his 8ild $edouin tribe. $ohemians. to saunter in the -oyal Chace of the old %nglish 9ings and :ueens. These (i#sies. dog. 8ith his s:ua8 and his #iccaninnies. Tconvey. 8ith constant #olice su#ervision. Mingari. #. since they cannot get it from their #arents. 8hatever they be called in the 9ingdoms of %uro#e. to the sore interru#tion both of our daily 8or9 and our re#ose.ecretary has not already sufficient legal #o8ers. be #ermitted to esca#e from field or farmyard. 8hich is an interest :uite as considerable as that 8e have in 'atal or the Transvaal. northBeast of /ondon. seem to forbid the extension of to8n streets and bloc9s of bric9 or stuccoed terraces. #. 8here genuine ruralities still lie 8ithin an hourDs 8al9.orest a##ear in the distance. or 8ithin one generation. unsuitable for buildingBland. The s9etches 8e no8 #resent in illustration of this sub<ect are designed to sho8 the s:ualid and savage as#ect of (i#sy habitations in the suburban districts. 0e ho#e to see the matter discussed in the House of /ords or the House of Commons during the ensuing session. at Hac9ney and Hac9ney 0ic9.mith has brought this sub<ect under #ublic notice. among Mulus and $asutos. these fascinated creatures 8ill sometimes follo8 the merry troo# of T-omany -yeD :uite of their o8n accord.

)nd in the dust be e:ual made 0ith the #oor croo9ed scythe and s#ade4 *nly the actions of the <ust . and su#ervision than the #. as it a##eared in the Daily News. and Christianity 8ithin reach. and that his endeavours to rescue from a life of crime and vagabondage these hitherto muchBneglected little ones 8ill be cro8ned 8ith success.a different a##lication of the same mysterious craft. relating to the #oor little (i#sy childrenDs homes. 1> he ho#es to #ut civilisation. These vagrant <uveniles are gro8ing u# to strengthen the ran9s of the un#roductive and criminal classes. #hilanthro#y. other8ise 8e must sooner or later be faced 8ith more serious difficulties than even no8 exist.DK!hirley. December >nd4KH)mongst some of the sorro8ful features of (i#sy life & have noticed lately. none call more loudly for (overnment hel#.olicitors and stoc9bro9ers may have seen it in action. and to #lace them in a #osition to ma9e something better of the life that no8 is. &t is that of silently a##ro#riating 8hat no other #erson may be :uite #re#ared to claim. and other /ondon and country daily #a#ers. assistance. and their #eri#atetic lodgers under some similar arrangements. $y bringing the multitudinous tents. sho8s. HTThe glories of our mortal state )re shado8s. and #olicy. Daily Chronicle.I The follo8ing remar9s a##eared in the December number of The +uiver4 KH1r. he has brought :uite a host of #oor little outcasts 8ithin the #ale of society and the beneficent influence of the various educational machineries of the age.mell s8eet and blossom in the dust. . education. #. and to secure some fitting #re#aration for the life that is to come.ce#tre and cro8n 1ust tumble do8n. and Christianity ali9e demand that the nomadic 8aifs should be encircled by the arms of an ameliorating la8 8hich 8ill give them a chance of esca#ing from the life of semiBbarbarity to 8hich unto8ard circumstances have consigned them. There is no armour against fateK Death lays its icy hands on 9ings4 . not substantial things. (eorge .mith. &t is evidently high time that something should be done. 8ho are sadly too numerous in the suburban and rural districts of the land. 1>88retched little rag . *ur sym#athies are strongly 8ith the 8armBhearted #hilanthro#ist. of the thousand ragged &shmaelites 8ho are at #resent left to gro8 u# in ignorance and degradation. and 8e trust that in ta9ing to this ne8 field of effort he 8ill 8in all needful aid. vans. 8ho has earned a muchBres#ected and 8orthy name by his interest in and #ersevering efforts for the 8ellBbeing of our canal #o#ulation. is bent on doing similar service for the (i#sy children and roadside arabs. $y securing the registration of canalBboats as human domiciles.I The follo8ing is my letter.

& am told by the 8omen that it is o8ing to the sul#hur arising from the co9e fire they have u#on the ground in their midst. and 8ithout mincing matters. ) real (i#sy of the old ty#e. &n their o8n interest. &nside their sac9 hovels are to be found man. so that the brightening and elevating effects of #ublic o#inion. *utside their hovels or sac9 huts. and the remainder consisting of the blood of the vilest rascals from &ndia and other nations. if they can be called (i#sies. 8ith threeBfourths. The #rocess 8ill be slo8 but effective. 1>@8omen in various 8ays.D &n noticing that many of the (i#sy children have a 9ind of eyeBdisease. and the $ible may have their influence u#on the character of the little ones about to become in our midst the men and 8omen of the future. and as a (i#sy 8oman told me last 8ee9. and men too. dirty.KsugarBcoat dece#tion. considering that they are huddled together. the soBcalled (i#sy no8 8ill tell you a lie and loo9 a thousand other 8ays 8hile doing so. may be seen thousands of ragged. Tit is not fit to be handled 8ith the hands. #aint immorality 8ith )siatic ideas. it is time the #lain facts of their dar9 lives 8ere brought to daylight. of the blood of %nglish scam#s and vagabonds in their reins. not one of them able to read or 8rite. scarcely large enough to hold a costermongerDs 8heelbarro8. and 8hich at times also causes the children to turn #ale and sic9ly. in the midst of a dam# atmos#here rising out of the ground. #oetically called TtentsD and Tencam#ments. la8. and six or seven children of all ages. they 8ill drift into a state similar to Dar8inDs forefathers and #rove to the 8orld that civilisation and Christianity are a failure. 8ife. and hues. Probably their flitting habits #revent detection. 8hich through the 8et and dam# is often little better than a manureBhea#. of 8hich there are but fe8. in 8hich the #oor (i#sy 8omen and children are born. in fact sometimes com#letely rotten.I . exce#ting the faintest cheering tint. gloss idleness and filth. halfBna9ed. and #ut a #leasant and cheerful as#ect u#on ta9ing things that do not belong to them. sometimes causing a 9ind of stu#or to come over them. regardless of sex or age.and stic9 hovels. s:uatting or slee#ing u#on a bed of stra8. +nless something be done for them in the 8ay & have indicated. and it has the a##roval of these 8andering herds.D but in reality schools for teaching their children ho8 to gild doubleBdyed lies. The sul#hur affects the men and #. & have noticed farther that many of the adults are much #itted 8ith smallB#ox. notions. and dieKaye. 8ill tell you a lie and loo9 straight at you 8ith a chuc9le and grin. and im#regnated 8ith the sul#hur of their co9e fires. and the men loitering about mostly in idleness. and 8ithout much inconvenience. #ig. 1y #lan to im#rove their condition is not by #rosecuting them and brea9ing u# their tents and vans and turning them into the roads #ellBmell. ignorant and 8retched (i#sy children. but to bring their habitations under the sanitary officers and their children under the schoolmaster in a manner analogous to the Canal $oats )ct. &t is a 8onder to me that there is not more disease among them than there a##ears to be.

(eorge . and under #ro#er sanitary arrangements. &n a #a#er read before the . and of 8hose future 8e 9no8 less. 3et in that small area the (i#sies held undis#uted s8ay. but 1r. )s (i#sies #ay no taxes. it is a #ity . as if & had been in a Mulu 9raal. . The sno8 8as on the ground. 8ith sanitary ins#ectors and .The follo8ing article a##ears in the Christian )orld. as it 8ere. auctioneer vans.mith argued that all tents. His idea isKand it is a good oneKthat an )ct of Parliament should be #assed for their benefitKsomething similar to that he has been the means of carrying for the canal and bric9Bfield children. (eorge . 8here the fierce light of #ublic o#inion. 1A0the midst of some t8enty tents and vans. and savage life destitute of all that lends it #ictures:ue attractions. 1A1attendance registered in a boo9. 1r. sho8s. is a terror to them that do evil. it is calculated. or ideal charms. of Coalville. they can 9ee# any number of dogs. and having secured fair #lay for the #oor children of the bric9BfieldsKhe himself 8as brought u# in a bric9ByardKand for the #oor. 8here the richest Church in Christendom re<oices in its )bbey and Cathedral.ocial . aided by a Press 8hich never slumbers. but has sent forth its missionary agents into every land. 8here an enlightened and energetic Dissent has not only #lanted its tem#les in every district. 8ith every oneDs hands against them. or. and 8hen endorsed by the schoolmaster. in 8inter their state is de#lorable indeed. Thus in every district the children 8ould have their names and #. and yet the scene before me 8as as intensely that of savage life. inmates of the canalBboats.cience Congress at 1anchester. December 1@th. and its hundreds of churches. and 8ere received as friends.chool $oard officers. in 8hich he says4KHThe other day & 8as 8itness to a s#ectacle 8hich made me feel a doubt as to 8hether & 8as living in the nineteenth century. in every to8n and village. 1r. %8ing -itchieS. a city 8hich 8e love to boast heads the on8ard march of man. there 8as frost in the very air. Had & gone by myself. and the other concomitants of organised industrial life. &n or about /ondon there are. anything but agreeable to an unbidden guest. and sadlyBneglected. 8ithin the shado8 of that mighty /ondon 8here -oyalty resides. & 8as standing in #.mith and &. 8hich they could ta9e 8ith them from #lace to #lace.mith. 0ithin a fe8 yards 8as a great $oard school. #erha#s to #ut it more truly. caravans. and li9e #laces used as d8ellings should be registered and numbered. is no common man. and a #raise to them that do 8ell. H0e entered. by Christo#her Crayon R=. & 8as. and these dogs have a 8ay of sniffing and snarling. he has no8 turned his attention to the (i#sies. some t8o thousand of these d8ellers in tents. it 8ould sho8 that the children 8ere attending school. 8ith hands against every one. &n carrying out this idea. &n all %ngland there are some t8enty thousand of these sons of &shmael. The #oor #eo#le com#lained to me no one ever came to see them. close by 8ere factories and 8or9sho#s. &n summerBtime their lot is by no means to be envied. inhabited by that 8andering race of 8hose origin 8e 9no8 so little. & :uestion 8hether my rece#tion 8ould have been a #leasant one. & should be sur#rised if any one did.

The cold and 8et seem to affect them not. . and it 8as 8onderful to see 8ith 8hat avidity they stretched out the dirtiest little hand imaginable as 1r. 1A>& only sa8 one 8oman in the cam#. and out #o##ed a little (i#sy head. 8ho ma9e linenB#egs and s9e8ers. and & can 8ell believe she 8ants them. in that van. nor the smo9e and bad air of their cabins. )s 8e entered.mith #re#ared to distribute some s8eets he had brought 8ith him for that #ur#ose. 8ill feel that he is born for a nobler end than to d8ell in a stin9ing 8ig8am. but the #lace s8arms 8ith children. but the 8orst of it is.that 1r. clean. about the siFe of a tiny cabin. and 8ith their luxurious heads of curly hair. she says. . then. 8ith a coo9ingBstove. and cra8l into the (i#syDs 8ig8am. all the vans 8ere shut u#. in the first #lace. &n the middle. for in this %ngland of ours. or follo8 their doubtful trade. at any rate. even at the best. she 8ill 8ant to have her hands and face. or stra8. #. . as they 8ander along. and the tents only 8ere occu#ied. and a (i#sy boy. and then another door o#ened. the tribe. )ll of them are as ignorant as Hottentots. that says a good deal. but the children seem ha##y. 8ho. burly men. and our #oets and novelists and artists 8ill not li9e that. on a fe8 bric9s. and as she is a /ee. . one 8ith a 8onderfully s8eet smile on her face. the usual fare. but. and #leads earnestly for a fe8 co##ers. and on this s:uat some t8o or three big. see9 to sell. he has suffered greatly in his #oc9et by his #hilanthro#ic effort. and then 8ith shelves. nor the #oor diet. 8ith s#ar9ling eyes and curly hair. by means of letters in the ne8s#a#ers. nevertheless. and as a /ee in (i#sy annals ta9e the same ran9 as a 'orfol9 Ho8ard in aristocratic circles. <ust no8. 8ould have a far ha##ier life than they can ever ho#e to lead. &t is a #iteous life. as they tell fortunes.he is terribly #oor. *n the ground is a floor of 8oodBchi#s.mith. if they could be trained to domestic service. is a stove or fire#lace of some 9ind. /et us loo9 into the van. in 8hich they cro8d. there is little to see after all. the vans being a##arently deserted but #resently a door 8as o#ened halfB8ay. The leading lady in this cam# is absent on business. 8hen he learns to read. 8hen you have done so. and the mothers are far a8ay. Ho8ever. for it is they 8ho bring the grist to the mill. . and to #ic9 u# a #recarious existence at fairs and races. (eorge . 8ith curtains and some 9ind of bedding. but she is a firm adherent of 1r. . or sell their 8ares. and & only sa8 her by uncovering the to# and loo9ing into the tent in 8hich she resides. and mend chairs and various articles. )round us are some stra##ing girls. . and a similar s#ectacle 8as to be seen. if you educate a (i#sy girl. The 8omen are a8ay. H&t is no <o9e going into a (i#sy yard. or shavings. and lead a life horrible to thin9 of. and choc9 full. a##arently not very clean. to lead a la8less life. and it is still less so 8hen you go do8n on your hands and 9nees. and 8ishes to see the children educated. even 8hen the coo9ing #ot is filled 8ith something more savoury than cabbages or #otatoes.mith should have to bear all the burden. the (i#sy is not a little out of #lace. in their dirty rags. )s it is. 8hile the men laFily 8or9. and es#ecially in the outs9irts of /ondon. on 8hich the family re#ose. to herd 8ith :uestionable characters.

morally and religiously. 1A!The follo8ing brief account of the Hungarian (i#sies of the #resent day. la8. nor religiously. #oetically called HtentsI and Hencam#ments. may be seen thousands of ragged.. and six or seven children of all ages. December 1@th. 1880. halfBna9ed. to many of us.mith stirs every feeling of #ity and com#assion in our hearts by his descri#tions of the (i#sy ChildrenDs Homes.DI #. is that they are used to give #oint.nitarian &erald. is ta9en from the . 8ho ide. and 8ithout mincing matters. and 8hich at times also causes the children to turn #ale and sic9ly. dirty. and as a (i#sy 8oman told me last 8ee9. not one of them able to read or 8rite. neither socially nor #olitically. a good deal of attention is #aid to the (i#sies. in such homes as 1r. as seen by a 8riter under the initials H).mith describesN HT&n their o8n interest. 'o #ortion of our #o#ulation may so earnestly #lead. bearing date =anuary @th. 8e cannot say dwell.ynod in Hungary last summer. gloss idleness and filth. T'o man careth for our souls. in fact sometimes it is com#letely rotten. &t is one of the curious things of %nglish life that the #. and if they can be reclaimed and turned into decent men and 8omen a good many farmersD 8ives 8ill slee# comfortably at night.I but in reality schools for teaching their children ho8 to gild doubleBdyed lies. &nside their sac9 hovels are to be found man. & am told by the 8omen that it is o8ing to the sul#hur arising from the co9e fire they have u#on the ground in their midst. to novels. and a desirable im#ulse 8ill be given to the trade in soa#. and in 8hich the author says4KH'ot far from -ugonfalva . so that the brightening and elevating effects of #ublic o#inion. sugarBcoat dece#tion. (eorge . ignorant.D The chief interest of them. Hit is not fit to be handled 8ith the hands. it is time the #lain facts of their dar9 lives 8ere brought to daylight. and 8retched (i#sy children. and #lot. and #ut a #leasant and cheerful as#ect u#on ta9ing things that do not belong to them. C.I &n noticing that many of the (i#sy children have a 9ind of eye disease. and.and engravings in the illustrated <ournals. do 8e ta9e any notice of them. and the $ible may have their influence u#on the character of the little ones about to become in our midst the men and 8omen of the future. es#ecially 8hen geese and tur9eys are being fattened for Christmas fare. and the men loitering about mostly in idleness. 0hat must the children be. $ut can nothing be done for the (i#sy childrenN Christian enter#rise is seldom found 8anting 8hen a s#here is suggested for it.I 8ho visited the +nitarian .I &n the !unday !chool Chronicle. (eorge . the 9indBhearted editor ma9es the follo8ing allusions4KH1r. 1AAdistinct (i#sy race should d8ell among us. 8ife. and those 8ho live in the neighbourhood of (i#sy haunts should be es#ecially concerned for their 8ellB being. *utside their hovels or sac9 huts. 8hich through the 8et and dam# is often little better than a manureBhea#. s:uatting or slee#ing u#on a bed of stra8.

mastered their language. The 8omen are. . in search of a (i#sy encam#ment.rom his accustomed #erch. =a9abhbFi. of DebrecFin. There are no8 about eighty thousand of them in Transylvania. #roud of a horse or a #air of scarlet breeches. no doubt. and the men are. but threeBfourths of this number have settled homes. Their a##earance reminded me of Co8#erDs gra#hic s9etch. *r vermin. ) 9ettle. 8ith 1r. as a rule. very fond of ornaments. that a##eared able to find footing any8here on their mothersD shoulders.8e came on a colony of exceedingly s:ualid (i#sies. they. ) vagabond and useless tribe there eat Their miserable meal. -eceives the morselKflesh obscene of dog. *n reaching the mansion of 1r. *f late years they have in a fe8 districts began to intermarry 8ith the 0allachs. )bout the close of last century Pastor $enedict. <ust saves un:ueuched The s#ar9 of life. above all things. 8e had an o##ortunity after dinner of seeing them return in a long #rocession from the fields.mith. 18804KH0e made a second ex#edition.unday. and the follo8ing a##ears on =anuary @th. at best. and though the . living in huts 8hich a res#ectable Mulu 8ould utterly des#ise. and on visiting %ngland found that the (i#sies in this country understood him very 8ell. 0hen smarting under any grievance. and caste distinctions are so strong that the higher grades 8ould not drin9 from a cu# used by one of their halfBsavage brethren. sometimes change their faith en (asse. HardBfaring race. &t is su##osed that the tribe found its 8ay to Hungary in the beginning of the fifteenth century. 8hich & am tem#ted to :uote4K HT& see a column of slo8Brising smo9e *Derto# the lofty 8ood that s9irts the 8ild.I The )ee*ly Ti(es again ta9es u# the sub<ect. on the contrary. These labourers are almost entirely #aid in food and other necessaries. and sho8s a ta8ny s9in.imcnfalva. of coc9 #urloined .D HTransylvania is one great museum of human as 8ell as natural #roducts. 1ACon his estate. and this singular race forms an interesting element of its motley #o#ulation. (eorge . 0hich. flung $et8een t8o #oles u#on a stic9 transverse. The s#ortive 8ind blo8s 8ide Their fluttering rags.ome of the 8omen carried small bro8n babies. on . at . bac9s. of Coalville. The vellum of the livery they claim. and generally ado#t his religion. and 8hen conciliated undergo as s#eedy a reBconversion. or. and if 9indly treated are very honourable to8ards their master. gradually disa##ear. They #ic9 their fuel out of every hedge. and the shar# distinction bet8een them and the other races in Hungary 8ill. 8ho em#loys about one hundred and forty civilised (i#sies #. or breasts. 9indled 8ith dry leaves. having fled from Central )sia or &ndia during the 1ongol reign of terror.

. and each #aid one shilling a 8ee9 to the ground landlord. and for a short distance loo9ed u#on the face of an ancient river. if they get a chance. must discount fearfully the <oys of the three ha##ier seasons of the year. There 8as a rude #ictures:ueness in the ga#ing of the vans and tents. then u#Bhill 8e clambered for many longish miles. and trade 8as very bad. for 8henever 8e ha##ened to loo9 round the encam#ment during the afternoon. from a hole in the centre the smo9e ascended. youth and dog. they 8ere revolving in their intelligent minds ho8 it had come to #ass that the blac9 cloth legs 8ere received 8ith evident mar9s of favour. and the fruits of harvest. any leg 8earing blac9 cloth. 8ith 8hich 1r. and t8o men and a dog 8atched 8ith unceasing vigilance. <ust in the same 8ay that artillery are #lanted to 9ee# the road to a military encam#ment. but to give the raggedBtrousered visitors a fa8ning 8elcome. because the (i#sies do not care to see many visitors on the only day of the 8ee9 8hich is one of absolute rest to them. Perchance. That money. The 8ay 8e 8ent must remain some8hat of a secret. 1A?the foreground 8ere the vans. such sno8s as have been falling. and 8e no sooner a##eared in sight than the s8inging door of every van 8as edged 8ith faces. until driven a8ay by the voices of their o8ners. 0e tried to ma9e friends here.uch rains as have descended. their training inclining them to bite. and forth from the strange 9raals there cre#t child and 8oman.mith is not ac:uainted. 8e noticed the eyes of one or other of the fourBfooted guardians fixed intently on us. &n #. $ut for the (i#siesD 8elcome 8e might have had an un#leasant rece#tion from the dogs. 0inter must be a fearful ex#erience for these children of the air. &n one. . 1r. 8ith 8hatever else 8as re:uired for food. There 8as a steamy . They 8ere evidently dubious as to our character. and to 8hich 8e verily believe he could lead a friend if he 8as blindfolded. to the rear the cloth 9raals. There is no encam#ment of these ancient and interesting #eo#le in the neighbourhood of the hundred odd s:uare miles 8hich com#oses the site of the metro#olis. 8as obtained by ha89ing at this season of the year. or bar9 a 8elcome to the visitors. a closed cauldron covered the braFier fire. . 'or 8ere they able to settle the #oint easily.8ay 8as long and tedious. 8ith their smo9y coverings stretched over #oles. from the raised doorB8ay of a 9raal 8here 8e ha##ened to be couched. )ll that 8e shall disclose about the 8ay is. the summer sun. to say a 9indly 8ord. #. and gro8led.mithDs face seemed to be 8ell 9no8n to these strange #eo#le. 1A H&nvitations to stoo# and enter any TtentD 8ere freely tendered. that 8e s9irted 1ount 'od. The vans #rotected the a##roach to the cam#. and 8e 8ere both lamed 8ith 8al9ing before 8e returned at night. so they sniffed again and again. during the remainder of the day. and the field. furnishing evidence that the o#en braFier 8as burning 8ithin. yet 8e had not gone one ste# out of our 8ay. such cold 8inds as have been blo8ing. There 8ere about t8enty vans and tents in all. the 8ild flo8ers. until 8e turned out of a certain lane into the encam#ment. and T#ee#sD 8ere indulged in 8ith regard to a fe8. but failed.

to 8hom he told the ob<ect of his visiting the (i#sies. 8hich covered the 8hole of the interior. going into a tent. there hung a fe8 articles fresh from the 8ash. *n more than one occasion a 8ellB#olished silver coin of small value. found an aged (i#sy 8oman. 0e tarried. . and 8hat he ho#ed to accom#lish for the children.mithDs hands. but Tnot at home. out of 8hich the smo9e #assed.D said she. in furtherance of his 8or9. 8ithout a momentDs hesitation. HT0hen & come again 8hat shall & bring youND said 1r. and 8ere made :uite at home in another 9raal.he had been a model for #ainters many a time. The #egged cloth indicated that the female occu#ants 8ere 8ithin. &n vain did he #lead the usages of (i#sy married .D $ut nothing more could be gleaned.D nor 8ould they be visible until the 8ind had dried the garments that fluttered overhead. . )t such hard times they 8ere mostly glad to get anything. in 8hich a fire of co9e 8as burning. a dense deadBblac9 mass of hair. 1r. 8here 8e gleaned many interesting #articulars of (i#sy life. and she for8ith handed him a money gift.D TCouldnDt 8e guess 8hat it 8asND T'ot soon. &t is one of the un8ritten la8s of (i#sy life that the 8ife 8or9s 8hile the husband idles about the tent. $ut one young (i#sy fell in love 8ith an &rish girl named Gathleen. in a line 8ith the na#e of her nec9. and in that #articular 8as an im#rovement on the rush and stra8 floors in the %nglish houses of 8hich %rasmus made such great com#laint.mith. or box on 8hich to sit. and across the to#. before smallB#ox mar9ed her. and. in most rec9less fashion. by some #oor (i#sy 8oman.exudation from the cauldron 8hich filled the air 8ith fragrance. the bac9 of her head had often been dra8n to fit somebody elseDs face. . until it stuc9 out #. T3es_ it 8as summut ste8ing. The o8ner of the 9raal and his 8ife 8ere very interesting #eo#le4 the motherDs hair descended by little ste#s from the cro8n of her head. but 8ith no satisfactory result. The story 8hich made us laugh 8as of a (i#sy marriage. T0ell. &n a fe8 cases the tents 8ere #egged do8n all round. *f the tales 8e heard one or t8o 8ere curious. since. above 8as a hole. The 8ife ha89s 8ith the bas9et or the cart and sells. save a little s#ace filled 8ith the braFier. 0e lay u#on a bed of stra8. and our curiosity overcame our #rudence. #erha#s a bit of something green. T) ste8.D The re:uest 8as characteristic. or a farthing has been :uietly #ut into 1r. There 8as no chair. u#on a stout line. to the %gy#tian Jueen.mith.D 8e suggested. and all of us reclined %astern fashion in the #osture that 8as most convenient. and here 8e held a sort of smo9ing lev5e. . Ta fe8 bones and a #otato or t8o. itDs a sil9 hand9ercher for my headKa real $andana. one #ositively laughable. Tif there is one thing more than another that & do 8ant. stool. a #enny. The stra8 had been stam#ed into consistency by the feet of the family. she said. and from the day of their marriage Tom never had an idle moment. and one related to a deed of blood. and the t8o men and the dog never lost sight of the cauldron 8hile the visitors remained. 8hile the husband loiters about the encam#ment or coo9s the evening meal. 1A8li9e a bush.D 8as the re#ly. there 8as no odour from it. and 8ere honoured by the com#any of many distinguished residents in cam#.

&f the old dame had been aslee#.D said . & 8ould that holy man 8ere come. .infire has led a (i#sy life. $ut. har9. )nd tells thee that a #lace for thee is 8aiting.are8ell.miths is a long family. 0henever a young (i#sy is su##osed to be courting a stranger. $. thatDs the same as mine.I ). and 8hen 8e 8ere #. and her tongue #roved her to be in #ossession of most of her faculties. 8hose chee9s 8ere li9e discoloured #archment.infire. and there 8as nothing she 8ished to have. 1A@about to leave.D -e#entance <oined her sister.mith. 0hat figure standeth there before the gateN HHe bears to thee s8eet messages from Heaven. she said 8as T..I . and the action of Patience 8as caused by her hastily seiFing the old 8oman by her arms as she lay on her stra8 floor. %very one s#o9e of her 8ith res#ect. and her bed and bedding stra8.he could not stand or 8al9.KH. During the afternoon 8e 8ere continually exhorted to see T(rannyD before 8e left. she made no moan.D T0hy. $ut her eye 8as bright. the fate of Tom at the hands of Gathleen is told him as a 8arning.he greeted us 8ith (i#sy courtesy.. . 0e thrust our heads through the o#ening.mith. Her activity 8as soon ex#lained.IKH)--&. . until she com#letely cured him of his idleness. 8e sa8 Patience at a tent not far . and then a##eared to be #ulling vigorously. in ans8er to our :uery. nor could she sit u# for many minutes at a time. T*. and 8hose hands and arms a##eared to be mere bones. Gathleen 8as deaf to all such modes of argument.D . That thou shalt <oin them in their home so fair. Patience had thoroughly aroused her. and told us she 8as Tfourscore and six years of age. 0his#ers of love from dear ones folded there. Patience offered to sho8 us T(rannyDs tent.unday at Home. blade_ %ntomb me 8here our chiefs are laid. and before 8e 8ere u# and out of the tent o#ening. fare8ell_ so rest there. she dived head and shoulders through an o#ening she made. li9ely.or four score and six years #oor . and drove her husband forth from tent and encam#ment. methin9s & hear the drum. H0hat sound is that as of one 9noc9ing gentlyN 3et 8ho 8ould enter here at hour so lateN )rise_ dra8 bac9 the boltKunclose the #ortal.D Her name. and dragging her into a sitting #osition.D said 1r. and 8ere face to face 8ith a shrivelledBfaced old 8oman. and though her house no8 is only a tent. by voice or by sta9e.infire . Tthe .I H. and she remained mistress of the field.

. and only to be revealed in another 8orld. 1!1in their #itiable condition. o8ing to the (i#sies moving about. and crusted #ort. 8hich gave an im#etus to trade never ex#erienced before. #ut on their needle8or9ed sli##ers. . and various lines of missionary action 8ere suggested. T0) Tr)at')$t t0) Gip"i)" 0av) r). but no #lan 8as ado#ted. .eventy years ago an interesting corres#ondence too9 #lace in the Christian O server u#on the condition of the (i#sies. and the p.to9eBonBTrent. till there is not a vestige of this good manDs efforts to be seen. %.urvey of the (i#siesI made its a##earance. as no8.outham#ton. but it re:uires a strong hand and a shar# 8hi# to drive him. and mission stations 8ere established at 'e8ar9.undayBschoolKthe beginning of a system ever 8idening and ex#anding. 'early a century ago -a#erDs translation of (rellmannDs HDissertation on the (i#siesI 8as #ublished.I the 8or9 d8indled do8n and do8n. o#ened his first . and it is 8ell it should be so.ixtyBfour years ago HoylandDs HHistorical . The social history and im#rovements of our o8n country seem to have gone by irregular lea#s and bounds. stretch their legs before a blaFing fire in the dra8ingB room.ifty years ago the #reaching of $ourne and Clo8es 8as causing considerable excitement in the country. and other #laces. but fared the same fate as the missionary effort of Crabb and others among the (i#sies. )ylesbury.1Part . #eo#le 8ould loo9 at the (i#sies #. . and 8hich caused no little stir at the time. being the first 8or9 of any 9ind 8orth notice that had a##eared. follo8s u#on the heels of #ublic o#inion in all measures concerning the 8elfare of the nation. but in course of time.)iv)+ i$ t0i" C#!$tr*. and 8ith a shrug of the shoulders 8ould say. 'early fifty years ago 8itnessed the #assing of the -eform $ill. as in the case of H*ur Canal Po#ulation. a 8or9 that caught the fire and s#irit of (rellmannDs. . .ifty years ago rail8ays 8ere o#ened. the ob<ect of both being to stir u# the missionary Feal of this country in the cause of the (i#sies.ifty years ago =ames Crabb began his missionary 8or9 among the (i#sies at .III. of (loucester. *ne hundred and forty years ago the 0esleys and 0hitfield caused a commotion in the religious 8orld. and then noddle off to slee#. and all 8ords blo8n to the 8ind. carrying 8ith it blessings incom#rehensible to finite minds. dry sherry. The Parliament. the cham#agne. li9e the Ti(es. $irmingham. )bout the same time that Crabb 8as at 8or9 among the (i#sies missionary efforts 8ere #ut in motion to im#rove the canalBboatmen. and call H=ohnI to bring a box of the best cigars. doff their 8arm 8inter clothing. +#8ards of a century ago the first canal in this country 8as o#ened for the conveyance of goods u#on our silent high8ays. and trade began in earnest to sho8 signs of life and activity. )n %nglishman 8ill be led by a child. Then. HPoor things. and for a 8hile did 8ell. ) century ago -obert -ai9es. *xford.I and a8ay they 8ould go to their mansions.

and thusKif #ossibleKmade their lives more miserable. and %liFabeth. .actory )ct received the -oyal signature. 8hich. and his vigilant eye and staff have been used to drive them from their cam#ingBground from time to time. . and created 8ithin them dee#erBseated revenge. dar9B eyed. the canalBboat children of toBday. exce#t the s#asmodic efforts of a clergyman here and there.orty years have #assed a8ay since (eorge $orro8Ds missionary efforts among the (i#sies 8ere #rominently before the #ublic. The case of the (i#sies sho8s us #lainly that hunting the 8omen and children 8ith bloodhounds. or some other 9indBhearted friend. 1issionary Feal. 8andering brethren of ours from afar. The difficulties he had encountered seemed to have had a deterrent effect u#on others. other than to fill their coffers and mislead the #ublic as to the real character of a (i#sy vagabondDs life.rom that day till no8. and $orro8. have. in the 8ay they have been #ut forth.actory )ct has done more for the children in one year than all the missionaries in the 9ingdom could have done in their lifetime. 8ere fruitless and un#rofitable. do8n to the #resent time. exhibited (i#sy life in a variety of false colours and shades. 8ithout moral force of la8 and the schoolmaster. #revious to the #assing of the .rom the days of Hoyland. sad to say. in fact. The next agents that a##eared u#on the scene to try to elevate the (i#sies into something li9e a res#ectable #osition in society 8ere the dramatists and novelists. 8hich exhibition has turned out to be a failure in accom#lishing the ob<ect the authors had in vie8. their efforts. o8ing to the 8ay in 8hich they are carrying out the %nclosures )ct.000 #oor slighted outcasts have been left to themselves to sin9 or s8im as they thought 8ell. The #assing of the . little. -obertsD. and -a#erDs. nearly fifty years since. as a rule. it a##ears that the loveBli9e gentleness. but little seems to have been done for the (i#sies. and religious fervour of the circumscribed influence #. HoylandDs. . nothing has been done by la8 to reclaim these &ndian outcasts and )siatic emigrants. and it may be said 8ith s#ecial em#hasis as regards the im#rovement of the (i#sy children. did but little for these #oor. 1!Aof Crabb and others. do8n to the #resent time. The only man. )ll missionary efforts #ut forth to im#rove the condition of the factory o#erative and canalBboatmen. 0ith Crabb died all real interest in the 8elfare of these #oor unfortunate #eo#le. . . in fifty years hence.imilar results are the outcome of the $ric9yard )ct of 18 1. 8ill neither stam# them out nor im#rove their character and habits. 8ho has seemed #. and dragging the (i#sy leaders to the gallo8s. & thin9.actory )ct. and. )nd so in li9e manner it 8ill be 8ith the Canal $oats )ct 8hen #ro#erly carried out. 8ill be e:ual to other 8or9ing classes. about this time. and the Canal $oats )ct of 18 . shared the fate of CrabbDs. as touching the 8elfare of the children.. childB li9e sim#licity. on the other hand. and thus it 8ill be seen. cruel. that the (i#sies and their children of toB . and Crabb. exce#t the dramatist and novelist. These flic9ering lights of the night have met 8ith no better success. and merciless #ersecution the (i#sies received under the reigns of Henry 2&&&.rom the days of the relentless. 1!>to notice them has been the #oliceman. 8ill accom#lish but little for the (i#sies at our doors. these >0.

sunBburnt. the efforts of Christianity alone at the beginning of the nineteenth century. se#arately.rom the time the (i#sies landed in this country in 1C1C. coming to a great extent as they do bet8een the fitful and uncertain efforts of the #resent to us the miserable failure. bet8een /eicestershire. disfigured by their s8arthiness. 'ottinghamshire. as & am imformed and can gather. as the first heere about the southerne #arts. #urchased themselves great credit among the country #eo#le. )nd this. but they 8andered as before u##e and do8ne and meeting once a year at a #lace a##ointed. both of money. Derbyshire. 8ho for :uaint tric9s and devices. The s#eech 8hich they used 8as the right %gy#tian language. insomuch that many of our %nglish loyterers <oined 8ith them. not8ithstanding. to effect a reformation in the habits and character of the (i#sy children and their #arents. nothing seems to have been done to im#rove the (i#sies. industrious. not 9no8n heere at that time among us. travelling Hrob ratsI of toBday are to become honest. H$ut 8hat numbers 8ere executed on these statutes you 8ould 8onder. 8ith 8hom our %nglishmen conversing at least learned their language. and in time learned their crafty cosening. <uggling. of bitter #ersecution in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 8as their beginning4 Certain %gy#tians banished their country Rbeli9e not for their good conditionsS arrived heere in %ngland.I )nd he goes on to say. yet. held about 0hitsuntide. ta9es #lace at the 8ellB9no8n $olton . silver s#oons. 'ottinghamshire and Derbyshire. . and legerdemain. the ob<ect of 8hich 8as to ex#ose the system of fortuneBtelling. all 8ould not #revaile. but yet ra#idly s#reading themselves through $ritain and other #arts of %uro#e. and useful citiFens of the future. 1!!(i#sies as follo8s4KHThis 9ind of #eo#le about a hundred years ago beganne to gather an head. do8n to the time 8hen -a#erDs translation of (rellmannDs 8or9 a##eared in 1 8 . their headB:uarters. and more recently the novelist and dramatist as a means in themselves. and other 8hiles by Getbroa9 at $lac9heath. 8ere esteemed and had in great admiration. sometimes at the Pea9eDs Hole in Derbyshire. and the best of their a##aralle or other goods they could ma9e. and in 8hich reference is made to the#. filthy in their clothing and indecent in all their . exce#t to #ass la8s for their extermination. it must be by the influence of the schoolmaster and the sanitary officer. the relentless hands of #ersecution. insomuch they #itifully cosened #oor country girls.#ellman s#ea9s of the (i#sies about this time as follo8s4KHThe 8orst 9ind of 8anderers and im#ostors s#ringing u# on the Continent. The earliest notice of the (i#sies in our o8n country 8as #ublished in a :uarto volume in the year 1?1>.I The annual gathering of the (i#sies and others of the same class. on the borders of /eicestershire. and got much by #almistry and telling of fortunes. 8ho ma9e /eicestershire.air. . . These #eo#le continuing about the country and #ractising their cosening art. &f the (i#sy and other tram#ing. a village situated in a 9ind of triangle.taffordshire and neighbouring counties. a #eriod of > > years. and the stage. the #oliceman.

ma9ing them believe that they understand the art of foretelling to men and 8omen their good and evil fortunes by loo9ing in their hands.. more severe than the #revious act. &f the (i#sy offences had been committed against the labouring #o#ulation it 8ould have been the height of absurdity for Parliament to have inflicted a fine of some hundreds of #ounds u#on the 8or9ing man of the #oorer classes. cleanliness. carries something more 8ith it than the thefts committed by the (i#sies. and #art of it runs as follo8s4KH0hereas certain outlandish #eo#le. it is hereby ordered that the said vagrants. using no crafte nor feat of merchandise.I The fine of Q!0 being inflicted at that time. 8ho do not #rofess any crafte or trade. honesty. #. and also have committed many heinous felonies and robberies. and on their trials for any felonies 8hich they may have committed they shall not be entitled to a <ury. &n the tenth cha#ter of the said act they are described asKH)n outlandish #eo#le calling themselves %gy#tians. in case they remain one month in the 9ingdom. and at the im#ortation of such %gy#tians Rthe im#orterS shall forfeit Q!0 for every tres#ass. and religion. 8hich means a large sum at the #resent day. &t has occurred to me that the :uestion of Po#ery may have been one of the causes of their #ersecution. and so many times by crafte and subtlety have deceived the #eo#le of their money. and it is not unli9ely that 8ealthy -oman Catholics may have had something to do 8ith their im#ortation into this . being only about seven years after their landing in .cotland. morality. 8ho have come into this realm and gone from shire to shire and #lace to #lace in great com#any. &t 8as soon manifest 8hat 9ind of strange #eo#le had begun to floc9 to our shores to ma9e their domiciles among us. and to 8hich & have referred before. but go about in great numbers from #lace to #ace using insidious underhand means to im#ose on His 1a<estyDs sub<ects. in these dar9 ages. 8hereby to maintain themselves.I )s if this 8as not sufficient or as if it had not the desired effect the authors antici#ated viF. 0herefore all are directed to avoid the realm and not to return under #ain of im#risonment and forfeitures of their goods and chattels.. truthfulness. 1!Cthat some ste#s should be ta9en to sto# these la8less des#eradoes and vagabonds from contaminating our %nglish labourersD and servant girls 8ith their loose ideas of labour. shall be #roceeded against as thieves and rascals. li9e8ise are guilty of thefts and high8ay robberies. bearing them in hand that by #almistry they could tell the menDs and 8omenDs fortunes. commonly called %gy#tians.I +nder these circumstances it is not to be 8ondered at. 8hereby they #. in #reventing other (i#sies floc9ing to our shores or driving those a8ay from us 8ho 8ere already in our midst another act 8as #assed in the t8entyBseventh year of the same reign. and used great subtle and crafty means to deceive the #eo#le. as 8ill be seen in a descri#tion given of them in an )ct of Parliament #assed in the t8entyBsecond year of the reign of Henry 2&&&. &t is evident that the (i#sies had 8heedled themselves into the graces and favours of some #ortion of the aristocracy by their crafts and dece#tion. 1!?fre:uently defraud #eo#le of their money.customs.

During the reign of Henry 2&&&. &tem. T8entyBt8o years later the hay of an acre of land 8as 8orth about QC. d. Q? Cs.rance. 8hether natural born sub<ect or stranger. a number of (i#sies 8ere sent bac9 to . and in the boo9 of recei#ts and #ayments of the thirtyBfifth of the same reign the follo8ing entries are made4KH'ett #ayments. and canals had not been established at this time. it should be felony 8ithout the benefit of the clergy.e#t. . and no #eo#le 8ere so suitable to 8or9 in the dar9 and carry messages from #lace to #lace as the (i#sies. es#ecially if by so doing they could ma9e #lenty of #lunder out of it. The fact is. A? of Henry 2&&&. )t any rate.or the (i#sies to have o#enly avo8ed that they 8ere -oman Catholics before landing u#on our shores. C8s. 1!8#age A>. #. 8d.. %s:. in 1?CA.000. )t this time our o8n country 8as in a very disturbed state. Q1 1 s.. fairly assume that this feature of their character.ergeant of the )dmyraltie. 0ever.I &n 1!>? a firstBrate horse 8as 8orth about Q1 ?s. There 8ere several acts #assed relating to the (i#sies during the reign of Phili# and 1ary. &tem.I vol. stagecoaches. .. &tem. groming of seventeen horses sold at five shillings the #eice as a##erythe by a #articular boo9. and this idea & have hinted at before as one of their leading characteristics. . conse:uently for the (i#sies to be moving about the country from village to village under a cloa9. . a# -ice. &tem. over and besides the sum of Q! Cs. a##ointed to have the charge of the conduct of the said %gu#eians to Callis. 0arner. 0arner. rail8ays. by 8hich it statesKH&f any #erson. in causing them to come over to %ngland. 8e may. to -obt. as they a##eared to the #. 8ould in all #robability have defeated the ob<ect of those 8ho inducedKif inducedKthem to come over to $ritain. to the use of =ohn $o8les for freight of said shi##e. 1! higher #o8ers. & thin9. 8as sufficient to ma9e them the sub<ects of bitter #ersecution. may have been one of the causes of their #ersecution.rance. ii. 0d. states that in her reign the (i#sies throughout %ngland 8ere su##osed to exceed 10.. for the charge of the %gu#eians at a s#ecial gailo delivery. 1st . an addition to their fortuneBtelling #roclivities. &t should not be overloo9ed that telegra#hs. 0d. being fourteen years old. )bout the year 1C8? com#laints 8ere again made of the increase of vagabonds and loitering #ersons. and going about the country doing the 8or9 of the Po#e to some extent. and the bringing of them to be carreied over the sees. and fifth of %liFabeth. religiously. for victuals #re#ared for a shi##e a##ointed to convey certaine %gu#eians.hriff of Huntingdon. or should remain 8ith them one month at once or several times. to the same Tho. 10th . ?d.e#t. to Tho. in referring to the act of %liFabeth. and in this vie8 & am to some extent su##orted by circumstances. and this may have been one of the ob<ects of those 8ho 8ere o##osed to the Protestant tendencies of Henry 2&&&. before the (i#sies left the Continent for %ngland they 8ere -oman Catholic #ilgrims. 8ho had been seen in the fello8shi# of such #ersons.I 0raxall. or had disguised himself li9e them. to and a colt !s.. QC. in his HHistory of .

$lac9borne. T)n )cte for the #unishment of 2acabonds and for releife of the Pooere and &m#otentD. assembled and mett together at our general sessions aboveBnamed for remedie of theis and such ly9e enormitities 8hich hereafter shall ha##en to arrise or gro8e 8ithin the hundreths and lymits aforesaid. and there be received. sett to 8or9e. committinge many grevious and outerageous disorders and offences. 8ithin the hundreths and lymitts aforesaid. in the A1st yeare of the raigne of our . concluded. .uffol9. . rules.ebruary. for the #unishing and su##ressinge of roags. and agreed u#on by us the =ustices of Peace 8ithin the county of . 1!@H)nd 8hereas also yt a##eareth by dayly ex#erience that the numbr of idle. to see that the said )cts and . of )llmightie (od. the contem#t of Her 1a<esties la8s. T)n )ct for settinge of the Poore to 8or9 and for the avoydinge of idlenessD. as 8ell for the su##ressinge and #unishinge of all roags. vacabonds. 8hich doe or shall hereafter 8ander and goe aboute 8ithin the hundreths of Thingo cum $ury. sturdy roags. and that the same be establishd 8ithin the to8ne of $ury.ession of the Parliament.The follo8ing order is co#ied from the Harleian 1. $abings. #. one )cte 8as made intytuled. an other )cte 8as made and intytuled. /ac9ford. -isbridge. and authoritie gyven to <ustices of #eace. tendinge to the great . Thed8ardstree. idle and loyteringe #ersons. and to the great charge. and 8hereas at a .uffol9. vaggraunte. Cosford. the eight daie of . in their several charges and commissions. holden at $ury. committed thether. H0hereas at the Parliament beganne and holden at 0estminster. 8ithin the hundreth of Thingoe aforesaid4 )nd that all #ersons offendinge or lyvinge contrary to the tenor of the said t8oe )cts. and the hundreth of %xninge. the >>nd daie of )#rill. and ordeyne That there shall be builded or #rovided a convenient house. and le8de #ersons. as also for the reliefe and setting on 8or9e of the aged and im#otente #ersons 8ithin this realm. vacabonds. by virtue of 8hich severall )cts certeyne #rovisions and remedies have been ordeyned and established. a##ointed.ouraigne /ady the JueenDs 1a<estie. and orderd in such .tatuts be #utte in due execution.. in the 1!th yeare of the raigne of the JueenDs 1a<esty that no8e is. trouble. the =ustices of Peace above s#eciefied. le8de and yll dis#osed #ersons are exceedingly encreased and multi#lied. #unished. idle loyterings.. masterless men. 8hich shall be called the House of Correction. in the $ritish 1useum4 KH*rders. shall be. and directions. by the 8arrante of any =ustice of Peace d8ellinge in the same hundreths or lymitts. holden by #rorogacon at 0estminster. loyteringe sturdy roags. the 8th daie of 1aye. and dis:uiet of the Common 0elth4 H0e. doe by theis #resents order. in the said county of . in the >8th yeare of Her 1a<esties raigne. decree. assembled at our general session of #eace. to the glorie of )llmightie (od and the benefite of the Common 0elth. contrary to the la8 in that case made and #rovided.

H)nd that it may be 9no8en :u8hat maner of #ersones ar meaned to be idle and strong begares. the (i#sies continued to gro8 and #ros#er in carrying out their nefarious #ractices. not less severe than the one #assed in 1C @. The #hial filled 8ith #. that feinFies themselves to have a 9no8ledge or charming #ro#hecie. and other vagrants of the same class. 1C1revenge. that all and every #erson and #ersons 8hich shall be found and ta9en 8ithin the hundreths and lymitts aforesaid above the age of 1! yeares. The case of these #oor miserable 8retches.. extermination and bloodK8ithout the mil9 of human 9indness. and in 8hich & find the follo8ing4 KH. and 8orthy of the #unischment before s#ecified. the (i#sies. sa lang as they have ony gudes of their o8in to live on. that they be hanged. H. midnight #ro8lers. committed. s#ite.cottish )cts. the honey of love. or other absurd sciences.cotland. hatred. and brought to the House of Correction.I #. and gif thereafter they be found againe.cots as they 8ere under Henry 2&&&. and si9 uthers. 8ater from the crystal fountain. &n an act #assed in 1C @ & find the follo8ing relating to (i#sies and vagabonds4KHThat si9 as ma9e themselves fules and ar bairdes. called .I 5c. and fra they have not :uhair u#on to live of thir o8in that their eares be nayled to the trone or to an uther tree. commonly called %gy#tians. severe as it 8as. #resents to us the s#ectacle of <ustice untem#ered 8ith mercy. or any uther. 8ere directed to #ass forth of the 9ingdom. 8ith eyes and hearts and bending ste#s determined u#on mischief and evilBdoing. being a##rehended. using subtil craftie and unla8ful #layes. and the . common thieves. and thir eares cutted off and banished the countrie.cotland in 1?0@. malice. it is ordered and a##ointed. and limitations hereafter in theis #resents declard and s#ecified. all tellers of destinies.yrstKThat yt maie a##eare 8hat #ersons arre a##rehended.orcerers. and shall ta9e u#on them to be #rocters or #rocuraters goinge aboute 8ithout sufficiente lycense from the JueenDs 1a<estie. notorious. :uairby they #ers8ade #eo#il that they can tell thir 8eirds. #almestrie. and condemned thieves. and %liFabeth in %ngland. under #ain of death as common. #rovisions. 1C0&n . or irones. sall be #ut into the GingeDs 0aird. deaths. or uther si9 li9e runners about. and fortunes. the idle #eo#le calling themselves Egyptians. deaths. and such ly9e fantasticall imaginations. and it 8as under this 9ind of treatment. as <uglarie.I This 8as #ersecution 8ith vengeance. and si9 uther #hantastical imaginations. all idle #ersons goinge aboute usinge subtiltie and unla8full games or #laie. or fortunes. and vagabounds. 5c. all such as faynt themselves to have 9no8ledge in #hysiognomeye. or other abused sciences.sorte and accordinge to the directions. and no mista9e. fastBandB lous. it is declared4 That all idle #ersones ganging about in any countrie of this realm. 8ere dealt 8ith e:ually as severely under 1ary Jueen of . )nother la8 8as #assed in .

#ersecuted them afresh. the %m#eror Charles 2. +nder this edict #. Crabb.rance in 1C1!. and every magistrate 8as ordered to ta9e them into custody. babbleBmongers. &n .000.I &n Denmar9 they 8ere not allo8ed to #ass about the country unmolested. and the conse:uence 8as they 8ere left alone in . )t a Council of the .#ain to #ursue their course of robbery and crime for more than >00 years. to come out.#ain 8as the first to set the #ersecuting machine at 8or9 to grind them to #o8der. . had the follo8ing edict dra8n u#4KH-es#ecting those #eo#le 8ho call themselves . do8n to the commencement of the eighteenth century. and #assed an edict in the year 1!@> for their extermination. for fresh acts of violence and #lunder. nor did it lessen the number of these 8andering #ro8lers. during the #eriod of over >C0 years.tate of *rleans an order 8as sent to all (overnors to drive the (i#sies out of the country 8ith fire and the s8ord.ixtyBone years later a second order 8as #ublished by the Diet. The hanging of thirteen (i#sies at one of the . but 8ith no success. the number had increased to something li9e 1C. failed to get rid of social and national grievances. &n 1C > they 8ere driven from the territories of 1ilan and Parma. died in #rison. & sa8 them. and in 1C8> by the +nited Provinces.erdinand of . 8ere not confined to %ngland alone. and gone to heaven. +nder #ain of death they 8ere excluded from the 'etherlands by Charles 2. The number 8ho had been hung. $orro8. heard their chains. Har9_ they #ass along. Hnot one (i#sy in a thousand could read or 8rite. and others. and earlier than this date they 8ere driven beyond the 2enetian <urisdiction. Hoyland. and a ne8 order 8as issued in 1?1> for their extermination.8eden in the year 1??>. )t the )ugsburg Diet in 1C00.rancis &. Hoyland tells us that in his day. Ging . suffered starvation. and #rior to the noble efforts of -a#er.uffol9 )ssiFes a fe8 years before the -estoration carried 8ith it none of the seeds of a reformation in their character and =ose#h $an9s. 1C>they still increased. 8hich only drove them into hidingB#laces. . is fearful to contem#late. and the fe8ness of those 8ho 8ere Christians. (ermany seems to have led the van in #assing la8s for their extermination.I %fforts #ut forth to exterminate these )siatic heathens.rance an edict 8as #assed by . & 9no8 it is those (i#sy #risoners.tincture of (ethsemaneDs garden being added to ta9e a8ay the nauseousness of itKbeing handed these #oor deluding 8itches and 8retches to drin9 to the last dregs. H&t is the sound of fettersKsound of 8or9 &s not so dismal.. in greater numbers. 8ith their mouths 8atering. 1aximillian &. )t the GingDs death. and bushBranging thieves. *_ terrible To be in chains. and in 1 > additional stringent measures 8ere added to the foregoing edicts. for 8e find that from the landing of a fe8 hundred of (i#sies from . ) very shar# and severe order came out for their ex#ulsion from .

at this time there #. la8. )nd red tongues smote the lattice. *nce a fire Came in the dar9ness. forgive them. and in the secrecy of their movements in going from village to village.I HDT8ere ill to banish ho#e and let the mind Drift li9e a feather. )nd 8hen & 8o9e the room 8as full of s#ar9s. )h_ & 8as but a child and my first care 0as for my mother. betraying the Christians to the Tur9sS to #ass or remain 8ithin their territories. & thin9 it 8ill be seen by the foregoing (erman edict that there is some foundation for the su##osition & have brought for8ard earlier. viF. 1C!!. undermining the foundation of the . and the relentless hand . as their connection 8ith the emissaries of the Po#e of -ome. )s in case they should transgress after this time. and order. for instead of them decreasing in numbers they 9e#t increasing. The only bright s#ot and cheerful tint u#on this sorro8ful #icture of #ersecution 8hich too9 #lace in our o8n country during these dar9 ages 8as the a##earance of the . they shall have no redress. H. that the #ersecution of the (i#sies in this country 8as not so much on account of their thieving deeds. sho8ing the malicious s#irits of the (i#sies. it is strictly ordered that in future they do not #ermit the said (i#sies Rsince there is authentic evidence of their being s#ies. and 8as also enforced in the stringent #olice regulations of . they 9no8 not 8hat they do.IKH)--&. and he goes on to say that 8ith the exce#tion of Hungary and Transylvania. nor to trade or traffic. $y #ublic edict to all ran9s of the em#ire. #lunder.ather. )nd the next moment there 8ere shouts of <oy. nor shall such #ersons be thought to have committed #. entirely :uit them. Rthe Cornish #oetS. 8hose life and death forcibly illustrates the last 8ords of =esus u#on the Cross. and conveyers of intelligence. civil and religious liberty. and other abominations. & have had my share *f 8hat the 8orld calls trial. Then a hand Came through the sul#hur. neither to grant them #rotection nor convoy.. 1CAany crime. according to the obligations under 8hich they are bound to us and the Holy %m#ire. stretching out (reat lurid arms 8hich stained the firmament. the $edfordshire tin9er. nor suffer themselves to be found therein.(i#sies roving u# and do8n the country. and 1CC1. they 8ere similarly #roscribed in every civilised state. scouts. 1C!8. =ohn $unyan. The follo8ing sad case.ran9fort in 1C .tar of %lsto8. 1C!8ere su##osed to be about 18.000 in the country. and receive in<ury from any #erson. To8ards the end of the eighteenth century it became evident that edicts and #ersecutions 8ere not going to stam# out the (i#sies in this country.I (rellmann says the same affair occu#ied the Diet in 1CA0. 8hen the city lay &n a still sea of slumber. and that the said (i#sies do 8ithdra8 themselves before %aster next ensuing from the (erman Dominions. ta9ing hold of mine.tate.

for it 8as evident that #ersecution alone 8ould neither im#rove these (i#sies nor yet drive them out of the country. near Cla#ham. no good 8as observable. They had begun to #ut their Hconsidering ca#sI on. and 8ould.treet. and conse:uently handed them over to the minister of love and mercy. that of trying to im#rove the (i#sies by the means of the schoolmaster. in all #robability have carried it out had not a number of them been brought to the gallo8s for these threats. The tide of events no8 changed. 8hich caused a considerable commotion among the religious communities. and as 8e go along 8e shall see that the efforts #ut forth in this direction alone met 8ith but little more success than under the former treatment.unday after . and they sought to obtain the release of the young (i#sies 8ho 8ere in custody. and the interest caused by the #ublication of (rellmannDs boo9. &t should be noted that 'ortham#tonshire at this time 8as a favourite round for the (i#sy fraternity as 8ell as the ad<oining counties. follo8ing. he Hhath done more than them all. ) century ago. 1CCthe fundamental #rinci#les of Christianity. yet if 8e loo9 to the agency #ut forth and its results. in 8hich he says4KHThe first account he received of any of them 8as from Thomas Ho8ard. the result 8as. )fter re#eated efforts #ut forth by a number of Christian gentlemen. and interesting gathering is ta9en from Hoyland. 1 80. although humble and feeble in its #lan of o#eration. The next ste# 8as one in the right direction.undayB school teacher must have felt encouraged in his 8or9 as he #lodded on .even years after the foregoing executions (rellmannDs 8or9 u#on the (i#sies a##eared.. 'o. . as it did. This. . u#on 8hat charge it does not a##ear. C0. rigid. )cre /ane. as in the case of #ersecution. This ste# 8as a bound to the o##osite extreme. and 8ere in a fix as to the next move. seemed to have had the effect of bringing the authorities to bay.treet. the 8or9 of reforming the (i#sies by #urely religious and #hilanthro#ic action began to lag behind. the universal feeling aroused in the 8elfare of the children of this country by the establishment of . excited the feelings of the (i#sies in the county. said that in the 8inter of 1811 he had assisted in the establishment of a . &t may be said of Thomas Ho8ard as it 8as said of the #oor 8ido8 of old. and it 8as time they had.undayBschools throughout the length and breadth of the land to teach the children of the 8or9ingBclasses reading and 8riting and #. This #erson. stern <ustice alone could do no good 8ith them.of the hangman.leet . a number of young (i#sies 8ere arrested at 'ortham#ton. &t 8as under the #atronage of a . viF. 8ho #reached among the Calvinists. /a8. and the (i#sies 8ere allo8ed to go again on their 8ay to destruction. the conse:uence 8asKtrue to their instinctsK the s#irit of revenge manifested itself to such a degree that the (i#sies threatened to set fire to the to8n. . but 8ere not successful in their a##lication to the magistrate. the . #ro#rietor of a glass and china sho#.unday.undayBschool in 0ind8ill . They had never thought of tem#ering <ustice 8ith mercy. it seems. 0ith this case the hands of #ersecution began to hang do8n. encouraging.I The follo8ing account of this cheerful.etter /ane.

of $rixton -o8. having no idea of restraint. vol. & have not heard even of any efforts 8hich have been made either by individuals or societies for their im#rovement. the most im#ortant of all. the first lesson he taught them 8as silence and submission. 8here the light of Christianity shines #. but increased till the number of scholars amounted to forty. 8ithout shoes and stoc9ings.abbathBschool under the direction of his congregation.I 8riting to the same =ournal. 8ho 8as about thirteen years of age. &n this ha##y country. of 8hose #itiable condition. & allude to the de#lorable state of the (i#sies. Trinity Coo#er. 8ho said4K. of the name of 0il9inson. and in the same year. and #rinci#ally intended for the neglected and forlorn children of bric9Bma9ers and the most ab<ect #oor. Thomas Ho8ard says. they are still strangers to its cheering influence. s8am#y marshes. @1. but by a steady. the outcasts of society. of the name of Coo#er. minister of . /ying at our very doors. the children ex#ressed much regret at leaving school. till she obtained admission for herself and t8o of her brothers. vii.I )t the #resent day (i#sies generally locate in the neighbourhood of bric9B yards and lo8. 8hich fle8 against the sides of it. in the year about 180@. 8as not ta9en before. They ac:uired habits of subordination and became tractable and docile. and the influence of the exam#le of other children. a##lied to be instructed at the school.he #. 1C?nevertheless #ersevered in her im#ortunity. vol. and 8hen the (i#sies bro9e u# in the s#ring. or by the side of rivers or canals.. ho8ever uncouth or insignificant.I The next ste# ta9en to let daylight u#on the (i#sy and his dar9 doings in the dar9 ages 8as by means of letters to the Press. This account 8as confirmed by Thomas =ac9son. says4KH&t is #ainful to reflect . & venture to a##ly to you on behalf of a race. a daughter of the (i#sy family. and 8hat sur#rises me is that this ste#. HDuring the 8inter a family of (i#sies. they seem to have a #eculiar claim on our com#assion. several (i#sies had been admitted to a . even care over them. )t their introduction. &t 8as begun on a small scale.ince the above ex#eriment. they are but little removed from savage life. but in conse:uence of the oblo:uy affixed to that descri#tion of #ersons she 8as re#eatedly refused. to ma9e their usual excursions.single gentle8oman. 1C 8ith its #urest lustre.. and of all his scholars there 8ere not any more attentive and affectionate than these. H'ilI 8rites4KH)s the divine s#irit of Christianity deems no ob<ect.toc98ell Cha#el. they soon become settled and fell into their ran9s. vii. . #.raternicus. beneath her notice. & do not recollect to have seen any notice in the #ages of your excellent miscellany. he com#ared them to birds 8hen first #ut into the cage. obtained lodgings at a house o##osite the school.I H. on 8hose behalf & beg leave to solicit your good offices 8ith the #ublic. &n a letter addressed to the Christian O server. surrounded as he 8as by ragged children. among the many forms of human misery 8hich have engaged your efforts. &n the midst of a highly refined state of society.

1y attention 8as dra8n to the state of this miserable class of human beings by the letter of T. says4KHThe soil 8hich it is #ro#osed to cultivate is remar9ably barren and un#ro#itious.I HH. as follo8s4 H&t is my earnest #rayer to (od that this may not be one of these #ro<ects 8hich are only tal9ed of and never begun. of course.I H=. 8ill be e:ually Fealous to do their duty in this instance. 8hich has at length done <ustice to the #oor negroes. and finishes his a##eal as follo8s4KHChristians of various denominations. 8hen our charity is flo8ing in so 8ide a channel. there is no fear of #rogress and hel#. Hthere is an a8ful res#onsibility attached to this neglect.I 5c. )#ril >8. H/et us arise and build. and their tents brought under some sort of sanitary ins#ection.hould these suggestions be . a #lentiful harvest must not be soon ex#ected. and 8ith the #ains 8hich are no8 ta9en to educate the #oor.I 8rote to the Christian O server. conveying the blessings of the (os#el to the most distant :uarters of the globe. let us begin.I and he offered to subscribe Ht8enty #ounds #er annum to8ards so good an ob<ect.raternicus. and they must be #re#ared. and if in the #arish of a #ious clergyman he 8ould #robably embrace the o##ortunity of teaching them. 1810.I 8rites to the same =ournal. #erha#s. 9nitting. se8ing. and the same benevolence 8hich induced you to exert your talents and influence on behalf of the o##ressed negroes may again be successfully em#loyed in ameliorating the condition of a numerous class of our fello8B creatures. gone into eternity ignorant of the 8ays of salvation. 8e shall not hesitate to 8ater this one barren and neglected field in our o8n land.cri#tures and the 9no8ledge of Christ.I a clergyman. #erha#s may. 8ith reference to missionary enter#rise. and said he ho#ed Hto see the day 8hen the nation. but that it may tend to the glory of His name and to the bringing bac9 of these #oor lost shee# to the fold of their -edeemer.I HH. 8hat a change by this time 8ould have ta9en #lace in their habits.. 8rites again and says4 KH. &t 8ould re:uire much #atient continuance in 8ell doing in those 8ho attem#ted it.raternicusI sums u# the corres#ondence by suggesting a #lan of ta9ing the school to the (i#sies instead of ta9ing the (i#sies to the schools4KH&f the com#ulsory education of the (i#sies had ta9en #lace a century ago.I H.I and goes on to say that.I and finishes his letter by saying. 1C88ith a short #rayer. and he further says4KH$y degrees they might be brought to attend divine 8orshi#. since the light of Christianity has shone on this island.. in 8hich he says4KHCircumstances lead to thin9 that 8ere encouragement given to them the (i#sies 8ould be inclined to live in to8ns and villages li9e other #eo#le. be the means of exciting effectual attention to the s#iritual 8ants of this de#lorable set of beings. and 8ould in another generation become civilised. to meet 8ith some unto8ardness and much disa##ointment. by 8hom the girls might be taught different 9inds of 8or9.I and ends his letter #. P. 1uch might be done by a #ious schoolmaster and schoolmistress. 5c.urely. and to diffuse the .D and loo9ing u#on it as a re#roach to our country.I another 8riter to the same #a#er.ho8 many thousands of these unha##y creatures have. through the divine #rovidence.I H1inimus. 8ould become a #art of the regular fold. .I and recommends the a##ointment of missionaries to the 8or9.

8e have said in angerK HTHeathen dog_ $egone. and he also sent out a circular to most of the sheriffs in %ngland 8ith a number of :uestions u#on it relating to their numbers. 1r. )ll (i#sies su##ose the#. $os8ell.u##ose that legislature should thin9 this not un8orthy its notice.. 181C.ince & have eaten.erners. and as a #art of the great family they ought not to be overloo9ed. 1C@hitherto been made #ublic. 1?0first of them came from %gy#t.I in the Northa(pton $ercury. /ovell. he said4 T$ut & am very hungry.. H) . and the . they might. /eversedge. >. Taylor. /ee. Care8. *nly give me a crust.D The &ndian turned. set to 8or9 in earnest to try to im#rove the condition of the (i#sies. &n accents lo8 and musical. . begone_ you shall have nothing here. . urging the necessity of some means being ado#ted for their im#rovement. the #rivate #ro#erty of individuals be much more secure. =ohn Hoyland.I H=unius. many #arts of 'ortham#tonshire and neighbouring counties. solicitor at Higham . a8a9en the attention of some benevolent #ersons. They cannot form any idea of the number in %ngland. 1artin. and the #ublic materially benefited. (lover.I &nstead of #utting into #ractice measures for their im#rovement. H0ayside Pictures. and for 8hom our first care ought to have been. in con<uction 8ith 1r.heffield. The gangs in different to8ns have not any connection or organisation.riend of -eligion. Coo#er. Plun9ett. Dra#er.D Then ans8ered he. condition. it is long . (et you gone. #erha#s. and for that #ur#ose he visited. of . 0illiams. )llen. ? and . $uc9ley. The more common names are .I During the summer of 181!. 5c. 8rites4 KH0hen 8e consider the immense sums raised for every #robable means of doing good 8hich have #. and Corrie. 1ansfield.I )nother corres#ondent to the same =ournal. 8e cannot doubt if a #ro#er method should be #ro#osed for the relief and ameliorating the state of these #eo#le it 8ould meet 8ith deserved encouragement. and 8ith us. under date =une > th. C.tanley.deemed 8orthy of your insertion. 8.I 8rites under date =uly >1st. 181!. &n the county of Herts it is . )llen. ) bone. and remar9s as follo8s4KHThousands of our fello8Bcreatures 8ould be raised from de#ravity and 8retchedness to a state of comfort. 8hose su#erior talents and ex#erience in the 8ays of beneficence 8ould enable them to #erfect and carry into execution a #lan for the effectual benefit of these unha##y #ortioners of our 9ind. 8ith fury and a fro8n4 T(o_ (et you gone_ you redBs9inned heathen hound_ &Dve nothing for you.mith. & say_DI H)--&. and the follo8ing are a fe8 of the ans8ers sent in re#ly4K1. then facing Collingre8.tate ta9ing hold of them by the hand as children belonging to us. to cheer me on my 8eary 8ay.

mith 8ell. and became gradually and miserably less.orster and 1r. T0e must 8or9 and 8ait. and are of dissolute conduct. 0ar8ic9shire. and 'ortham#tonshire the ans8ers are not sufficiently definite to determine. and the conse:uence 8as the (i#sies have not im#roved an iota during the three centuries they have been in our midst.tate control. Those 8ho #rofess any religion re#resent it to be that of the country in 8hich they reside. 0hether they are :uite so numerous in $uc9inghamshire. *xfordshire. there may be sixty families. #articular to music and dancing. The follo8ing interesting account 8ill sho8 that royal #ersonages are not deaf to the cries of suffering humanity. among 8hom 8ere artificial Christians. for the most #art. 1C. )ll 8as as still as death. H*n the 8inds ) voice came murmuring. and for several yearsKexce#t the efforts of a clergyman here and thereKthe interest in the cause of the #. corroborated his statements. greater numbers are calculated u#on. and the #oor blac9 8retches #assed a8ay. 1ost of these ans8ers 8ere confirmed by -iley . 11. 8ith flag in hand. 'o one listened to the cries of the #oor (i#sy children as they glided into eternity. had ever read (rellmannDs or HoylandDs 8or9s on (i#sies has not been sho8n. 5c. and li9ely to remain unless brought under . statesmen. 'ot one in a thousand can read.. Do not 9no8 of any #erson that can 8rite the language. but their descri#tion of it seldom goes beyond re#eating the /ordDs Prayer. a cottage. $edfordshire. to ta9e u# the cry. 10. )s they 8ere. >> and >A. 'o one #ut out their hands to save them as they 9e#t disa##earing from the gaFe of the bystanders. and only a fe8 of them are ca#able of that. =ohn . )fter Hoyland had #ublished his boo9 no one ste##ed into the breach. T0e must 8or9 and 8aitD. others are dealers in horses and asses. having many children.. 'o one heeded the 8arning.DI H)--&. )nd every echo in the farBoff fen Too9 u# the utterance4 T0e must 8or9 and 8ait. &n most counties there are #articular situations to 8hich they are #artial. and 8ho 9ne8 -iley . 0iltshire. >0. Children are brought u# in the habits of their #arents. during many years. 0illiam Carrington. >1. They marry. so they are. &t is ta9en from a missionary . and 1 . by #ledging to each other. res#ectable merchants of $iggles8ade.D Her s#irit felt it. 0hether His 1a<esty (eorge &&&. be it in a (i#syDs 8ig8am. 1ore than half their numbers follo8 no business. 1?1(i#sies d8indled do8n. &n Cambridgeshire. 1?. 1r. 8ithout any ceremony. and tell fortunes. 8as accounted the chief of the (i#sies in 'ortham#tonshire. and #hilanthro#ists. They do not teach their children religion. 5c. or of any 8ritten s#ecimen of it. The 8omen mostly carry bas9ets 8ith trin9ets and small 8ares. and Dorsetshire. 1A.mith. 8ho. or #alace. 1@.

and a bas9et or t8o. The 9ing. 9nelt do8n by her side. a middleBaged female (i#sy in the last stages of a decline. and had brought some medicine for her dying mother. then loo9ed u# to heaven.D said his 1a<esty. and. occasionally too9 the exercise of hunting. about eight years of age. stoo#ing do8n. to esca#e the dogs. and the wheel ro*en at the cistern. my mother_ my mother_ (od #ity and bless my #oor mother_D The curiosity and 9indness of the 9ing led him instantly to the s#ot. the chase lay through the shrubs of the forest. =ust at that moment another (i#sy girl. 8hile her little blac9 eyes ran do8n 8ith tears. to ma9e a circuitous route along the ban9s of the river. #artly covered. #raying. 8ho loved his #eo#le and his (od better than 9ings in general are 8ont to do. a little #allet. and fastening his horse u# to the branches of the oa9. dismounting. there to 8ait for some of his attendants. it became necessary. much affected. my childN tell me all about it. T0hat. so much so that his 1a<esty resolved u#on yielding the #leasures of the chase to those of com#assion for his horse. $eing out one day for this #ur#ose. then rose from her 9nees. there lay. $efore they had reached the end of the forest the 9ingDs horse manifested signs of fatigue and uneasiness. and is as follo8s4KH) 9ing of %ngland of ha##y memory. my dear child. . His 1a<esty had only #roceeded a fe8 yards 8hen. said. instead of the cry of the hounds. on her 9nees.he had been at the to8n of 0BBB. T*h. she modestly curtsied. under a branching oa9. gave o##ortunity for the s#ortsmen to se#arate from each other. and of her family. 0ith this vie8 he turned do8n the first avenue in the forest and determined on riding gently to the oa9s. and in the last moments of life. 8i#ed the dying s8eat from her motherDs face.magaFine for =une. as9ed the child her name. The roughness of #. nor 8as it unaffected on this occasion. 18>A. each one endeavouring to ma9e the best and s#eediest route he could. &t 8as a little green #lot on one side of the forest. to the s#ot. )s the dogs could not be brought to follo8. is the cause of your 8ee#ingN . much older. he fancied he heard the cry of human distress. The little girl then 8e#t aloud.or 8hat do you #rayND The little creature at first started. through some thic9 and troublesome under8ood. The stag had been hard run. in order to come u# 8ith it. T0hat. and #ointing to the tent. 1?>the ground. . had crossed the river in a dee# #art.he turned her dying eyes ex#ressively to the royal visitor. came. 9issed her #allid li#s. the long grass and fre:uent thic9ets. Distress of any 9ind 8as al8ays relieved by his 1a<esty. and in all #robability the circumstance too9 #lace not many years #rior to this date. and. *bserving a stranger. )s he rode for8ard he heard it more distinctly. T8hat. 1?As#eech had ceased their office_ the silver cord was loosed. half covered 8ith a 9ind of tent. )nd no8 he in:uired. Tcan be done for . the organs of #. 8here 8as s#read on the grass. and ho8 long her mother had been ill. but not a 8ord did she utter. and burst into tears.D The little creature no8 led the 9ing to the tent. 'ear to the root of the tree he observed a little s8arthy girl. out of breath. lay on the ground at a fe8 #aces distant from the tent. for he had a heart 8hich melted at Thuman 8oeD. my child. T*h. 8ith some #ac9s. and. sir_ my dying mother_D T0hatND said his 1a<esty. hastening to her mother.

Dtis glory every8here_ Dear =esus. and 8orthy of everlasting record in the annals of 9ings. HHis 1a<esty no8 rose u#. her eyes s#ar9led 8ith brightness. till 1r. and (od has sent me to instruct and comfort your mother. no ho#e could be . rode u#. He then #ointed her to Christ. but to the other. and #ointing to the breathless cor#se. 0hile the 9ing 8as doing this the #oor creature seemed to gather consolation and ho#e. and 8ho had #. & am coming_ Then she fellK )s falls a meteor 8hen the s9ies are clear. He then 8i#ed the tears from his eyes and mounted his horse. H&t 8as at this moment that some of his 1a<estyDs attendants. remained strong in her countenance. #ut some gold into the hands of the afflicted girls.aviour. it 8as the glimmering of ex#iring nature. turning to the (i#sies. &t 8as an affecting sight. T0ho. the allBsufficient . Crabb ha##ened to enter <ust as the <udge 8as #assing sentence of death on t8o unha##y men. sir_D she re#lied. for horseB stealing. 8as neighbour unto theseNDI HHar9_ DonDt you hear the rumbling of its 8heelsN 'earer it comes and nearer_ *h. and bade them loo9 to heaven. and her countenance became animated. To one he held out the ho#e of mercy. His attendants. greatly affected. 1r. 1?!been riding through the forest in search of him. she smiled. a #oor (i#sy.I )fter this solemn but interesting event nothing further seems to have been done by either Christian or #hilanthro#ist to8ards 8i#ing out this national disgrace. it 8as not till some little time had ela#sed that they #erceived the struggling s#irit had left mortality.he loo9ed u#. discoursed on the demerit of sin and the nature of redem#tion. )s the ex#ression of #eace.D He then sat do8n on a #ac9 by the side of the #allet. & ran all the 8ay before it 8as light this morning to 0BBB. The 9ing. 8ho. in 18> . and the (i#sies 8ere left to follo8 the bent of their evil #ro#ensities for several years. . #romised them his #rotection. instantly endeavoured to comfort them. 8ho had missed him at the chase. and found the 9ing comforting the afflicted (i#sies. T& am a minister. and. 8hen his 1a<esty. 8ho 8as convicted of horseBstealing.youND T*h. and as9ed for a minister. and her countenance 8as much agitated. The air 8as again rent 8ith the cries of the distressed daughters. but it 8as the last smile. stood in silent admiration. CrabbDs reading of Hoyland and 8itnessing the sentence of death #assed u#on a (i#sy at 0inchester. said. my lord. ut no one could I get to co(e with (e to pray with (y dear (other _D The dying 8oman seemed sensible of 8hat her daughter 8as saying. He said. ho8ever. 8ith strong emotion. he said. Tmy dying mother 8anted a religious #erson to teach her and to #ray 8ith her before she died. thin9est thou. and to the 8ee#ing girls. ta9ing the hand of the dying (i#sy. 8hat light_ The tent is full. full of 9indness. /ord /BBB 8as no8 going to s#ea9.

you can have no mercy in this 8orld4 & and my brother <udges #. for my babyDs sa9e_I H'o. a##eared an old 8oman and a very young one. . still on his 9nees. #lainly sho8ing that voluntary efforts are very little better than a shado8. and endeavoured to comfort its 8ee#ing mother. you should have thought of your 8ife and children before. H& cannot.outham#ton to bring about a reformation among the (i#sies. He also enlisted the sym#athy of other earnest Christians in the 8or9. in fact. received encouraging signs of success. and his o8n death. and to all their #eo#le.I said she.I He then ordered him to be ta9en a8ay. came to an end. 8arm. #. my /ord =udge.I The su##liant. because of the increase of the crime. 1??*8ing to the 8andering habits of the (i#sies. The #oor man 8as executed about a fortnight after his condemnation.I &m#elled by the sym#athies of #ity and a sense of duty. elevate. a##arently unconscious of any #ersons being #resent but the <udge and himself. The old 8oman held the infant tenderly in her arms. Crabb could not remain in court. the 8or9. my /ord. es#ecially (i#sies. and 8ith u#lifted hands and eyes. anxious to learn the fate of their com#anion. as a #enitent sinner. H1y dear. vanishing smo9e. )s he returned he found the mournful intelligence had been communicated to some (i#sies 8ho had been 8aiting 8ithout. according to his little 8or9 #ublished in 18A1.I re#lied the <udge. he obtained the more needful mercy of (od. to illuminate. *n the outside of the court. discouragements. his labours 8ere attended 8ith blessed results among the adult #ortion of the (i#sies. Crabb s#o9e to them on the evil of sin. ali9e unconscious of her bitter agonies and of her fatherDs des#air. and s#ent steam. Crabb being full of fire and Feal. The young man. and encourage the 8andering. 1r. for my 8ifeDs sa9e. for (odDs sa9e. as they deemed best. and the #oor fello8 8as rudely dragged from his earthly <udge. H'o. and ex#ressed his ho#e that the melancholy event 8ould #rove a 8arning to them. 1r. and succeeded in forming a committee at . the conse:uence 8as the (i#sies 8ere left again to 8or9 out their o8n destruction according to their o8n inclinations and tastes. donDt cry. 1?Chave come to the determination to execute horseBstealers.given. &t is ho#ed. The former sat by its motherDs side. 'o %lisha came for8ard to catch his mantle. honesty. save my life_I The <udge re#lied. )fter this scene 1r. seated on the ground. through the abounding grace of Christ. cheer. and sobriety. soon to be a 8ido8 under circumstances the most melancholy. and 8ith them t8o children. addressed him as follo8s4 H*h. save my life_ do. 8hile the sun shone. Hremember you have this dear little baby. and for a time. for he 8as but a youth. the eldest three years and the other an infant but fourteen days old. so far as any organisation 8as concerned. dar9Beyed vagabonds roving about in our midst into #aths of usefulness. entreatedKHDo. They seemed distracted. immediately fell on his 9nees. set to 8or9 in right good earnest.

8ith his body literally teeming 8ith vermin and filth. 8ill not ma9e him #resentable at court or a fit sub<ect for a dra8ingBroom. and scene ended. fine colours. *thers have tried to im#rove this #. human love and mercy on the other hand. The next efforts #ut forth to reform these renegades 8as by means of fiction. lying. and #resented to us a character 8hich excites a feeling in our notionsKa 9ind of goBbet8een. 1? field of thistles and sour doc9s by thro8ing a handful of daisy seeds among them. be8itching halo. and 8hen he is old he 8ill not de#art from it. and he ought to have #erfect liberty to go any8here or do anything.cents and #erfumes in a deathBbed chamber only last for a short time.cattering flo8ers u#on a cess#ool of ini:uity 8ill not #urify it. curtain dro##ed. have been dosing him 8ith cordials entirely. and in doing so have 8or9ed u# the blac9ness from underneath. *thers. The dramatist has strutted the (i#sy across the stage in various characters in his endeavour to im#rove his condition. idle. &t re:uires something more than a #hantom lifeBboat to rescue the (i#sy and bring him to land.atanic. inflexible la8 and <ustice on the one hand. a9in to sym#athy and disgust. 8hen she s#o9e 8ith finger #ointed and tears in her eyes4K . ) fictitious ro#e com#osed of beautiful ideas is not the thing to save dro8ning (i#sy children. and #oetry. To #ut artificiallyBcoloured feathers u#on the head of a (i#sy child dressed in rags and shreds. mild. to such a degree. and mee9. blac9guard of a (i#sy still. . that heK-omany chalKimagines he is right in everything he says and does. and more in the character of an %nglishman to deal out mercy. unless 8e follo8 out the advice of the good old boo9. )##lause. 'ot a fe8 have thro8n round the (i#sy an enchanting. in their #raise8orthy endeavours to ma9e u# a medicine to im#rove the condition of the (i#sies. . have se#arately failed in the ob<ect the #romoters had in vie8.ome 8riters.ome have attem#ted to #aint him 8hite. stern. romance. *f the t8o #rocesses & 8ould much #refer that of mercy. he has been a blac9. &t is more #leasant to human nature to be under its influence. . mercy tried to 8in them over. 8ho have mista9en the emaciated condition of the (i#sy.Thus far in this #art & have feebly endeavoured to sho8 that rigid. $ad he is.I 0ould to (od the voice of the little (i#sy girl 8ould begin to ring in our ears. and daFFling lights have not altered his nature. )fter the fine colours have been doffed. 8hich an ins#ection has #roved nothing less than a delusion and a snare. music finished. . To dress the . demonBloo9ing face of a (i#sy 8ith the violetB#o8der of imagery only tem#orally hides from vie8 the re#ulsive as#ect of his features. :uiet. The first storm of #ersecution brings him out again in his true colour. and bad he 8ill remain. thieving. HTrain u# a child in the 8ay he should go. a##lause ceased. ) bottle of roseB8ater thro8n into a room 8here decom#osition is at 8or9 u#on a body 8ill not restore life. =ustice tried to exterminate the (i#sy. s8arthy. The for9ed light of imagination thro8n across the heavens on a dar9 night is not the best to reveal the character of a (i#sy and set him u#on the high8ays for usefulness and heaven. have neutralised its effects by adding too much honey and s#ice to it.

soBcalled. dandy coc9s cro8ed over it. in our bac9 slums and sin9 gutters.tri# the >0. see the class of #eo#le you have been neglecting. either by education.000 men. and you. Hubert PetalengroKa . 3ou see it from this archBstone. at a glance. duc9s s8allo8 it. #arrots have chatted about it. and cro8s have tried to carry it a8ay as a #recious <e8el. and those. and unrealities.I Hsilver buttons.I Hlong blac9 hair. eagles. &n all ages there have been #eo#le silly enough to be led a8ay by sights. to be sure. and even star.I and they 8ould have given any amount to have undone the #ast. ravens. if #ossible. and after all. & #ray for him 8ith face u#turned to heaven. The #raise.I H#retty little feet. mag#ies. and had their eyes o#ened to the stern facts of a (i#syDs life. or tastes. dogs have fought for it. #erha#s heDs living yet. cats have s8orn and s#it over it. #igs have tried to gul# it as the daintiest morsel. 8omen. and to esca#e.I in nine cases out of ten in name only. foxes have hid it. to follo8 a course of life for 8hich they are not suited.I 8hen they have been labouring under the sense of infatuation and fascination instead of reason. )nd may come bac9 again and 9iss his child. and fo#s. and loo9s besto8ed u#on the Hbe8itching deceivers. 8hat has it beenN *nly a Hscam#. and morn.HThere is a cabin halfB8ay do8n the cliff. the com#any of their Hold chumsI by all sorts of manduvres. and in the end all have #ut it do8n as a thing they could neither carry nor s8allo8. . colours. hens scratched after it. and long grass -ent from the hollo8s is our only bed. #eacoc9s #ec9ed it. there 8e live. 8hen it has been stri##ed of its do8dy colours. of the Hred cloa9s. ha89s. he ran a8ay.I moving about our country under the artificial and unreal association connected 8ith (i#sy life.I Hsmall hands. flattery. 1?8)nd there youDll find my mother. and children of the 8ord H(i#sy. T* blessed . conse:uently sending to ruin and misery through fear on the one hand and lavishing smiles on the other. H0hat fools 8e have been. 8hen they have come to their senses.I (eese have tried to gobble it. Poverty 0ee#s on the 8oven rushes. has made them in the #resence of friends hang do8n their heads li9e a 8illo8. <ac9da8s. send my father home_DI The 8ord H(i#syI seems to have a magic thread running through it. 1?@done among HfastBgoers.I s8ells. #osition. . sounds. have said to themselves. #ic9#oc9ets. 'o one acts the #art of a butterfly among schoolBboys better than the blac9Beyed (i#sy girl has #.I Hbe8itching eyes.or every day. & have no father here. beginning at the ti# end of H(I and ending 8ith the tail end of Hy. reared and fostered among thieves. &n ninetyBnine cases out of a hundred she has trotted them out to #erfection and then left them in the lurch. and blac9guards.aviour. #. Perha#s heDs dead.I in many cases.

and her lovely little footKgold and diamond rings.I Hsecond. cursing each other under the maddening influence of brandy and disa##ointment. ma9es #. )nd banish them for ever. as he thought. she #ictured in imagery the . it 8as a #ity $rother Petalengro did not have a foretaste of it by s#ending a month in a (i#syDs tent in the de#th of 8inter. and he also lays in a stoc9 of #otted meats and other dainties. her first thoughts are to #in them in the buttonBhole of the -omany -ye R(i#sy gentlemanS. 8ith no balance at his ban9erDs. 1 0all Hs:uareI 8ith %smeralda and her t8o brothers and the don9eys. H*h_ ho8 delightful. 0ellington boots. Then %smeralda 8ould roc9er about being the 8ife of the -omany -ye R(i#sy gentlemanS and as she #roudly #aced along in her heavy boots. 8e en<oy the antici#ation of a long and #leasant ramble in 'or8ayDs ha##y land. and than9ful that 8e should be so #ermitted to roam 8ith our tents and 8ild children of nature in 9ee#ing the solitudes 8e sought. red stoc9ings. and 8ater#roof sheets and a number of blan9ets to lay on the dam# grass to #revent their tender bodies being overta9en 8ith rheumatics.I H)s 8e <ourneyed on8ard.unday broth. tambourine. tin9le 8ent the ha89Bbells on the collar of our $ura -a8nee as she led the 8ay along the romantic 'or8egian road. ho8 fragrant the 8ild flo8ersKthose 8ild flo8ers can never be forgotten. HT(ive the sna9es and toads a t8ist. and a rich member of a long familyKconceived the idea. flas9 8ith brandy. in reality #assing through the Hfirst.ree from all care. and ma9e #egs and s9e8ers for his . gather stic9s for the fire.D sang Machariah. #rovides %smeralda 8ith dresses and #etticoatsKnot too long to hide her #retty an9les. (i#sies li9e flo8ers. after falling madly in love 8ith a dar9Beyed beauty. To ma9e himself and his damsel comfortable on a (i#sy tour he fills his #oc9et 8ith gold. surrounded by (i#sies of both sexes.gentleman. it is #art of their nature. of turning (i#sy and tasting for himselfKnot in fiction and romanceKthe charms of tent life. inters#ersed 8ith beautiful 8ild roses. 0e felt contented 8ith all things. and com#elled to 8ear (i#sy clothing. )s 8e <ourneyed :uietly through the forest. . the guitar. buys a :uantity of rugs u#on 8hich are a number of foxesD headsKand & su##ose tails tooK8ater#roof covering for the tent. 1any times he must have said to himself. soBcalled. %smeralda 8ould #luc9 them. and starts u#on his tri# to 'or8ay in the midst of summer beauty. violin. ever and anon giving similar 8ild snatches. and #ee#ing through the ragged tent roof at the moon as he lay on his bac9. ta9es first and secondBclass tic9ets for the 8hole of them to HullKthe $alaams exce#ted Rit is not on record that they s#o9e to him on his <ourneyS.I and Hthird degrees. and forming a charming bou:uet.I )t first. and slee# on dam# stra8 in the midst of slush and sno8. The rain had soon ceased. it 8as ideal and fascinating enough in all conscience. tin9le. of all ages and siFes. ho8 delightful its scenes.

#leasant life she should lead as her -omany -yeDs <oovel, monshi, or somi. .he 8as full of fun, yet there 8as nothing in her fanciful delineations 8hich could offend us. They 8ere but the foam of a crested 8ave, soon dissi#ated in the air. They 8ere the evanescent creations of a lively, o#enBhearted girlK #. 1 18ild notes trilled by the bird of the forest. 0e came again into the o#en valley. Do8n a meado8 gushed a small streamlet 8hich s#lashed from a 8ooden s#out on to the roadside.I HThe s#ot 8here 8e #itched our tents 8as near a sort of small natural terrace, at the summit of a stee# slo#e above the road, bac9ed by a mossy ban9, shaded by brush8ood and s9irting the dense foliage of the dar9 forest of #ine and fir, above our cam#.I H0e gave t8o of the #easants some brandy and tobacco.I HThen all our visitors left, exce#t four interesting young #easant girls, 8ho still lingered.I HThey had all #leasant voices.I H0e listened to them 8ith much #leasure; there 8as so much s8eetness and feeling in their melody. Machariah made u# for his brotherDs timidity. ,ull of fun, 8hat dreadful faces the young (i#sy 8ould #ull, they 8ere absolutely frightful; then he 8ould t8ist and turn his body into all sorts of ser#entine contortions. &f s#o9en to he 8ould suddenly, 8ith a ho#, s9i#, and a <um# alight in his tent as if he had tumbled from the s9y, and, sitting bolt u#right, ma9e a hideous face till his mouth nearly stretched from ear to ear, 8hile his dar9 eyes s#ar9led 8ith 8ild excitement, he 8ould singK HTDa8dy_ Da8dy_ dit a 9ei -oc9erony, fa9e your bosh_D H)t one time a 8oman brought an exceedingly fat child for us to loo9 at, and she 8anted %smeralda to suc9le it, 8hich 8as, of course, hastily declined. 0e began to as9 ourselves if this 8as forest seclusion. .till our visitors 8ere 9ind, goodBhumoured #eo#le, and some dran9 our brandy, and some smo9ed our %nglish tobacco. )fter our tea, at five oDcloc9, 8e had a #leasant stroll. *nce more 8e 8ere 8ith 'ature. There 8e lingered till the scenes round us, in their vivid beauty, seemed graven dee# in our thought. Ho8 gra#hic are the lines of 1oore4K HTThe turf shall be my fragrant shrine, 1y tem#le, /ord, that arch of Thine, 1y censorDs breath the mountain airs, )nd silent thoughts my only #rayers.
#. 1 >HT1y choir shall be the moonlight 8aves,

0hen murmDring home8ard to their caves, *r 8hen the stillness of the sea %ven more of music breathes of Thee_D Ho8 a##ro#riate 8ere the 8ords of the great #oet to our feelings. 0e 8ent and sat do8n.I H)s 8e 8ere seated by our cam# fire, a tall, old man, loo9ing round our tents, came and stood contem#lating us at our tea. He loo9ed as if he thought 8e 8ere en<oying a life of ha##iness. 'or 8as he 8rong. He

vie8ed us 8ith a #leased and 9indly ex#ression, as he seemed half lost in contem#lation. 0e sent for the flas9 of brandy. -eturning to our tents 8e #ut on our 'a#oleon boots and made some additions to our toilette.I *f course, 9ind 1r. Petalengro 8ould assist lovely %smeralda 8ith hers. H0hilst 8e 8ere engaged some 8omen came to our tents. The curiosity of the sex 8as exem#lified, for they 8ere dying to loo9 behind the tent #artition 8hich screened us from observation. 0e did not 9no8 8hat they ex#ected to see; one, bolder than the rest, could not resist the desire to loo9 behind the scenes, and hastily dre8 bac9 and dro##ed the curtain, 8hen 8e said rather shar#ly, T'ei_ nei_D %smeralda shortly after8ards a##eared in her blue dress and silver buttons. Then 8e all seated ourselves on a mossy ban9, on the side of the terrace, 8ith a charming vie8 across the valley of the /ogan. )t eight oDcloc9 the music commenced. The sun shone beautifully, and the mos:uitoes and midges bit right and left 8ith hungry determination. 0e sat in a line on the soft mossy turf of the grassy slo#e, sheltered by foliage. %smeralda and 'oah 8ith their tambourines, myself 8ith the castanets, and Machariah 8ith his violin. .ome #easant 8omen and girls came u# after 8e had #layed a short time. &t 8as a curious scene. *ur tents 8ere #leasantly situated on an o#en #atch of green s8ard, surrounded by border thic9ets, near the sunny ban9 and the small flat terrace. The rising hills and rugged ravines on the other side of the valley all gave a singular and #. 1 Aromantic beauty to the lovely vie8. )lthough our (i#sies #layed 8ith much s#irit until nine oDcloc9, none of the #easants 8ould dance. )t nine oDcloc9 our music ceased, and 8e all retired to our tents 8ith the intention of going to bed. 0hen 8e 8ere going into our tents, a #easant and several others 8ith him, 8ho had <ust arrived, as9ed us to #lay again. )t length, observing several #easant girls 8ere much disa##ointed, 8e decided to #lay once more. &t 8as #ast nine oDcloc9 8hen 8e again too9 u# our #osition on the mossy ban9; so 8e danced, and the #easant girls, until nearly ten oDcloc9. *nce 8e nearly 8hirled ourself and %smeralda over the slo#e into the road belo8. %smeraldaDs dar9 eyes flashed fire and s#ar9led 8ith merriment and 8itchery.I HThe bacon and fish at dinner 8ere excellent; 8e hardly 9ne8 8hich 8as best. ) #easant boy brought us a bundle of stic9s for our fire. The sun became exceedingly hot. %smeralda and myself 8ent and sat in some shade near our tents.I H'oah stood in the shade blac9ing his boots, and observed to %smeralda, T& shall not hel# my 8ife as 1r. Petalengro does you.D T0ell,D said %smeralda, T8hat is a 8ife forND T,or_D retorted 'oah, shar#ly, giving his boot an extra brush, T8hy, to 8ait u#on her husband.D T)nd 8hat,D said %smeralda, Tis a husband forND T0hatDs a husband for_D exclaimed 'oah, 8ith a loo9 of #rofound #ity for his sisterDs ignorance, T8hy, to eat and drin9, and loo9 on.DI 1r. Petalengro goes on to say4 H&t 8ould seem to us that the more rude energy a man has in his com#osition the more a 8oman 8ill be made to ta9e her #osition as hel#mate. &t is al8ays a mar9 of great civilisation and the effeminacy of a #eo#le 8hen 8omen obtain the undue mastery of men.I )nd

he farther goes on to say4 H0e 8ere <ust having a rom# 8ith %smeralda and her t8o brothers as 8e 8ere #ac9ing u# our things, and a merry laugh, 8hen some men a##eared at the fence near our cam#ingBground. 0e little thin9,I says 1r. Petalengro, Hho8 much 8e can do in this 8orld to lighten a lonely 8ayfarerDs heart.I

#. 1 !%smeralda and 1r. Petalengro tell each other their fortunes. H%smeralda

and myself 8ere sitting in our tents. Then the thought occurred to her that 8e should tell her fortune. T3our fortune must be a good one,D said 8e, laughing; Tlet me see your hand and your lines of life.D 0e shall never forget %smeralda. .he loo9ed so earnestly as 8e regarded attentively the line of her o#en hand.I R1r. Petalengro does not say that tears 8ere to be seen tric9ling do8n those lovely chee9s of %smeralda 8hile this fortuneBtelling, nonsensical farce 8as being #layed out.S HThen 8e too9 her ste# by ste# through some scenes of her su##osed future. 0e did not tell all. The rest 8as reserved for another day. There 8as a serious loo9 on her countenance as 8e ended; but, reader, such secrets should not be revealed. %smeralda commenced to tell our fortunes. 0e 8ere interested to 9no8 8hat she 8ould say. 0e cast ourselves on the 8aves of fate. The (i#sy raised her dar9 eyes from our hand as she loo9ed earnestly in the face. 3ou are a young gentleman of good connections. 1any lands you have seen. $ut, young man, something tells me you are of a 8avering dis#osition.DI )nd then charming %smeralda 8ould stri9e u# HThe /ittle (i#syIK H1y fatherDs the Ging of the (i#sies, thatDs true, 1y mother she learned me some cam#ing to do; 0ith a #ac9el on my bac9, and they all 8ish me 8ell, & started u# to /ondon some fortunes for to tell. H)s & 8as a 8al9ing u# fair /ondon streets, T8o handsome young s:uires & chanced for to meet, They vie8ed my bro8n chee9s, and they li9ed them so 8ell, They said T1y little (i#sy girl, can you my fortune tellND HT*h yes_ 9ind .ir, give me hold of your hand, ,or you have got honours, both riches and land; *f all the #retty maidens you must lay aside, ,or it is the little (i#sy girl that is to be your bride.D
#. 1 CHHe led me oDer the 1ils, through valleys dee# &Dm sure,

0here &Dd servants for to 8ait on me, and o#en me the door; ) rich bed of do8n to lay my head u#onK &n less than nine months after & could his fortune tell.

H*nce & 8as a (i#sy girl, but no8 a s:uireDs bride, &Dve servants for to 8ait on me, and in my carriage ride. The bells shall ring so merrily, s8eet music they shall #lay, )nd 8ill cro8n the glad tidings of that luc9y, luc9y day.I The dra8bac9 to this eveningDs 8hirligig farce 8as that the mos:uitoes determined to come in for a share. These little, ni##ing, biting creatures #referred settling u#on young blood, full of life and activity, existing under artificial circumstances, to the carcase of a dead horse lying in the 9nac9erDs yard. To #revent these little stingers dra8ing the sa# of life from the s8eet bodies of these #retty, innocent, lovable creatures, the (i#sies acted a very cruel #art in dressing their faces over 8ith a bro8n li:uid, called the Htincture of cedar.I &t is not stated 8hether the Htincture of cedar H8as made in .hro#shire or /ebanon, nor 8hether it 8as extracted from roses, or a decoction of thistles. )las, alas_ ho8 fic9le human life is_ Ho8 often 8e say and do things in <est and fun 8hich turn out to be stern realities in another form. H)s 8e loo9ed u#on the church and #arsonage, surrounded as they 8ere by the modern #ar9, 8ith the broad silver la9e near, the rising mountains on all sides, and the clear blue s9y above, our senses seemed entranced 8ith the #assing beauty of the scene. &t 8as one of those glim#ses of #erfect nature 8hich casts the anchor dee# in memory, and leaves a lasting im#ression of bygone days.I )nd then %smeralda danced as she sang the 8ords of her song; the 8ords not in %nglish are her o8n, for & cannot find them even in the slang -omany, and 8hat she meant by her bosh is only 9no8n to herself. H.hula gang shaugh gig a magala, &Dll set me do8n on yonder hill; )nd there &Dll cry my fill, )nd every tear shall turn a mill. .hula gang shaugh gig a magala To my +s9adina sla8n sla8n.
#. 1 ?H.hula gang shaugh gig a magala,

&Dll buy me a #etticoat and dye it red, )nd round this 8orld &Dll beg my bread; The lad & love is far a8ay. .hula gang shaugh gig a magala To my +s9adina sla8n sla8n. H.hul shul gang along 8ith me, (ang along me, &Dll gang along 8ith you, &Dll buy you a #etticoat and dye it in the blue, .8eet 0illiam shall 9iss you in the rue. .hula gang shaugh gig a magala To my +s9adina sla8n sla8n.I

I (eorge $orro8. Hin our 8andering existence.or the .I #.I H. disa##ointment. 0here evening shado8s never fall4 The .or the dance no music can be better than that of a (i#sy band.I says 1r. &f you have danced to it yourself. his #ath 8as not one of roses. Counting each lost and miss#ent day. )nd as 8e trace our 8eary 8ay. during his labours among the (i#sies of . did not find much occasion for rollic9ing fun. 1 HThere is a land.H0e 8ere su#remely ha##y.I HThereDs a land that is fairer than day. Ho8 long 8e should have continued our halfBdormant reflections 8hich might have added a fe8 more notes u#on the #hiloso#hy of life.aviour is its light. 0e contrasted in our semiBconsciousness of mind our absence from a thousand anxious cares 8hich cro8d u#on the social #osition of those 8ho ta9e #art in an over8rought state of extreme civilisation.adly 8e find at last. no. )nd by faith 8e can see it afar. an absolute im#ossibility. . a sunny land. no_ (eorge $orro8 had to face the hard lot of all those 8ho start on the #ath of usefulness. there is life and animation in it 8hich carries you a8ay. Hard fare. 8e 9ne8 not. by the side of running rivulets 8arbling over the smooth memory 8eaves 'o veil to hide the #ast. .#ain forty years ago. among the honeysuc9les and daisies. merriment. & assert. 'othing but leaves_I The converse of all this artificial and misleading (i#sy life is to be seen in hard fate and fact at our o8n doorsKH/oo9 on this #icture and then on that.ather 8aits over the 8ay To #re#are us a d8ellingB#lace there &n the s8eet byBandBbye. 'o. . 0hose s9ies are ever bright. and boisterous laughter. listening to the enchanting voices of the thousand forest and valley songsters. gaFing at the various and beautiful 9inds of foliage on the hillBsides as the thrilling strains of music #ealed forth from the s8eet voice of %smeralda and her tambourine. deluded mortals. Petalengro. o##osition. honour. es#ecially in a c3ardas: 61 ?7 then to hear the stirring tones 8ithout involuntarily s#ringing u# is.I Poor. and heaven. sitting among the #rimroses. but 8e 8ere roused by the rumble of a stol9B<aerre along the road. & am afraid they 8ill findK H'othing but leaves_ . over mossy ban9s.

D said he at last. & 8as. but the t8o young (i#sies flung themselves u#on him li9e furies. mean hut. 8ho had not s#o9en for a long time.D & re#lied. she discharged a handful of some 9ind of dust or snuff into the fello8Ds face. T& am so thoroughly tired. $orro8 goes on to say4KH& confess & did not much li9e this decision of the (i#sy. 8here & might sin9 to slee# lulled by the #leasant sound of horses and mules des#atching their #rovender. and #erceived a light or t8o in the distance. &f your friends are gone out. his flo8ers 8ere thistles. & follo8ed close behind the (i#sy. He stam#ed and roared. He 9noc9ed again. and attem#ted to unsheath a 9nife 8hich he 8ore in his girdle. but a strong 8ind rose and ho8led at our bac9s. 1 @mule.D That is as it may be. &n s#ea9ing of some of the difficulties in his travels. and this is shut. thrusting her hand into her #oc9et. TThere can be no difficulty. and 8ished for nothing better than to de#osit myself in some comfortable manger. TThat is Tru<illo. but 8as for some time held fast by the t8o (i#sy men. and setting out again the next morning to travel thirteen leagues4KHThroughout the day a driFFling rain 8as falling. dismounting before a lo8. 8ho led the 8ay. and #roceeded through streets and lanes e:ually dismal as those through 8hich 8e had already travelled. 1y o8n brother 8as garroted at Tru<illo.fe8 friends. and. it is easy enough to go to a #osada.D said )ntonio. To8ards evening 8e reached a moorKa 8ild #lace enough. and sorro8 filled his heart. and to venture into un9no8n #laces in the dar9 of the night. THere is the house. T& am glad of it. the sooner 8e leave the #lace the better. and one or t8o #oisoning adventures in 8hich she had been engaged. 0e #roceeded for nearly three hours. but no ans8er. amidst rain and mistKfor the 8ind had no8 dro##ed. The 8ind had ceased.I )nd then #. after travelling a long distance by night. He 9noc9ed.D re#lied the (i#sy.he goggled frightfully 8ith her eyes. bet8een ourselves. #ut myself under the direction .D He lighted a cigar by means of a steel and yesca. ho8ever. he extricated himself. $ut note his ob<ect. 8e must move on. 1 8s#ea9ing of the old (i#sy 8oman 8hom he 8ent to see4KHHere. T& dare not go to the mesuna. 0e soon entered the to8n. ho8ever. my only source of amusement consisting in the conversation of the 8oman telling of the 8onderful tales of the land of the 1oorsK#rison esca#es. there is no remedy. thievish feats. & shall slee# soundly in Tru<illo. and mar9 his end. and dar9 night #resently came over us. much fatigued. s#rung on his #. and the rain again began to fall bris9ly.I 1r. moreover. . & felt very slight inclination to leave the to8n behind. 8hich turned the dust of the roads into mud and mire. & 9ne8 not 8hither.D said &. his #ath 8as rough and covered 8ith stones. nor enter any house in Tru<illo save this.I $orro8 says. he says4KH1y time lay heavily on my hands. his songs attended 8ith tears. & had. until 8e heard the bar9ing of dogs.D T3ou 9no8 not 8hat you say. 8hich a##eared dar9 and gloomy enough. The sun 8ent do8n. stre8n 8ith enormous stones and roc9s. T8ith res#ect to 8hat 8e have to do. but no ans8er. 0ell. life in danger. There 8as something very 8ild in her gestures. through dismal streets and dar9 #laces 8here cats 8ere s:ualling.

Calla boca_ &t is luc9y 8e have found them here. Tit is more li9e the blaFe of a fire. moving a little further on.D H0e dismounted and entered 8hat & no8 sa8 8as a forest. 0e #roceeded in this manner for a long time.uddenly )ntonio sto##ed his mule. seemingly amongst the trees.D said )ntonio. and soon the voice of )ntonio summoned me to advance. brother. our only light being the glo8 emitted from the (i#syDs cigar.D said &. the very #eo#le 8hom & ex#ected to find at Tru<illo. ra#idly advanced to8ards the fire. it is doleful 8or9 8andering about at night amidst rain and mire. the (i#sy. & therefore follo8ed close to his cru##er. Tand that business is none of ours. & sometimes thought & heard doleful noises. .D T2ery li9ely. it is doubtless a fire made by #. leaving the horse 8ith me. something li9e the hooting of o8ls. T/oo9. than in the estari#el of Tru<illo. 180durotunes RshepherdsS. a fire 8as burning.D re#lied )ntonio. *n reaching the fire. and our horses no corn. a (i#sy bivouac . TCome for8ard. Tcould have induced them to leave their house in Tru<illo and come into this dar9 forest. &t 8as. in fact. The rain descended more and more. The (i#sy 8as silent. Tto the left.D & did as he commanded me. . and by it stood or sat t8o or three figures. and & 8as too old a traveller to :uarrel 8ith my guide under #resent circumstances. &n about five minutes 8e reached a small o#en s#ace. at the farther side of 8hich. & myself 8as e:ually so. brother.D said he. . these are of the %rrate. & found t8o dar9 lads. your eyes are shar#er than mine.D said )ntonio. Presently & heard an T*la_D and a laugh. and a still dar9er 8oman of about forty. for & could occasionally distinguish the trun9s of immense trees. TThis is a strange night to be 8andering abroad in.of the (i#sy. and in 8hose house 8e should have sle#t. )t first & could see nothing. for. and in such #laces. and 8e 8ere then in dar9ness. Tyou are amongst friends. to #ass the nightND HTThey come on business of %gy#t. TJuien 2iveND T& 9no8 that voice.D said the (i#sy. doubtless.D & at length said to )ntonio. but. brother. in the midst of 8ind and rain. and sho8 yourself. as you say. Tbut & 8ould sooner be abroad in such a night.D H0e 8andered at least a league further. and no8 a##eared to be near a 8ood. RThe (i#sy 8ord for )ntonio is TDevil. brother. & li9e8ise sa8 a horse and t8o don9eys tethered to the neighbouring trees.D said &.D . T3onder cannot be a lam# or candle. let us go and <oin them.D HT)nd 8hat. else 8e should have had no su##er. leading the animals cautiously amongst the trees and brush8ood. TThere are no :ueres RhousesS in this #lace. and tell me if you do not see a light. )t last he flung it from his mouth into a #uddle. and one of them no8 exclaimed. and.D said )ntonio to me. at the foot of a large cor9Btree. the latter seated on 8hat a##eared to be horse or mule furniture. & #lainly sa8 a large light at some distance.DS T&t is. They had heard our a##roach.

HT1y ro is #risoner at the village yonder. garbanFos. cloudy #illars. he had the #recaution to fill. and #lacing my head u#on a bundle. but & did not #erfectly understand it. & lay do8n. and 8here can 8e lodge better than in this forest. their souls filled to overflo8ing 8ith the love of (od.D #. & listened for a moment to 8hat they said. but Thou art mighty. 181H*ne of the stri#lings no8 gave us barley for our animals in a large bag. of 8hich he bore more than one beneath the huge cushion on 8hich he rode. H*#en no8 the crystal fountain 0hence the healing 8aters flo8. & tro8. )ntonio flung me an immense horseBcloth. halfBfall of bacon.trong Deliverer. and 8hat & did understand by no means interested me. the other (i#sies refused to <oin us. &n this & 8ra##ed myself. . be Thou still my strength and shield. The is #risoner yonder for choring a mailla Rstealing a don*eyS. /ead me all my <ourney through. if )ntonioDs heart had been full of religious Feal and fervour. There 8as a #uchero simmering at the fire. /et the fiery.D said the 8oman. Hold me 8ith Thy #o8erful hand. 8e are come to see 8hat 8e can do in his behalf.I #. 8hich. . they all. but & heeded it not. The rain still driFFled. & am 8ea9. this 8as em#tied into a large 8ooden #latter. had been by the side of the cam#B fire. into 8hich 8e successively introduced their heads. <aded in the cause of the #oor (i#sies. Pilgrim through this barren land. ho8ever. did <ustice to the leathern bottle of )ntonio. as the good man 8as dra8ing his 8eary legs and cold feet together before the embers of the dying (i#sy fireK H(uide me. * thou great =ehovah. and other #rovisions. and Hubert Petalengro and %smeralda. 8here there is nothing to #ayN &t is not the first time. and 8as soon aslee#. that Calorc have sle#t at the root of a tree. 18>H)ntonio and the other (i#sies remained seated by the fire conversing. and out of this )ntonio and myself su##ed. $read of heaven. and the trio had struc9 u# 8ith their s8eet voices. before his de#arture from 1erida. allo8ing the famished creatures to regale themselves till 8e conceived that they had satisfied their hunger.I Ho8 delightful and soulBins#iring it 8ould have been to the 8eary #ilgrim. #ointing 8ith her hand in a #articular direction. and my feet as near as #ossible to the fire. giving us to understand that they had eaten before our arrival. H& 8as by this time com#letely overcome 8ith fatigue and slee#. feed me till & 8ant no more.

Cover my defenceless head. mount_D said he. soon succeeded in calling forth a blaFe. ho8ever. $efore & had 8ell finished & heard the noise of a horse a##roaching ra#idly. The latter circumstance :uieted some a##rehensions 8hich 8ere beginning to arise in my mind. H*ther refuge have & none. 0ith the shado8 of Thy 8ing. & made several efforts before & could rise from the ground. 8ith some agitation in his countenance. & loo9ed around me.till su##ort and comfort me. * leave me not alone. seiFed them at once 8ith their cattle. receive my soul at last. *h. brother. lover of my soul. and 8as soon far a8ay. and hea#ing u#on them stic9s and branches. T& 8ent 8ith the Callee and her chabcs to the village 8here the ro is in trouble.D & gathered together the embers of the fire. Hide me. under the #. and instantly #roceeded to untie the mule. . * my . or 8e shall have the 8hole rustic canaille u#on us in a t8in9lingKit is such a bad #lace. ho8ever. beside 8hich & again #laced the #uchero. brother. 8ith 8hat remained of the #rovision of last night. the chinoBbaro. 0hile the tem#est still is high. 0hile the nearer 8aters roll. . & sat do8n and brea9fasted.HThe sun 8as <ust a##earing as & a8o9e. /eave.afe into the haven guide. but could see neither )ntonio nor the (i#sies. but & set s#urs to the grasti. but as they did not a##ear. of )ntonio still remained fastened to the tree. Hangs my hel#less soul on Thee. so had the horse 8hich & had hitherto rode. for the rain had ceased. TThey are gone on some business of %gy#t. and a rather severe frost set in.I . 1ount.DI & almost imagine $orro8 8ould have said. #ointing to the horse. mount. hide. as he 8as #utting his foot into the stirru# to mount his horse to fly for his life into the 8ild regions of an un9no8n country4K H=esus.aviour. the mule. and #resently )ntonio made his a##earance amongst the trees. He s#rang from the horse. gave him the bridle. Till the storm of life is #ast. T1ount. 18Acircumstances. Tand 8ill return anon.D & said to myself. /et me to Thy bosom fly. )ll my trust on Thee is stayed. and 8ould have laid hands also on me. my limbs 8ere :uite stiff. )ll my hel# from Thee & bring. the animals of the latter had li9e8ise disa##eared. & 8aited for a considerable time in ex#ectation of the return of my com#anions. and my hair 8as covered 8ith rime.

and 8e . 18Caccustomed to term high birth. . T8o or three lithe.ome of the girls. under no roof but that of heaven. bounding and dancing along 8ith halfBna9ed bodies. can seldom altogether smother. and cries for hel# 8hich could never reach other ear than their o8nKhis safety intrusted to the #recarious com#assion of a being associated 8ith these felons. and a nature nothing can tame. 0hyteB1elville s#ea9s of the -ussian (i#sies in the language of fiction in his H&nter#reterI as follo8s4KHThe morning sun smiles u#on a motley troo# <ourneying to8ards the Danube. says4KHThe idea of being dragged out of his miserable concealment by 8retches 8hose trade 8as that of midnight murder. exce#t entreaties 8hich 8ould be only their s#ort. and often cuts :ueer 8ords. and 8hose trade of ra#ine and im#osture must have hardened her against every human feelingKthe bitterness of his emotions almost cho9ed him. . not to say grotes:ue. There 8as no such touch of humanity about this 8oman. and bright blac9 eyes shining through 9notted elfBloc9s. are almost na9ed. are hereditary among the (i#sies. 8ith a cunning nothing can overreach. activeBloo9ing men. but she has some #. and bearing evident sym#toms of 8eather and 8ear. T1egDs trueBbred. He endeavoured to read in her 8ithered and dar9 countenance. much tattered. The men are not so #articular in their attire. graceful air and elastic gait #eculiar to those 8hose lives are #assed entirely in active exercise. su##le urchins. e9ed out by significant nods and signs. all 8al9ing 8ith the free. all the mar9s of 8hat 8e are #. but the generality are clad in the coarse cloth of the country. bind their bro8s 8ith various coloured hand9erchiefs. and all the matrons.I (. The main body consists of sine8y. even to each other. Their costume is stri9ing.D 0ith more of this gibberish. seem to be the #eculiar inheritance of the (i#sy. in H(uy 1annering. 18!:ueer 8ays. sheDs the last in the gang that 8ill start. 8hilst in a fe8 instances coins even of gold are strung amongst the <etty loc9s of the Mingyni beauties. something that #romised those feelings of com#assion 8hich females. or dragging bac9 from their mothersD hands. 8ithout 8ea#ons or the slightest means of defence. The little mischievous urchins 8ho are clinging round their mothersD nec9s..D said the old (i#sy man. P. Dar9Bbro8ed 8omen in the very meridian of beauty bring u# the rear. rendering it thus. all ali9e distinguished for the s#ar9ling eyes and raven hair.I HT'ever fear. dragging or carrying a race of s8arthy #rogeny. 8hich form a very #ictures:ue and not unbecoming 0alter . *ne sine8y fello8 8ears only a goats9in shirt and a string of beads round his nec9. HalfBaBdoFen don9eys seem to carry the 8hole #ro#erty of the tribe. form the advanced guard. even in their most degraded state.cott. they continued the conversation. and stri9ingly handsome girls. 8hich. as the lam# thre8 its light u#on her features. a dar9.I s#ea9ing of the dar9 deeds of the (i#sies. obscure dialect. and holding on to their mothersD s9irts.mall heads and hands and feet. but never ex#ressing distinctly or in #lain language the sub<ect on 8hich it turned.

and hosts of many nations gathered by the seaK . no thorns to tear our limbsN Can you see the Danube rolling on far. thousands to s#are the 8rong. and the dead 8ra##ed in grey. here a horse. a##ear by no means dis#leasing. TThe best of you cannot see a yard u#on your 8ay.he raised her dar9 eyes angrily to his face. He is tal9ing to his #rotectressKfor such she isK8ith a military fran9ness and vivacity. 8hich even to that royal #ersonage. is a beauty nevertheless. all for oneKrose by rose #luc9ed and 8ithered and thro8n a8ay. eager tone. 8ith a (i#sy com#lexion. and conversing earnestly 8ith her com#anion.he ought to be a :ueen. and dee#B coloured. and loc9s of <et. and the 8ide mouth. dar9 eyes melting for the Croat. beto9ens an energy and force of 8ill 8hich 8ould do credit to the other sex. 8ill there be no hills on our <ourney. and a nation of slaves beneath thy foot. everything but love much. a garland of roses.he 8as studying the lines on his #alm 8ith earnest attention. 8inding and 8inding many a mile before us u#on the #lain. HT$lind_ blind_D she ans8ered. . and she is one. . or can you tell me 8here it leadsN & have the ma# of our <ourney here in my brain. none the less des#otic for ruling over a tribe of (i#sies instead of a civilised community . and the heavens are filled 8ith thunder. even daFFling teeth. & follo8 the line of #leasure4 costly amber. many and loving and beautiful.traight and regular are her features. mine has been told many a time. . 8hen the chiefs are in council. and 8ear it till it dies. and the sho8er that falls scorches and crushes and blastsKremember me_ & follo8 the line of 8ealth4 1an of gold_ s#oil on. HT%very (i#sy can tell fortunes. glances unveiled for the shaven head. but it never came true. but a bearing in 8hich it is not difficult to recognise the soldier. . far before usN Can you see the river you 8ill have to cross some day. no roc9s to cut our feet. *nce more & say. $ecause it is flat and soft and smooth as far as 8e can see. and the earth :ua9es.D H. rich embroidery. a resoluteBloo9ing man scarce entering u#on the #rime of life. 8ith charm and amulet that 8ere #o8erless to save.doubt if the Jueen of the . and the hosts are melting li9e sno8 before the sun.outh herself 8as a more :ueenlyBloo9ing #ersonage than the dame no8 marching in the midst of the throng. one tender bud remaining. The lady is verging on the autumn of her charms Rtheir summer must have been scorching indeed_S. & have the ma# of your career here on your #. $lac9Bbro8ed is she.he has the face of a 8oman that 8ould dare much. and a 8ild shout in a strange tongue. 18?hand. 8ith its strong. /oo9 at that 8hite road. both hands full. . cherish it till it blo8s. hundreds to u#hold the right. and a 9ingDs favour. & follo8 the line of blood4Kit leads to8ards the rising sunKcharging s:uadrons 8ith lances in rest. even no8 untinged 8ith grey. 8ith eyes of fire. . labour much. in a lo8. accustomed though she be to exact all the res#ect due to her ran9. there a diamond. and though a masculine beauty. and broad lands near a city of #alaces.

DI Disraeli. )nd the s8ord shall s#are thee. and the battle turn aside to let thee #ass. and crossed it 8ith one of the t8o #ieces of silver 8hich constituted the 8hole of my 8orldly 8ealth. 18 and the breast be sore. thou shalt 9no8 grief and hardshi# and losses. . and horses. des#air. and the heart sin9. )nd thou shalt 8ed a fair bride 8ith dar9 eyes and a :ueenly bro8. )nd the doveDs heart shall become li9e the eagleDs. H& #roffered my hand readily to the (i#sy.t. and began to #ro#hesy in (erman. the . for he had been brought u# 8ith the usual terror of these 8ild #eo#le. and victory. $eat on. the counsellor of #rincesKremember me_ $ut ha_ the line is crossed. and fleshes her bea9 in the slain. The time 8ill comeKonly beat on.I my darling. but be8are of . that flies alone. $e8are_ trust not the sons of the ado#ted land. There are some events a child never forgets. . for (i#sy men never immediately a##ear. in life. and remember me_D . The (i#sy laughed. HTThou shalt be a HDe -ohan. and in a fe8 minutes he 8as in the centre of an encam#ment of (i#sies.D . to dare and do anything for the sa9e of the s8eet. HubertDs Day. and the dove shall be driven from its nest. 1any a time since. They smiled 8ith their bright eyes. He 8as for a moment some8hat dismayed.I says4KH)s Cadurcis a##roached he observed some lo8 tents. HT*ver the sea. in her remar9s u#on (i#sies. s#ea9ing of the (i#sies in his H2enetia. TThe time 8ill comeKbeat on. and & can #romise thee no brighter lotKbroad acres. and again over the sea.t. to 8ander to the 8orldDs end. $irth and burial. to heal and slay. . they uttered unintelligible. . to be outla8ed and hunted do8n. -ising on the 8hirl8ind. and & remember every 8ord she said as 8ell as if it had been s#o9en yesterday. they held out their #ractised hands. but not unfriendly sounds. be8are of the dus9y shado8 on the 8all_ be8are. beat on against the 8ind. though the #oor 8ings be bruised by the tem#est. #. and see9 no shelter till thou find thy restingB#lace at last. and blessings from the #oor. 8hen the storm has indeed been boisterous and the 8ings so 8eary. birth and burialKbe8are of .I 1atilda $etham %d8ards. HubertDs Day. and 8ealth. and honours. famine. you are ready to ma9e love or 8ar. and the flashes of the 8atchBfire thre8 a lurid glare over their dar9 and flashing countenances. nevertheless he 8as not une:ual to the occasion.#estilence. the honoured of leaders. but only 8ith 8omen and children. untramelled life of the tent. 8hen the lily is on thy breast.D HThe 8oman laughed as she s#o9e. but there 8as a 9indly tone in her voice and a #itying loo9 in her bright eyes that 8ent straight to my heart. chief among chiefs. have & thought of those 8ords of encouragement. says4KH3our #ulses are :uic9ened to (i#sy #itch. He 8as surrounded in an instant.

HThe (i#sy eye. bright as the star That sends its light from heaven afar. &n every #lace 8e see9 a home. &llumined by the moonDs #ale rays. Then. beneath this star. *r dances about in the scorching beam. the free savagedom. the #assionate friendshi#. $ut fragments are s#read. &n sheltDring noo9s and hollo8 8ays.eems ever beautiful and fair )t moonlightDs stilly hour. since the days of $orro8.I H+$%-T . . 8ho have been s9ul9ing and flitting about in our midst. $y thic9 gro8n leaves made 8eatherB#roof. These branches form our summer roof. *ur songs.rom every #lace condemned to roam. maiden fair. Thou 8ild. HalfBna9ed he 8ades in the lim#id stream.1&TH4 HTent /ife in 'or8ay. Come circle round the (i#syDs fire. our stories never tire. *n thy s8eet face to sit and gaFe. nomadic tribes. Hoyland. 0e cheerily #ass our 8inter days. Come circle round the (i#syDs fire. the fiery love. 0ild 8ith the strains of thy guitar. Thy bro8 un8or9ed by lines of care. touch me 8ith the light guitar. *ur songs. Then. beneath this star. 188& come no8 to notice 8hat a fe8 of the #oets have said about these ignorant.IK%/&M) C**G. Dec9ed 8ith loc9s of raven hair. the mountain air. and the 8ood #ine #iled. li9e the young oa9. our stories never tire.IK-%%2%. . no bed but the s8ard. uncultured flo8er. -oberts. The daFFling glare of the ban:uet sheen Hath never fallen on him & 8een.bright blue s9y. maiden fair. Come. This heart 8ith ra#ture fill. 0ith no home but the forest. Come. the <oyous dance. HHe gro8s. touch me 8ith the light guitar.I #. )nd s8eet is the meal of the (i#sy child.I H. healthy and broad. 0hat bliss_ beside the leafy maFe. and CrabbKa #eriod of over forty years.

0here & 8ould for ever loo9e. light smo9e from yonder ban9 of heathN 0hat forms are those beneath the shaggy trees. Dragged in the net unsought and flung far off. #. . #etty ra#ine. &t is not #ersecuted. hereDs a boo9e. and born a :ueen. only s#urned.aturne move That you should be the Jueene of /ove. 1@0The hoary father and the ancient dame. To #erish as they may. as foxes do. co8ering oDer the flameN Those 8ere not born by %nglish hearths to d8ell. 2enus here doth .I 18?C. )nd still againKtill slee# by night .moother lines in hands or face.I $%' =*'. -oaming the 8orld oDer. scarce sheltered from the breeFe. H. ) home among the free.#.he finds on every shore. )gain he came. *r s8arming flies. )nd stately bearingKas she had been $red u# in courts. *r heed the carols of the village bell. so des#ised. 8arred on by chance li9e rats. Crushed under foot. and sighed to mar9 Her coral li#s.ond dreamer. 18@H0here is the little (i#syDs homeN +nder the s#reading green8ood tree. voile la (itana.IKH)//&D)3. ) home among the free. 'ever did a (i#sy trace . )h. . H) race that lives on #rey. voile la (itana.IKD%/T).or =udithDs sa9e fled his #illo8 :uite. The s:ualid children. &n tattered tent. 0ith stealthy. her eyes so dar9.*'. a 8ilder flame. %ach day 8ith a 8armer. HHel# me 8onder. HHe chec9ed his steed. #ause_ 8hy floats the silvery breath *f thin. or re#tiles of the sea. Crossing the dee# blue sea. and again he came. 0herever she may roam.I (%*-(% %/&*T4 HThe .#anish (i#sies. 0herever that tree may be.

0ith hasty footste#s threads the dus9y lane. 8ho hath not o8ned the s#ell That ever seems around your tents to d8ell. 8hen the 8ild 8ind blo8s.tands tranced 8ith fear. the loveBsic9 s8ain. )nd as in 8arning vision seem to sho8 That manDs best <oys are dro8ned by shades of 8oe. if near your cam# he stray. /i9e foreign 8eeds cast u#on 0estern strands. . $id us in homeDs most favoured #recincts trace The houseless children of a homeless race. that 8ild attire. . The sun a8a9es you as 8ith trum#etBcall. /i9e the murmuring shells to fancyDs ears that tell The mystic secrets of their ocean cell. the 8earied %arth all crime. 0ild as the flo8ers that by the 8ayside blush. /ightly ye s#ring from slumberDs gentle thrall. . To gain your magic aid. and 8or9 their #erfect 8ill. H. half in s#ort.ree as the 8inds that through the forest rush. #. nor 8here ye go. Those stranger tones. HPilgrims of %arth. %ve dra8s her curtain oDer the burning 8est.Those s8arthy lineaments. the oa9 your cano#y. Children of nature 8andering to and fro. Gnoc9ed at the gates of a8eBstruc9 Christendom_ 'o clang of arms. HThe murmuring streams your minstrel songs su##ly. Dmid that mur9y gloom. The moss your couch. 1@1Then li9e a traveller. /i9e forest birds ye sin9 at once to rest. )nd half in a8e beside your savage court. 0hile the 8eird hags ex#lore his #alm to s#ell 0hat varied fates these mystic lines foretell. 1an 9no8s not 8hence ye came. 1en deemed they sa8 the unshac9led #o8ers of ill -age in that storm. The #assing traveller lingers. no din of battle roared -ound the still march of that mysterious horde. 0hich stormy 8aves have borne from un9no8n lands. HDrear 8as the sceneKa dar9 and troublous timeK The Heaven all gloom. ) stranger #eo#le. and heeds no more his #lay. )nd blac9 night flic9ers 8ith the driving sno8s. bes#ea9 an eastern sire.olemn and thrilling as the nameless dread That guards the chambers of the silent dead_ The s#ortive child.

a fe8 nobleBhearted men. hunted. :ueer . and in garb the same. 1other and babe and youth. )t once in every land 8ent u# the cry. although to a large extent brought u#on themselves by their horrible system of lying and dece#tion. in a variety of forms of fiction and romance. $orro8. and to their im#rovement by the artificial means of #oetry. to their being reclaimed by the religious Feal and fervour of the minister. that 8hen stern <ustice said Hit is enough. fiction. 18A 4 HThe (i#sies. %xce#t in a fe8 isolated cases. The haughty chieftain and the 8iFard sage. filled 8ith missionary Feal.irst. neither exterminated them nor im#roved their habits.t". as 8ell as & have been able. the more they 8ere hated. fervour. benighted heathen 8anderers u#on a road to usefulness. novelists. by the hangBman. 1@Achange in either the moral.0eary and sad arrayed in #ilgrimDs guise. Crabb. )t once to %uro#eDs hundred shores they came. .T)'/%3D. nor raised their su##liant eyes. died the last flic9er of a flic9ering light that 8as to lead these #oor. they also failed in #roducing any noticeable #. and others. fortuneBtelling. in feature. ready to grab our chic9ens and young tur9eys as o##ortunities #resented themselves. and dramatists. social. the oftener they 8ere tram#led u#on the more they seemed to thrive. and 8ith the death of Hoyland. Third. too9 u# the cause of the (i#sies for a #eriod of nearly forty years in various forms and 8ays at the end of the last and the commencement of the #resent century. u#rightness. -oberts.I #ersecution hanging do8n its hands and revenge droo#ing her head. . to lead them to the goal through a lot of :uestionable byBlanes. lying foxes 8ould be seen snea9ing across our #ath. and driven into hidingB#laces the oftener these sly. &n voice. deluded. as 8ell as other countries. T*h_ fear us notKreceive us or 8e die_DI D%)' . and hoary age. & have endeavoured. and industry. honesty. during a #eriod of several centuries. %23Part &n Part &&&. came to the front. and romance. and #hilanthro#y on behalf of the (i#sies more than forty years ago the s#asmodic efforts of #oets. or religious condition of the (i#sies. the #ersecution dealt out to the (i#sies in this. to sho8 some of the agencies that have been set in motion during the last three centuries for and against the (i#sies. that on the decline of religious Feal.I IV. Gip"* Li/) i$ a Vari)t* #/ A"p).econd. on the contrary. they increased and s#read li9e mushrooms. They stood and #rayed. P-&M% P*%1. p. 8ith a vie8 to their extermination. but.

I HshuttleBcoc9s. little dears. shar#. and the s8eet notes of the nightingale ringing in your ears. and 8afting us home as 8e leave our tenement of clay behind to receive the H0ell done. sarcasm. these things have to be done if 8e are to have the angelic beings from the other 8orld ministering to our 8ants. tents. 'evertheless. #ut Ht8o faces under one hat.I than to be seated among a lot of little ragged. the result being that these melodramatic #ersonages have left the (i#sies in a more #itiable condition than they 8ere before they too9 u# their cause. the little silver stream ri##ling over the #ebbles at your feet in sounds li9e the distant 8arbling of the lar9. and murder that some of the adult (i#sies delight in setting forth. cursing the (od 8ho made her as she ex#ires. old blan9ets and rags. clean. in doing so. dar9 eyes. and children out of our bac9 slums and sin9Bgutters and 8rite the 8ord H(i#syI u#on their bac9.000 men.I and com#el them to educate their children. &t is more in harmony 8ith our sensibilities to sit and listen to the drollery. and to #ut their habitations. some long stic9s. science. and vans under better sanitary arrangements. la8s. habits. in the t8ilight. immorality. halfBstarved (i#sy children. &t is more in accordance 8ith our feelings to sit and admire the innocent. &t is more #leasant to human nature to sit u#on a stile on a midsummer eve. although they. and artificial lights. #raising their faults and sins.I . old (i#sy 8oman 8ho has s#ent a lifetime in sin and debauchery. instead of Hscam#. and damning their few virtues. 8ho have never 9no8n 8hat soa#. and old scarlet hoods and cloa9s. and bring to an end the advance in arts. 8e shall be fostering seeds in these dregs of society that 8ill one day #ut a sto# to the 8or9 of civilisation. as the #. 8it. filth. 1@!shades of evening are gathering around you. and fun of #unch than to the horrible tales of blood. interesting. 8ater. revenge. than to sit by the hardened. angelic being. and comb are. do8n a country lane. the #erfection of the good and beautiful.I and HbattleBdoors. &t is more agreeable to the soft #arts of our hearts and our finer feelings to listen to the melody and harmony of lively.I and send them through the country 8ith a fe8 don9eys. lovely damsels as they send forth their enchanting strains than to hear the cries of the #oor little. 8ith their Hhoo#s. &n fact. &t is my decided conviction that unless 8e are careful. all in one breath. short #etticoats. to ta9e another >0.#laces. smiling and fro8ning. lively. and commerce that have been ma9ing such ra#id strides in this country of late years.I blessing and cursing. and ta9e the Hbull by the horns. filthy bodies. and s:ualor among the (i#sies in their 8ig8ams. and character in glo8ing colours that. than to visit the abodes of misery. the stars t8in9ling over head. 8ic9ed. dirty faces. &t is more delightful to the #oetic and sentimental #arts of our nature to guide over the ste##ingB stones a number of bright. ugly. 8omen. you 8ould in fifty years ma9e this country not 8orth living in. dirty (i#sy children sending forth their #iteous moans for bread. to such a degree have fiction 8riters #ainted the blac9 side of a (i#syDs life.

*ne (i#sy 8ould say #aanengroBgf<o means sailor. . They never converse 8ith it o#enly among themselves for a good #ur#ose. )lmost all (i#sies have an inveterate hatred and <ealousy to8ards each other. in some cases. has been touched u#on #reviously.ome of the old (i#sies have a thousand or more leading 8ords made u# from various sources. according . and 8hat stri9es me as remar9able is. 5c. %nglish. . only slang. 8hich they teach their children. as a conse:uence of their mixing 8ith the scum of other nations in their <ourney 8est8ard. (ermans. & 8ill. 1@Cethnologists and #hilologists. the (i#sies themselves are e:ually confused u#on these #oints. H*urs is not a language. (erman. 8hen they started on their #ilgrimage many centuries ago. 1@?not three that could tal9 -omany. as regards their soBcalled language. say that. 8ith reference to the moral. es#ecially if one sets himself u# as 9no8ing more than =ohn =ones in the next yard. con<ured u# by #. &ndian. H(od bless youI are 8ords the (i#sies very often use 8hen sho8ing their 9indness for favours received. . or #otato gentile. and use in the #resence of strangers 8ith a certain amount of #ride. another 8ould say it means an &rishman. The #eculiar fascinating charms about them. There 8as one among them 8ho 8ith a smile u#on his face. 8hile they one and all 8ere than9ing me for ta9ing ste#s to get the children educated. lying. and there 8as not one 8ho could s#ell a single 8ord of it. 8hich 8e use 8hen re:uired. 8hich. 'o doubt the confusion in the minds of 8riters arises #rinci#ally from the fact that they have had their information from ignorant. and 8hat it is at the #resent time. & have tried to find out lately if there 8ere any (i#sies round /ondon 8ho could tell me 8hat these 8ords 8ere in -omany. 8as &ndian enough. or 8ater gentile. not Hfull of sound and fury signifying nothing. and religious traits in their character that go to the ma9ing u# of a 1)' Kthe noblest 8or9 of (od. & 8ill leave for those learned gentlemen to deal 8ith as they may thin9 8ell. & 8as at an encam#ment a fe8 days ago.I Ta9ing their slang generally. and. but. ho8ever. 1any 8riters differ in the s#elling and #ronunciation of (i#sy 8ords. as the . no doubt. They glory in contradictions and mystification. to thro8 dust into their eyes 8hile the (i#sies are tal9ing among themselves. as 8e #ass along.& 8ill no8. Their language. another 8ould say #oovengriBgf<o meant a sailor.#anish. it is neither more nor less than gibberish. and & have only found one 8ho could #erform the tas9. &f & 8ere to attem#t to 8rite a boo9 about their language it 8ould not do the (i#sies one iota of good. as a 9ind of test. or other foreigners do. endeavour to sho8 8hat the actual condition of the (i#sies has been in the #ast.rench. 8as cursing me in -omany from his heart.#aniards.renchmen. and. another (i#sy 8ould say it means an &rishman. They 8ill in the same breath bless you in %nglish and curse you in -omany. this & ex#erienced myself lately 8hile sitting in a tent among a doFen uninterestingB loo9ing (i#sies. li9e themselves.I but full of Hsound and furyI signifying something. and out of the t8entyBfive men and 8omen and forty children there 8ere #. the charm in their language and themselves has #retty nearly by this time vanished. They all sha9e their heads and say. . Tur9s. social.. at the same time. deceiving (i#sies.

Doo9a. &ntestine.mart. Ggrni. Hoyland. )ndh. 1rs. Gitchema. cleanliness.oshono. that H(od bless youI 8as in -omany. and love are very s#arse. adrh. &ron. 0ords dealing 8ith honesty. &nn9ee#er. &ron. 'esfelo. &mitation. $orro8. mendi. Hoyland. Hinditemes9roBtem. 'effelo#cn. there is certainly nothing very elevating about it. Gatcher. HindoBtem. &rish (i#sy. said. some years since. #erav. (rellmann. )rtmee Devillesty. says it is.bster. #. and 8hich 8ords are ta9en #rinci#ally from (rellmann. 2cnderi. drh. #oovengri gau<o. Gitchemhngro. . &nto. and devilism are things hel#ed for8ard by their gibberish.mart and Crofton have under the letters indicated. &n. ando. neffelo doosh. menghi. 1an. 0orldliness. HindiBtemengro. )drh. a converted (i#sy. mh. . &reland. &nn. .tanley. 1@ &llness. $orro8.bstera. togti. industry. Pas#ati4K I. dre. religion. &mmediately. &ndebted. . 1rs. . sensuality. &rishman.mart and Crofton say it is. %fage. and Dr. 0illiam . u#rightness. &llBtem#ered. &n another #lace they say it is Doovel <al toose. PaFerous.mith says it is 1iBDoovel )ndyBParatuta. fidelity. &n<ure. sabshta. &ll. saesta. Gene8 sig. Dogvel. . The follo8ing are the 8hole of the slang 8ords . &nflame. and Crofton. . #eri9 toot. . &.

Chong. <inomengro. Gno8ing. Gnee. Hon<.ee. Ge9evvi.imhnsa. =in. 6. dc. Gralisom tem. . =ust no8. 1aur. Gin. Del. Ho9ter ho9 gxta. ri9er. <inomes9ro. Choori chivomhngro chinomhngro. 9avvi. 1idjvelestoBmajromhngri.thri#en. ChivloBgau<o. Gnife. dh. -igher. Gomelo 9omomuso. Gno8. 4.&s. =e8s. Gnoc9. =um#. $itchama. Giss. Goor. Gettle. =oc9ey. . #g9enyus. =ail. Gic9. =udgment. Gena8 sig. =ustice of the #eace. Ghstermhngro. Ging. /es. Hoxterer. 1@8Gill. 5. Gee#. #og9inyus. =um#er. Chooma. Grelis. Glhrin 9lisin. &t. Gind. choong. Gingdom. #. Gey. &tch. chuvnoBgaj<o. . . 3o9i.

even 8hen using the language of their mother country. %:ually. Jueen.orK %x#ensive. delight. much of this #robably 8as #romoted and . Juarrel. Commist. Chingar. and. Chingariben. . &ncrease. . the fearful amount of ignorance there is amongst them. Device. hereafter. 1@@& cannot find <oy. for %ngland is the mother country of the #resent race of (i#sies. rhssi toot 9air ebba.#iteliness. on in:uiry. Habeas Cor#us. &nstructed. )dvice. no doubt. innocent. ggdli. Cide. Juart. this belief. Dictionary. %alfully.igo toot. future #unishment. & find that many of the (i#sies do not believe in an eternity. . Trogshni. &ncreach. #. ever. everlasting. The o#inion res#ecting the (i#sy language at the commencement of the #resent century 8as. Daunted.hoo9er. Juietly. (entleman.#itefulness. Juic9. has its effects u#on their morals in this life. (emmen. . in some degree. or re8ards. %x#encival. Gralisi 9railisi. The follo8ing doFen 8ords 8ill sho8. Juic9. $e. eternity. Dixen. Ha8cus #accus. endless.Juarrel. &ndistructed. that it 8as com#osed only of cant terms. and similar 8ords. Decide. . or of 8hat has been called the slang of beggars. .ubmit. .ig. Dauntment.

or some #ortion of their garments cut a8ay. nor from Mingany.strengthened by the dictionary contained in a #am#hlet. 8hose CFar reigns over a hundred lands. 8herever you find him. The 8omen are fortuneBtellers. The (i#sy. and framing to themselves a canting language. and under #retence of telling fortunes. and steal all that they come at.I #rinted about the year 1!>>. tric9 them of their money. but their condition #. entitled. 8hich is not demanded from a 8ellBdressed #erson. it not being uncommon to find 8hole villages inhabited by this race. The #easants of -ussia are serfs. curing diseases. still 8orse4 thus they live in filth. the latter belo8 itS. but no8here more than in Hungary. *f course both sexes are thieves of the first 8ater. that most meritorious class. 8ander u# and do8n.I #age .I &t consists for the most #art of %nglish 8ords trum#ed u# a##arently not so much for the #ur#ose of concealment as a burles:ue. H&n Hungary the feudal system still exists in all its #ristine barbarity. in #assing over a bridge. %ven if used by this #eo#le at all. says4 KHHungary. at Perth. 5c. HThe /ife and )dventures of $amfylde 1oore Care8. smearing their faces and bodies.I The HChronicle of $ologna. The habits of the Hungarian (i#sies are abominable. ha##y and contented. though a country not a tenth #art so extensive as the huge colossus of the -ussian em#ire. Their 8omen also . abuse the common #eo#le. 8ho disguise themselves in uncouth habits. they have certain rights and #rivileges. is an incom#rehensible being. -ees. 181@. ) toll is 8rung from the hands of the hard 8or9ing labourers. at least.. in rags. it is true. though a##arently one ste# lo8er than the lo8est slave. &n no country does the hard hand of o##ression bear so heavy u#on the lo8er classesKnot even in -ussia. $orro8. u#on the 8hole. 8ho have fre:uently no dress at all. their dress is at best rags. the introduction of this cant and slang as the genuine language of the community of (i#sies is a gross im#osition on the #ublic. in na9edness. 8here in the midst of slavery he is free. says4KH)nd of those 8ho 8ent to have their fortunes told fe8 there 8ere 8ho had not their #urses stolen. for exam#le. and occasionally. T8o classes are free in Hungary to do almost 8hat they #leaseKthe nobility and the (i#sies Rthe former are above the la8. >00is enviable com#ared 8ith that of the same class in the other country. in his %ncyclo#Pdia. there. They roam 8here they list. describes the (i#sies as Him#ostors and <ugglers forming a 9ind of common8ealth among themselves. contains #erha#s as many (i#sies. their hovels a##ear sin9s of the vilest #overty and filth. if re#ort be true. 8hilst the Hungarians are ground to #o8der. They li9e8ise abound in the suburbs of the to8ns. s#ea9ing of the Hungarian (i#sies in his HMyncali.I 1r. their food fre:uently of the vilest carrion. and are. and 8hose insouciance stands in stri9ing contrast 8ith the trembling submission of the #easants.

says4KH1iss . dee#ly interesting. 8hich cast a reddish gleam through the interior of the 8ig8am. 8hich seemed as if it might be the right eye in the 8rong #lace. and resembling rather savage and untamed beasts. and 8ith #lenty to say and great energy 8here8ith to say it. 8ho 8rote about them about the #. and goes on to say that he s#eedily found the -ussian (i#sies 8ere as unaffected and childli9e as they #. the chants more sonorous and shrill.I ) 8riter describes a visit to a (i#syDs tent as follo8s4KH0e 8ere in a 8ig8am 8hich afforded us but miserable shelter from the inclemency of the season. The 8omen 8ore mantles flung u#on one shoulder. ho8led. and the #articular noise #roduced by dead leaves 8hen accumulated in com#act masses on the ground. and #enetrating to their homes. the crea9ing of the branches dashing against one another. he felt himself all at once seiFed 8ith an irresistible desire to imitate the convulsion of nature. and says they 8ere not Heven civilised. sturdy. but in fact stole. it 8as a real tem#est. and to sing his im#ressions. s#ea9ing of the -ussian (i#sies near 1osco8. 8hich added something to the (i#siness and roguery of her smiles. /eland. says that after meeting them in #ublic.eated close to the fire. he imitated the 8histling of the air. and have a 8onderful ca#acity for music. 8as 8hat is called an earnest young lady.o ta9ing hold of a drum 8hich hung near his bed. and able to read and 8rite. $y degrees the rollings of the drum became more fre:uent and louder. as a delicate greyhound might com#are 8ith a very shre8d old bulldog trained by a fly tram#. /eland.I does not seem to have li9ed them. . *ur host 8as an &ndian 8ith s#ar9ling and intelligent eyes. the rain fell in torrents. >0>8ere gentle in manner. and 8histled through the fissures of the cabin.I 1r. $e it noted that they 8ere the most hideous cre8 ever seen in these #arts. and diverting them 8ith idle tal9 8hile one of the #arty secured 8hatever she could lay her hands u#on. begging. and at last our &ndian shrie9ed. clad 8ith a certain elegance. and 8ho 8ore in a ring a large diamond.arsha. resembling the distant sounds of an a##roaching storm.orli. and al8ays sus#ecting (i#sy roughs. The storm raged 8ithout. and 8ra##ed ma<estically in a large fur cloa9. then raising his voice to a shrill treble. 8ith only a vest underneath. and #revented us from continuing our route. They 8ere amongst the cleverest thieves that the 8orld contained. They 8ere lean and blac9. s#ea9ing of one of the -ussian (i#sy maidens. nor the bello8ing of the affrighted buffaloes. 8ho had a slight cast in one of her 8ild blac9 eyes. >01same time as the HChronicle of $ologna.I . he struggled and struc9 his instrument 8ith extraordinary ra#idity. the tem#est roared in the o#en country. .traversed the city six or eight together. 8hich he 9ne8 ho8 to soften 8hen he #leased. in his article. . they 8ere altogether original. he beat a slight rolling. the 8ind ble8 8ith violence. and roared in the most frightful manner. &n the sho#s they #retended to buy. and that com#ared 8ith our o8n #riFeBfighting. entering the houses of the citiFens. and ate li9e #igs. to 8hich nothing 8as 8anting. not even the distant ho8ling of the dogs.

the summer breeFe.ome excuse ought to be made for /eland getting into this 8ild state of excitement. and as the sym#athetic electricity of excitement seiFed the #erformers 8e 8ere all in a minute going do8n the ra#ids in a s#ring freshet. and as it died a8ay a second girl too9 u# the melody.I H)fter the first (i#sy lyric then came another to 8hich the ca#tain es#ecially directed my attention as being 8hat . sir. 8ith 8onderful tact and untaught s9ill have succeeded in all their songs in combining the mysterious and maddening chorus of the true 8ild eastern music 8ith that of regular and sim#le melody intelligible to every 8estern ear. and then another solo yet s8eeter. 8ildest. seemed changed to a midnight tem#est roaring over a stormy sea. in his article in H1acmillanDs 1agaFine. Petalengro calls TThe girl in the red chemiseDKas 8ell as & can recall his 8ords. H& could only thin9 of those strange fits of excitement 8hich thrill the -ed &ndian. ta9en from the /ondon daily #a#ers last 'ovember. she constituted altogether a fine s#ecimen of irre#ressible fire8or9s. in 8hich the basso of the blac9 ca#tain #ealed li9e thunder. T.0hat 8ith her eyes. her smiles.I says /eland. for he had on his right and on his left. but 8ith a little more excitementKit 8as li9e a gleam of moonlight on the still agitated 8atersKa strange contralto 8itch gleam. very s8eetly. and strangerKthe movement continually increasing. and s8eetest singing & ever had heardKthe singing of /urleis. says4KHThese artists. Ho8 different this hourDs excitement to the t8entyBthree hoursD reality_ The follo8ing is the full history of a remar9able case 8hich has recently occurred in -ussia. but 8ith ex:uisite s9ill.I H& listened. her diamond. . and her tongue. sadder.I /eland. of 8itches. and then again the chorus and the storm.I and adds. firm voice began to sing a verse of a love ballad. and ma9e him burst into song. and it sho8s the 8ay in 8hich (i#sy 8itches and fortuneBtellers are held and horribly treated in that country. &t is :uite evident that (i#sies and 8itches are not esteemed by the -ussians li9e angels4K .irst. in a fe8 seconds. dressed in blac9 sil9 attire. sing_D cried my handsome neighbour. 8ith a sim#le but s#irited chorus. dar9Beyed (i#sy beautiesKas some 8ould call themKamong 8hom 8as one. until. 8ith her blac9 (i#sy eyes s#ar9ling fire. before and behind him. one damsel. softly and un#erceived. ) very s8eet murmuring melody over a ri##ling la9e. referring to the musical abilities of the -ussian (i#sies. 18 @. until all 8as fast.I 'ovember. of the belle of the #arty.I . and 8ild. 8ith an ex:uisitely clear. and as it a##roached the end the chorus stole in. 8afting in his face the enchanting fan of fascination till he 8as com#letely mesmerised. Hto the strangest. #. >0Aand madKa locomotive :uic9 ste# and then a sudden silenceK sunlightKthe storm had blo8n a8ay.

. 8hose 8ife and daughters 8ere at the time su##osed to be suffering from her 8itchcraft. >0!that #o8ers of divination and enchantment 8ere attributed to her. she met 8ith no suitor save a #oor soldier. ho8ever. neither shar#er nor more stu#id than all the other girls of her native village. after the death of her husband.tarovi<.he acce#ted him gladly.t. and dread of her at length reached such a #itch that the villagers and their 8ives sent her #resents and assisted her in every 8ay. for 8hen. the chief of the #olice of the district. she again betoo9 herself to the home of her childhood. shortly after her marriage. she found that her old re#utation still clung to her. 0henever any misfortune 8hatsoever ha##ened in the village. tal9ed of only behind her bac9. #articularly as one of these 8omen. ) short time after her return to 0ratsche8o. from her early youth.chi#ens9. laid at the door of &gnat<e8a. including the ability to afflict both men and animals 8ith various #lagues and sic9nesses. $eing branded 8ith this re#utation. the daughter of a #easant.he 8as. >0C1ean8hile the feeling in the village against her became so intensified that it 8as resolved by the #eo#le. 'i9isoro8. 'i9isoro8 had . and she 9ne8 very 8ell that any assurances she might give 8ould not have #roduced the slightest effect. 0ratsche8o. of the su#ernatural s9ill 8ith 8hich she 8as credited. The ne8s of her return s#read li9e 8ildBfire. . to . in the interest of the community. ho#ing thereby to get into her good graces. and so esca#e being #ractised u#on by her infernal arts. of course. to ta9e the la8 into their hands so far as to fasten her u# in her cottage. had been attac9ed immediately after being refused a slight favour by her. )t the beginning of the #resent year a dismissed soldier. and general disaster 8as antici#ated from her in<urious s#ells. these attentions 8ere by no means un8elcome. from fear. #. some8hat 8ea9ly. and going 8ith him. Their su#erstition enabled her to live comfortably and 8ithout care. in the (overnment of 'ovgorod. )s she 8as no8 fifty years of age. actually instituted criminal #roceedings against her before the local ur<adni9. The execution of this resolve 8as not delayed a moment. the immediate charge #referred being that she had be8itched his 8ife.)grafena &gnat<e8a 8as as a child sim#le and amiable. This. and she therefore did nothing to disabuse her neighboursD minds. several 8omen fell ill. it naturally follo8ed #. made u# their minds that she had the Hevil eye. This 8as. a cro8d of villagers set out on the 8ay to &gnat<e8aDs d8elling. by no means forgotten there. ho8ever. $ut the #eo#le of the #lace having. . &n s#ite. all fingers #ointed to &gnat<e8a as the source of it. one . Petersburg. and an old man of seventy. #ending the decision on the com#laint that had been lodged. 8as. /ed by Gauschin. ho8ever.I nothing could eradicate that im#ression. 0ratsche8o lost sight of her for some t8elve years. and therefore unable to earn a living.

no attention 8as #aid to him. instantly a##lied it to a bundle of stra8 lying in a room. H&Dll ans8er for it. *n the contrary. after all. H$ut & am entirely innocent. 8ho held in his hand a lighted chi# of #ineB8ood.I re#lied one of the band. and handed him the . 8hich he had used Hto smo9e out the s#iritsI and to light him about the #remises. in loud tones. for the #resent.I shouted the #easants in chorus. blan9ly staring at the s#reading flames. &n front of the cottage stood the #eo#le. $ut a doFen #. unfortunately. father. after 8hich all hastily left. HDonDt let her out. one beam after another blaFed u#. it 8ould seem. occurred to the murderers that #erha#s.ome of them then #roceeded to loo9 through the rooms. >0?arms held him bac9. to be 9e#t fastened u# in her house. and therefore conclusive #roofs of &gnat<e8aDs guilt. it 8as endeavoured to accelerate it by shoving the sno8 from the roof and loosening the frameB8or9. &gnat<e8a attem#ted in vain to follo8 them. the husband and father of the be8itched 8omen.I the #oor 8oman cried out. HThe /ord be #raised_I exclaimed another. their action had not been altogether la8ful. made another attem#t at rescue. and at length the roof fell in on the 8retched 8oman. she be8itched my daughters too. on the follo8ing morning nothing 8as found remaining but the charred bones of &gnat<e8a. Hif 8e let her off no8 8e shall be be8itched one and all. by unanimous decision. a##arently the only one in #ossession of his five senses. and listening to the cries of their victim 8ithout moving a muscle. *ne of the bystanders. He then. on the suggestion of 'i9isoro8. The agonised 8oman then tried to get out at the 8indo8s. the #rogress of the flames not a##earing ra#id enough. several bottles containing medicaments.or this #ur#ose they made a collection. . and &8ano8 8ith some chi#s of #ine8ood Hto smo9e out the bad s#irits. and ran to8ards the cottage to rescue his sister. )##eals 8ere no8 made to her to confess herself a 8itch. 8arned them of the #unishment 8hich 8ould certainly a8ait them. The ashes smouldered the 8hole night. H0e must #ut an end to it. The idea no8. $elieving these to be enchanted #otions. but in vain. #robably in the ho#e that if she did so her life might be s#ared.inding the cottage door loc9ed. to hush it u#. to burn her and her devilish 8or9 there and then.#rovided himself 8ith hammer and nails. .I The little room in 8hich &gnat<e8a had ta9en refuge 8as not as yet reached by the fire. but 8as hindered by the mob. Hlet her burn a8ay.I . they beat it in. and 8hile a #ortion of them nailed u# the 8indo8s the remainder cro8ded in and announced to the terrified 8oman that. The fire no8 extended ra#idly. it 8as decided.chi#ens9. 8ho had already vie8ed the scene of the affair. but these 8ere already nailed u#. 8e have #ut u# 8ith her long enough. 8here they found. she 8as. )t this #oint &gnat<e8aDs brother came on the scene. They accordingly resolved to bribe the local authority.I shouted the venerable . the brother <oining.I Gauschin. that 8e 8onDt.

in fact. the most lascivious attitudes and gestures. and sentenced by the <udge to some slight ecclesiastical #enance. the #rime mover in the matter. 18 . & shall start from hear C. is being more than fully borne out by facts brought under my notice.K H& recivd your last /etter. .. & have no more to say very #articular. and 'i9isoro8. Hthe >>nd. #. . BBB and yourself. of course leaving out the name. . travelling 8ith their fathers.m.ixteen of the villagers 8ere.chi#ens9K8ho had used his influence to #revent a rescue K8ent scot free. including the aged . in conse:uence. and as it is some8hat of a curiosity & give it. of the (i#sies 8ho can read and 8rite. and #roude to say that & shall Rif alls 8ellS endeavor to cum on the day mentioned. through 8hich they 8ould blo8 the creature u# till his flesh loo9ed fat and #lum#. 8ho had nailed u# the 8indo8s. . 8ho had first set fire to the building. to the extent of fris9ing about the streets in a state of nudity. 8ho 9no8s ho8 to #ut a letter together.A? a.#roceeds. 8ould resort to the most 8ic9ed and inhuman #ractices. young girls and married 8omen. at least.he still 9ee#s about the same. $efore ta9ing one of their horses to the fair they 8ould ma9e an incision in some secret #art of the s9in. HDear . #. 8ould indulge in. 0olfgang . only feel #roude of having the enviteation R8e are all 8ell hearS 8ith the exce#tion of my little Daughter. 8ho had assisted in accelerating the burning. but at once re#orted the horrible deed to his su#erior officer. as exactly as #ossible as & received it. . Their dances 8ere of the most disgusting 9ind that could be conceived. To their astonishment he did not acce#t the money. t8entyBone roubles ninety co#ec9s. >08H'e8to8n 1oor. 8hile the remaining thirteen. viF. that five #er cent. they generally #ractised dancing 8hen they 8ere begging. (rellmann says of the . 8ere found guilty. of them could not read and 8rite.urther in:uiries among the (i#sies more than ever satisfy me that my first statement last )ugust. and be in %dinburgh bet8en A and !.tarovi<. and then they 8ould a##ly a strong stic9ing #laster to #revent the air esca#ing.#anish (i#sies. The follo8ing letter has been sent to me by a friend to sho8 that there is one (i#sy in the #articularly if men 8ere about the streets. & shall finish Rthis little bitS by sending all our very 9ind love and res#ects to 1rs. in (rellmannDs day. >0 )fter a #rotracted hearing 8ith <ury the follo8ing result 8as arrived at4 KGauschin. in the manner above described. & :uestion if there 8ill be three #er cent.. brought u# for trial at Tich8in before the district court of 'ovgorod on the charge of murdering )grafena &gnat<e8a. The . and 8ithout note or comment.#anish (i#sies in his day that dancing 8as another means of getting something.ranF says they ma9e use of another device 8ith an eel.

Daia Dai Chai Tienoy =ovel (angee -aclee -ac9lay Pen Penya Dada Tic9na Chavay Chaia 1orsha =ovya (ongea (ongeya (ongeo -acloo -aclay or Pal Pella Palla Coc9 Peoya $ebey R& shall finish thisS as you 9no8 yourself it 8ill ta9e me to long to go on 8ith more of it. & shall no8 commence 8ith the feminine and the musculin gender Rbut & must mind as & donDt #ut my foot in itS as you 9no8 a hundred times more than & do about these last 8ordsKthe same time the maight be a little #ic9et u# by the(. choy in #lace of hoi.t H0%/.%. D*'G%3.H H)-P%-. in staid hommay. 8ea9 dear $oys u# to go and geather some stic9s to light the fire. H*n the first 8ea9ning in the morning Rmother s#ea9ing to my . a little filling u# 8hich & ho#e you 8ill #arden me for ta9ing u# so much of your time. 1other againK'o8. & shall no8 sho ho8 my #oor mother use to s#ea9 her %nglish. 1atteva ma tot in staid of lat eva ma tot and so on.S H.Ho#eing this 8ill find you boath in good helth R& shall go on 8ith a little bit of something elseS Rby the 8ay.)1)/3 C)1P&'( 0&TH H*-. as. HTH% 0H*/ . chommay. boy. H1asculine gender. >0@1orsh . go and get some 8ater to #ut in the ole 9ettle for brea9fast. )'D D*(.ingular . & thin9 & shoud some marshas helen a #ray the Drom and coving the collas out of the #ub.. The $oyK& davdaK& must go and do every bit a thing.. hear goes to ma9e a start. and to see 8hare dem Hoses and Don9eys are. Chotche yoi instaid of hotche yoi. 1.. R3ou must not al8ays laugh.ather in the TentSKH'o8. H& am yours H2ery obediently. R'o8 a little more about 8hat my #oor old mother leant me 8hen a childS and before & go on any further & 8ant you Rif you 8ill be so 9indS as to #erticullery Kunderstand meKthat the ch has a curious soundKalso the /-. )ell. for instence. man. 0hy donDt you send ..eminine gender. Dad Chavo Tieno #.

and the Don9ey gives him a 9ic9. The old 8oman and one of her Daughters goes out as usual. . HRThe old man and the $oys Pitches the TentsS and gets himself ready to go to the To8n. and a fare day in a To8n about three miles and k from there. man. RThe boys go a fishing. . $rea9fast is over 8ith a deal of boather. $oy sar can & gal ear yoi ta ma docadom me heroi ta shom :uit leam Rthe old 8omanS. and hurts his 9nea. go. #. if you sal be dare before me. and a little laughing and cursing and s8aring. oc99ie no8 chorro <oc9ed mardo. and he Rthe boyS over a big #iece of 8ood. and runs himself near one of the Don9eys. >11too9 a bit of a lull on his face. go. dare no8. >10said to her brother that she may fall over the 8ooden in the river for 8hat he cared. & am going to send her to the farm House for mil9 R<ac9 loses monyS 8hen a $ran of fire is flying after him. his bas9et on his bac9. RThe old 8omanS 1en chovolay nen sig 8aste <a mangay. and begins to scould her brother for not going to meet her.S To day is so#osid to be a very hot day. $e she8er and leave a pattern by the side of the cross road. and very near 9noc9s the <oc9ett over. and the day being very hot. and ho#s u#on one of the dogDs #a8sKunBseenKand dog runs a8ay bar9ing. HThey stri9e the tents. HThe girl goes for the mil9 Rand she has a river to go thre8S 8hen #resently a $ull is heard roreng. man. and she begins singing to the sound of a 8aterfall close by her. go and meet your sister. RThe old man soon comes home. boy. The old man ta9es a cou#le of Horses to the . HRThey intend to stay in this delightfull cam#ing #lace for a good many days. and one of the girls 8ith herKboath very tired and havey.dat gel to cer some thing some times her crie chee tal only 8ishing tal9ay all the blessed time.S The day is very bright and hot. and all the fish 8ould come and nibble at her. and . anugh to frighten 8aggens and carts of the road 8ith her hum#ey bac9. 8ho got tiard fishing in the morning. 8hen the boy ho#s a8ay u#on one leg. Horras and her bull. The old 8oman4 Dare no8. 1other. RThe little girl comes 8ith the mil9.he 8ill fall do8n in a faint in de middle of de riber. and stic9 has dat charey chai is a beling da da say dat dat is a very bad after <ovyas. does de $ull roreing after her. yet the boy said that 8hen she 8ould fall do8n she 8ould chin a bit. and you 8ill meet me near old To8n.trenge men brings the Horses and don9eys u# to the tents. 8hen all of a suden a very nice loo9ing young gentleman. and begins to scould very much. until he is briging in the horse. loaded 8ith cho en behind her bac9. dare no8. The old 8oman comes u#.are to try and sell. & am a faling a vaver drom codires. 1other. and then they began the scrubble. 8hen they boath have a scuffel over the fire.S H*ne of the #rityist girls ta9es a strol by herself do8n to a butyfull streem of 8ater to have herself a 8ash.S The girl #.ishingBrod by his side Rthe girl did not see himS nor him herS until he 8as atracted by some .

H$y this time that young girl goes in her Tent and #ull do8n the front. and #resently out she comes butyfully dressed. Hear. 8hite teeth. and 8hen she seen him she stared also at him. The young ladys comes to the tents and smiles. & 8ill. 8hen the old 8oman says to one of them.strange sound. and a#roaching slo8ly to8ards her and saying. and cot a fe8 this morning. my butyfull maid Rand staring at her butyfull figureS thin9ing that she 8as some angel as dro#ed do8n R8hen she 8ith a #leasant smile by sho8ing her ivory and her s#ar9ling eyesS *h. (ood day. the rest a good lot of lies. but 8as alarmed at your s8eet voice mingling 8ith the murmuring 8aters. and to his sur#rise seen a most butyfull creature 8ith her bear bosom and her long blac9 hair and butyfull blac9 eyes. 8hen one or the little boys says to his dady Dady. a loude and shrill laugh is heard many timesKthe same time he does not sho the least sign of vulgaraty by ta9ing any sort of liberty 8ith her 8hatever. 1amey. and he made a advance to8ards her. 8hich turns out to be the gentlemanDs t8o sisters. but the day turned out so excesably hot & 8as obliged to go in to a shade and have a slee#. 3es. H(entleman 0ell indeed & have been fishing to day. 'o8 8e 8ill boath of us go to the gav togeather. The boy says. shall & tell you a fe8 8ords. 0ill you. He goes and leaves them highly delighted to8ards hime. HThe old man goes off for a stroll 8ith a cou#le of dogs. there is a rye a velin a #ra. *ne of the little girls sees t8o young ladys coming a little side8ays across the common from a gentlemanDs house 8hich is very near. He stared 8ith all the eyes he had. *ne gets his fiddle ready and the other . hear it is. and is situated in #. meyam. and he said that they 8ere 8elcome to come there to sto# as long as they had a mind so as they 8ould not tear the Headges. This cam#ing ground belonged to the young gentlemanDs father. my blessed brother. and she refuses him. meyamN The old 8oman ta9es them on one side and tells them something <ust to #lease them. no8 and then a 8ord of truth. The little girl. and seen the day very 8arm & thought to have a little 8ash. 8hen all of a instant he s#rung u#on his heels. 8hen no8 and then as he is s#ea9ing to her on the road going u#. >1>a butyfull #art of Derbyshire. itDs a very fine day. 8hich be8itched the young gentleman. dady. der is doi -a8ngas avelin accai atch a #ray. and a butyfull figure. They arrive at the tents. They boath steer u# to the cam#.las9 very near full of $randy and toboco. ile lend you Cs. or says she has got none. meyam. mamey. and offers to the old man. The gentleman sitts himself do8n and #ulls out a big . from 8hence comest thou hear. H*ne of the young boys as9s his mother for some money. my fatherDs tents are not fare off. 0here is the Q000 tooteys sold froom those doi -a8ngas ma8 did accai & held no8 from them they #end them not a##o#olarN *ne of the other brothers says to him. and he should #ay them another visit. )braham.

8hich . >1AHThose 8ho follo8ed $arns. They go to call at the #ost office for a chinginargeryKthey boath come home rather 8ary. 8ith all there eyes.iddler. us to call gentlemenDs houses 8ith the Har#s.H)H%'($*. as related by $orro8. The follo8ing may be considered a fair s#ecimen of the high class or H(entleman (i#sy.000 there are in this country 8ho can 8rite as 8ell as the foregoing letter. 0elsh Har#er to the Prince of 0ales.H)'%'()3 $*-3 $*. H0%/. 6Hedge . (i#sies. )ll that & have 8ritten has ha##ened.the Tamareen.I He 8as above the middle height. at the same time & 8ould call their attention to his ending. as a good many comes to have a dance on the greenK the collection 8ould be the boys #oc9et money. H& again beg to remain. and one of the best riders in 3or9shire. H3ours very res#ectfully. charming. the (i#sy s#ectacles before their eyes. and delightful in the (i#sy.I so much admired by those 8ho have got the (i#sy s#ell round their nec9s. and let you 9no8 a little more 8hen & come.K0ith your #ermission & 8ill leave of no8. -yley $osvil 8as a native of 3or9shire.7 H& beg to ac:uaint you that & am the oldest living 0elsh Har#er in the 8orld at the #resent time. a county 8here. fascinating. The have many country #eo#le coming them to hear there music and to dance on the green. and the (i#sies 8ould stare at the #eo#le to see them such Dinalays 6fools7. from the cro8n of his head to the sole of his foot. 1r. and 8ho can see nothing but 8hat is lively. exceedingly strong and active.000 to >0. HThe next day the $oys go a fishing again and bring home a good lot Ras the day 8as not near so hot as the day beforeS and comes home in good time to #lay the har# and violin Rand sometimes the TambureenS for the county gouges 6green horns7. To those of my friends & #resent them 8ith an account of -yley $osvil as a man after their o8n heart.I &t 8ould be #erha#s a difficult tas9 to find a score of (i#sies out of the 1C. Ho#ing that & have not tres#ased on your time to read such follishness. HDear 1r. is next to me. as the (i#sies say. #. and us to be called in and ma9e a good thing of it. Thomas (BBB. but most oftener in the house in a big 9itchen. HThere is a great deal of amusement found by those that us to follo8 $arns. The har# is too heavy to carry. or sometimes in the barn. the (i#sy charm in their #oc9et. HThereDs a deadly sight of $osvils. and the country #eo#le 8ould be staring at the collays.

-yley.o 8ith her brother she de#arted.I said the girl. a##earing as a fullBblo8n %gy#tian matron. but she 8as not. . in the rudiments of the Christian religion. and had much discourse 8ith her both on Christian and %gy#tian matters. about fourteen years younger than himself. Clara 8ent out trembling. >1Cbest means to ho* and du**er the gentlefol9. and said that she must go. a##eared delighted 8ith her ne8 friends. and #romised never to leave them. namely. and shortly returned in tears. ta9ing great interest in her.he 8as instructed by them. being nearly eighty years old. by 8hom she had the t8o daughters. dra8n by a Hflying #ony. he 8as amaFingly #roud and haughty of heart. 8as a tin9er by #rofession. for that her first husband. a nice. 8ith t8o very handsome daughters flaringly dressed in genuine (i#sy fashion. telling the 8riter. and 8hat he says must be. and a dar9 man stood before it. 8ho 8as then on the Do8ns grinding 9nives 8ith a machine he had. -yley #ut her into a light cart.I 8as a man every inch of him. and her Christian friends never sa8 her again. li9e most of the $osvils. 8hich she ho#ed shortly to have in her #ossession. had some discourse 8ith the man in an un9no8n tongue. .he 8as then very much changed indeed. though he had not much manhood. a (i#sy 9ing Rno such individuals as either (i#sy 9ings or :ueens ever existedS. and considered that 8hen a man died he 8as cast into the earth #. and her second. for 8hen the 8riter s#o9e to her on that very im#ortant sub<ect she made no ans8er save by an indescribable (i#sy loo9. and said that she 8ished she had never been a (i#sy. 8here he left her 8ith three (i#sy 8omen. . he had t8o 8ives. >1!and there 8as an end of him. 0ith these 8omen the 8riter found her encam#ed in a dar9 8ood. and both times very 8ell. )fter the la#se of about six 8ee9s there 8as a 9noc9 at the door. delicate girl. Hbut that man is my brother. this girl 8as noticed by a res#ectable Christian saying a great deal. 8hen the terrible horse. #ersuaded her to come and live 8ith them. 8ho said he 8anted Clara. HDid you not #romise to stay 8ith usNI H& did so. never 8ent to church. and 8as not seen again for a :uarter of a century.he 8as very melancholy.he 8as exhorted to 9ee# a firm gri# of her Christianity. bitterly regretted her having been com#elled to :uit her Christian friends. a mint of money. H0hat forNI said her friends. 8ho. amongst other things. He had a sister of the name of Clara. 8hom the 8riter H9e#t staring at. .I beat all the %nglish steeds.I and hurried her across %ngland. His grand ambition 8as to be a great man among his #eo#le. He fre:uently used to say that if any of his #eo#le became (orgios he 8ould 9ill them. but though a tin9er. To this end he furnished himself . 0hat became of herN 0as she made a8ay 8ithN 1any thought she 8as. *n other matters she 8as communicative enough. 8ee#ing more bitterly. He 8as thoroughly versed in all the arts of the old race. )ll her Christianity she a##eared to have flung to the dogs. had something much better. 8ho says & must go 8ith him. 8hen she 8as met on %#som Do8ns on the Derby day. 8ho travelled about 8ith an aunt. even to distant 'orfol9.I . that since he sa8 her she had been t8ice married. to 8hom she 8as giving motherly counsels as to the #. H(ladiateur.

mith#. by his grand airs and violent #roceedings.cotland too. and mounted on a ca#ital hunter. >1?tribe. to denote that though he mixed 8ith (orgios he 8as still a -omany chal.he could du99erKthat is. Ho8 did he su##ort such ex#enseN it may be as9ed. >1 HThe (orgios see9 to hang me. as he said. as #ros#erity does not continue for ever.I counterfeit coin.huri. . dear_ ho8 she could caurKthat is.#ain. Her Christian name. li9e those of the steed of a Tur9ish . and had a right to do 8hat he #leased 8ith his o8n. as he 8as called. generally called ounces. some of 8hom he had ridden over and lamed for life. and 8ould fre:uently <oin the field in regular hunting costume.I the buttons of the 8aistcoat 8ere halfBguineas. 8ith a gold band round it. the t8o hinder buttons of the coat. 8ith 8hich he 8as su##lied by certain honest trades#eo#le of $rummagem. and from her exceeding smartness and cleverness she 8as generally called by the (i#sies 3oc9y . if Christian name it can be called.8ith clothes made after the costliest (i#sy fashion. and after the la#se of a month return and deliver to her husband. #artly and #rinci#ally by large sums of money 8hich he received from his t8o 8ives. filch gold rings and trin9ets from <e8ellersD cases. and those of the collar and the 8rists of his shirt 8ere sevenBshilling goldB#ieces. #articularly of the latter. 8hose hoofs.he 8as good at the big ho9Kthat is. This country 8e must leave. His 8ives got into trouble in one or t8o ex#editions. to let the <uggals 9no8 that he 8as their 9ing. and 8hich they obtained by the #ractice of certain arts #eculiar to (i#sy females. during the racing season. by 8hich alone. &n this coat he 8ould fre:uently ma9e his a##earance on a magnificent horse. oh. Thus e:ui##ed.he 8as of the Petalengro or . and cauring. . The (i#sies see9 to 9ill me. and . 8as luri or . *ne of his 8ives 8as a truly remar9able 8oman.ultan. and. *ne day he addressed his t8o 8ivesK #. in order. Things 8ent on s8immingly for a great many years.I . 8ere broad gold #ieces of . his dar9 hour came at last. she could ma9e a hundred #ounds a month.o no 8onder that the . smart or clever . tell fortunesKto #erfection.#anish (i#sies call ustibar #astesasK filching 8ith hands. the #roceeds of her industry. du99ering. he had incurred the hatred of both (orgios and (i#sies. Partly by driving a trade in H8afedo loovo. He 8as very fond of hunting. 8hich 8as of thic9 blue cloth. 8ere cased in shoes of silver. 8henever he encountered a (i#sy encam#ment he 8ould invariably dash through it. ho99ing. the 9ind of thing 8hich the .lying Tin9er. li9e a true and faithful 8ife. but. 1oreover.huriKthat is. . at inducing #eo#le to #ut money into her hands in the ho#e of it being multi#lied. and his dealings in 8afedo loovo to be noised about. doing all the harm he could. 8as enabled to cut a grand a##earance. the foreBbuttons 8ere %nglish Hs#aded guineas.I . save and exce#t that instead of the leather hunting ca# he 8ore one of she 8ould disa##ear and travel about %ngland. 3oc9y being a (i#sy 8ord signifying Hclever. .huri.

I Thereu#on -yley and 3oc9y . &Dll fare 8ith you.he then too9 her de#arture.he#herdDs $ush. 8ho 8as driving about a little cart filled 8ith s9e8ers. &Dll not curse you. )n old (i#sy man. and -yley remained 8ith . 3andors. $ut not if /ura goes. but he 8as unac:uainted 8ith /ondon and its neighbourhood. #ained her very #. but not 8ith the s#irit of former times. 8ith her cart and don9ey.huri. -3/%3. H&Dll <oin 8ith you to heaven )nd to the 8ic9ed country.H+-&.huri. -yley 8ent about tin9ering.huri left 3or9shire and 8ended their 8ay to /ondon.I . . >18much. $ut for it you shall smart. my -iley.huri goeth too.huri 8ent about du99ering and ho99ing. sa8 him standing in a state of #er#lexity at a #lace 8here four roads met4K . &Dll follo8 thee.huri uttered no cry or com#laint. and did not get much to do. . H1y blac9est curse on . H&Dve chosen no8 bet8ixt ye. Though . 8hich 8as never #ro#erly cured. . Though /ura loves me best.I /+-). H.I -3/%3. for she 8as not :uite so young as she had been. 8here they too9 u# their abode in the (i#syry near . H&Dll <oin 8ith you to heaven. 3our 8ish you no8 have gotten. $ut you 8ill never thrive. only mumbledK H)lthough 8ith bro9en <a8Bbone.huri.. *h. -yley.I /+-).I He then struc9 her 8ith his fist on the chee9 and bro9e her <a8Bbone.ince & must choose bet8ixt you. and her <a8. 1y choice is 3oc9y .ince /ura doesnDt fal.

and screamed and shouted and 8e#t over his grave. and to :uarrel about the division.3.I */D (&P. that he 8ould never thrive. & am a 9aulo camlo.I */D (&P. dis#layed little or no energy. He. and my 8ife and children 8ill 8ee# over me. Perha#s youDll sho8 me round.huri did her best to cheer him.I not to divide his #ro#erty among them. H0hat 8as his ho#eNI H1y ho#e.huri. . and fre:uently said that his heart 8as bro9en since he had left 3or9shire. brother. is the last ho#e of every genuine (i#sy. H1ethin9s & see a brother.I The old (i#sy sho8ed -yley about the country for a 8ee9 or t8o.3. 8as gloomy and dissatisfied. . *nce 8hen she bade him get u# and exert himself. ho8ever. and did nothing but smo9e under the arches of the railroad and loiter about beersho#s. but there is no remedy for a bruised s#irit. but to destroy it. ) 1ethodist came and as9ed him.I said he.3. 6>18b7 $ut do not 9no8 the country. )t the end of about t8o years he ceased #. and as9ed her 8hether she did not remember the #arting #ro#hecy of his other 8ife. They then returned to the Harches. and -yley formed a 9ind of connection and did a little business.*/D (&P.huri and his children. 0hoDs your fatherN 0hoDs your motherN )nd 8hat be your nameNI -3/%3. 6>18a7 0hat service can & doNI -3/%3. it may be observed. ) $osvil 8as my mother. but 8ithout effect. he said that if he did it 8ould be of no use. H&Dll si99er tulle #rala_ &no bi99ening escouyor. of 8hom he had threeKt8o stout young fello8s and a girlKgave him a magnificent funeral. )nd -yley is my name. H) $osvil 8as my father. H&Dm <a8ing #etulengring. H&Dm glad to see you. 6>18c7 )nd av along 8ith me. >1@going his rounds. according to Christian #ractice. )t length he became very 8ea9 and too9 to his bed.I and such. His ho#e 8as gratified. They . His that 8hen & am dead & shall be #ut into the ground. doctors 8ere called in by his faithful .

such the death. after a life s#ent in doing good to the (i#sies and others over 8hom he had influence.unday or t8o agoKthe follo8ing verses to the tune of H$elmont4IK H0hen in the vale of lengthened years 1y feeble feet shall tread. )nd trium#h though & die.huri. Then they bro9e the caravan to #ieces. and an over#o8ering sense of suffocation cree#ing over meKin the midst of an encam#ment of (i#sies at Canning To8n. and there found about a doFen (i#sy . . curtains. and flung the 8hole on the blaFing #ile. old (i#sy. thic9 /ondon fogKalmost as dense as the blac9est midnight. if. acting u#on their 9ind invitation.huri.ebruary this year & found myself surrounded by a blac9. for having been the com#oser of various stanFas in the (i#sy tongue. instead of indulging in such rubbish as he did in the last hours of an idle and 8asted life. *ne of these. they dashed his mirrors. and everything 8hich 8ould burn. ignorant. car#ets. from the bottom of his heartK fetching tears to his eyes as it did mine a . addressed to 3oc9y . as the shades of the evening of life gathered round him. he could.uch 8as the life. china.I *n the first . on 8hich they thre8 his bedding. and. blan9ets. >>0H$eneath the bright sun there is none.9illed his s8ift #onyKstill s8ift though t8entyBseven years of ageKand buried it dee# in the ground 8ithout de#riving it of its s9in. his t8o 8ives. 6>1@7 . )nd & survey the various scenes Through 8hich & have been led. and 8hat not to bits. This road conduct on high. 0ith the greatest delight in blood & 8ould fight To the 9nees for my 3oc9y .unday in . sung. grand airs. There is none & love li9e my 3oc9y . hardened. 0ith comfort &Dll revie8 the #ast.huri.inally. and croc9ery to #ieces. and such 8ere the funeral obse:uies of -yley $osvil. dishes. a (i#sy 8ho 8ill be long remembered amongst the %nglish -omany for his buttons.I Ho8 much better and ha##ier it 8ould have been for this #oor. hac9ed his metal #ots. and last not least. 8hich have #lenty of force if nothing else to recommend them. ma9ing of the fragments a fire. & cre#t into one of their tents. runs as follo8s4K #. HHo8 many mercies 8ill my life $efore my vie8 unfold_ 0hat countless dangers 8ill be #ast_ 0hat tales of sorro8 told_ HThis scene 8ill all my labours end.

>>>& mentioned to them that & 8anted to sho8. T) (i#sy. & told them in a 8ay that seemed to satisfy them. Their first salutation 8as. #. and com#lexions. The :uestion next turned u#on religion. They loo9ed to me as if several of them had 8orn bright steel ornaments round their 8rists and had danced at a county ball. o8ing to the dar9ness of the tent and the fog. Tyou are <ust the man & am 8anting. and to have their tents registered and #rovided 8ith a 9ind of school #ass boo9. rag coverlet. $y this time there 8ere some score or more (i#sy 8omen and children at the tent door. and others seemed as if they had had the Hcro##erI at 8or9 round their ears.unday. you do8n and ma9e yourself comfortable. and so it 8ent round till they as9ed me 8hat religion 8as.I said one. 'ever mind if it is . and so the thing 8ent the round among them. and they started the (i#sy on his 8ay. a goodBloo9ing fello8. governor. at any rate. 8ho heard 8hat had #assed. for it. The Devil shouted out. said.I 8as the remar9 of another. & have . Here they began to scratch their heads. or. and. & sat u#on a seat that 8as #artly covered 8ith filth. & could not learn that any of these (i#sies had ever been in a #lace of 8orshi#.D said the Devil. )nother said he 8as a 1ethodist. but did not believe there 8as a hell.o ne8s 8ent about among various societies every8here. and letDs have a chat. . & should rather say. >>1that any one attem#ting to H#ull it u# by the rootsI 8ould have a difficult tas9. and as9ed me if it 8as true. s:uatting u#on #eg shavings. send for some Tfour#ennyD for us.I but to get a la8 #assed to com#el the (i#sy #arents to send their children to school. and it 8as decided that a (i#sy should be sent.I & #artly did as they bid me. that 8ill be a ca#ital thing. both sides of the :uestion. and seemed #re#ared for another turn round 8hen needful. unless he set to it 8ith his teeth. H0ell. one of the (i#sies. they 8ere :uite ha##y in their 8ay. . and done more ste##ing u#on the 8heel of fortune than many #eo#le imagine. H& say. and & also told them some of its results. H& should not 9no8 8here to begin to loo9 for one. *ne said he 8as a -oman Catholic. and they thoroughly fell in 8ith the idea. but. but could not agree 8ith their singing and #raying. $ill. and said & had #ut them Ha nightca# on. 8onDt itNI H(od bless you.I H+#on my soul. T0ho is thereND The (i#sy cried out. during my in:uiries. )ccordingly a #ass#ort 8as #rocured. conse:uently & had an addition to my trousers more than & bargained for. before & had 8ell finished my of all siFes.D T)ll right. ages. ho8 are youN .ome of their faces loo9ed full of intelligence and 8orthy of a better vocation. so short 8as their hair #. 0hen he came to the door of hell he 9noc9ed for admittance. They said they had heard that there 8ere halfBaBdoFen different religions. consultations and meetings 8ere held. as none of the societies or agents could find one bad enough. & told them my ob<ect 8as not to come to send for Hfour#enny.I and then related to me the follo8ing story4KHThe Devil sent 8ord to some of his agents for them to send him the 8orst man they could find u#on the face of the earth. and should be glad if they 8ould #oint out to me the name of a (i#sy 8hom they could loo9 u# to and consider as a good #attern for them to follo8.

by the 8hining dra8l 8ith 8hich they s#o9e.o you see.riday night.D The (i#sy had not been long in hell before the Devil #erceived that he 8as too bad for his #lace.been on the loo9Bout for you some time. 8e came to the conclusion that. Those 8ho 9no8 the 8riter 8ould say the article is truthful. fight anybody. drin9 that Tfour#ennyD u#. Come in. forming yards for the de#osit of garbage.I said /ee to me. and not in the least overdra8n4KHThe lane 8as full of decentBloo9ing houses.I This is (i#sy life in %ngland on a . The men exhibited this in their countenances. the 8omen. ho8ever. as9ing the tal9ative ones :uestions. idle loafers. the men had no higher ambition than to obtain a small sum of money on the . and in these unsavoury s#ots the (i#sies had dra8n u# their caravans. in the attitudes they too9 u#.unday or t8o ago #. The men and 8omen had fled from the restraints of house life to esca#e the daily routine 8hich a home involved. and said. by their dirtiness and inattention to dress. H8e are too bad for the Devil. but there all industrial ability ended. These yards 8ere se#arated from each other by ro8s of cottages. or do anything. in the 8hole bounds of this great metro#olis. 3ou are too bad for us. and letDs send for some more. lads. 0eDll go any8here. &n the first #lace. There 8as not one man amongst them 8ho could solder a bro9en 9ettle.aturday to #ay for a fe8 daysD food. it 8ould have been im#ossible to have found any miscalling themselves (i#sies 8hose mode of living more urgently called for the remedial action of the la8 than the tenants of /ambBlane. >>!others got their living by shaving s9e8ers from 1onday morning to . a fe8. $e off bac9 again_D The Devil o#ened the door. all of them. Here is your #ass#ort. and #assing from yard to yard. and each yard contained families related near or distantly. and the #. and the children. 8ho had ado#ted the 8andering life of the (i#sy because of the o##ortunities it afforded of combining a maximum of idle hours 8ith a minimum of 8or9. nor one man.D . tenanted by labourers in foundries and gas and 8ater8or9s. 8oman. & have been told the (i#sies are the 8orst fol9s in all the 8orld. The #ro#rietor of the )ee*ly Ti(es very readily granted #ermission for one of the #rinci#als of his staff to accom#any me to one of the (i#sy encam#ments a . as the (i#sy 8as going. but there 8ere s#aces bet8een the ro8s of houses. or child 8ho could in any degree claim relationshi# 8ith a (i#sy. and #itched their smo9eBblac9ened tents. They 8ere. 'o8. T*f all the #eo#le that have ever come to this #lace you are the 8orst. >>Aon the outs9irts of /ondon. there 8as not a true (i#sy amongst them. and the #lace began to s8arm 8ith young im#s to such a degree that the Devil called the (i#sy to him one day. T1a9e yourself scarce.unday afternoon 8ithin the sound of church bells. )fter s#ending several hours 8ith these #eo#le in their tents and caravans. or interested in each otherDs 8elfare by long associations in the country during summer time. 8hich 8ere sold to . and in such #laces as 8e found them during the 8inter season. and said. could mend a chair bottom. by their filthy condition.

and so these 8itless #eo#le 8ere content to endure #overty.mith suggests that the #rovisions of an )ct of Parliament should be mainly directed. 8or9ing over the braFier of burning co9e during the 8ee9. $esides having no draughts. they lay u#on 8ellBtroddenBdo8n stra8. there 8as no accumulation of sno8 u#on the to#s of the tents. There 8as no face 8ith a glimmer of honest selfBreliance about it. social events of sur#assing interest had not reached them. no face bearing any trace of the strange beauty 8e had noticed in other encam#ments. 0e 8ere assured by 1r. &t 8as then four oDcloc9. 8hich she 8ould have to dry that same afternoon. hunger. cold. but nothing of their o8n manufacture. and the #eo#le. inexcusably foul in #erson. 8ith great rents in the 9nees of their corduroys. and dirt for the sa9e of minimising their contribution to the general good of the 8hole common8ealth. lines had been strung across all the yards. They 9ne8 nothing. *nly one of all 8e sa8 and s#o9e to on . their 8ra#s. 8ho had s#ent a fe8 hours occasionally at a $oard school. and to chec9 their s#read 1r. . and 8ere as 8arm as #ossible. six or eight inches dee#. ho8ever 8et it might be outside. 8hile their 8ives ha89ed small 8ool mats or vases. The 8hole of the yards 8ere redolent of dirt. the stone. a Tsuc9erD for the baby. and the #reference they had for their tents over houses 8as em#hatically mar9ed. and. . 8ho only 8ent out to ha89 one day in . besides. 0ith all the others the 9no8ledge that comes of reading 8as an absolute blan9. each and all. and the gro8nBu# lads. Tare so full of draughts. and a 8oman told us confidentially her friend 8as 8ashing a blan9et. $efore 8e came a8ay from the last yard. &n several yards little boys or girls sat on the ground in the o#en air. or 1s. on mar9etBdays. but Tthe friendD #rofessed her readiness to ta9e charge of anything 8e had to s#are for the 8asher8omanKa mouthful of baccy. >>C/ondon 8ho does an honest 8ee9Ds 8or9 is a hero com#ared 8ith such men as these. and the hastilyB8ashed linen rags 8ere fluttering in the air. *ne tent 8as closed to visitors.D $oys 8ere there of fourteen and sixteen. &t 8ould be im#ossible to nurture sentiment in any tent in /ambBlane. tending co9e fires over 8hich stood iron #ots.butchers at 10d.mith that this class of #seudoB(i#sy 8as largely on the increase. exce#t that the #roceeds of the #revious 8ee9 had been belo8 the average. and under the tent the ground 8as al8ays dry. and the future 8as limited by TtoBmorro8. The tents had many advantages over a bric9 house. and tattered rags. T$ric9 houses. as the 8ater boiled and raised the lids. and ha89ing them in the suburbs of the metro#olis.D 0e :uestioned them u#on their ex#eriences of the #ast 8inter. could read at allKand this 8as a lad of about fourteen. or Tthree haD#ence for a cu# of tea. added to the general industry by buying flo8ers in CoventB garden. their filthy rugs.D 'ight and day the braFier of burning co9e 8as never allo8ed to go lo8. and covered themselves 8ith their clothes. it 8as #lain that the 8omen 8ere ta9ing advantage of the :uiet hours of the afternoon for a 8ash. and no form #ossessed of any distinguishing grace. as it 8ould be T8antedD at night. because of the heat from the braFier.D said one 8oman. These men stayed at home. 8ho 8as suc9ling a baby.unday 8as Ta scholarDKthat is. The #oorest 8or9ing man in #.

The babies 9ne8 better. The 8omen. and 8e ho#e that a gracious )ct of Parliament may soon rid %nglish social life of such a #lague. 8e have a sentimental #ity. and the day became historic 8ith them because. but real 8ho##ers. ragged boys and girls. >>?occu#ied one 8ee9. or else he meant it as a <o9e. of the extra smo9es they 8ere able to have. They started 8ith a light truc9 for CoventBgarden at four in the morning. but 8ith such as these /ambBlane #eo#le. Presuming & 8as near the cam#. and accom#anied their fathers to mar9et 8hen they had a load to sell.I 1y son sends me the follo8ing account of a visit he made to a (i#sy encam#ment near /ondon4K& visited the cam# at $ar9ing -oad this afternoon. Possibly you thought & might not go if you gave me a correct descri#tion of the route.the 8ee9K. >> he had not heard anything of it for a long 8hile. laFy men and 8omen. and 8as sur#rised 8ith the re#ly that there used to be one.or the genuine (i#sy tribe. &nstinct 8as stronger than obedience. 0e 8ere not sorry to get a8ay from /ambBlane. The Tsuc9ersD 8ere the largest s#ecimen of TbullsD eyesD 8e could findKnot those dainty s#ecimens sold at the 0estBend or in the . for the only horse and don9ey that & sa8 8ere standing against boxes eatingK#erha#s corn. small boys and the men. to lay out in flo8ers. and their mysterious #rom#tings to live a#art from their fello8s in the lanes and fields of the country. and 8e noticed as a strange #sychological fact that no baby 8ould consent. she had been so #.D but nobody could give us an intelligible descri#tion of the lastBnamed flo8ers. almost the siFe of #igeonsD eggs. but #. to ?s. for 8e 8ere then standing 8ithin three hundred yards of the largest encam#ment & have yet seen. all smo9ed. and teach such #eo#le their duty to their children and to society at largeKthings they are too ignorant and too idle to learn for themselves. and the result of the dayDs ha89ing 8as usually a #rofit of halfBaBcro8n to three shillings.aturday. offBscourings of the lo8est form of society. His mind 8as evidently 8andering. 8ith its filthy habitations.trand. These lads also assisted during the 8ee9 in shaving s9e8ers. hyacinths. & in:uired of a #oliceman. sha9ing their 8ary little heads at their mothers. and the #resence of the children and adults. but it certainly is not a green one. blan9et 8ashings. and cyclaments. though earnestly entreated by its mother. young and old. &n one tent 8e found a dandyBhen sitting. 8ho shared her stra8 bed. and 8ould have from !s. in no 8ay discom#osed her. &t is situated at the bac9 of $ar9ing -oad. 0hen :uestioned as to 8hat flo8ers they had bought on the #revious day. T8o lads generally too9 charge of the flo8er truc9. . in 8hat may be termed a field. to suffer the Tsuc9erD to leave its mouth for the mother to loo9 at. one lad said they 8ere Ttuli#s. 8e have no manner of sym#athy. . and yet there 8as no baby 8hose mouth 8as not found e:ual to the rece#tion and the hiding of the largest. for & certainly 8ent through more muddy streets and over loc9Bbridges than your instructions mentioned. 0e found that baccy and Tsuc9ersD 8ere the most negotiable exchanges 8ith these #eo#le.

>>8#oc9ets 8ere #lentifully su##lied 8ith halfB ounces of tobacco and s8eets. and one of those 8as made out of a t8oB8heeled cart. %vidently this field has been a cam#ingBground for some years. The cam# is one of the /ees. one 8as not to be found. buc9ets. bad state of trade. & 8as invited to visit all the tents. the latter 8ithout shoes or stoc9ings. .he had #ut the <ourney off to the last minute. and dirty tentsKnot canvas. and. )t the entrance & 8as met by a #oor 8oman ta9ing a child to the doctor. The men follo8ed the occu#ation of either tin9ers or #egBma9ers. 5c. Three old vans 8ere all the #lace could boast of. the blea9 8inds blo8ing over the marsh and the river. The ma<ority of the men. 8hich had the usual a##etite for fresh meat and t8eed tro8sering. your visit in one of the blac9. but & could gain but little information beyond an account of the severe 8inter. and rubbish that must have ta9en years to accumulate. . 8ith scarcely any clothing. and children are of light com#lexion. and is conse:uently ex#osed to. for the #lace at the entrance and all round the tents 8as one regular mass of dee# Hslush. endeavouring in vain to find solid ground u#on 8hich to stand. & 8as for the first ten minutes fully occu#ied in trying to 9ee# a res#ectable distance from a number of dogs of all siFes and breeds. for they all floc9 round his tent to hear his interesting snatches of song and story. for there seemed no end to the little bareBfooted children that could 8al9. not one of 8hom could read and 8rite. & stayed most of the time under the Hblan9etI of the old man. *nce in the cam# one could not but notice the miserable a##earance of the #lace. her chief dread being that if she did not the la8 8ould be do8n u#on her. 8ho is a <olly old fello8 about sixty. He 8as evidently the life of the cam#. es#ecially the latter. and.I &t soon became 9no8n that my #. and all the young 8omen 8ill #ull out their #i#e and as9 for tobacco as readily as the old ones. T8enty to t8entyBfive old.& am sur#rised that the (i#sies should choose such an ex#osed. dense fogs. %verything beto9ened age and #overty. and those that couldnDt 8ere brought in turn by their sisters or brothers. 0omen and children. and the father of eleven young children. dam# #lace for cam#ingBground. as for a dar9Beyed beauty. 8omen. These & soon dis#osed off. as it is al8ays #artly under 8ater. Thomas /ee. but old. 8ornBout blan9etsKse#arated by the remains of old bro9en vans. ragged. for the #oor thing loo9ed nearly dead then. at the same time. and the only shelter afforded being a fe8 houses at the bac9 and one side. the rest faces.

8ith an o#ening in the roof to serve as a chimney.I &t must not be inferred from 8hat & have said. of 'orfol9. 1rs. or shall say. The result 8as that the money she too9 by telling fortunes began to burn her fingers. and not having . exce#ting that 8hich settled on the hands and face. on the outs9irts of /ondon. 8hich they. 8hich. after 8al9ing and toiling all day. 1rs. and to illustrate the truth of this & cannot do better than refer to the case of the good and 9indBhearted tells me that she is not a thorough (i#sy. if Hthe tentIK8hose roof and sides consisted of stic9s and canvas. . till the year of 18C@. Here and there are females to be found ready at all hours and on all occasions to do good both to the souls and bodies of (i#sies and houseBd8ellers as they travel 8ith their bas9et from door to door ha89ing their 8ares. . and li9e things doing duty as dra8ingBroom furniture. (rass. and alive. and a 8oman 8ith less determination of character 8ould never #. of 8hich she could not read a sentence or tell a letter.He had heard that Her 1a<esty had sent QC0 to assist you in getting the children educated. the bro8n tram#led turf ta9ing the #lace of mosaic and encaustic tile #avements. at least. to serve as a car#et. became a8a9ened. &t 8as no easy thing to give u# such an easy 8ay of getting a living to face the realities of an honest #edlarDs life. 8ith o#en mouths. in the midst of Hslamming of doors. telling lies and fortunes out of a small blac9 Testament. her conscience. and a Jueen of the right sort. by some unaccountable means. >A0have attem#ted itKor.I Hfro8ns. and <ust before & left & 8as #leased to hear him give vent to his feelings 8ith the rough but #atriotic s#eech that H. 1any times she has sat by the 8ayside 8ith her bas9et. 8as al8ays rec9oned most clever in the art of dece#tion.he 8as a rare good 8oman. teaBchest. and 8ithout feeling.I and insults. loose living. . or other8ise. and to ma9e it sit u#on her conscience as easy as #ossible she had a large #oc9et made in her dress so that she could dro# it in 8ithout much handling. and fools out of it 8hen it 8as u#side do8n. Her father 8as #. had been insensible. sometimes reading the #lanets of silly geese. 8hen. al8ays s8allo8ed as (os#el. u# to this time.I HcoldBshoulders. and for more than t8entyBfive years she 9e#t herself and family in this 8ay 8ith sufficient money to 9ee# them in luxury. sim#letons. >>@one of the rare old (i#sy family of /ees. and a soa#Bbox. 8ho #referred follo8ing the H8itching eyeI and Hblac9 loc9sI to the rag and stic9 hovelKor. shar#. it 8ould soon have been given u# on account of the insurmountable difficulties surrounding it. green. 8hen :uite a child.I Hsco8ls. dull. 8ho is generally located 8ith her husband and some grandBchildren in her van in the neighbourhood near 'otting Hill. stra8 instead of a featherBbed. decayed. through 8hich the smo9e arising from the hearthBstic9 fire could #ass. and 8hen detected she 8as al8ays ready 8ith a #lausible excuse. only a half one. and idleness. that there are no good (i#sies among them. and her mother 8as a (orgio or (entile. Probably this :uic9ening too9 #lace in conse:uence of her hearing a good 1ethodist minister in a missionBroom in the to be more aristocratic.

#.I HThe /ord is my she#herd. it seems the very essence of her life. and to day she is not one #enny the loser.I H/et nothing be done through strife. Personally.I H3ea.I HChildren obey your #arents in all things.#irit4IKH. as she says.I H& am the 8ay.or (od so loved the 8orld that He gave His only begotten .I H=udge not. HThe 8ages of sin is death. .I H0hatsoever ye find to do. 5c. 8hich.he is a firm believer in #rayer. let each esteem others better than themselves.I H$ut 8hoso hath this 8orldDs goods and seeth his brother have need and shutteth u# his bo8els of com#assion from him. and a house divided against a house falleth.I HHusbands love your o8n 8ives and be not bitter against them. and she can relate numbers of instances 8hen and 8here (od has ans8ered her #etitions.undayDs dinner. and the life.. 8ith other #ortions of (odDs 8ord. #oetry.I H/oo9 not every man on his o8n things.I H. He leadeth me beside the still 8aters. and shall go in and out and find #asture.ta9en a #enny 8ith 8hich to #rovide the . the truth.on that 8hosoever believeth on Him should not #erish but have everlasting life. Thy rod and Thy staff they comfort me. >A1He ma9eth me to lie do8n in green #astures. ho8 d8elleth the love of (od in himNI H)ll things 8hatsoever ye shall as9 in #rayer believing ye shall receive. that ye may 9no8 ho8 ye ought to ans8er every man. seasoned 8ith salt. gentleness.I H%very 9ingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. these.I H& am the door. in fact. for this is 8ell #leasing unto the /ord.ervants obey in all things your masters according to the flesh. but.I HThe fruit of the s#irit is love.I H0ives submit yourselves unto your husbands. a gainer. 8hen at the last extremity Providence has o#ened her 8ay and friends have a##eared u#on the scene. and she has been enabled to Hgo on her 8ay re<oicing. & shall not 8ant. as it is fit in the /ord.I H/et your s#eech be al8ays 8ith grace. <oy. but every man also on the things of others. on the other hand. sometimes unex#ectedly.I H/et us run the race 8ith #atience. though & 8al9 through the valley of the shado8 of death & 8ill fear no evil. that ye be not <udged. by 1e if any man enter in he shall be saved. & have fre:uently called to see the grand old (i#sy 8oman.I H0hatsoever ye 8ould that men should do to you do ye even so to them. &ts stains and soils beto9en much 8ear and constant use.athers #rovo9e not your children to anger lest they be discouraged.I 5c.I H. & have received much encouragement and valuable information at her hands to hel# me in my 8or9 to do the (i#sy children good in one form or other. and lost them for more than seven years. but in singleness of heart fearing (od.I HHe that cometh unto 1e & 8ill in no 8ise cast out. not 8ith eye service as man #leases. but in lo8liness of mind.I HCome unto 1e all ye that labour and are heavy laden and & 8ill give you rest. and 8hen & have done so & have either found her reading the $ible or else it has been close to her elbo8. she Hhas learnt to read 8ithout any other aid exce#t His Holy . #eace. *n her bedB:uilt are the follo8ing texts of scri#ture. do it 8ith all your . longBsuffering. 2ery different to the old 8oman 8ho #ut her s#ectacles into her $ible as she set it u#on the cloc9. for Thou art 8ith me. by follo8ing such a course.I and for the last t8enty years she has been trying to do all the good she can.

cleft for me. & come_I H)bide 8ith me4 fast falls the eventide. 8ith me abide. and there shall be no more death. . and comforts flee. & come. * /amb of (od. /ord. and & 8ill be his (od and he shall be 1y son. neither sorro8. H0hile & dra8 this fleeting breath. yea. abide 8ith me. neither light of the sun. Thine alone. . /et me hide myself in Thee. /et the 8ater and the blood. 0hen mine eyes shall close in death. $e of sin the double cure. & come_ H=ust as & amKThy love un9no8n Has bro9en every barrier do8n.I HHe that overcometh shall inherit all things. and they need no candle. 0hen & soar to 8orlds un9no8n. for the /ord (od giveth them light. )nd that Thou biddDst me come to Thee. /et me hide myself in Thee.I H)nd they shall see His face and His name shall be in their foreheads. H. Hel# of the hel#less.ave me from its guilt and #o8er.rom Thy riven side 8hich flo8ed.might.I H=ust as & am. The dar9ness dee#ens. .ee Thee on Thy <udgment throne.I H)nd (od shall 8i#e a8ay all tears from their eyes. nor crying. cleft for me. and they shall reign for ever and ever. its glories #ass a8ay_ Change and decay in all around & see.I H)nd there shall be no night there. 8ithout one #lea. >A>H-oc9 of )ges. & come. $ut that Thy blood 8as shed for me. 0hat but Thy grace can foil the tem#terDs #o8erN . -oc9 of )ges. 0hen other hel#ers fail. * /amb of (od. abide 8ith me. 'o8 to be Thine. %arthDs <oys gro8 dim. neither shall there be any more #ain.I #. H& need Thy #resence every #assing hour.8ift to its close ebbs out lifeDs little day. * Thou 8ho changest not. oh. for the former things are #assed a8ay.

TheyKthey #ro8l about for food. %ast8ood. 8arning. 8ho feed many of their #oor 8omen and children u#on cabbage broth and turni# sauce. and others they have been brought in contact 8ith. slouched hat. come u# hither. and consolation. young mongrels and hutBd8elling (orgios. in a dar9. roaming about under the cognition that the name of a (i#sy is nauseous and disgusting in most #eo#leDs mouths on account of the damning evil #ractices they have follo8ed and carried out for centuries u#on the honest and industrious artisans. nevertheless this is one side of a (i#syDs life as he goes #ro8ling about in :uest of his #rey. by a##lying the civilising influences of education and sanitary measures to banish heathenism 8orse than that of )frica. thic9 li#s. 8ith lo8. blo8s. encouragement. oh. 8hen the cares and anxieties of life are ended. Carey. narro8 lane. is not a #leasant state of things for a timid and nervous man to gra##le 8ith. and the three (i#sy brothers . dee#Bset eyes. 1rs. and has been more so in years that are #ast. and 1rs. large eyebro8s. and scum of our o8n neglected ragamuffin #o#ulation. comfort.0ho li9e Thyself my guide and stay can beN Through cloud and sunshine. scalding. and as such it is seen by those 8ho 9no8 something of (i#sy life. 1rs. abide 8ith me. and she 8ill fre:uently edge in 8ords during the conversation about her HDear . H)nd they return at evening4 they gro8l li9e a dog and com#ass the city. 8hen any one begins to tal9 about Heaven and the ha##iness and <oy in reserve for those 8ho have a ho#e of meeting 8ith loved ones again. 8ide mouth. ready to ans8er the 1asterDs summons. /ee. #o8erful 8oman.I after 9ic9s. >A!griFFlyBcoloured dog at his heels. on a starlight night. and Hbed them do8n. and a fe8 others. lying. idleness. 1rs. and dece#tion of the dee#est dye from our midst. and to meet 8ith her dear little boy 8ho has crossed the river. and illBusage. s9ul9ingly slo8 gait.unday at Home.I )lthough she is a big. thieving. have not laboured 8ithout some success. &f Ror sinceS they are not satisfied they s#end the night Rin the searchS.mith. at the same time they are #o8erless to im#rove the condition of the future generations of (i#sy 8omen and children.I and Hsit on 1y throne. Hedges.I & may mention the names of other 8armBhearted (i#sies 8ho are trying to im#rove the condition of some of the adult #ortion of their brethren and sistersKd8ellers u#on the turf. 1r.aviourI and H$lessed /ord and 1aster. #. and a large #. H&t is enough.I . fringe.I +#on these #romises of hel#. it is not long before they see big. >AA8hen He shall say. u#on rotten stra8 stre8n u#on the dam# ground. slanting forehead. immorality. briny tears rolling do8n her dar9.I H. and clod scratchers. and under these she has sle#t #eacefully as in the arms of death. she has many times rested her 8earied body after returning from her dayDs trudging and toil. ) ra8Bboned (i#sy. tradesmen. (i#syBcoloured face. as exhibited in the d8ellings of the rag and stic9 hovels to be seen flitting about the outs9irts.

if they ta9e into consideration the ob<ect & have in vie8 and the end & am see9ing. and lo8er do8n the social scale than any boatman to be met 8ith. stic9s. far better to do this than to go snea9ing about the country. . The time had arrived 8hen the vagabondish life of a (i#syKso calledKshould be unmas9ed and the #lain truth made 9no8n. *ne thing that stri9es me in going through the 8ritings of those authors in this country 8ho have endeavoured to deal 8ith the (i#sy :uestion is. &f an p. sitting on the dam# ground in rag huts large enough only for a litter of #igs. and halo over the life of a vagabond and a tram#. at all events. 1y ob<ect is to elevate them. earning an honest livelihood by honourable and legitimate means. 8ith six or eight children. To see a halfBna9ed. the canalBboatmen. T0) "a+ C#$+iti#$ #/ t0) Gip"i)"9 :it0 S!. through the instrumentality of sanitary officer and schoolmaster being at 8or9 among the children. credit in being a thief. HHo8 dar9 yon d8elling by the solemn grove_I V. and oaths did not frighten me. and insults of the (orgios or (entiles for the sa9e of #oc9eting a #enny at the cost of losing their manhood. lying. ma9ing s9e8ers at one shilling #er stone. 8ith their hands against everybody and everybody against them. begging. cadging. ) thousand times better live a life such as 8ould enable them to loo9 #.%ven my friends. glory surrounding a rogue. loo9 u#on (i#sies as the lo8est of the lo8. . as thousands are doing toBday. *n the surface of the boo9s they have 8ritten there a##ears a dis#osition to mince the sub<ect. no8 & had ta9en the (i#sy 8omen and children in hand. having the mar9 of Cain u#on their forehead. and stealing all they can lay their hands u#on. into res#ectable citiFens of society. 378Part . is enough to freeFe the blood in oneDs veins. There is no honour in a scam#Ds life. stones. scratching roasted #otatoes out of the dying embers of a co9e fire. as in the case of the canal movement. that amount of courage has not been #ut into their 8or9s that characterised (rellmannDs 8or9 u#on the (i#sies of his o8n country. and tell them that & 8as in safe 9ee#ing till the 8or9 8as done. & could only re#ly 8ith a smile. full gro8nBman and his 8ife. and training their children to #ut u# 8ith the scoffs. and being considered as outla8s.ro8ns. dogs.. sneers.)"ti#$" /#r t0)ir I'pr#v)')$t.ome of them have gone so far as to try to sha9e my nerves by telling me that. >ACeverybody straight in the face than burro8ing and scratching their 8ay into the ground. they 8ould not give six#ence for my life. their hesitation to tac9le the (i#sy difficulty at home. and for this the (i#sies 8ill than9 me. and to bring do8n the 8rath of (od u#on the country that allo8s such a state of things in her midst. ma9e one utter a shrie9 of horror and des#air.

The (i#sy race is su##osed to be the most beautiful in the 8orld. They are not in demand as #erfect s#ecimens of the human figure from the cro8n of the head to the sole of the foot. o8ing to their lo8. to do <ustice to. and there are others 8ho sit for their legs and arms. their ugliness at an advanced age is no less so. -oman. but if an artist 8ants to #aint a large. #resents a greater variety of models for the artist than the (i#sy. he #. good #. another is tracing their language. *ne 8ill sit for her eyes. and if in infancy their #ersonal advantages are remar9able. old (i#sy 8oman 8ho sits to artists for the bac9 of her head only. but ex#osure to the rays of the sun. debasing habits. & 9no8 one real. but. in his circumscribed s#here his faith and 8or9s fell flat.. viF. >A man and his friends underta9ing to do a 8or9 8hich should in that day have been underta9en by the . for 8hich they get one shilling #er hour. 8ith an o#en countenance. that #art of it relating to the education of the (i#sy children. and amongst the -ussian (i#sies are to be found countenances. or . the biting of the frost.I &n our o8n country a number of (i#sies sit as models. of this dear. but leaves the (i#sies 8here he found them.#aniard he goes to the (i#sy.account similar to (rellmannDs had a##eared concerning our %nglish (i#sies a century ago. intellectualBloo9ing figure. another for the hands and feet. no doubt. for then it is loathsome and a##alling4KHHe 8anted but the dar9 and 9ingly cro8n to have re#resented the monster 8ho o##osed the #rogress of /ucifer 8hilst careering in burning arms and infernal glory to the outlet of his hellish #rison. fine. *ne 8riter deals #rinci#ally 8ith the . 8ould re:uire an abler #en than mine. on account of her blac9. tribes. friFFy. have arrived at that state of #erfection. another is trying to #rove the %gy#tian origin of the (i#sies. instead of #ublishing an account of the Hungarian and other Continental (i#sies. 8hich. &f an artist 8ants to #aint a thief he can find a model among the (i#sies. but fe8 of them. on account. it is im#ossible to calculate the beneficent results that 8ould have accrued long before this. in the ditch. and nations. &f he 8ants to #aint a dar9 high8ayman lur9ing behind a hedge after his #rey he goes to the (i#sy. another for the nose. at least.#anish (i#sies. )lfred . and the #elting of the #itiless sleet and sno8 destroys the beauty at a very early age.cotch (i#sies. another treats u#on our %nglish (i#sies in a 9ind of Hmil9BandB8ateryI fashion that 8ill neither do them good nor harmKhe #leases his readers. raven loc9s. *f course there are exce#tions. another 8ith the . >A89ee#s . both to the (i#sies themselves and the country at large. another for the colour only. and energetic action had been ta9en by our la8Bma9ers. &f he 8ants to #aint a (recian. )nother 8ent to 8or9 on the #rinci#le of #raying and believing for them. o8ing to their mixture 8ith other classes. 'o class of #eo#le. fine. &f he 8ants to #aint )<ax he goes to the (i#sy.mith sits for his feet.tate. & am sorry to say.

. T<O GIPSIES. doveB li9e. as related by $orro8. 8ill. &t is 8ell 9no8n in -ussia that the celebrated &talian 8as so enchanted 8ith the voice of a 1osco8 (i#sy R8ho. 8hich my (i#sy admirers 8ill not consider an extraordinarily highBflo8n #roductionKthe outcome of nearly one million (i#sies 8ho have 8andered u# and do8n %uro#e for more than three hundred years. >A@The follo8ing is a s#ecimen of a (i#sy #oetic effusion. #. #roduce a class of men and 8omen 8ell :ualified to ta9e their share. (i#sies 8ith a mixture of %nglish blood in their veins have #roduced men 8ith #luc9. Plato 8as sent for rioting. Dregs among the (i#sies have #roduced :ueens for the artists. The country that lies across the 8ater. ste##ed for8ard and #oured forth one of her national strainsS that she tore from her o8n shoulders a sha8l of cashmere 8hich had been #resented to her by the Po#e. and 8hose merits have been ac9no8ledged. )nd /ouis for stealing the #urse *f a great lady. HT8o (i#sy lads 8ere trans#orted. T8o HbruisersI of the (i#sy vagabond class have 8orn the cham#ionDs belt of the 8orld. . refinement. 'o doubt there are many good voices among our (i#sies.ome firstBrate songsters and musicians have been #roduced among the (i#sies. *ur best (i#sy songsters and musicians are in 0ales. for 8eal or for 8oe. under the influence of education. 0ere sent across the great 8ater.a8ay from the (i#sies and see9s his models else8here. and stamina. Plato 8as s#eedily hung. *ur #resent race of (i#sies. strongly built. and heartKthe flashy fire in the eye of a (i#sy has been reduced to the modesty and innocence and sim#licity of a child. if #ro#erly and 8isely ta9en in hand and dealt 8ith according to the light of reason and truth. hand. this mixture of %nglish and (i#sy blood has #roduced some fine delicate (recian forms of female beauty. $ut /ouis 8as ta9en as a husband $y a great lady. 8ith #lenty of muscle and bone. after the former had dis#layed her noble talent before a s#lendid audience in the old -ussian ca#ital. embracing the (i#sy. insisted on her acce#tance of the s#lendid gift. and religion. Perha#s the highest com#liment ever #aid to a singer 8as #aid by Catalini herself to one of the daughters of a tanned and ta8ny s9in. in the struggle of life. and. saying that it 8as intended for the matchless songster. 8hich she no8 #erceived she herself 8as not. courage. H)nd 8hen they came to the other country. soft in eye. on the other hand. and. 8hat is re:uired to bring them out is education and culture.

8hat a blac9guard he is.I . singing as he goes. chavis. 8ith his 9een senses alive to every external im#ression he feels that HDTis s8eet to see the evening star a##ear. 8ith the unforgotten and dearlyBloved lullabies of his childhood soothing him to rest. blac9 hair fluttered by the breeFe. and may be considered a fair s#ecimen of the dis#osition of thousands of (i#sies in our midst4KH=ust see. The (i#sy had a blac9 and 8itching eye. . say as follo8s4K H0ith the first s#ring sunshine comes the old longing to be off.H3ou 8ish to 9no8 8ho 8as the lady4 DT8as the lady from 8hom he stole the #urse. tilted cart. and the melancholy hootings of the 8ood o8ls. Ta9e here and there a dusty bro8n. bag and baggage. no 8onder if. or. don9eys and dogs.I The follo8ing is in their o8n (i#sy language to each other. he sits in the dee#ening t8ilight drin9ing in 8ith unconscious delight all the sights and sounds 8hich the country affords. 'o car#et can #lease him li9e the soft green turf. and no #. and tic9ni. a little cavalcade. the faint sounds from a se:uestered hamlet of a great city. Cradled from infancy in such haunts as these T#laces of nestling green for #oets made. He dreamily hears the distant bar9 of the #ro8ling fox. DTis s8eet to listen as the night 8inds cree# . and the ha##y family is once more under 8eigh for the o#en country. restless eye and coarse. after the fitful fever of to8n life. he loves to re#ose on the bare breast of the great mother. rom. ) child of 'ature. issuing from his 8inter :uarters. and soon is seen. he slee#s 8ell.or any <ob &Dm 8illing. mates. >!0curtains com#are 8ith the sno8B8hite blossoming hedgero8 thereon. s#ea9ing #oetically and romantically of (i#sy life.D and surely for (i#sies too. )s the smo9e of his evening fire goes u# to heaven. )nd on account of that she follo8ed him )cross the great 8ater. and the savoury odour of roast hotchi 8itchi or of canengri sou# salutes his nostrils. 0ith dar9. if not in #recise 8ordsK H& loiter do8n by thor#e and to8n.mart and Crofton.rom leaf to leaf. romni. and exhibits a true ty#e of the feeling of revenge they foster to one another for 8rongs done and in<uries received. )nd here and there a shilling. in heart. and the rustle of the bushes as some startled forest creature darts into dee# coverts. . he slouches along. #erchance. he mar9s the shrie9 of the nightB8andering 8easel.

Put the tent do8n 8ell.I 1y ob<ect in this #art 8ill be to deal 8ith the (i#sy :uestion in a hard. ta9en from . both as regards their #resent condition and the only remedy by 8hich they are to be im#roved. and sno8. much 8ind 8ill come this night. 'ot8ithstanding all its faults it is a credit to the little beauty. /et us thrash them both and drive them out of our society. #. mates. is <ust as bad. to sho8 8hat a little. surrounded by the 8arbling songsters and ri##ling broo9s of 8ater. The #oor children cry for food.he is 8orse than he.He has been telling 8ic9ed lies about us. his 8ife. They are informers. 0hen once the (i#sy children have learned to read and 8rite & shall then have more faith in the #o8er of (odDs truth reaching the hearts of the (i#sies and #roducing better results. >!>The follo8ing letter has been handed to me by the uncle. first. 0e shall all come to grief through their misdoings. but in the case of the (i#sies and canalBboatmen they cannot be got together so as to be brought under its influence. Put your tent u#. & 8ill murder him 8hen & get hold of him. guideB#osts. sending forth dribbling sounds of enchantment to fall u#on musical ears. matter of fact 8ay.he is the only one 8ho can read and 8rite in a large family. 1y (od_ 8hat shall & do to give them food to eatN & have nothing to give them. HThese &ndians neDer forget 'or evermore forgive an in<ury. Put all the rods in the ground #ro#erly to ma9e it stand 8ell. as clear as crystal. and her light the red glare of a co9e fire. 'o one believes in the #o8er of the (os#el more than & do as to its being able to rescue the very dregs of society from misery and 8retchedness. They are nothing but murderers. & give the letter to sho8 t8o things. Their dar9ness.I 'ot #. >!1much #oetry and romance in language and characters of this descri#tion. the cursed dog. Her boo9s have been signBboards. They 8ill die 8ithout food. 1y children 8ill die of cold.I The follo8ing is a 8ail of their o8n. ha##y. and she has chiefly been her o8n schoolmaster and mistress. touching the cords of #oetic affection and lyric sym#athy4KH'o8. #revent them either reading about =esus or being brought 8ithin the magic s#ell of the (os#el. and flitting habits. and mileBstones. such cutBthroats and informers as they are. that there is a strong desire among the #oor (i#sy children . be :uic9. and 8ill sho8 that the (i#sies themselves do not thin9 tent life is so delightful. . dar9Beyed (i#sy girl of t8elve years of age can do. es#ecially if it is ta9en into consideration that she has had no father to teach her.mart and Crofton. too. and bring something to ma9e a good fire. 1uch rain 8ill come do8n. That creature. 8hose 9no8ledge has been gained by visiting the (i#sies as they have bas9ed on the grassy ban9s on a hot summer day. and not let them come near us. . tooK8e shall all die toBnight of cold. at their feet. and free as has been #ictured in the imaginative brain of novel 8riters. ignorance.

S H=*$ C/)T)' HChar bottomar Hat ash be hols in HDarbyshere.S Hfebury 18 1880. educating. They are often called (i#sies.anny mother #. handling.I 0alter . Those 8ho travel through this county give offence chiefly by #oaching and small thefts. says of the (i#sies4KH) set of #eo#le #ossessing the same erratic habits.for education. RCo#y of envelo#e. says4KH. and a gentlemen of high #osition. a##ear in this #art of the country.cotland sixty years ago.anny 2ic9ers as sent you a rose father and 1other as sent there best love to you & thin9 it is very strang you have never 8rote it is T8enty year if live till may it is a strang thing you doant com to see her . second.I 1r. and thieves u#on a small scale. says4KHThey are thorough des#eradoes of the 8orst class of vagabonds. $art.I .he is star9 stone blind and lives 8ith son <ohn at gurtain & ho#e and trust you 8ill send us 8ord ho8 you are getting . resorting to fairs. HDear uncel and )unt H& 8right these fe8 li to you ho#ing find you all 8ell.heriff 1oor. and #ass through the country annually in small bands. 1r. The men are tin9ers.cott. They marry and cohabit amongst each other. >!Ais not only a very #oor crater somtimes 1other often thin9s she should often li9e to see your baFy and <oby you might com land see us in the summer if 8e had nothing elce & ca il find them something to eat if mother never see you in this 8orld she is ho#ining to see you in heaven so no more from your afexenen brother and sister 2ic9ers good buy m m m m Giss all on you m m m mI &n s#ea9ing of the (i#sies in . the $aillie of Gelso. 8ith their carts and asses. They 8ill be e:ual to stand shoulder to shoulder 8ith other labouring classes. -iddell.I RCo#y of letter. and have often fallen under the cognisance of the la8.ome 9ind of .. 8hen they commit de#redations on the un8ary. 0illiam . and caring for as other children are to #roduce in the next generation a class of #eo#le of 8hom no country need be ashamed.mith. are 8ell 9no8n in the $orders. of )berdeenshire. H. and are held in a sort of horror by the common #eo#le. both single and in bands. and #ractising the trade of tin9ers. #oachers. )ll of them are #erfectly ignorant of religion. De#utyB.I and he goes on to say that Hsome of the more atrocious families have been extir#ated. says as follo8s4KH*ccasionally vagrants. =ustice of Peace for -oxburghshire. that there is that mental calibre about the (i#sy children of the #resent generation that only re:uires fostering.

and as beer got into the heads of their men. ) number of other gentleman confirmed these statements. 3ou had better #ay us for the mats. to the amount of eleven shillings. several bottles of 8ine.I The tradesman. 8ho boasted to me that he had never been sold before by any oneK8ill sho8 faintly ho8 clever the (i#sy 8omen are at lying.I 1r. related to me by the tradesman himself. and made them 8ild. 8hich they 8ill do 8hether at home or abroad. 8hich they did not li9e to see on such occasions. HarrisonDs letter 8ill be found in Part &&.I The follo8ing case. and other things re:uired on such occasions. Harrison in a letter #ublished in the !tandard last )ugust. $y com#aring these remar9s 8ith the statements of 1r. Hold hags.I )nd he further says.I and & as9ed her if she could tell me the year in 8hich she 8as born. They rec9on it a disgrace to steal near their homes. at $atterseaKa shar#. he agreed to buy one or t8o things. H& am sorry to say. & must al8ays exce#t that #etty theft of feeding their shilties and asses on the farmersD grass and corn. 8ho 8as thro8n off his . 1r. . 1uch has been said and 8ritten 8ith reference to their health and age.mith al8ays visited the (i#sies u#on one of the estates of 8hich he had the charge. and they ordered some currant ca9e.or my o8n #art & firmly believe that the great ages to 8hich they say they liveKof course there are many exce#tionsKare only myths and delusions. .. and cheating4KThree #retty. to 8hich she re#lied that she H8as sixteen 8hen the good Jueen 8as cro8ned.rom the days of their debauchery.honour #eculiar to themselves seems to #revail in their community. and said that they had arranged to have a christening on the morro8. to the amount of t8o #ounds fourteen #. ho8ever. and biscuits after their tea.cotch (i#sies if anything have degenerated. dece#tion. bac9ing u# my case. and 8e 8ill #ay you for the 8ine.I they seem to <um# from sixty to bet8een seventy and eighty at a bound.I 0ithout consulting his 8ife. . conse:uently he 8ould be li9ely to 9no8 more about them than most #eo#le. it 8ill be seen that the . business gentleman. as 8e have ordered so much from you. & 8as tal9ing to one & considered an old 8oman as to her age only a day or t8o ago. ca9es. and she said. H& am a long 8ay over seventy. 5c. 8ellBdressed (i#sy 8omen 8ent into his sho# one day last summer. little. 8e thin9 that you ought to buy a mat or t8o and other things of us. :uic9. res#ectable affair. )nd 8hile this 8as being done the (i#sies said to the tradesman4 H'o8. they had decided to have a :uiet. or even at a distance if detected. and another of their dodges to excite sym#athy. sugar. >!!execute revenge. and in #lace of beer they 8ere going to have 8ine. tea. 8hich the tradesman had thought 8ould have been deducted from their account. >!Cshillings. 8ith a #itiful tone. H0e donDt understand figures. The (i#sies as9ed to have the bill made out and the goods #ac9ed in a ham#er. but the (i#sies thought differentlyKand here 8as the craftKand said. that 8hen chec9ed in their licentious a##ro#riations they are much addicted both to threaten and to #. and becoming 8hat are termed under a res#ectable #hrase for (i#sies.

and the (i#sy gets his fee.I 0hen they 8ant to leave a #lace 8here they have been sto##ing they set out in an o##osite direction to that in their right course. receiving the change in good money. and 8as much astonished 8hen he sa8 a little boy <um# out of it. #aid them the eleven shillings. a (i#sy offered a stolen shee# to a butcher for one hundred sous. and 8ent a8ay. for 8hich they tender false coin. than9 you. and you shall have the sac9 into the bargain. but 8hen they are about to leave a neighbourhood they again buy something. #rovided they can manage to #ay for them in their o8n base coin. in Picardy.guard. ca9e. 8hereu#on the (i#sy #ulled the shee# from a sac9 into 8hich he had #ut it. >!?five francs. and #ut it into circulation. and substituted for it a child belonging to his tribe. to effect an entrance into houses. They give a strict account of everything to their ca#tain. They are very clever in ma9ing a good bargain. silver. He then ran after the butcher. but left the tradesman a 8iser but sadder man for s#ending eleven shillings in things he did not re:uire. by means of #ic9loc9s and other instruments. as they are held in such distrust. 8hether sound or unsound. 0hen he got home he o#ened the sac9. but the butcher declined to give more than four francs for it.. They #lay all sorts of games. &f they find a sum of money they give notice to the ca#tain. 8ho in an instant caught u# the sac9 and ran off. Paul /acroix says that 8hen they ta9e u# their :uarters in any village they steal very little in its immediate vicinity. )ll the (i#sy does is to visit the cattle secretly and slyly. This is agreed u#on. The butcher then 8ent a8ay. they #ay for it in good money the first time. H(ive me #. 0ith this they 8al9ed out of his sho#. saying that they 8ould ta9e the bill 8ith them. &Dve had :uite #lenty of (i#sies for my lifetime.I Cases have been 9no8n 8hen the (i#sy 8omen have gone among the farmersD cattle and rubbed their nostrils 8ith some nastiness to such an extent as to cause the cattle to loathe their food. they disguise themselves. H'o more (i#sies for me. and rub off the nastiness he has #ut on. 8ho ta9es his share. in a fe8 minutes. The cattle immediately begin to eat their food. They 9ill lambs by stic9ing #ins into their heads. and send a man 8ith the money and a barro8 for the 8ine. H'ever 8as a #oor man so hoaxed as this butcher. nevertheless they contrive. Tallemant says that near Peye. &n harvest time all doors are shut against them. cloc9s. or five francs. and his remar9s to me 8ere. They ma9e counterfeit money. and ma9e a ra#id flight from the #lace. 8hich they did not. they buy all sorts of horses. The (i#sies have a thousand other tric9sKso says one of the (i#sy fraternity named Pechou de -uby. enter into . 0hen they 9no8 of a rich merchant living in the #lace. and any other movable article 8hich they can lay their hands u#on.I The butcher #aid him the money. and said. 0hen they buy food. but in the neighbouring #arishes they rob and #lunder in the most daring manner. 8hen they steal linen. The (i#sy in the laneK8ho of course 9no8s all about the affairKgoes to the farmer and tells him he can cure his cattle. 5c.

in order that he might be released from a life of such misery. short #etticoats. >!8#laces. >! from the follo8ing facts4 many of them. The (i#sy men Hlolloc9I about. have been burned. They 8ere not slo8 to form an alliance 8ith #rofligate characters.communication 8ith him. s9e8erBma9ing. Chairs are bottomed at #rices ranging from one . and gallo# a8ay. scarlet cloa9s and hoods. or to commit robberies 8hich 8ould other8ise have been im#racticable.I )nd he further says that they received Hinto their ran9s all those 8hose crime. the 8omen tell fortunes. and ragged garments in #lace of sil9 dresses for the #oor (i#sy 8omen. having been arrested. chairB mending. 8ho sometimes 8or9ed in concert 8ith them. This 9ind of thing. have their horses shod the reverse 8ay. torn coats. and those men 8ho #ut on a sho8 of 8or9 at all. blac9 hair.I ) century ago it 8as some8hat romantic. and don9ey buying. 8ith the threat that if he reBa##eared in the country he 8ould be hanged. and the shoes covered 8ith some soft material. lest they should be heard. and es#ecially the 8omen. and 8ashed gold rings have ta9en their #. as regards dash and sho8. slouched hats. ) friend of mine told me a cou#le of months since that the (i#sies had bro9en do8n his fences 8ith im#unity. and the children gambol on the ditch ban9s 8ith im#unity. resolutely returned after three successive and similar threats at three different #laces. and im#lored that the ca#ital sentence might be carried out. and other odd curiosities and eccentricities. the fear and #unishment of an uneasy conscience. and 8e can give the case of a (i#sy. after 8hich they change their clothes. and conducted to the frontier. <ust as they 8ould have done any 8ild beast 8hich came in their 8ay. ans8ered 8ell for a time as a 9ind of eyeBblinder to their little thefts and li9e things. for during a hunting #arty the huntsmen had no scru#le 8hatever in 9illing a (i#sy 8oman 8ho 8as suc9ling her child. it is as a general thing at tin9ering. or the charm of a roaming life continually thre8 in their #ath. and had ta9en five hundred young sa#lings out of his #lantation for this #ur#ose. nobody caring to interfere 8ith them in any 8ay. in order to end their miserable existence. #atched breeches. flogged. (rellmann says4KHThe miserable condition of the (i#sies may be imagined #.I )nd he goes on to say that Hthese unfortunate #eo#le 8ere not even loo9ed u#on as human beings. velvet coats 8ith silver buttons. #lush 8aistcoats. The men ma9e the s9e8ers and sell them at #rices varying from one shilling to t8o shillings #er stone. Their sil9 velvet coats. and s8indle him. never more to return 8ith their #resent course of life. and diamond rings have vanished. 8ho. #egBs#litting. The novelty of their #erson. the 8ood for the s9e8ers they do not al8ays buy. and ans8ered very 8ell as a contrast to civilisation. by their o8n re:uest. and a #lentiful su##ly of gold rings. 8ith dar9 s9in and eyes. they made use of them either to find their 8ay into countries of 8hich they 8ere ignorant. but that day is over. Their silver buttons are all gone to #ot. is to a great extent #assed. and their fortuneB telling #roclivities. to see a number of #eo#le moving about the country. dressed in beaver hats and bonnets.

really lies. and allo8ed me the honour of using the only cu# and saucer.ome of them do scissorBgrinding. They very 9indly sent for t8o#enny 8orth of butter for me. and other small trifles 8hich lay on the to# of a small #iece of oilcloth covering the inside of the bas9et had. for 8hich they charge exorbitant #rices. combs.I . #a. laces. told me very recently that one of the $os8ell gang had charged him t8o shillings for grinding one 9nife. (. $art. >!@9e#t saying HThan9 you. The shar# old 8oman 8as not long in offering me one or t8o of her trifles that lay on the to# of her bas9et. #a. my table being an undressed bric9 out of some old building. . ) bas9et 8ith halfBaB doFen brushes. HHad she nothing more suitable lo8er do8n as a small #resentNI )fter a little fumbling and flustering she began to see my motive. )fter tea & felt a little curious to 9no8 8hat 8as in the big old (i#sy dameDs bas9et. and & have brought them here for my children to live u#on. in the midst of so much light and Christianity. and as they caught it they. a #iece of oilcloth. of Coleorton Hall. laces. but 8ith a #retty free use of my toe & 9e#t sending the little grunters s:uea9ing a8ay. and basins. and this is ho8 8e live. or very little grinding.. T8o or three months ago & 8as invited by some (i#sy friends to have tea 8ith them on the outs9irts of /ondon.shilling and u#8ards. ) ha89erDs licence. Hhave been given to me by servant girls and others for telling their fortunes.he turned the oilcloth off the bas9et. by their greasy a##earance. and they carry it out very adroitly and cleverly too. and crusts. underneath of 8hich 8ere Hshan9 endsI of <oints. 8ith #ieces of bacon. although men and 8omen. The tea for the gro8nBu# sons and daughters 8as handed round in mugs. covers a lifeBtime of sin and ini:uity in this res#ect. and should li9e to ta9e a little thing or t8o for my little ones at home. brushes. about the siFe of one of these #ages. combs. for & had an idea one or t8o hairBbrushes. and said. The 8omen 8ho are good at fortuneBtelling can ma9e a good thing out of it.ome of the 8omen. . hamBbones. and a #oc9et $ible. .ortuneBtelling is a soulBcrushing and deadly crying evil. 0e 8ere all sitting u#on the floor.I she said. 8hich they said 8ere over one hundred years old. #ieces of bacon.I . The good old man cut my bread and butter 8ith his dar9 coloured hands #retty thin. is all the . and it is far from being stam#ed out. HThese. done duty for many a long day. #.I and do8n it 8ent 8ithout either 9nives or for9s. sell artificial flo8ers. combs. 8ho are not good hands at fortuneBtelling. 8hich. 5c. as having been bought of a (i#sy 8oman near /ondon. he #itched at them 8ithout any ceremony. lace. $eaumont. and it 8as 8ith some difficulty & could 9ee# the #igs that 8ere running loose in the yard from ta9ing a #iece off my #late. even at this late day. <ugs. & told the old (i#sy dame that & 8as going home the next day. but the bread for his sons and daughters 8as li9e #ieces of bric9s.I HThan9 you. & 8ill tell you the truth and sho8 you all. H)h_ & see 8hat you are after. but these & said 8ere not so suitable as & should li9e.

8ith the gold chain about her nec9. and borro8ed for her ten more of t8o of his friends. Her sins have found her out. li9e8ise the means by 8hich they obtained their livelihood. This 8oman. the 8oman 8as #ursued and overta9en. This 8as accom#lished. . and that he there should dig u# out of the ground a silver #ot full of gold covered 8ith a clean na#9in. to a young lady they describe a handsome gentleman as one she may be assured 8ill be her Hhusband. so & am told by the (i#sies themselves. He 8ent 8ith his #ic9axe and shovel at the a##ointed time to the su##osed luc9y s#ot. . 8ho made so many du#es. and the rising sun. Gno8ing the readiest 8ay #. )nd thus suiting their deluding s#eeches to the age. and . seven stars. He gave her five #ounds and his 8atch. the 8ic9ed 8oman 8as soon off 8ith her booty. The #ro#erty being too much to lose. they seldom fail to #lease their vanity. >C0to deceive. circumstances. The lady gave her all the #late in the house. >C1to his heels and made no sto# till he reached his masterDs house. a half moon. to amuse their unex#ected visitant. 8here he a8o9e his fello8Bservants and told to them his disaster. ) young lady in (loucestershire allo8ed herself to be deluded by a (i#sy 8oman. This lady admired a young gentleman. she had fled another 8ay 8ith the #ro#erty she had so 8ic9edly obtained.ome time ago a gentleman follo8ed several (i#sy families. they sho8ed forth their night diversions in music and dancing. *ne of her saddles cost thirty #ounds. to a very great extent. )rriving at the #lace of their encam#ment his first ob<ect 8as to gain their confidence. and a gold chain and loc9et. 8ith no other security than a vain #romise that they should be restored at a given #eriod. and often gain a rich re8ard for their fraud. after 8hich. for she carried on it the emblems of her #rofession 8rought in that metalKnamely. . 8hich he considered a favourable omen of the 8ealth he 8as soon to receive. and #ros#ects of those 8ho em#loy them. *f course he met no (i#sy.stoc9BinBtrade they re:uire.he engaged to meet him at midnight in a certain #lace a mile from the to8n 8here he lived. &t 8as literally studded 8ith silver. . antici#ations. fortuneBtelling. . and dressed both gaily and ex#ensively. )s might be ex#ected. and it 8ill serve them for a year. The same 8oman after8ards #ersuaded a gentlemanDs groom that she could #ut him in #ossession of a great sum of money if he 8ould first de#osit 8ith her all he then had.ortuneBtellers die hard 8ithout exce#tion. and the lady 8as obliged to ex#ose her folly. such as tin9ering. rode a good horse. Poor 8oman_ her sun is set.he 8as ta9en u#. and the (i#sy #romised that he 8ould return her love. 0hile 8aiting her arrival a hare started suddenly from its restingB#lace and so alarmed him that he as suddenly too9 #.I To a youth they #romise a #retty lady 8ith a large fortune.he 8as found 8ashing her clothes in a (i#sy cam#. of artful and insinuating address. having his confidence strengthened by a dream he ha##ened to have about money. but on restoring the articles 8as allo8ed to esca#e. They generally #ro#hecy good.

he endeavoured to call forth nonentity into existence. 8as challenged by the gentleman for a con<uring match. 8hich received the same ans8er. The challenge 8as instantly acce#ted. ) stone 8hich never existed 8as to be created. The master of the gang commenced. he ans8ered. 8here she bought a bloodBhorse. The follo8ing is a remar9able instance of the love of costly attire in a female (i#sy of the old school. &t is not easy to imagine the disa##ointment and resentment of the covetous and credulous ladies. the #ersons 8ho 8ere guilty of the deed are dead. 8omen. and & believe there is one instance 9no8n of some (i#sies murdering a 8itness 8ho 8as to a##ear against some of their #eo#le for horseBstealing. but Rand not to be 8ondered atS he failed_ telling them he #ossessed no more #o8er to create than themselves. (i#sies of the old ty#e are not strangers to #a8nbro9ersD sho#s. )s9ing him if he could do it. and after much stam#ing 8ith his foot. ) #a8nsho# is their ban9. and a##ear in a certain form in the middle of a circle made on the turf. li9e the roaring of a lion. a ne8 sideBsaddle and bridle. The visitor commenced. The 8oman alluded to obtained a very large sum of money from three maiden ladies.con<uring. #ledging that it should be doubled by her art in con<uration. and if 1 have not #o8er either. but they do not visit these #laces for the same #.I & have been told that the disli9e they have to rule and order has led many of them to maim themselves by cutting off a finger. that they might not serve in either the army or the navy. and figured a8ay in her illBobtained finery at the fairs. a blac9 beaver hat.I $ut these circumstances do not stam# their race 8ithout exce#tion as infamous monsters in 8ic9edness. >C>enough. the master of this formidable gang. The (i#sies #laced themselves in a circular form. Perceiving the thought of insufficiency #ervading their minds. H& am not strong #. 8hom she had so easily du#ed. rags. murder. %very eye 8as fixed u#on him. 0ith the #resent race of our gutterBscum (i#sies the last remnant of (i#sy #ride is nearly deadK#overty. and children_ that #o8er & call (od )lmighty.I They 8ere all as9ed the same :uestion. and des#air ta9ing the #lace. 0hen they ac:uire #ro#erty . . and in their last moments exclaimed 8ith horror and des#air. >CA#ur#oses as the vitiated #oor of our trading to8ns. in the midst of 8hich they all 8ith one voice cried. )t last the visitor #ro#osed the ma9ing of something out of nothing. 8hat must that #o8er be 8hich made the 8hole 8orld out of nothingNKmen. if you have not #o8er to create a #oor little stone. he thus s#o9e4 H'o8. H. and the gentleman 8armly exhorting him to cry aloud. he re#resented his dangerous situation. eager to behold this unheardBof ex#loit. 8e 8ould 9iss your feet rather than hurt you_I )fter manifesting a confidence in return.he then decam#ed to another district. a silverB mounted 8hi#. That the gentleman might be satisfied 8hether he had obtained their confidence or not. and both being in the middle commenced 8ith their con<uring #o8ers to the best advantage. about forty in number. This #ro#osal 8as acce#ted.

the horses. no doubt. and murder bring their o8n re8ard. and the treatment they are receiving are due entirely to their o8n evilBdoingKlying. 8hich are redeemed as soon as they #ossess the means. and not on account of their #ast traditions. much less t8enty.I . robbing. their stolen goods have been smitten 8ith (odDs 8rath. but in course of time it came to #ass that he died. 'o class of men and 8omen under the sun has been more 8ic9ed than the (i#sies. . &t has been stated by some 8riters. cheating.mith tells us that there is not one in t8enty 8ho can sho8 one #ound. mules. and no class has #ros#ered less. in one 8ord. could. misre#resentation. that there is hardly a (i#sy in existence 8ho could not. or fortuneBtelling. s8indling. don9ey. and sometimes in the same hour #ledge it for safety. to imagine that the 8hole of them are as 8ell off as all this. and Hcease to do evil and learn to do 8ellIKno matter 8hether they are =e8s or barbarians. 8hich event revealed the fact that he 8as not 8orth halfBaBcro8n. and brought do8n the vengeance of =ehovah u#on their heads.uch #ro#erty they have in store against days of adversity and trouble. The (i#sies of toBday are drin9ing the dregs of the cu#s they had mixed for others. of the deceased relatives is very strong. ) (i#sy named $os8ell travelled about in the 1idland counties 8ith a large van #retty 8ell stoc9ed 8ith his 8ares. &n such cases they generally retain a counsel to #lead for the brother in adversity. &mmediately they alter their course of life. and all things. The lies #roceeding from their bad hearts have turned out to be a s8arm of 8as#s settling do8n u#on their o8n #ates. 0ith such articles they 8ill never #art. silver s#oons. the curse of (od is follo8ing them in every footste# on account of their #resent sins. every article of value is sacrificed to save him from death or a##rehended banishment. thought he 8as a rich man. es#ecially the (i#sies. as by stealing.illegally. . and then they only #ledge some of them. and don9eys in their unla8ful #ossession are steeds u#on 8hich the (i#sies are riding to hell. exce#t the clothes.ome of those 8ho 8or9. Their attachment to the horse. bond or . #roduce his ten or t8enty #ounds Hat a #inch. >C!HTo our foes 8e leave a shame_ disgrace can never die. but it is entirely erroneous. charged 8ith a crime 8hich is li9ely to cost him his life. and the fortuneBtelling cards are burning the fingers of the (i#sy 8omen. #. . rings. 8hich on account of their dishonest habits often overta9e them. as many other statements relating to the (i#sies. and everybody. exce#t in the greatest distress. if desired. they #urchase valuable #late. or to trans#ort him.I Their miserable condition. The sly 8in9 of the eye intended to touch the heart of the innocent and sim#le has #roved to be the electric s#ar9 that has reached heaven. Their sons shall blush to hear a name still blac9ened 8ith a lie. $y their evil deeds for centuries they have brought themselves under the curse of (od and the lash of the la8 8herever they have been. snuffBbox. the #ersecution.hould one of their families stand before a <udge of his country.

I 'othing #leases the #. >C?The follo8ing is a s#ecimen of houseBd8elling (i#sies in the 1idlands & have visited. and send her out in the sno8 on a #iercingBcold 8interDs day.I & doubt 8hether she lived to smo9e it. smo9ing 8omen 8ill turn out to be 8orthless scam#s and vagabonds. 0hen their HbaccyI is getting Hrun out. There is a terrible rec9oning coming for the H(i#sy man.#ittoons are things they never use. at the same time. covered over 8ith stic9s and rags. cambric #oc9etB hand9erchiefs are not often brought into re:uest u#on their Hlovely faces. old (i#sy 8oman the other day. and 9ic9. 8ith a smo9ing fireB#lace.I They #refer allo8ing the bottom of the dresses the honour of a##earing before his 8orshi# Hthe nose. 8ith child on her bac9 and bas9et on her arm. & sa8 a #oor.I . immorality. 0hite. his #oor child to death. 'othing seemed to #lease her so much. s#it in his 8ifeDs face 8ith oaths and cursing. and a glance at the (i#sies 8ill #rove my statements. in order to bring bac9 her illBgotten gains to her semiBclad hovel. sleet. sim#le #eo#le.mo9ing and eating tobacco adds another leaden 8eight to those already round their nec9. dying. and the better they 8ill li9e it. and send the offs#ring of his o8n body to slee# u#on rotten stra8 and the dungBhea#. beastly and murderous brutality to their #oor children.he said she H8ould rather have it than gold. 8ith his ironBsoled boot. &t is a blac9. to #ractise the art of doubleBdyed lying and dece#tion on honest. The (i#sy father . half clad and 8orse fed.I and & Hcould not have #leased her better. and a rusty old #o9er. hamBshan9s. &n nine cases out of ten the children of drun9en. >CC(i#sies better than to give them some of the 8eed. the ran9er and oftener it has been used the more delicious 8ill be the flavour. and they 8ill begin to thrive and #ros#er. and #ieces of bacon that fall from the Hrich manDs table.I . and. through 8hich light. on 8hich to fatten her Hlord and master. and no #resent 8as so acce#table to her as Ha nounce of baccy. rain.I by halfB cleaned 9nuc9leBbones. & thin9 & am s#ea9ing 8ithin the mar9 8hen & state that fully threeBfourths of the (i#sy 8omen in this country are inveterate smo9ers. and it hel#s to bo8 them do8n to the groundKa short blac9 #i#e. .I #. 8ho can ta9e u#on his 9nees a dog and fondle it in his bosom. 8ind. for all of them to Hhave a #ull.I 8ho can chuc9le to his fo8ls.freeKthe blessing of (od 8ill follo8. and sno8 can find its 8ay 8ithout let or hinderance. 8ho can 8arm and shelter his blac9bird.I the short #i#e is handed round to the com#any of (i#sies s:uatting u#on the ground. torturous and heartBrending treatment to their #oor slaves of 8omen. t8o ric9ety old chairs. although she could scarcely s#ea9. 8ithout any delicacy of feeling. burning shame for us to have such a state of things in our midst. %ternity 8ill reveal their deeds of dar9nessKmurders. as to delight in referring to the sins of her youth. scented. and a threeBlegged table that had to be #ro##ed against the 8all. &n the room do8nstairs there 8ere a bro9enBdo8n old s:uab. of a 9ind before referred to. hail.

and has been for yearsKone van.unday scholars. com#els you to ste# out of the beaten rut to ex#ose. and #lenty of tongueKby the 8ay. not one hundred miles from /ondon. . and are as e:ually #leased to have a standBu# fight as the (i#sy men are. 0hen & 8as there. &t may be as 8ell to remar9 here that the (i#sy 8omen can do their share of fighting. ) (i#sy of the name of /ee boasted to me only a day or t8o since that he had been drun9 every night for more than a fortnight. &n a day and . 'o8. & may say & have not yet seen a dumb and deaf (i#sy.unday schoolByard connected 8ith the Church of %ngland. 8here (odDs broad earth ans8ers the #ur#ose of a table. nevertheless. 8ife. the young 8oman #. $randy and Hfour#enny.unday afternoon. mar9ed 8ith smallB#ox. he had been in #rison once. for 8hom & have the highest res#ect. there is no #artition bet8een them. &n another tent there is man. There is a 8oman. but dealing 8ith men and things in a rough 9ind of fashion for so many years has ta9en some amount of nervousness of this 9ind out of me. 8rongB doing.I )s she came near to me exhibiting her fisticuffing #o8ers. love for the children and anxiety for their eternal 8elfare. and not one of 8hom can read or 8rite. they 8ere ex#ecting the (i#sy Hto come home to his tent drun9 and 8a9e the baby. *ne of these (i#sy 8omen lives 8ith a man 8ho is not a thorough (i#sy. & might have been a little nervous years ago. and a Hbatten of stra8I serves as a bed. and one child. *ne of the (i#sy 8omen in the yard fre:uently came home drun9. &n another #art of the yard is a (i#sy tent. and a daughter of about fourteen years of age. his language . the mother. in 8hich there are man. & as9 my countrymen if this is the 8ay to either im#rove the habits and morals of the (i#sies themselves. Drun9enness is one of the evil associations of (i#sy life. are their chief drin9s. duty to country. &t is not #leasant to say strong things about clergymen. on the . young 8oman.I as it is sometimes called.he turned u# her dress sleeves and sho8ed me ho8 she had Hmade the blood run out of another (i#sy 8oman for hitting her child.I &n another tent there 8as a (i#sy 8ith his la8ful 8ife and three children. there are times 8hen res#ect for ChristDs church. one of 8hom is of marriageable age and the other far in her teens. a strong (i#sy 8oman of the old ty#e. & should <udge that the mother and her t8o daughters slee# on one bed at one end of the tent and the youth at the other. 8ho s#ends a deal of his time under loc9 and 9ey on account of his #oaching inclinations. or to set a good exam#le to day and .8as a strong man. not over fond of 8or9. that it is their cam#ingBground. there are to be seenKand & am informed by them. exce#t during the ho#B#ic9ing season. t8o daughters. and a youth & should thin9 about sixteen years of age. though 8ith #ain. >C and daughter slee# in a 9ind of box under the man and his 8ife. and other members of this large family are on the same 9ind of sliding scale. and only about seven feet of s#ace bet8een each bed of litter.I or Hhell fire. 8ife. and & have seen her smo9ing 8ith a blac9 #i#e in her mouth three #arts ti#sy.

and 8ith the same breath they have begun to tal9 of murder. but. and had they not been sto##ed the conse:uences might have been fearful. of )cton (reen.I as they have closed round me. bloodshed. stuttering. >C8tal9ing to them. ) terrible struggle ensued. not out of the body. and 8hen & have been #. and a 8ea9ness 8as observable in her 9nees. &n December of last year four (i#sies. mind. . 8hich 8ould give them time for reflection. or brain. HHo8 nice it is to get a living by telling lies. 1urther_ . >C@His redBhot talons in my burning scal#. & have fre:uently seen drun9en (i#sy 8omen in the streets of /ondon. H)men. and in doing so very nearly lost her balance. & am sorry to say. it is nice to be Dligious and Christany. Huge monsters glare u#on me. and a long 9nife 8as fetched out of their tents. they have said. (reat trun9s have some.ire_I . and there a 8ild bird drives #. and it too9 her some ten yards to recover her #er#endicular. ) fe8 days ago t8o (i#sies from the %ast %nd of /ondon 8ere sent to gaol for thieving. 8ere charged before the magistrates at Hammersmith 8ith violently assaulting an inn9ee#er for refusing to allo8 them to go into a #rivate #art of his house. and revenge. and #ursued her 8ay to the tent. and to say. tumble into a ro8. and frogs strut u# and do8n /i9e hissing cinders. in colour and thic9ness almost li9e treacle and 8ater.I H*h.I Half an ounce of tobacco and a fe8 gentle 8ords have a most 8onderful effect u#on their s#irits and nerves under such circumstances. )nd some 8ith hoofs that blaFe li9e #itchy brands. 0ands8orth. and stumbling. 0hat care 8e for the bobbies.I They seldom if ever use tumblers. she got right. and are no8 having their turn u#on the 8heel of fortune. )ll ti##ed 8ith fire. )nd sna9es 8ith eyes of flame cra8l u# my breast. and smash their #ee#ers. and some are hung 8ith beads. H*h_ it is delightful to get drun9. leaving a 9ind of salty taste behind it as it #asses out of sight. ) large <ug is filled 8ith this stuff. or other8ise. and 8hen she sa8 me she 8as not so far gone as not to 9no8 8ho & 8as. some 8ith horns. Here ser#ents dash their stings into my face. H0hirl fiery circles. leaving a trail u#on 8hich is 8rittenKmore_ more_ more_ +nder its influence they either turn saints or demons as 8ill best serve their #ur#ose. 0ith a little struggling.being.he tried to ma9e a curtsy. 8as#s and 8aterflies . %arly this year & met one of my old (i#sy 8omen friends in (arrett /ane. They 8ere sent to gaol for t8o months.I H$less the /ord. The more drin9 some of the (i#sy 8omen get the more the red coloured #iety is observable in their faces. Here bees and beetles buFF about my ears /i9e crac9ling coals. and the moon is full4 &m#s 8ith long tongues are lic9ing at my bro8.corch dee# li9e melting minerals. 8ith evidently more than she could carry.

in fact. 'othing gives them more #leasure than to be told 8here a dead #ig. 8hich they thin9 good enough to be called sou#. 0hat a##lies to the Hungarian (i#sies 8ill to a large extent a##ly to the (i#sies in . & cannot for the life of me thin9 that human nature is at such a lo8 ebb among them as to ma9e this 9ind of life general. and #ut them alive into a #an over their co9e fires. -ussia. (ermany.rance. and it is in this #itiable condition they go singing and dancing to hell. Their food. into 8hich they di# their #latters 8ith relish and delight. 0hen they ba9e. they #ut their lum#s of dough among the red embers of their co9e fires. young and old. that some of their fraternity. their hovels. and a fe8 rags. their dress is nothing but rags. they 8ill not Hturn their noses u#I at it in disgust. but if & am to believe their o8n statements. are sin9s of the vilest #overty and filth. and the habits of the Hungarian (i#sies are abominable. had often #ic9ed u# snails. or begged. (rellmann goes so far as to say that human flesh is a dainty morsel. es#ecially that of children. as he rolls about on his bed of filthy litter. for they do not all live in tents and encam#ments. 8hen sno8 8as on the ground. and in #resence of some of the /ees. till they have to loose their garments for more room. miserable 8oman for a 8ife. 8orms. 0hat becomes of the dead don9eys. *nly a fe8 days since & 8as told by a lot of (i#sies u#on Cherry &sland. 8ith a #oorBloo9ing. Their bread. H(ive us bread_I H(ive us bread_I is their #iteous cry. or co8 may be found. and a lot of 8retched halfBstarved. stolen. 8ill scam#er to fetch it.#ain. 5c. . as a rule.. and they live on carrion. and #igs that ha##en to be in their 8ay run the ris9 of being #otted for sou#. The (i#sy in Hungary is a being 8ho has #uFFled the 8its of the inhabitants for centuries. . 'o longer since than last 8inter & 8as told by some (i#sies on the outs9irts of /ondon that some of their fraternity had been seen on more than one occasion #ic9ing u# dead cats out of the streets of /ondon to ta9e home to their dar9B eyed beauties and lovely damsels. and they mentioned some of their names. ) fe8 8ee9s since. & sa8 in the . is generally turned into a 9ind of dirtyBloo9ing. 8hether it be animal or vegetable. Their #rinci#al meal is about five oDcloc9. and the (i#sies. cats. mules. and as the life 8as being friFFled out of the cree#ing things they #ic9ed them out of the #an 8ith their fingers and #ut them into their months 8ithout any further ceremony. and other times they starve themselves to fiddleBstrings. the dead dogs. at any rate. There is no #roof of our (i#sies eating children. and our o8n country.ometimes they 8ill eat li9e #igs. decom#osition rather shar#ens their ravenous a##etites. u#on the return of the mother after her ha89ing and cadging ex#editions. is either bought. a soa#Bbox. halfBna9ed children crying round him for bread. thic9 li:uid. and horses that die during their traffic9ing is best 9no8n to #. horse. and causing a Hsmac9ing of the li#sI as the heathens sit round their 9ettleK8hich ans8ers the #ur#ose of a s8illBtub 8hen not needed for coo9ingKas it hangs over the co9e fire. )t most & should thin9 cases of this 9ind are exce#tional. 8hich is very seldom. >?0themselves. #onies.Cries the (i#sy. in a tent 8hose only furniture is an old tin buc9et #ierced 8ith holes.

li9e the &rishman 8ho boiled his egg for an hour to get it soft. *ne 8oman & 9no8 at 'otting Hill. and #leasant com#anions are sure to beget good dis#ositions both of body and mind. and ho#e to do so again. 8hich serves as a dish. one at Cherry &sland. roll myself u# li9e a hedgehog. -obust exercise. and drin9ing the #otato 8ater as a relish. a 9nife. red. and then had to give it u# as a bad <ob. 8hich she cannot hel#. and. and 8ho 8as born in an *xfordshire village. and for 8hich & have been very than9ful. (rellmann. doFe off li9e Hubert Petalengro into a semiBunconscious state. )damDs 9nives and for9s. and to her credit manages to 9ee# her children tolerably clean and nice for a 8oman of her #osition. Table. is at the #resent time surrounded 8ith filth of the most sic9ening 9ind. on more than one occasion.I They have done 8hat they could to ma9e me comfortable. and 8ould create a stomach under the very ribs of death ca#able of digesting a bar of #igBiron. their universal. and a s#oon. and & should be all right for three or four days. ) gentleman 8ho 8as building some #ro#erty in the neighbourhood told me that he had seen gro8nBu# youths and big girls running about entirely nude in the morning. The same 9ind of thing occurs in a more or less degree 8herever (i#sies are located. given me Ha feedI of it. $oiled #or9 is. and the ground #roviding the #. 0ands8orth. $attersea. entirely devoid of all #. Their 8hole 9itchen and table re:uirements are an earthen #ot.outs9irts of /ondon eight halfBstarved. chubby faces. (i#sy children dining off three #otatoes. & have had many a cu# of tea 8ith them. houseBd8elling (i#sies are very little better in this res#ect. There is another at (arrett /ane. and children 8ith clean. dirty. #lates. little. 0hen & 8as there it 8as 8ith some difficulty & could #ut my foot in a clean #lace. and s:uatting about the ground and leaving their filth behind them more li9e animals than human beings endo8ed 8ith souls and reason. all & should re:uire 8ould be to get a good dinner off their 9nuc9leBbones. and & thin9 t8o meals 8ould last me for a 8ee9 very comfortably. an iron #an. and the longer it is boiled the harder it gets. &t is s8eet and nice. but in nine cases out of ten they are of #arents 8ho have had a different bringing u# than s:uatting about in the mud and filth. another at . *ne 8riter observes4KHCommend me to (i#sy life and hard living.I Their habits of uncleanliness are most disgusting. . as a rule. They do not al8ays use 9nife and for9. and several others in various #arts on the outs9irts of /ondon. everyBday. >?>sanitary arrangements. H$eggars must not be choosers.ome of these 9indBhearted fol9s have. and dishes are not universal among them. outBdoor life. )t Hac9ney 0ic9 & sa8 t8enty tents and vans. *ccasionally you 8ill meet 8ith clean #eo#le.hee#cot /ane. sad to relate. t8o at +#ton Par9. t8o at Hac9ney 0ic9. 0hen the meal is ready the 8hole family sit round the #ot or #an. central #otB boiler. connected 8ith 8hich there 8ere forty men and 8omen and about seventy children of all ages. says4KH0e may easily . #oor. >?1table and #lates. but a8fully satisfying. and then Hfall to itI 8ith their fingers and teeth. s#ea9ing of the (erman and Hungarian (i#sies many years ago.

so sensitive are they on this #oint that if they found out that by an accident this custom had been transgressed they 8ould immediately brea9 the vessel to #ieces. 8intry.I . The /a#landers. 0hile they 8ill res#ect certain delicacy observed among the =e8s. and she 8as almost sure to catch cold after it.I &n some things the real old (i#sies are very #articular. that many of the children are not 8ashed for years together.ome mothers smear their children over 8ith blac9 ointment. ) .I & am told. )nother #ractice they ado#t in common 8ith the =e8s is.iberians. in #resence of her motherBinBla8 and another 8oman. %nglish delicacy of feeling and sentiment for female virtue must stand abashed 8ith horror at this 9ind of civilisation in the nineteenth century of Christian %ngland. They seldom trouble themselves about 8ashing or other modes of cleaning themselves. that have been 8ashed in the same #ansions in 8hich their linen has been 8ashed.unday afternoon among them. ) (i#sy 8oman. #ractices.he Honly 8ashed herself once in a fortnight.amoyeds. have only one suit of #. . they 8ill eat #or9. and 8ill even #ay a greater #rice for it than for beef or mutton. The customs. 8ho had married a (i#sy named . *bserve only a (i#sy from his birth till he comes to manDs estate. they 8ill on no account ta9e their food out of cu#s. named Hearn. said to me a fe8 days ago. and leaving a 9ind of 8hite #atch behind it. %x#erience also sho8s us that it is more their manner of life than descent 8hich has #ro#agated this blac9 colour of the (i#sies from generation to generation. &n summer the child is ex#osed to the scorching sun. as 8ell as the . . yello8Bcoloured s9ins.ome of the children never ta9e their clothes off till they dro# off in shreds. and 8hile the clothes have been drying on the line the 8omen and children have been roasting themselves before the fires in nearly a nude state. . s8earing or ta9ing oaths over their dead relations. the most detestable of all food in the eyes of the &sraelites. and 8ords #ic9ed u# by them during their 8anderings have added to their mystification. in conse:uence of living from their childhood in smo9e and dirt. both old and young. that she had seen her . and & verily believe it.mith. >?Aclothes. i4e4. These 8ould long ago have got rid of their s8arthy com#lexions if they had discontinued this (i#sy manner of living. )n %nglish8oman. #resenting a 9ind of a #iebald s#ectacle. and ho8 it 8as to get dry 8as a #uFFle to me. or basins.account for the colour of their s9in. & have seen over and over again dirt #eeling off the #oor childrenDs bodies and faces li9e a s9in.unday or t8o ago a #oor (i#sy 8oman 8as 8ashing her only smo9yBloo9ing blan9et late in the afternoon. 1any of the (i#sies. in ans8er to some conversation relating to their dirty habits. & have seen 8ashing done on the . and leave them to fry in the sun or near the fire. and one must be convinced that their colour is not so much o8ing to their descent as to the nastiness of their bodies. driFFling afternoon. told me very recently. in 8inter it is shut u# in a smo9y hut. have bronFe. saucers. HThe reason for the (i#sies not 8ashing themselves oftener 8as on account of their catching cold after each time they 8ashed. and u#on 8hich she 8ould have to lay that night. &t 8as a cold. as the (i#sies do. This is a custom #ic9ed u# by the (i#sies among the =e8s in their 8andering from &ndia through the Holy /and.

husband eat a small #. >?!#late of coo9ed snails as a dainty. 0hile the daughterBinBla8 8as telling me this, the old (i#sy motherBinBla8, 8ith one foot in the grave, not far from 1aryDs Place, near the Potteries, 'otting Hill, 8as trying to ma9e me believe 8hat a choice dish there 8as in store for me if & 8ould allo8 her to coo9 me a hedgehog. .he said & should Hfind it nicer than the finest rabbit or #heasant & had ever tasted.I The fine, old, (i#sy 8oman, as regards her a##earance, although suffering from congestion of lungs and inflammation, and ex#ecting every moment to be her last, 8ould <o9e and ma9e fun as if nothing 8as the matter 8ith her. 0hen & :uestioned her u#on the sin of lying, she said, H&f the dear /ord s#ares me, & shall tell lies again. & could not get on 8ithout it; ho8 could &N & could not sell my things 8ithout lies.I .he 8as rather severe, and this 8as a #leasing feature in the old 8omanDs character, u#on a (i#sy 8ho 8as #retending to HDligious,I and yet living u#on the money gained by his 8ife in telling fortunes. .he said, H&f & must be TDligious,D & 8ould be TDligious.D 3ou might,I said the old 8oman, Has 8ell eat the devil as suc9 his broth. )h_ & hate the fello8.I )fter as9ing her, and getting her inter#retation of H(od bless youI in -omany, 8hich is 1iB DoovelBPari9BtootiKand she 8as the only (i#sy round /ondon 8ho could #ut the 8ords in -omanyKand some other conversation accom#anied 8ith Hco##ers and baccy,I 5c., and to 8hich she re#lied, H)men_I 8ith as much earnestness as if she 8as the greatest saint outside heaven, 8e #arted. 1uch has been said and 8ritten years ago about the chastity, fidelity, and faithfulness of the (i#sies to8ards each other. This may have been the case, and in a fe8 exce#tional cases it holds good no8; but if & am to believe these men themselves they are very isolated indeed, and 8hat & have said u#on this #oint about the bric9Byard e(ploy5s in my HCry of the Children from the $ric9Byards of %ngland,I and also those living in canalBboats, in H*ur #. >?CCanal Po#ulation,I holds good, but 8ith ten times more force concerning the (i#sies. &mmorality abounds to a most alarming degree. &ncest, 8antonness, lasciviousness, lechery, 8horing, bigamy, and every other abomination lo8, degrading, carnal a##etites, #ro#ensity, and lust originate and encourage they #ractise o#enly, 8ithout the least blush; in fact, & :uestion if many of them 9no8 8hat it is to blush at all. & have heard a deal of disgusting, filthy language in my time among bric9Byard and canalBboat 8omen, but not a tithe so sic9ening as among some (i#sy 8omen. & #itied them, and to loo9 u#on them as charitably as #ossible & set it do8n to their extreme ignorance of the language they used. ) (i#sy at +#ton Par9 last 8ee9 named DBBB gloried to my face in the fact that he 8as not married. This same man has a brother not far from 1itcham Common living 8ith t8o sisters in an unla8ful state. )braham .mith, a (i#sy at +#ton Par9, 8ho is over seventy, and tells me that he is trying to serve (od and get to heaven, mentioned a case to me of a (i#sy and a 8oman at Hac9ney 0ic9.

The man has several children by a 8oman no8 living 8ith another man, and the 8oman has several children by another man. This (i#sy, .BBB, and his 8oman .BBB, turned both lots of their former o8n children adrift u#on the 8ide, 8ide 8orld, uncared for, un#rotected, and abandoned, 8hile they are living and indulging in sin to their heartsD content, 8ithout the least shame and remorse. &n:uire of 8hoever & may, and loo9 8hichever 8ay Providence directs me among the various #hases of (i#sy life, & find the same blac9 array of facts staring me in the face, the same dolorous issues every8here. The 8ords reason, honour, restraint, and fidelity are 8ords not to be found in their vocabulary. 1y later in:uiries fully confirm my #revious statements as to t8oBthirds living as husband and 8ife being unmarried. & have not found a (i#sy to contradict this statement. )braham .mith fully agrees 8ith it.
#. >??The marriage ceremony of the (i#sies is a very offBhand affair.

,ormerly there used to be some 9ind of ceremony #erformed by a friend. 'o8 the ceremony is not #erformed by any one. *f course there are a fe8 8ho get married at the church, 8hich, in ninetyBnine cases out of a hundred, is #erformed by the clergyman gratuitously. )s soon as a boy has arrived in his teens he begins to thin9 that something more than eating and drin9ing is necessary to him, and as the children of (i#sies are under no 9ind of #arental, moral, or social restraint, a connection is easily formed 8ith girls of t8elve, some of them of close relationshi#. )fter a fe8 hours, in many cases, of courtshi#, they go together, and the affair so far is over. They leave their #arentsD tents and set u# one for themselves, and for a short time this 9ind of life lasts. &n course of time children are born, the only attendant being, in many instances, another (i#sy 8oman, or it may be members of their o8n families see to the #oor 8oman in her hour of need. &f they have no vessel in 8hich to 8ash the ne8lyBborn child, they dig a hole in the ground, 8hich is filled 8ith cold 8ater, and the (i#sy babe is 8ashed in it. This being over, the #oor little thing is 8ra##ed in some old rags. This 8as the custom years ago, and & verily believe the (i#sies have gone bac98ards instead of for8ards in matters of this 9ind. The follo8ing brief account of a visitKone of many & have made to (i#sy encam#ments at Hac9ney 1arshes and other #laces during the #resent 8inter K8ill give some faint idea of 8hat (i#sy life is in this country, as seen by me during my intervie8s 8ith the (i#sies. The morning 8as dar9; the sno8 8as falling fast; about six inches of sno8 and slush 8ere u#on the groundKmy ob<ect being in this case, as in others, viF., to visit them at inclement seasons of the 8eather to find as many of the (i#sies in their tents as #ossible, and as & closed my door & said, H/ord, direct me,I and off & started, not 9no8ing 8hich 8ay to go. +ltimately & found my 8ay to Holborn, and too9 the Dbus, and, #. >? as & thought, to Hac9ney, 8hich turned out to be Ha delusion and a snare,I for at the terminus & found myself some t8o and a half miles from the

1arshes; ho8ever, & 8as not going to turn bac9 if the day 8as against me, and after laying in a stoc9 of s8eets for the (i#sy children, and HbaccyI for the old fol9s, & commenced my s:uashy tram# till & arrived at the 1arshes; the difficulty here 8as the road leading to the tents being covered an9le dee# 8ith sno8 and 8ater, but as my feet 8ere #retty 8ell 8et & could be no 8orse off if & #addled through it. Conse:uently, after these little difficulties 8ere overcome, & found myself in the midst of about a score of tents and vans of all siFes and descri#tions, connected 8ith 8hich there 8ere not less than thirtyB five gro8nBu# (i#sies and about sixty #oor little (i#sies. The first van & came to 8as a 9ind of oneBhorse cart 8ith a cover over it; inside 8as a strong, hul9ingBloo9ing fello8 and a #oor, sic9lyBloo9ing 8oman 8ith five children. The 8oman had only been confined a fe8 days, and loo9ed more fit for Hthe boxI than to be 8ashing on such a cold, 8intry day. *n a bedKat least, some ragsK8ere three #oor little children, one of 8hom 8as sic9, 8hich the mother tried to #revent by #utting her dirty a#ron to the childDs mouth. The large, #iercing eyes of this #oor, deathBloo9ing (i#sy child & shall never forget; they have loo9ed into my innermost soul scores of times since then, and every time & thin9 about this sight of misery the sic9ly childDs eyes seem to cry out, HHel# me_ Hel# me_I The #oor 8oman said it 8as the marshes that caused the illness, but my firm o#inion is that it 8as neither more nor less than starvation. The #oor 8oman seemed to be given u# to des#air. ) fe8 :uestions #ut to her in the momentary absence of the man elicited the fact that she 8as no (i#sy. .he had been brought u# as a .undayBschool scholar and teacher, and had been beguiled a8ay from her home by this H(i#sy man.I .he said she could tell me a lot if & 8ould come some other time. .he also said, H(i#sy life as it is at #resent carried out ought #. >?8to be #ut a sto# to, and 8ould be if #eo#le 9ne8 all.I 0ith a fe8 co##ers given to her and the children 8e #arted. &n another tent on the marshes there 8as a man, 8oman, and six children. The tent 8as about t8elve feet long, six feet six inches 8ide, and an average height of about three feet, ma9ing a total of about t8o hundred and thirtyBfour cubic feet of s#ace for man, 8ife, and six children. These 8ere of both sexes, gro8nBu# and in their teens. Their bed 8as stra8 u#on the dam# ground, and their sheets, rags. The man 8as halfBdrun9, and the #oor children 8ere running about halfBna9ed and halfBstarved. The 8oman had some (i#sy blood in her veins, but the man 8as an %nglishman, and had, so he said, been a soldier. 0ith a fe8 co##ers and s8eets among the children, and in the midst of H(oodBbyes_I and H(od bless youDs_I & left them, #romising to #ay them another visit. *ut of these t8enty families only three 8ere #ro#erly married, and only t8o could read and 8rite, and these 8ere the #oor 8oman 8ho had been a .undayBschool scholar and the man 8ho had been a soldier, and, strange to say, the children of these t8o #eo#le could not read a sentence or tell a letter. 'o minister ever visited them, and not one ever attended a #lace of 8orshi#. &n a visit to an encam#ment in another #art of /ondon & came across a #oor &rish8oman, 8ho had been allured a8ay from her res#ectable home at the age of sixteen by one of the (i#sy gang. 0hen &

sa8 her she 8as sitting crying, 8ith t8o halfBstarved children by her side, 8ho, o8ing to the co9e fire, had bad eyes. Their home 8as an old ragged tent, and their bed, rotten stra8. 0hen & sa8 them, and it 8as about one oDcloc9, they had not tasted food for t8entyBfour hours. & sent for a loaf for them, and they set to 8or9 u#on it 8ith as much relish as if they had been gna8ing at the leg of a Christmas fat tur9ey. The #oor (i#sy 8oman had been a .undayBschool scholar, and could read and 8rite, but neither her husband nor children could tell a letter. Her ta9ing to (i#sy life had bro9en her fatherDs heart. Her eldest child, #. >?@a fine little girl of about seven years of age, had been ta9en from her by her friends, and 8as being educated and cared for. ) fe8 8ee9s since the little daughter 8as anxious to see her mother, conse:uently she 8as ta9en to her tent; but, sad to relate, instead of the daughter going to 9iss her mother, as she 8ould ex#ect, she turned a8ay from her 8ith a shudder and a shrie9, and for the 8hole day the child did nothing but cry. &t 8ould not touch a morsel of anything. The only #leasant loo9 that came u#on its countenance 8as as it 8as leaving. )s the #oor child 8as leaving the tent she 8ould not 9iss her mother or say the usual H(oodB byeI as she 8ent a8ay. This #oor 8oman, as in the case of the 8oman at Hac9ney, said she could tell me a lot of things, 8hich she 8ould some time, and said, H(i#sy life ought to be #ut a sto# to, for there 8as something about it more than #eo#le 9ne8,I and & thoroughly believe 8hat this #oor 8oman says. &t is my firm conviction that there is much more in connection 8ith (i#sy life than many #eo#le imagine, or is dreamt of in their #hiloso#hy. There is a substratum of ini:uity lo8er than any 8riters have ever touched. There are certain things in connection 8ith their dar9 lives, hidden and veiled by their slang language, that may not come out in my day, but most surely daylight 8ill be shed u#on them some day. They 8ill 9ill and murder each other, fight and :uarrel li9e hyenas, but certain things they 8ill not divulge, and so long as the 8ellBbeing of society is not in danger & su##ose 8e have no right to interfere. ) :uery arises here. Their #ast actions bac9 me u# in this theory. +#on 1itcham Common last 8ee9 there 8ere nearly t8o hundred tents and vans. &n one tent, 8hich may be considered a s#ecimen of many others, there 8ere t8o men and their 8ives, and about t8elve children of both sexes and of all ages. &n another tent there 8ere nine children of both sexes and all ages, some of them men and 8omen, and for the life of me & cannot tell ho8 they are all #ac9ed 8hen they slee#K& su##ose li9e herrings in a box, #ellBmell, Hall #. > 0of a hea#.I *ne of these (i#sy young 8omen 8as a model, and has her time #retty much occu#ied during the day. & have been among houseBd8elling (i#sies in the 1idland counties, and have found t8elve to fifteen men, 8omen, and children, s:uatting about on the floor, 8hich they used as a 8or9sho#, sittingBroom, dra8ingBroom, and bedBroom; although there 8as a bedBroom u#Bstairs it 8as not often usedKso & 8as told by the landlady.

and 8ill sacrifice almost anything to carry them out. #. -oberts for a number of years. )butting from the 0almer -oad is a good siFed court or alley called T1ary Place. as a rule. as follo8s4KH*n 1onday last a note8orthy event too9 #lace in the humble locality of the Potteries. (i#sies die li9e other fol9. 'otting Dale. at 'otting Hill.. some in sheds and outhouses. loveB8ort. most res#ected. elder leaves.ebruary >8th. or in dila#idated vans. agrimony. (i#sies. and others.D and in a noo9 of one of the small cottages here lived 1rs. for it is the resort and locale of many of the (i#sies that 8ander in the 8estern suburbs. rue. and a (i#sy funeral seems to be the means to revive all the good they 9ne8 about the #erson dead and a burying of all the bad connected 8ith the dead (i#syDs life. &n the #resent instance it 8as the funeral of an old inhabitant of the (i#sy tribe. groundsel. a fe8 8ee9s ago. although before doing so they may have lived and :uarrelled li9e the Gil9enny cats among other (i#sies. & attended the funeral of a houseBd8elling (i#sy. ) 8ellBtoBdo (i#sy 8hom & 9no8Kone of the /ees.D .o . . &t 9ills them to brea9 them in to the hardshi#s of (i#sy life. They are very much li9e the man 8ho tried by degrees to train his don9ey to live and 8or9 8ithout food.There is much more sic9ness among the (i#sies than is generally 9no8n. and <ust as he succeeded the #oor $alaam died. 1rs. 8ho has been described to us by one 8ho long en<oyed her ac:uaintance as Ta very su#erior 8oman.D 8e scarcely 9no8 a region that can be studied to greater advantage. & am no8 referring to a fe8 of the better class of (i#sies. *ccasionally & have heard of (i#sies 8ho act as human beings should do 8ith their children. buc9bean. es#ecially among the children. tin9ering. the #rinci#al being chic9enB8eed. 'ot one (i#sy in a thousand 8ould do li9e8ise. They only go to the chemist or surgeon at the last extremity. intelligent and ha##y Christian. > 1refers to this funeral in his edition under date . 8ild sage. 8ho get 8hat living they can out of the bric9Bfields or ad<oining streets and lanes. 5c. s#ent over QA0 in doctorsD bills this 8inter for his childrenDs good. and every no8 and again they sho8 themselves amenable to good influences. To those 8ho sym#athise 8ith the #oet 8ho sings of the HT. but at death these things are all forgotten. and characters of humble mar9 and #o8er arise among them. 8oodBbetony. one of the oldest. these they boil in a sauce#an li9e they 8ould cabbages. and then drin9 the decoction. and so it is 8ith the #oor (i#sy children. a son of 1rs. and related in some 8ay to many (i#sy families in /ondon and the neighbouring counties. They d8ell together in the #oorest and most melancholyBloo9ing cottages. and loved of all the nomads.hort and sim#le annals of the #oor. They have strong faith in herbs. -oberts. #ay s#ecial regard to the 8ishes of a dying (i#sy. &n this district are congregated a miscellaneous #o#ulation of the #oorest order. or by costermongering. 3et all these ma9e u# a 9ind of community and live together as friends and neighbours. The editor and #ro#rietor of the !u ur an #ress.

he lived for #. covered 8ith blac9 cloth. a gentleman in the neighbourhood. a distance of some three miles. &t 8as a neat coffin. daughters. and the coffin being lifted through the 8indo8 8as #laced on the strong shoulders 8hich had been a##ointed to convey it to $rom#ton Cemetery. /eicester. > Aother 8as that 1r. has ex#ressed her s#ecial interest therein. not8ithstanding that it 8as a #ouring 8et day. 8as a gentleman 8hose name and vocation 8e 8ere not a8are until after8ards.I .he 8as a good. and so the #rocession moved off follo8ed by 8ee#ing sons.aul. > >years a 8ido8. but 8ith five gro8nBu#. ho8ever. . and she 8as 9no8n and res#ected. should conduct a service of song <ust before the funeral cort5ge left the humble domicile. )nd 8aste its s8eetness on the desert air. of Coalville. and friends.mith has already attracted the attention of a number of charitable Christian #eo#le. )dams. and 8hen the #all had been thro8n over it affectionate hands #laced u#on it t8o or three large handsome 8reaths of immortals 8hite as sno8. surrounded as 8e 8ere by some t8o hundred (i#sies and others of the lo8est of the lo8.D Re. and it has not been overloo9ed by Her 1a<esty the Jueen. (eorge . strong. The #reliminariesKa service of song conducted by 1r.chool $oard )ct.D though not exactly as the flo8er HT$orn to blush unseen.that she must indeed have shone in that humble and sombre s#ot as a Tgem of #urest ray serene. )mong those #resent at this interesting ceremony standing next to us. and thrifty childrenKt8o sons and three daughters and troo#s of friendsKto cheer her latter days. The service of song 8as very im#ressive. 8ho. and s#ecially to the children.ome stood 8ith their mouths o#en and a##eared as if they had not heard of the . 0e 8ere glad. to the strains of the TDead 1arch in . and her influence 8as felt by all around her. to 8hom he is anxious to see extended among other things the #rovisions of the . 8ho has s#ecially devoted himself to the im#rovement of the social condition of these tooBneglected #eo#le. to learn that 8e 8ere un8ittingly conversing 8ith no other than 1r. and & thin9 & am s#ea9ing 8ithin bounds 8hen & say that there is not one in five hundred li9e she 8as. . Christian 8oman. and sharing in #art our umbrella. $efore she died she 8ished for t8o things to be carried out at her funeralKone 8as that she should be carried on (i#siesD shoulders all the 8ay to $rom#ton Cemetery. 8ith her accustomed care and 9indness. He is no8 giving his attention to the case of the (i#sies.uiescat in pace. the #hilanthro#ic and 8ellB9no8n #romoter of the T$ric9Bma9erDsD and TCanal $oatmanDsD )cts.mith. The great and good 8or9 of 1r. both re:uests 8ere carried out. )dams and his sonsK8ere soon over. a distance of some miles. and the #. living in one of the dar9est #laces in /ondon.or the com#rehensive genius of Christian sym#athy and labour had found her out. and a host of sym#athising neighbours. .D .

BBB had died in the 8or9house in $edfordshire. calls loudly for (overnment interference as regards the education of the children. one of 8hom is in the asylum.oon 8eDll reach the silvery river. 0here bright angelsD feet have trod. some in the $iggles8ade +nion.I &t has fre:uently been stated that the (i#sies never allo8 their #oor to go into the union 8or9houses. of one family 8here there are t8o #oor creatures. and to others 8ho love their country and see9s its 8elfare. the beautiful river. at )shbyBdeBlaBMouch. and this fact. that the time has arrived for the (i#sies to be ta9en hold of in a #lain.oon our ha##y hearts 8ill :uiver. That flo8s by the throne of (od. of the name of . . and u#on 8hose chee9s could be seen the tric9ling tears as 8e sung. During all my in:uiries. a fe8 connected 8ith his o8n family. viF. There 8as a time 8hen there 8as a little re#ugnance to the union. for a fact. 0ith the melody of #eace. to my mind. These #ainful facts 8ill #lainly sho8 to all ChristianBthin9ing men and 8omen. H.hall 8e gather at the river.lo8ing by the throne of (odN 3es. but this feeling has died out. and of another family 8here there is one. That flo8s by the throne of (od. told me only the other day that he 9ne8 an old (i#sy 8oman 8ho 8as living in the 1elton 1o8bray +nion 0or9house at the #resent time. The beautiful. 8hen the (i#sies have not fallen in 8ith all & have said 8ith reference to (i#sy life. commonBsense manner by those at the helm of affairs.oon our #ilgrimage 8ill cease. )braham . and mentioned some others 8ho had died in the union.. and #laced in such a #osition as to hel# themselves to some of the blessings 8e are in #ossession of ourselves.mith also further stated that nearly all the old #eo#le belonging to one family of . 0ith its crystal tide for ever . Clayton. in many res#ects. )nother thing has forced itself u#on my attention. and only next door to the asylum. mentioned the names of a doFen or more (i#sies of his ac:uaintance 8ho had died in the #. > !union of =esus before. thus adding another #roof that the (i#sies. )braham . and a number in various #arts 8here they are semiB idiotic. and misleading. 8eDll gather at the river. among others4K H. The beautiful. that there seems to be a number of #oor unfortunate idiots among them. . are not so good as 8hat they 8ere fifty years or more ago. the beautiful river. . false. & 9no8.ha8. #ractical. a res#ectable and an old Christian (i#sy.mith. this statement is both erroneous. 3es. 8eDll gather at the river. a (i#sy. and there 8ere others 8hose features beto9ened strong emotion.

but the :uestion of religion came u# and the children 8ere sent home. and 8hen #laced among the other children they #. dealing both 8ith our (i#sies and canalBboatmen. something of the H#ennyBgaffI style. in 8hich religious services could be held free from all sectarian bias. in their o8n localities. if any of the large number of (i#sies 8ho encam#ed in his #arish in the country. and no one to hand it to them or #ut them in the 8ay to hel# themselves. if & may use the term. > ?and at any rate.ixty years ago one of the /ovells sent three of his children to school. (eorge . 0hile this dense ignorance 8as manifest among the #oor (i#sy children at our doors 8e 8ere scattering the $ibles all over the 8orld. it must go further than that of a clergyman.ho8manDs or (i#syDs Church. & must confess that & am not a strong advocate for a strictly sectarian missionary organisation to be formed 8ith head:uarters in /ondon. should not be erected u#on raceBcourses.treet. and in the mar9etB#laces during fair time. #.I Hbig drums. There are times 8hen a short interesting service could be held 8ithout coming in collision 8ith the steam 8histles of the HroundBabouts. 0ith reference to missionary effort among the (i#sies. after he had been #reaching in the most fashionable church in Gensington.I re#orts from the Hrifle galleries. taught by Parta9 &very. and a #aid staff of officials. & thin9 it 8ould be better to have a number of organisations at 8or9 rather than one.or the life of me & cannot see 8hy tem#orary 8ooden erections. and 8hich could be called the . and #aid six#ence #er 8ee9 each 8ith them. &f the act is #assed u#on the basis & have laid do8n. > C8ere reduceable to order. The sin lays at some oneDs door. to convert the (i#sies.unday afternoon last year. 8hether u#on land or 8ater. at 'o. . 'ot that & am finding fault 8ith those 8ho ta9e an interest in foreign missions in the leastK8ould to (od that more 8ere done for every nation u#on the face of the globeKbut & do thin9 in matters relating to the 8elfare of the children 8e ought to loo9 more at home. and sending missionaries by hundreds to foreign lands and su##orting them by hundreds of thousands of #ounds gladly subscribed by our hardB8or9ing artisans and others. the result 8ill be that in course of time the (i#sies 8ill be localised. 5c.I the screams and shouts of stallB9ee#ers. and & 8ould not li9e to be in their shoes for something. & am strongly in favour of all sections of ChristDs Church dealing 8ith our floating #o#ulation. to the effect that. 8ho told me one . . . &very. and in a 9ind of s#irit of holy rivalry among themselves. C. &n 8hatever form missionary effort is #ut forth. said that he had had six (i#sy children sent to his school.they have all agreed 8ithout exce#tion to the #lan & have s9etched out for the education of their children and the registration of their tents. The schoolmaster. &n the days of Hoyland and $orro8 the (i#sies 8ere very anxious for the education of their children and struggled hard themselves to bring it about. &t is a standing disgrace and a shame to us as a nation #rofessing Christianity that at this time 8e had in our midst ten to fifteen thousand #oor little heathen children thirsting for 9no8ledge.

8omen. he returned the com#liment. but they lac9 the #o8er to enter. to a great extent. the (i#sy 8omanDs tenants in her cottages 8ere com#elled by the . . and insult. as fiction has done. and the strange #art of the thing is. Harshness. The 8aft of a scented #oc9etBhand9erchief across oneDs face by the hand of a fair #. /ast autumn & sa8 myself an encam#ment of (i#sies u#on Turnham (reen. &t is my decided o#inion that if the (i#sy children had been ta9en hold of at that day. . #ictures. and this is the case 8ith the sho8 #eo#leDs children. and #laced side by side 8ith the children of other 8or9ing classes. and there 8ere some sixty to seventy men.iery #ersecution 8ill only frustrate my ob<ect. and & have no 8ish to mince matters. bias. and not individuals.omeho8 or other the (i#sies 8ill. ) similar state of things to this exists in a more or less degree 8ith all the other encam#ments on the outs9irts of . for 8hich standing ground they #ay the (i#sy 8oman a rent of one shilling and six#ence #er 8ee9 each. their #resent and eternal salvation. and the teacher 8as loo9ing very #leasantly out of the door of the school u#on the #oor. 8ith some s#are land bet8een each cottage. and revelling in dirt and filth in the neighbourhood. but the (i#sies have got it in their heads that their children are not 8anted. ignorant children as they 8ere rolling about in the mud. fifty yearsD educational influences mean. ) tremendous res#onsibility and sin hangs. Hraised their hats to him as he #assed them. a shooting star and a flitting comet. shut the door of the school in the face of the #oor (i#sy child. The school 8as only half full. not one of 8hom could either read or 8rite. 8e should not by this time have had a (i#sy 8ig8am flitting about our country. be the conse:uences 8hat they may. and 8ill hang. (od 9no8s. 'either herself nor any of the (i#sies connected 8ith the encam#ment could tell a letter. &n another #art of /ondon a (i#sy o8ns some cottages. my country. or to #aint them 8hite. encam# near a school. or 8ill in the future. 8hile the (i#sy children 8ere running 8ild li9e colts. and extreme measures 8ill do no good 8ith the (i#sies. they :uic9ly come and they :uic9ly go. thoroughly. and turn it into the streets to #erish everlastingly. and some of them. To 8rite a boo9 full of glo8ing colour. u#on this land there is her o8n van and a number of other vans and tents.and not far from the vicarage. they are bad enough. fancies. there 8ere about thirty (i#sy children #laying u#on the schoolBfence. imagination. 8ithout #artiality. & have triedKho8 far & have succeeded it is not for me to sayKto ex#ose the evils. or fear. if #ossible. cruelty. no doubt.chool $oard officer to send their children to school. is both more #rofitable and #leasant.I Poor stuff this to educate their children and to civilise and Christianise their #arents. and all is in dar9ness blac9er than ever. about the nec9s of those 8ho have in the #ast. leaving no footste# behind them. and fiction. could send their children to school for a fe8 days occasionally. > and lovely damsel is only as a fleeting shado8 and a #assing va#our. rigid. in accordance 8ith my duty to my (od. and my conscience. and children of all ages. & am confident the (i#sies 8ill do their #art if a sim#le #lan for its accom#lishment can be set in motion.

the elder children then have the care of the younger ones. The #.ome money 8as given to the eldest sister to buy bread 8ith.outham#ton. *ne #oor 8oman relates that t8o of her children have thus lost their lives by fire during her absence from her tent at different #eriods./ondon. and & #ut the Christian )orld before him to see if he could read the large #. 8hich 8as only covered 8ith a ragged blan9et. Their children are then left in or about their solitary cam#s. The youngest child died. > @moment they sa8 their visitor. and after a fe8 days they 8ere #laced under #ro#er care. and only one blan9et to lay bet8ixt six children and the froFen ground. The children had stolen a fe8 green stic9s from the hedges. The youngest 8as s:uatted on the ground. instead of Christian )orld. 8ith nothing to cover them. The youngest of these children 8as three and the eldest seventeen years old. 8as found in one of the tents.I and there he stuc9 and could get no further. Those 8ho are old enough gather 8ood for fuel. The tent. and not to submit the (i#sy fathers to insult and ridicule. 8ith a vie8 to enlist hel# and sym#athy for the #oor children. 8as #itched on the lee side of a small ha8thorn bush. nor is stealing it thought a crime. and the 8eather 8as unusually cold. having many times no adult 8ith them. The follo8ing account 8ill faintly sho8 something of the hardshi#s of (i#sy childrenDs lives4K&t 8as 8inter. There 8as no stra8 in the tent. and endeavoured to lay bare some hard facts relating to (i#sy life in the #receding #art of this boo9. $y the cul#able neglect of the #arents in this res#ect the children are often ex#osed to accidents by fire. )t one of the large encam#ments & tried to find if there 8ere really any 8ho could read and 8rite. & have said some strong things. 'one of them had tasted bread for more than a day. and melancholy instances of children being burnt and scalded to death are not unfre:uent.rom the mode of living among the (i#sies. During last =une a (i#sy 8oman. 8ith her throat cut and her child . he called it HChristmas. &n addition to this 8retchedness the smaller children 8ere nearly na9ed. but they 8ould not burn. a short time after in conse:uence of having been so neglected in infancy.tra8 8as also #rovided for them to slee# on. and seldom returns to it before night. and some years ago a child 8as scalded to death at . on a common <ust outside /ondon. of the name of $isho#. ho8ever. sad to say. the mother is often necessitated to leave her tent in the morning. . The (i#sy lad 8ho they said 8as Ha clever scholardI 8as brought to me. and to #ut this to the test & too9 the Christian )orld and the Christian Glo e 8ith me. the little ones re#eatedly shouted. . there being much sno8 on the ground. at 8hich their <oy 8as greatly increased. and gna8ing a froFen turni# 8hich had been stolen from an ad<oining field. four 8ere measured for clothes. her little feet and legs bare. HHere is the gemman come for us_I . > 8letters.

from H(et out you 8retch and fetch some money. sub<ecting them to fearful oaths and curses. sic9ening. used 8ith murderous #assion. & have seen them 8ith their faces as red as if they 8ere u#on the #oint of being roasted. &n another #art of /ondonK#. and sometimes lie so near to the co9e fires as to be in danger of burning. 8hat a delusion_ from rags to sil9s and satins. sometimes gathering buttercu#s and daisies. 0hat a contrast. & have yet to learn that starvation. from turni#s and diseased bacon to 8ine and biscuits. and inflicting u#on the #oor children blo8s 8ith stic9s. 8as going to sit the same afternoon for a leading artist u#on a throne as a .#anish :ueen. farther than it 8as for a trifling affair. allo8ing their children to gro8 u# infinitely 8orse than barbarians. and disgusting bac9yard & have ever been intoKto such an extent 8as the stench that immediately & came out of it & had to get a little brandy or & should have faintedKthe eldest girl of 8hom had her time #retty fully ta9en u# by sitting as an artistDs model in the costume of a #easant girl. )n im#ression has gone the round for years that the (i#sies are exceedingly 9ind and affectionate to their children. at other times as a young lady #laying at cro:uet on the la8n and gambolling 8ith children. although dressed in rags. no matter ho8.I to HCome here. in one 8ord. T8o such (i#sy girls have come under my o8n notice. and the man 8ith 8hom she cohabitedKtrue to his (i#sy characterKrefused to ans8er any :uestions concerning this horrible affair. and yet they can bear to travel in the severest cold bareBheaded. from hell to heaven all in an hourKsuch is one side of (i#sy life among the little (i#sies. and drin9ing the 8ater as broth. 8ith no other covering . healthy brothers and fathers at home in idleness and sin. in some instances it. from beds of rotten stra8 to crimson and goldBcovered chairs. occasionally she 8ould be #ainted as a country mil9Bgirl driving the co8s to #asture. the eldest girl. or death must have been the result. and childish sim#licity fiction 8ould #icture to our minds concerning these %nglish barbarians as they cam# on the mossy ban9s on a hot summer day. fortunately. is true. at other times gathering roses and ma9ing buttonBholes for gentlemenDs coats and #lacing them there 8ith gentle hands and a smiling face. it missed the #oor childDs head. from a filthy abode not fit for #igs to a #alace. exhibits much of the lambB li9e s#irit. no doubt. >801ary PlaceK& found a family of (i#sies living under stic9s and rags in the most filthy. but they are rare indeed if & may <udge from a##earances. my dear. to 8ithin an inch of their lives. (i#sy children are fond of a great degree of heat. and it is in this 8ay (i#sy girls are found ex#osing their bodies to 9ee# their big.lying dead by her side in a #ool of blood. is there anything & can do for youNI from the stench of a cess#ool to the fragrance of the honeysuc9le and s8eetbriar. doveBli9e innocence. &n visiting an encam#ment last autumn & came across six (i#sy children having their dinner off three small boiled turni#s. &n the #resence of myself and a friend one of these la8less fello8s very recently hurled a log of 8ood at a #oor (i#sy childDs head for an offence 8hich 8e could not learn. from tram#ling among dead cats to a car#et com#osed of 8ild flo8ers. and no doubt there are scores of similar cases. not one of 8hom can read a sentence or 8rite one 8ord.

in the de#th of 8inter. 'o fire in the tent. 'o one can deny the fact that some of the children loo9 8ell. i4e4. many strangeB loo9ing children in their tents 8ithout the least shado8 of a similarity to the adults in either habits. and cruelty. & have been struc9 very forcibly lately in visiting some of the hordes of (i#sies 8ith the vast number of children the (i#sies bring into the 8orld and the fe8 that are reared. at least some of them. but. neglect. They are the breadB8inners. a##earance. )t one encam#ment there 8ere forty men and 8omen and only about the same number of children to be seen. The cause of their bodily :ualities. a vast number loo9 :uite the reverse of this.ormerly the (i#sies.ometimes my #ity for the #oor things has led me to #ut a :uestion or t8o bearing u#on the sub<ect to the (i#sies. and the ans8er has been. the sin attending such a course is dogging them at every footste# they ta9e.ome of them have told me that they 8al9 on an average over t8elves miles a day. thrive and loo9 8ell under their manner of living. The mother.I 0hen & have as9ed if the fathers and mothers 8ere (i#sies a little hesitation 8as manifested.ometimes the thought has occurred to me that they 8ere the children of sin. and cannot.ome of the #oor things seemed shy and reserved. . #. does not. arises from their education and hardy manner of life.than some old rags carelessly thro8n over them. the men have to do something. The hardshi#s the 8omen have to undergo are most heartrending. on the other hand. conse:uently. ta9es her three monthsD old child either in her arms or on her bac9. 8hen there 8as less %nglish blood in their veins. >8>dro##ed 8ith no satisfactory ans8er to my mind. . &n cases of confinements. bad blood. >81. u#on those of our o8n countrymen 8ho have forsa9en the right #ath. and 8ith six little children crying round them for bread. not8ithstanding the fact that he has let go all moral and social res#ect and restraint over his conduct and <oined the (i#sies. & have seen them on their return to their 8ig8ams. or conversation. . and :uite out of their element. and this & see more and more every day. & donDt lay at the door of their 8ig8am the sin of childBstealing. & have my o8n idea about the matter. )n %nglishman is born for a nobler #ur#ose than to lead a vagabondDs life and end his days in scratching among filth and vermin in a (i#syDs 8ig8am. 8ith six inches of sno8 on the ground. could stand the extreme changes and hardshi#s of the %nglish climate much better than no8. HThe #oor things have lost their father and mother. and 8anders the streets or lanes in foul or fair 8eatherKin heat or cold. and her husband idling about in other tents. )t another encam#ment & found double the :uantity of children to adult (i#sies. or they . #ictures of starvation. but this & have seen. and the sub<ect #. in order to #rocure a morsel of food. manner. . )n %nglishman. and #ut out of the 8ay to esca#e shame being #ainted u#on the bac9 of their #arents. and scantily clad.

from 8andering u# and do8n the country. so says Hoyland. )t . in /eicestershire. and to #rovide themselves 8ith suitable and #ro#er clothing. they 8ere to :uit their (i#sy manner of life and settle. as a rule. the follo8ing may be mentioned4 R1S They 8ere #rohibited from d8elling in huts and tents. and they 8ere not to converse in any other language but that of any of the countries in 8hich they chose to reside. The children 8ere literally born under the hedge bottom. ) (i#sy 8oman told me a 8ee9 or t8o since that her mother had told her that she 8as born under the hedge bottom in $ag8orth /ane. removed from their #arents. in order. relations. & should thin9 that & am s#ea9ing 8ithin com#ass 8hen & state that t8oBthirds of the (i#sies travelling about the country have been born under 8hat they call the Hhedge bottom. streets. li9e the other inhabitants. Their children 8ere #rohibited running about their houses. by overseers a##ointed for that #ur#ose. and their children at their heels. at a distance from their #arents or relations. the rags he 8as 8ra##ed in are thro8n on one side.chOtt. in cities or villages. . that. his father sent #. and to have a better education given to them. in . This 9ind of disgraceful #rocedure is not far removed from that of animals.or a fe8 days they 8a9e u# out of their idle dreams. He is then #ut to trial to see ho8 far his legs 8ill carry him. RCS That from such (i#sies 8ho 8ere married and had families. and to give #roof of their Christian dis#osition. >8Ahim into the to8n and among the villagesK8ith no other covering u#on him only a #iece of an old shirtKto bring either bread or money home. and their children educated. 0hen & :uestioned her on the sub<ect. she rather gloried in the fact that they had not time to stic9 the tentBstic9s into the ground. the child. RAS )fter some months from the #assing of the )ct. or intercourse 8ith the (i#sy race. Clayton told me that 8hen he 8as a boy of about t8elve. R S They 8ere en<oined to attend church regularly. 0hen a boy attains three years of age. & 9no8 of (i#sy 8omen 8ho have trudged along 8ith their loads. from eating animals 8hich died of themselves and carrion. from dealing in horses. and they 8ere not to 8ear large cloa9s. R>S They 8ere to be called 'e8 $oors instead of (i#sies.tate #ro<ects #ut forth in Hungary more than a century since to im#rove the condition of the (i#sies. )mong some of the .8ould all starve. all the children of the 'e8 $oors R(i#siesS above five years old 8ere carried a8ay in 8aggons on the night of the t8entyBfirst of December. and they 8ere not to be allo8ed to slee# #romiscuously by each other 8ithout distinction of sex. The (i#sy 8omen use no cradles. and 8ithout any tent or #rotection 8hatever. they might be more usefully educated and sent to 8or9. and in the district of Prassburg. the children should be ta9en a8ay by force. to 8ithin the last five minutes of their confinement. or roads na9ed. R?S They 8ere to be taught the #rinci#les of religion. and he is e:ually ex#osed 8ith the #arents to the severest 8eather. R!S 'o (i#sy 8as allo8ed to marry 8ho could not #rove himself in a condition to #rovide for and maintain a 8ife and children. no matter ho8. slee#s on the ground.I i4e4. in tents and li9e #laces. 1 A. 8hich 8ere chiefly used .ahlendorf.

or an uneducated (i#sy in our land. be that as it may. 0hat a different as#ect 8ould have #resented itself ere this. these C. The blame 8ill lay heavily u#on some one 8hen the accounts are made u#. %ast8oods.000 (i#sy men could have bought and 9e#t under cultivation some >0. -oberts.miths. and are tillers of the soil. and ma9e a s:uea9ing noise through .im#sons. Careys. their idiots to our asylums. and 8ere only to be #ermitted to amuse themselves 8ith music 8hen their dayDs 8or9 8as finished. /ovells. 8e should not by this time have had a (i#syBtent in the country. . they 8ere suitable to the condition of the Hungarian (i#sies. There is only one instance of them #aying rates for their vans. The Hungarian (i#sies are educated.000 acres of land for the 8ellBbeing of themselves and for the good of the country. Ta9e a8ay =ohn $ hide the #. and carry out revenge u#on those 8ho attem#t to frustrate their evil designs.000 (i#sies among us had been tilling our 8aste lands and commons for the last century. mend a chair. should have had in our midst for more than three centuries 1C. &t is a##alling and humiliating to thin9 that 8e. clatter about 8ith their feet. Their highest ambition is to learn slang. R8S They 8ere to be 9e#t to agriculture. indifference. Palmers. as a Christian nation. and a fe8 other little things of this 9ind. &t is a blac9. and next to nothing being done to reclaim them from their 8orse than midnight dar9ness. There is neglect. and a#athy some8here. ra# their 9nuc9les on a tambourine. clothesB #egs. threaten vengeance. and not contributed one farthing to their maintenance and su##ort. >8Croads.000 #oor ignorant )siatic heathens. $os8ells. sent their #au#ers to our 8or9houses. They have cadged at our doors. a fe8 of the . 5c. )ll these suggestions and #lans of o#eration may not suit %nglish life. ) heavy sin and res#onsibility lays at our doors. and 8hat do 8e findNKa blac9 army of human beings 8ho have done next to nothingKcom#aratively s#ea9ingKfor the countryDs good. roll in the ditch. the highest state of #erfection they have arrived at is to be able to ma9e and tie u# a bundle of s9e8ers. burning shame and disgrace to see herds of healthyBloo9ing girls and great stra##ing youths gro8ing u# in ignorance and idleness. if the C. naturally shar# and clever. 8orn our #. tic9le the guitar. and no doubt laid the foundation for the im#rovement that has ta9en #lace among them. and that is at $lac9#ool. /ees. lived on our commons.000 to >0. Coo#ers. s#lit a clothesB#eg. and 8hoever 8as remiss in his 8or9 8as to be liable to cor#oral #unishment. s#read smallB#ox and fevers. been fed from our tables. >8!things they had stolen. R@S The magistrates at every #lace 8ere to be very attentive to see that no (i#sy 8asted his time in idleness. %xce#ting s9e8ers. -ates and taxes are un9no8n to them. they have not manufactured anything. not so much as exerting themselves to 8ash the filth off their bodies or ma9e anything better than s9e8ers. Hearns. &f a #lan similar in some res#ects had been carried out 8ith our (i#sies at the same #eriod.. tin9er a 9ettle. seeBsa8 on an old fiddle. 0ith #ro#er management.

and H8itching eyes. 5c. at a hundred #oor -ussian emigrants landing u#on our shores. $efore the (overnment tac9led them. and have done something for the countryDs goodKand 8hose fault is it that there are not moreN They have been the agents of hell. and teach them to use their o8n 8ings.I . and the schoolmaster and sanitary officers are the agencies to do it.itting by and admiring their H#retty facesI and H8itching eyesI 8ill not save their souls. carrying out the designs of the infernal regions at the ti# end of the roots of our national life. and it may be re#eated a thousand times. The most that can be said in their favour is.tate has ta9en in hand a more dangerous classK#erha#s the most dangerousKin #.I the (i#sies 8ill be 8orse off in fifty years hence than they are no8. scarlet cloa9s. loafing. that a fe8 of them have become res#ectable Christians and hardB8or9ing men and 8omen. and that s#eedily. stoc9ings. . and a dry sermon.. educate their children. 8or9ing out . the Thugs.000 young and old (i#sies at 8or9. >8?*nly the other day the country 8as much shoc9ed. 8ritten fifty years ago. the #oor (i#sy race. if they 8ill only 8or9. turn them out. flimsy veil of romance torn to shreds.. circumstances consideredKand 8here does the blame layNKu#on our o8n shoulders for not #aying more attention to the education and 8elfare of their children. 0e must do as the eagle does 8ith her young4 8e must cause a little fluster among them. The -ev.their teeth. so that they may begin to flounder for themselves. 8hen 8e shall have the scales ta9en off our eyes. viF. and is teaching them useful trades and honest industry 8ith most encouraging results. )ll the #oliceBofficer must do 8ill be to ta9e charge of those 8ho #refer to fall to the ground rather than to struggle for life 8ith its attendant #leasures and en<oyments. and yet 8e have t8o hundred times this :uantity of (i#sies among us. nor 8ill #resenting to them bread. Crabb did half a century ago. or #ut them in the 8ay of earning an honest livelihood. /et us the 9ind fruits of your tenderness #rove. &t is not #ityK8hining. they 8ere idling. CobbinDs (i#syDs #etition. >8 &ndia. Ta9e them u#. cheese. #. syco#hantic #ityKalone that 8ill do them good. as 1r.atanDs designs. and 8e :uietly stand by and ta9e no notice of their 8retched condition. blan9ets.I has been little better than beating the air. oh_ #ity. The time 8ill come.or the life of me & can find no more be8itching beauty among them than can be found in our bac9 slums any day. and 8e have stood by laughing and admiring their soBcalled #retty faces. vigour. . render them #ermanent hel#. and the thin. &t is truly horrible to thin9 that 8e have had 1C. )nd #ity. H*h_ ye 8ho have tasted of mercy and love.000 to >0. 1r. and Christianity. The men are clever and can get money sufficient to 9ee# their families comfortable even at s9e8erBma9ing and chairBmending. but if nothing further is done more than H#ity. The . and rightly so. ale. that fiction and romance call singing. )nd shared in the blessings of #ardoning grace.

rambling, and robbing all over the country, ali9e to our (i#sies; no8 they have settled do8n and become useful and good citiFens. &n 'or8ay the (i#sies are #ut into #rison, and there 9e#t till they have learnt to read and 8rite. &n Hungary the (overnment has a##ointed a s#ecial 1inister to loo9 after them, and see that they are being #ro#erly educated and brought u#. &n -ussia, the la8s #assed for their im#risonment has had the effect of causing them, to a great extent, to settle do8n to useful trades, and they are forming themselves into colonies. )nd so, in li9e manner, in .#ain, (ermany, ,rance, and other %uro#ean countries, ste#s have been ta9en to bring about an im#rovement among them. &n these countries nearly the 8hole of the (i#sies can read and 8rite; and 8e, of all others, 8ho ought to have set the exam#le a century ago in the 8ay of educating the (i#sy children, have stood by 8ith folded arms, and let them drift into ruin. & claim it to be our dutyKand it 8ill be to our shame if 8e do notKto see to the 8elfare of the (i#sy children for four reasons. ,irst, that they are &ndians, and under the rule of our noble Jueen; second, that they are in our midst, and ought to ta9e their share of the blessings, duties, and res#onsibilities #ertaining to the rest of the community; third, that as a Christian nation, #rofessing to lead the van and to set forth the blessings of Christianity and civilisation; and, fourth, their universal desire for the education of their children, and to contribute their :uota, ho8ever small, to the countryDs good, and for the eternal 8elfare of their o8n children; and & do not thin9 that there 8ill be any ob<ection on their #art to it being brought about on the #lan & have briefly s9etched out. & fancy & can hear some of the artists 8ho have been delighted 8ith (i#sy modelsKthe novelists 8ho have hung many a tale u#on the s9irts of their garmentsKthe #. >88dramatists 8ho have trotted them before the curtain to #lease the #ublic, and some oldBfashioned croa9ers, 8ho delight in allo8ing things to be as they have al8ays beenKthe same yesterday, toBday, and for everKsaying, Hlet everybody loo9 after their o8n children;I and then, in a #laintive tone, singingK H0oodman, s#are that tree_ Touch not a single bough; &n youth it sheltered me, )nd &Dll #rotect it no8.I ,irst,K& 8ould have all movable or tem#orary habitations, used as d8ellings, registered, numbered, and the name and address of the o8ner or occu#ier #ainted in a #rominent #lace on the outside, i4e4, on all tents, (i#sy vans, auctioneersD vans, sho8menDs vans, and li9e #laces, and under #ro#er sanitary arrangements in a manner analogous to the Canal $oats )ct of 18 . .econd,K'ot less than one hundred cubic feet of s#ace for each female above the age of t8elve, and each male above the age of fourteen; and not less than

fifty cubic feet of s#ace for each female young #erson under the age of t8elve, and for each male under the age of fourteen. Third,K'o male above the age of fourteen, and no female above the age of t8elve, should be allo8ed to slee# in the same tent or van as man and 8ife, unless se#arate slee#ing accommodation be #rovided for each male of the age of fourteen, and for each female of the age of t8elve; and also 8ith #ro#er regard for #artitions and suitable ventilation. ,ourth,K) registration certificate to be obtained, rene8able at any of the offices of the +rban or -ural sanitary authorities throughout the country, for 8hich the o8ner or occu#ier of the tent or van should #ay the sum of ten shillings annually, commencing on the first of =anuary in each year. ,ifth,KThe com#ulsory attendance at school of all #. >8@travelling children, or others living in tem#orary or unrateable d8ellings, u# to the age re:uired by the %lementary %ducation )cts, 8hich attendance should be facilitated and brought about by means of a school #assBboo9, in 8hich the childrenDs names, ages, and grade could be entered, and 8hich #assBboo9 could be made a##licable to children living and 8or9ing on canalBboats, and also to other 8andering children. The #assBboo9 to be easily #rocurable at any boo9sellerDs for the sum of one shilling. .ixth,KThe travelling children should be at liberty to go to either 'ational, $ritish, $oard, or other schools, under the management of a #ro#erlyB:ualified schoolmaster, and 8hich schoolmaster should sign the childrenDs #assBboo9, sho8ing the number of times the children had attended school during their tem#orary stay. .eventh,KThe cost for the education of these 8andering children should be #aid by the guardians of the #oor out of the #oor rates, a #ro#er account being 9e#t by the schoolmaster and delivered to the #arochial authorities :uarterly. %ighth,KPo8er to be given to any #ro#erlyB:ualified sanitary officer, .chool $oard visitor or ins#ector, to enter the tents, vans, canalBboats, or other movable or tem#orary habitations, at any time or in any #lace, and detain, if necessary, for the #ur#ose of seeing that the la8 8as being #ro#erly carried out; and any one obstructing such officer in his duty, and not carrying out the la8, to be sub<ect to a fine or im#risonment for each offence. 'inth,K&t 8ould be 8ell if arrangements could be made 8ith lords of manors, the (overnment, or others 8ho are o8ners of 8aste lands, to grant those (i#sies 8ho are 8ithout vans, and living in tents only, #rior to the act coming into force, a long lease at a nominal rent of, say, half an acre or an acre of land, for ninetyBnine years, on #ur#ose to encourage them to settle do8n to the cultivation of it, and to ta9e to honest industryKas many of them are #re#ared to do. $y this means a number of the (i#sies 8ould collect #. >@0together on

the marshes and commons, and no doubt other useful and #rofitable occu#ation 8ould be the outcome of the (i#sies being thus localised, and in 8hich their children could and 8ould ta9e an im#ortant #art; and in addition to these things the social and educational advantages to be rea#ed by follo8ing such a course 8ould be many. & have not the least doubt in my mind but that if a la8 be #assed embodying these brief, but rough, suggestions, on the one hand, and ste#s are ta9en to encourage them to settle do8n, in accordance 8ith the idea thro8n out in clause nine, on the other, 8e shall not have in fifty years hence an uneducated (i#sy in our midst. 1any of the (i#sies are anxious, & 9no8, for some ste#s to be ta9en for the children to be brought u# to 8or9. The o#eration of the #resent Ha89ersD and PedlarsD )ct is acting very detrimental to the interests of the (i#sy children, as none are allo8ed to carry a licence under the age of sixteen, conse:uently all (i#sy children, exce#t a fe8 8ho assist in ma9ing #egs and s9e8ers, are neither going to school nor yet are they learning a trade or in fact 8or9 of any 9ind; they are sim#ly living in idleness, and under the influence of evil training that carries mischief underneath the surface. &t is truly a##alling to thin9 that over seven hundred thousand shar#, clever, 8ellBformed human beings, and 8ith #lenty of muscular #o8er, have, as & have said before, been roaming about %uro#e for many centuries 8ith no ob<ect before them, and accom#lishing nothing. .omething li9e ten millions of (i#sies have been born, lived, died, and gone into the other 8orld since they set foot u#on %uro#ean soil, and 8hat have they doneN 8hat 8or9 have they accom#lishedN )las_ alas_ 8orse than a ci#her might be 8ritten against them. They have lived in the midst of beauty, songsters, romance, and fiction, and they have been surrounded by everything that 8ould hel# to call forth natural energy, mechanical s9ill, and ability, but they have been in some senses li9e children #laying in the street gutters. They have #. >@1the elements of success 8ithin them, but no one has ta9en them by the hand to #ut them u#on the first ste#, at any rate, so far as %ngland is concerned. &t is grievous to thin9 that not one of these ten millions of (i#sies 8ho have gone the 8ay of all flesh has 8ritten a boo9, #ainted a #ainting, com#osed any #oetry, 8orth calling #oetry, #roduced a minister 8orthy of much noteKat least, & can only hear of one or t8o. They have fine voices as a rule, and exce#t some halfB doFen (i#sies no firstBrate musicians have s#rung from their midst. 'o engineer, no mechanicKin fact, no nothing. The highest state of their manufacturing s9ill has been to ma9e a fe8 sli##ers for the feet, as some of them are doing at /ynn; s9e8ers to stic9 into meat, for 8hich they have done nothing to8ards feeding; #egs to hang out other #eo#leDs linen, some tin9ering, chairBbottoming, 9nifeBgrinding, and a little light smith 8or9, and a fe8 have made a little money by horseBdealing. There are others clever at Hma9ing shiftsI and roadside tents, and 8ill #ut u# 8ith almost anything rather than #ut forth much energy. .ince the (i#sies landed in this country

more than one hundred and fifty thousand have been born, #rinci#ally, as they say, Hunder the hedge bottom,I lived, and died. They are gone Hand their 8or9s do follo8 them.I Their #resent degraded condition in this country may be laid u#on our bac9s. This boo9, 8ith its many faults and fe8 virtues, is my o8n as in the case of my others, and all may be laid u#on my bac9; and my ob<ect in saying hard and un#alatable things about the #oor, ignorant (i#sy 8anderers in our midst is not to ex#ose them to ridicule, or to cause the finger of scorn to be #ointed at them or to any one connected 8ith them, but to try to influence the hearts of my countrymen to extend the hand of #ractical sym#athy, and hel# to rescue the #oor (i#sy children from dro##ing into the vortex of ruin, as so many thousands have done before. &t is not unli9ely but that & shall, in saying #lain things about the (i#sies, ex#ose myself to some inconvenience, misre#resentation, malice, and s#ite from #. >@>those 8ho 8ould 9ee# the (i#sies in ignorance, and also from shado8 #hilanthro#ists, 8ho are al8ays on the loo9 out for other #eo#leDs brains; but these things, so long as (od gives me strength, 8ill not deter me from doing 8hat & consider to be right in the interest of the children, so long as & can see the finger of Providence #ointing the 8ay, and it is to Him & must loo9 for the re8ard, H0ell done,I 8hich 8ill more than re#ay me for all the inconvenience & have undergone, or may have still to undergo, in the cause of the Hlittle ones.I That man is no real friend to the (i#sies 8ho see9s to im#rove them by flattery and dece#tion. ) (i#sy, 8ith all his faults, li9es to be dealt fairly and o#enly 8ithKa little #raise but no flattery suits him. They can #ractise cunning, but they do not care to have any one #ractising it u#on them. & dare not be sanguine enough to ho#e that & shall be successful, but & have tried thus far to sho8, first, the #ast and #resent condition of the (i#sies; second, the little 8e, as a nation, have done to reclaim them; and, third, 8hat 8e ought to do to im#rove them in the future, so as to remove the stigma from our shoulders of having >0,000 to A0,000 (i#sies, sho8 #eo#le, and others living in vans, 5c., in our midst, fast drifting into heathenism and barbarism, not five #er cent. of 8hom can read and 8rite, at least, so far as the (i#sies are concerned; and those children travelling 8ith HgingerbreadI stalls, rifle galleries, and auctioneers are but little better, for all the #arents tell me their children lose in the summer 8hat little they learn at school in the 8inter, for the 8ant of means being ado#ted 8hereby their children could go to school during the daytime as they are travelling through the country 8ith their 8ares, i4e4, at their haltingB#laces. &n bringing this boo9 to a close, & 8ould say, in the name of all that is <ust, fair, honourable, and reasonable, in the name of science, religion, #hiloso#hy, and humanity, and in the name of all that is ChristBli9e, (odBli9e, and heavenly, #. >@A& as9, nay & claim, the attention of our noble JueenK8hose dee# interest in the children of the labouring #o#ulation is unboundedK

)s the (overnment in 18 #assed an act. and my countrymen to the condition of the (i#sies and their children. are on the increase. our (i#sies ought and have as much need to be ta9en in hand and their condition im#roved by the . Christians.ifth. therefore.I and to deal out to them measures that 8ill Christianise and civilise them to such an extent that the (i#sies 8ill not in the future be deserving of the e#ithets #assed u#on them by the (overnment for their sins of omission and commission. and lost (i#sy children in our midst. >@!the (overnment to ado#t some means to catch the young hedgeBbottom H$ob -ats. sho8 #eo#le. and other infectious diseases are at times very #revalent among themKa medical officer being called in only under the rarest occasionKand as the tents and vans are not under any sanitary arrangements. 8ho cannot read and 8rite.I dealing #retty much 8ith the same class of #eo#le as the (i#sies and other travelling children. but their children are going 8ithout education. or amending the Canal $oats )ct. 8hose condition is herein feebly described. . to gro#e about in the dar9 as their inclinations might lead them. as no #rovision is made in the education acts to meet cases of this 9ind. and over 8hich country our Jueen is the %m#ress. a class similar in many res#ects to our (i#sies. 8hich & venture to thin9 has been satisfactorily #roved. in accordance 8ith the #lan & have laid do8n. but too9 no ste#s at the same time to im#rove their condition or even to encourage them to get u#on the right #aths for leading an honourable and industrious life.irst. in all fairness. . for #. and embodying the suggestions herein contained. a#art from the (i#sies. 5c. called HThe Canal $oats )ct. 8hich have hitherto been left out in the cold. to extend the #rinci#le to those living in tents and vans. they ought. & thin9.. #raying them to ado#t measures and to #ass such la8s that 8ill 8i#e out the disgrace of having so many thousands of #oor. the time has no8 come.ourth. urgent need for some sort of sanitary su#ervision and control to be exercised over their 8retched habitations to #revent the s#read of disease in such a stealthy manner. . $y bringing the (i#sy children under the influence of the . $y travelling u# and do8n the country in this 8ay they not only esca#e rates and taxes. conse:uently. Their &ndian origin. the (overnment 8ill com#lete the educational system and bring under the educational and sanitary la8s the lo8est dregs of society. The families 8ho are see9ing a living as ha89ers. both in <ustice and e:uity.statesmen. fevers. uneducated. 8retched.tate as the Thugs in &ndia have been. and 8hose cause & have ventured to ta9e in hand. 8ith such beneficial results.econd. ignorant. )s the (overnment too9 ste#s some three centuries ago to class the (i#sies as rogues and vagabonds. as & suggest. $y #assing an )ct of Parliament. )s smallB#ox. Third. . on the follo8ing groundsK . there is.ixth.

and the (i#sies 8ill be glad to ma9e some sacrifices to carry it out if the (overnment 8ill do their #art in the matter. the Chinese. and liberal la8s. children 8or9ing in bric9Byards. and blind to our 8or9houses. >@?ini:uity 8ithout shedding u#on their #ath the light of (os#el truths or the blessings of education. live in our lanes. . )s a Christian nation #rofessing to send the (os#el all over the 8orld. and not less than 1C0. in fact. and a thousand others. the Tur9. the . 'inth. 8hen he 8as at the head of the %ducation De#artment under the /iberal (overnment.P.P. >@C9ind use our roads.ea &slander. 0e have #assed la8s to im#rove the condition of the agricultural labourerDs child.000 (i#sies moving among us. 0e have allo8ed them to 8ander and lose themselves in the dar9 8ilds of sin and #. halt. 8here thousands have died before. children 8or9ing in factories. or in the cemeteries or churchyards.andon. the blac9. as & have sho8n #reviously. locate on our commons. children 8or9ing and living on canalBboats. 8hen he 8as at the head of the %ducation De#artment under the Conservative (overnment. There is an universal desire among #eo#le of the classes & have before referred to for the education of their children. the 8hite. either under 8ater. but in matters concerning the interests and 8elfare of the (i#sies 8e are. #eace u#on earth and goodB8ill to8ards men every8here. as Christians of Christian %ngland. but 8e have done nothing for the #oor (i#sy child or its home. Tenth. and yetKand it is 8ith sadness. 0. & have not met 8ith one exce#tion during my in:uiries. righteous. among the .eventh. or to educate their children. /ord . carrying them out on the #lan of tem#ering <ustice 8ith mercy. The (i#sies and other travellers of the same #. )s a civilised country 8e are su##osed to lead the van in civilising the 8orld by #assing the most humane. climbing boys. the )frican. maimed.000 have died and been buried. 1. or on the roadside. the free. in fact every8here 8here an %nglishman goes the (os#el is su##osed to go too. %. to ta9e ste#s for the conversion of the (i#sies in &ndia.. and 8e. have not s#ent 1C0. and asylums. and through its second stages by the -ight Hon. <ust. and send their #oor. infirmaries. and they have as9ed for fish and 8e have given them a ser#ent. &n things #ertaining to their #resent and eternal 8elfare they have as9ed for bread and 8e have given them a stone. sorro8. . to #reach glad tidings.orster.schoolmaster our la8Bma9ers 8ill be adding the last stro9e to the system of com#ulsory education introduced and carried into la8 through its first difficult and intricate #hases by the -ight Hon. in the ditches. to8ards the su##ort of 8hich they do not contribute one farthing. children 8or9ing in mines. 1..000 #ence to reclaim the adult (i#sies. the bond. #erforming boys. and shame & relate itK8e have had on an average during the last three hundred and sixtyB five years not less than 1C.outh . and toBday the (i#sy children are dying. on the commons. a long 8ay in the rear. %ighth.

IK The Graphic. H-eaders of 1r. 8here art thouN Call on our gods and they shall come. Her head and streaming loc9s are bare. p. THE LIFE OF GEORGE SMITH9 OF COALVILLE. . H)n aged 8oman 8al9s along. . . of him. 32=<OR5S PUBLISHED BY HAUGHTON > CO. 9ust #u lished. Graphic.brambles and in the thic9et of bad exam#le. 10.. and other <ournals and magaFines.o mote it be.he sadly sobs T1y child. cloth oards. into 8hich 8e have allo8ed them to stray blinded by the evil associations of (i#sy life.I H.mith among the (i#sy children.mithDs letters in numerous #a#ers. Haughton 5 Co. ignorance.I /ondon4 Printed by H)+(HT*' 5 C*. %. 8ill be read 8ith interest by all. . 8ill be glad to #ossess this little 8or9.IK Capital and La our. and of his descri#tive articles in the Illustrated London News.mith. my child_DI ) faint voice is heard in the distance calling outK H1y dying daughter. The boo9 is elegantly #rinted on good #a#er. and the un#retending memoir <ust #ublished by 1essrs. and is embellished 8ith an excellent #ortrait and 8ith an engraving of 1r. to 8hose dee# sym#athy and ceaseless effort the #o#ulations of our bric9B yards and canals o8e so much. Her #iercing scream is on the air.9 %19 PATERNOSTER RO<9 LONDON. of Coalville. HThe name of (eorge .C. price 1s4 ?d4. Paternoster -o8. and evil training. 8hich tells the story of his career in a brief but interesting manner. is familiar as household 8ords.

mith.HThis is Ta cha#terD in #hilanthro#y. 'e8 %dition. HThe notorious state of T*ur Canal Po#ulation. and contains an excellent #ortrait of the great social reformer..mith. Coalville. and should be read by all 8ho desire to #ossess increasing Feal in rescuing the #erishing. /eicester.D &f only a #art of the statements made 8ere true it 8ould be enough to ma9e the ears of them that hear it tingle for #ity and shame. H) fine biogra#hy. OUR CANAL POPULATION: A CRY FROM THE BOAT CABINS9 <ITH REMEDY.mith.IK "ree #ress. This volume is an excellent s9etch of 1r.1&TH. H)lthough the statements made by 1r. yet it contains three times as much in the 8ay of #ractical #hilanthro#y as 8ould suffice to ma9e any man a benefactor to his generation. it contains a ca#ital li9eness. &t is 8ell that this fascinating s9etch should be given to the 8orld.u##lement.. . furnishes the most incredible details of 8hat is going on on our silent high8ays. H) smartly 8ritten biogra#hy of a man 8ho may be <ustly termed the ChildrenDs . (eorge . and in 8hose condition 1r. selfBdenying. is described as Trevolting and intolerable.riend. of Coalville. . (eorge .IKChristian Age.mith. 8hich every one should read in order to understand the noble character of a man 8ho must be #ronounced a great benefactor. H) little boo9 called T*ur Canal Po#ulation. (eorge . His devoted. have become familiar and 8elcome to multitudes in (reat $ritain. >@8#rice As4 ?d4.D of our country and time. has a8a9ened #ublic interest. are concisely and vividly set forth in this neat volume.IK The Christian. . o#en to the charge of exaggeration. and more recently the (i#sy Tarabs.mith.mith has earned the . $y (%*-(% . #. with Illustrations. in some instances. H&n this boo9 8e are #resented 8ith a s9etch of the life and laboursKlabours 8hich have been attended 8ith a large measure of successKof one of the most devoted of living #hilanthro#ists. in the main they 8ere largely correct. the canal #o#ulation.. &t is 8ell got u#.D 8ere doubtless. of Coalville.. cloth oards.IK Daily News. in T*ur Canal Po#ulation.IK!cots(an. HThe name of (eorge . 8ith . and his noble 8or9 amongst the canalBboat fol9 and the (i#sies. 1r.D the 8omen and children 8ho live on barges.D lately #ublished and 8ritten by 1r. of Coalville.).IK$orning Advertiser.IKLiterary )orld. #ersistent. and successful endeavours on behalf of the bric9Byard children.

no8 in its sixth edition. 8hose hearts bleed at the story of its 8rongs and lea# for <oy at any humane or beneficial measures on its behalf.IKDaily Telegraph.IKDaily Chronicle. came into o#eration an )ct Rthe !0 and !1 2ic. HThis boo9. Hitherto T*ur Canal Po#ulationD 8ere left #retty much to themselves.IK)ee*ly Ti(es. 8ho has done so much for the 8ellBbeing of T*ur Canal Po#ulation. HThis gentleman re#resents by name. .D and the credit li9ely to be 8on by the #assing of the )ct of last ..mithsD for his un#aralleled efforts to ameliorate the 8retched condition of T*ur Canal Po#ulationD on the %nglish canals. 8hose efforts on behalf of the children em#loyed in bric9Bfields 8ere attended 8ith such beneficial results. of Coalville.IKThe Ti(es. and to bring u# their children 8ithout any interference from school authorities. >@@#rice As4 ?d4. $y (%*-(% . (eorge . H0e heartily commend to our readersD notice a ne8 edition of a 8or9 8hich is full of thrilling interest to those 8ho sym#athise 8ith childhood. They 8ere #ermitted to live in their boats as they #leased. cloth oards. c. ?0S 8hich is calculated to do much good. #. as he #reviously earned our than9s for his efforts to ameliorate the condition of children in the bric9B yards. H1r.IKChristian &erald.D is no8 busied in attem#ts to ameliorate the condition of <uvenile (i#sies. HHis cry for the #rotection for the hel#less little ones is one that must assuredly command attention.ession 8ill be mainly his. . has many ca#ital illustrations. of Coalville. but he has 8on for himself considerable distinction among the T. the 8omen and children 8or9ing in the bric9Byards. at least.1&TH. HCanal $oats.than9s of the community in this #hilanthro#ic ob<ect.mith. with #ortrait of Author and other Illustrations. THE CRY OF THE CHILDREN FROM THE BRIC5?YARDS OF ENGLAND9 AND HO< THE CRY HAS BEEN HEARD9 0ith *bservations on the CarryingBout of the )ct. a very large family. and is a monument to the #atient selfBdenial and un8earying Feal brought to bear in favour of the #oor children by the author. and the (i#sy children. They 8ere considered outside the #ale of local and educational authorities.IK!tandard. (eorge . turned his attention to T*ur Canal Po#ulation. of Coalville. 1r.K*n the 1st inst.mith.IK!unday !chool Chronicle. /eicester.&lTH %D&T&*'.

the 8or9 8hich 1r. The author is li9e8ise the hero of it. .000 of these little ones from their dar9 slavery. 0e 8ish any 8ord of ourDs could give still 8ider #ublicity to his selfBdenying labours. H1r. A00H&n it is 8ritten the authorDs account of his singleBhanded struggle for the emanci#ation of the #oor children of the bric9ByardsKa struggle long and #atiently sustained. .ome 8ill #erha#s thin9 that his language is occasionally too little measured.IK Der y $ercury. 8ith an increasingly large circulation.mithDs account of the history and the #assing of the )ct. HTThe Cry of the ChildrenD and T*ur Canal Po#ulationD are uni:ue in many 8ays. . . .IKDer yshire Advertiser. The 8hole forms a most interesting record of a nobleBhearted 8or9.IKChristian Age. . The volume is certainly 8orthy of a careful #erusal.mith has accom#lished. . They have brought #rominently before #ublic attention t8o unsus#ected blots u#on our civilisation.IK Live !toc* 9ournal. but then it is #robable that a man of more delicacy of feeling and ex#ression 8ould have never underta9en. met 8ith its #ast merited re8ard in freeing 10. 8hich mar9s one of the brightest victories yet 8on over #re<udice and selfBinterest in the +nited Gingdom. both from the facts 8hich it sets forth and the cause it advocates. That 8or9 is of no small value. .IK'ir(ingha( Ga3ette. HThis excellently gotBu# 8or9 8ill stri9e a cord of sym#athy in the bosoms of all 8ho are interested in the 8or9s of Christianity and #hilanthro#y. H%very true #hilanthro#ist 8ill read 8ith dee# interest 1r. HThis is a dee#ly interesting boo9.DIK#otteries E7a(iner.IK!taffordshire !entinel. including an interesting account of the history and #rogress of the movement. #.IK The Graphic. . 0e ho#e the boo9 8ill meet. . and 8e thin9 it is certain that he 8ould never have carried through.hould find a #lace u#on every boo9Bshelf because its contents are of thrilling interest. HThis is a title of an interesting 8or9. 8hich he #uts into everything he does. (eorge . and no one can #eruse its #ages 8ithout feeling the im#ulse of the living s#irit 8hich breathes in this TCry of the Children. The value of the boo9 is enhanced by the careful and tasteful manner in 8hich 1essrs. and 8hich at last.HThis boo9 is the record of a s#lendid service nobly done.mith 8rites 8ith vehement energy. . . Haughton have fulfilled their share of the underta9ing. .IKDer y Reporter. as it deserves. The boo9 is essentially a statement of facts. H) good deal of ne8 matter is inserted in this edition. in 18 >. .

Li/) #/ t0) Ri.0t H#$.mith 8ould have failed. MCGILCHRIST. #rice. >1? pages. (ladstone in the several s#heres of #olitics and literature. 0e can hardly conceive of a more useful #olitical #ublication at the #resent moment. (ladstoneDs life has been. #ainsBta9ing. post free. H&n the #resent volume. HThe a##earance of this little 8or9 is very seasonable. E. #. The author has #resented 1r.IKLeicester Daily #ost. LIVINGSTONE. and to young readers es#ecially it 8ill be very acce#table. &t is neatly and sim#ly 8ritten. Crown 8vo. and advanced #leas too #assionate. A01'ound in cloth. 8hat have been the gro8th of his #olitical mind and the tendency of his #olitical conduct. and contains a great many facts 8hich have a bearing even beyond the life of its sub<ect. to be treated 8ith indifference. as 8ell as 8ith considerable literary ability. in his TCry of the Children from the $ric9Byards of %ngland. H'o one can read this boo9 8ithout advantage.mith has.IKDaily Telegraph. &t furnishes the reader 8ith a 9ey to the study of that 8hich is undoubtedly one of the greatest characters of modern times. with #ortrait.P. honestly 8orth its #rice. 1s4. B* 4.IK !cots(an. extending over half a century.IKLeads $ercury.IKLiterary )orld. and 8hat are the ob<ects to 8hich he has devoted himself. >s4. . 8e have gathered u# the full story of the evils 8hich used to #revail. with four Illustrations. 8hich in the hands of a #erson of less moral courage and #erseverance than 1r. H) carefully #re#ared story of the #ublic life of 1r. &t is clear.IKChristian )orld. H0ritten 8ith great fairness and im#artiality. &t is a handy and useful little boo9. &t 8ould be 8ell if similar boo9s to this 8ere as sensibly com#iled. 0e commend it to the favourable attention of all. paper covers. 1s4 >d4 Cloth inding. (eorge . 8ill do 8ell to get this boo9. The volume forms an im#ortant cha#ter in Parliamentary history. HThose 8ho desire to 9no8 8hat 1r.D raised issues too serious. .H1r.IK North 'ritish Daily $ail.a$ Trav) )r9 Dr. G a+"t#$)9 M. price 1s4 ?d4 T0) Li/) #/ t0) Gr)at A/ri. (ladstone in a manner easily recognisable by friends and foes ali9e. M. <. post free. 8hich contains a number of excellent 8oodcuts. and dis#assionate.

H) grand biogra#hy of a grand man. and re#lete 8ith sterling interest. the im#ress of thought and calm <udgment.Cloth inding. and is full of interest.IKEdin urgh Daily Review. H) ne8 contribution to an im#ortant cha#ter of church history.IKReview. HAUGHTON@S POPULAR ILLUSTRATED BIOGRAPHIES. H0e have read this boo9 8ith considerable interest and #leasure. and #romises to be of much interest.) C#$"#rt. as 8ell as of an intimate 9no8ledge of the varied as#ects of the sub<ect dealt 8ith. H$earing. H2ery full. post free. &t contains a com#lete revie8 of the #rinci#al events of Her 1a<estyDs reign. and interesting. This biogra#hy should be circulated by thousands among the masses of the #eo#le. t0) Pri$.IKReview. HThe remar9s in this 8or9 on the general relations of the 1ethodists to the tendencies of the age are full of instruction. >s4 ?d4 M)t0#+i"' i$ %-=2: I'pr)""i#$" #/ t0) <)" )*a$ CHURCH AND ITS MINISTERS.IK Review.IK!pectator.R. p.IK$orning #ost. <ust. Li/) #/ H)r MaA)"t* t0) 6!))$. Li/) #/ H. . it should be of universal interest.IKRight &on4 )4 E4 Gladstone. 713Li/) #/ H. 1uch that the 8riter tells us 8ith res#ect to the various agencies of 1ethodism is extremely interesting. t0) Pri$.H.) #/ <a )".IK Dean !tanley. feelings 8hich any reader 8ho a##roaches it from the Church of %ngland #oint of vie8 can scarcely fail to share.R. and very brilliant is this account of the Prince of 0ales.H. &t is as fascinating as a 8or9 of fiction. His visits to the +nited .tates and to &ndia are 8ell and fully described. P-&C% *'% P%''3 %)CH. HThe author has rendered a s#lendid service to 1ethodism. as it does throughout. H0ritten 8ith great ability.

HThese #enny biogra#hies have a laudable s#irit in common. Now Ready. HThe boo9 is the #roduct of a masterBmind. with "rontispiece.0t H#$. Li/) #/ t0) Ri. <. 0e cannot s#ea9 of the 8or9 in too high terms. B* MRS. eautifully ound in cloth. They are free from #arty bias. E.IK Rev4 C4 &4 !purgeon in H!word and Trowel. 0e commend it to the favourable attention of all.#$"/i) +9 5.P. Li/) #/ t0) Ear #/ B)a.#'(".IK Echo. are #ortrayed 8ith fidelity and #o8er. and to the 8iles of the =esuits. H0e can hardly conceive of a more useful #olitical #ublication at the #resent moment. G a+"t#$).IK Liverpool Courier.0t9 H#$. HContains the leading events of 1r. post free. &t is clear. 4#0$ Bri. 8ho are using the %stablishment to their o8n ends. handso(ely ound. .IKLiverpool Courier. and ought to be in every Protestant family as 8ell as in the school or #arochial library of every #arish.I The Gospel $aga3ine. As4 ?d4. H)n admirably dra8n s9etch.IKEdin urgh Daily Review. H.IK The !tandard.ets forth the #rinci#al events in the career of this remar9able man. evelled oards.Li/) #/ t0) Ri. V)"ti$a@" Mart*r+#': A St#r* #/ t0) Cata.0t9 M. price Cs4 Fr#' t0) C!rat) t# t0) C#$v)$t. logical.IK Review.IKLeeds $ercury. Recently #u lished. EMMA RAYMOND PITMAN. and most mischievous results of the confessional in our Church.I H&n this 8or9 the natural. HThe #enny T(ladstoneD has a mass of facts in small bul9. new edition. #ainsBta9ing.G. (ladstoneDs life in a small com#ass. HThis comely volume is intended to o#en the eyes of %nglishmen to the -omanising influence of the High Church. and dis#assionate.

for presentation.. #.undayBschool libraries.undayBschools. The historical #ortion does not occu#y any undue #osition.IK Literary )orld. . HThe incidents are by no means of a common#lace character. HThe story is interesting and 8ell told.HThis . or. and must touch every heart. or rather of her timely release from martyrdom.IK Literary )orld. is sim#le and touching. and the heroine 8ill certainly 8in the readerDs admiration. B* R)v. HThe boo9 is sure to have many readers.IK Christian )orld. !s4. post free.IKRoc*. price >s4. H1any of the descri#tions are far beyond the common range of taleB8riting. A0AH*ne of the best stories of the 9ind 8e ever readKthe very best. EMMA RAYMOND PITMAN9 A!t0#r)"" #/ BV)"ti$a@" Mart*r+#'9C BMar.IKEvangelical $aga3ine. B* Mr". Now ready. Cs4 Pr#/it a$+ L#"": A Ta ) #/ M#+)r$ Li/)9 /#r YOUNG PEOPLE. and loo9s at men and things 8ith the eye of a close observer and a thoughtful man..0t?<av)". 8hile the religious teaching is of the very sim#lest and #urest. with full. 8e thin9.IK)atch(an. The boo9 is remar9ably 8ellB8ritten. HThe descri#tion of 2estinaDs martyrdom. 8hich must render it eminently calculated for usefulness. and M)rv*$@" Cr#""9C BO iv) C0a!$.tory of the Catacombs is readable and 8ellB8ritten. with gilt edges. The volume abounds in dee#ly interesting Illustrations and $edallion on cover.IK $ethodist Recorder. crown 8vo. HThis is evidently a tale in favour of . a vivacity.9 >. The #resent story 8ill revive many interesting associations. H&t is told in language of beauty and #o8er.4 $4 "4 Church $aga3ine. S0))$ /r#' '* T0#!.IKThe Roc*. e7tra gilt cloth.IKAthen-u(. so that the boo9 is li9ely to #rove attractive and useful. and the moral is good and sound. but 8ritten 8ith a freshness. handso(ely ound in gilt cloth. OSBORNE LILLEY. 'eautifully ound. of this #articular era. The boo9 is very suitable for . HThe author 8al9s on solid ground.IK .)*@" Tr!"t9C >. <.

#.0)r. S). and brought into fre:uent contact 8ith intellects of the most diverse order. HThere is a brilliancy about this boo9 8hich only a scholar could im#art.IK Leeds $ercury. This 8or9 has been #erformed a##reciatively and intelligently.D(!r$9 La$. *ur advice is. <it0 a$ I$tr#+!. HTheological #ortraits of very considerable value.H0e thin9 the author has done 8ell to collect and reBissue these #a#ers. G)#r. B)"t E+iti#$9 Cr#:$ -v#9 t#$)+ pap)r9 .IK !tandard. M. HThe features of the /ondon Divines in all denominations have been caught by an observant eye and re#roduced by a faithful hand.a Pr)a.IK!cots(an. varying in length from a cou#le of lines to t8o or three #ages.IK Christian Age. <#r+" /#r t0) <)ar*9 a$+ <#r+" OF COUNSEL AND <ARNING9 :it0 Ori. could have 8ritten such a 8or9. post free. and the distinctive #rinci#les 8hich they advocate. C#'/#rti$.IK Edin urgh Daily Review. M. A L#. &n his eminently careful essays the author has furnished material for study such as might be vainly loo9ed for in a more #retentious boo9. H'early three hundred #aragra#hs. As4 ?d4. H) series of studies of eminent #reachers in 8hich the author deals 8ith the nature and causes of the influence they exercise.ti#$9 (* t0) R)v. >s4 ?d4. GROSART9 St. 0e cordially commend the boo9 to those 8ho desire to learn 8hat the intellectual ecclesiastical life of /ondon really means. evelled oards.D. T$uy the boo9 and ma9e free use of it. L)i"!r) H#!r" :it0 L#$+#$ Divi$)". H*nly a man naturally liberalBminded. in cloth.)@"9 B a.DIK The Lay #reacher. HUGH MACMILLAN9 D. Dr. The #oints are #ithy and ta9ing. H0ritten from an elevated stand#oint. #rice 1s4 ?d4. handso(e inding.i$a H*'$". B* F. cloth oards.IK$orning #ost. A0!#rice.a"0ir). Ha$a$i: A MEMOIR OF <ILLIAM SMITH9 Fat0)r #/ GEORGE SMITH9 #/ C#a vi ). 9ust #u lished. B* t0) R)v. #t09 .#$+ E+iti#$. afford as many stri9ing thoughts.IK Literary )orld.

The volume is tastefully Tgot u#.:it0 P#rtrait9 pri. CHRISTOPHERS. #. school #riFes.D and its matter excellent. HAUGHTON. M. B* a$ O + C#r$i"0 B#*. #t09 :it0 P#rtrait9 pri. HThis is a charming boo9. &ts ex:uisite gettingBu# is not ina##ro#riate to its contents. &ts originality 8ill ma9e it interesting to all classes of readers.) %". . B* t0) R)v. rather.I and therefore something ne8 for the reading 8orld. B* a SEA CAPTAIN. price Cs4 T0) P#)t" #/ M)t0#+i"'. B* S. H) vein of dee# religious feeling runs throughout it. CHRISTOPHERS. &t is filled 8ith lifeBli9e s9etches of the men 8ho are amongst the most endeared to the 1ethodist #eo#le. HThe lessons taught by 1r. In very large type. HThis is an admirable story. 5c. . <. *ur readers had better get the boo9. religion #ervades its every #age. This is intended as a com#anionBboo9 for the HPilgrimDs Progress. Elegantly ound and illustrated. HThis is a thoroughly good boo9. <.#v)r9 8+.ti#$ (* R)v. Christo#hers are excellent.E . or. Christo#hers.E pap)r . for 8hich 8e heartily than9 1r. 'ound in cloth.i#!" Tr!t0". S.IKThe Christian $iscellany. 8hich 8e heartily commend for #resents.IK!purgeon.IKRev4 $ar* Guy #earse.IKThe Christian.IKCity Road $aga3ine.E "'a E+iti#$9 .) #/ Li/): HOME<ARD BOUND. &t 8ould be difficult to name any more acce#table giftBboo9 than this 8or9. gilt edges. S. price As4 ?d4 A$ I !"trat)+ E+iti#$ #/ Pr). his s#irit is al8ays admirable.) %". #t09 / !"09 :it0#!t P#rtrait9 -+. . price Cs4 T0) V#*a. gilt edges. . 8+. price As4 <d4 Fr#' #!t t0) D))p": A TALE OF CORNISH LIFE. A0CIllustrated and eautifully ound. <it0 I$tr#+!.

Cloth. The 8hole of the little volume combines instruction 8ith interest in a very high degree.P%/.D FRICHARD HAMPTONG THE CORNISH PILGRIM PREACHERE :it0 I$tr#+!. 4AMES FLEMING. Those 8ho 8ould be fishers of men 8ill find their souls 9indled by the 8eird narrative of this strange. cloth. price >s4. H0e ho#e this dee#ly interesting boo9 8ill obtain a 8ide circulation.DIKLiving )aters. These short and sim#le annals have been translated into more than C0 languages and blessed to hundreds of souls. as it contains the very marro8 of the T(/*-&*+. 1s4 T0) A!t#(i#. li(p cloth. HThis singular boo9 is :uite a little curiosity in its 8ay. (*. price 1s4 ?d4 A$$a " #/ t0) P##r. so that 8e can heartily commend it.D and 8ell may every reader have greater faith than ever in the Divine 0ord. A0?Elegantly ound. . 0ell may the author call his boo9 T-emar9able Conversions. .H0e 8ish that a co#y of this TP-%C&*+. B* LEGH RICHMOND.IK The Christian. illustrated. .ome of them do indeed afford extraordinary #roof of the longB suffering and infinite mercy of our (od. S. H&n each of these cha#ters a number of remar9able cases of conversion is given. yet saintly man. with #ortrait.IK!purgeon. <.aviour.D boo9 could be #laced in the hands of every one 8ho is able to read. . evelled oards. B* t0) R)v. #.ti#$ a$+ N#t)" (* R)v. price >s4 R)'arDa( ) C#$v)r"i#$". THe is able to save to the uttermost. and it multi#lied under the mighty hand of (od. 0e are here sho8n a number of exam#les 8hich should stimulate our ho#e and Feal to the utmost.IK Christian Age. H) man of one talent.DI Cloth. oards. .rap0* #/ F## i"0 Di. CHRISTOPHERS. so that during his long itinerant ministry. multitudes 8ere led to the . oards. he #ut it out to usury.

B* SARAH DOUDNEY. A (##D /#r I$H!ir)r" a/t)r Tr!) R) i. The incidents are thrilling. <it0 Exp#"it#r* C0apt)r".DIK Living )aters.IK)atch(an. and the language and style are beautiful. courage.IKThe Christian.t#r #/ t0) C0i +r)$@" H#').A. indeed.i#$. BO<MAN STEPHENSON9 B. To the s#irituallyBminded and the care8orn.ti$. Cloth. price >s4 T0) G #r*?La$+. a/t)r P)a. H0e 9no8 of no better boo9 than this to #lace in the hands of our young #eo#le to inculcate the im#ortance of truthfulness. A0 &andso(ely ound.Cloth. Cloth. to the earnest in:uirer.). &t reminds us. and stimulate their as#irations after things unseen and eternal. B* M. Dir). HThis is in every sense a beautiful volume. with Illustrations. B* 4. 8e commend it as a #recious hel#.. S#! "E #r9 GLAD TIDINGS FOR EVERY ONE. price 1s4 ?d4 Pi#$))r Exp)ri)$.)" i$ t0) H# * Li/). oards. evelled oards. M. Cloth. price 1s4 ?d4 S))Di$.page Illustrations. H&t 8ill cheer many a mourner. and.9 H#$. Cloth. oards. E+it)+ (* T. evelled oards. of T=essicaDs . price >s4 . oards.DI #. the lessons are unexce#tionable.irst Prayer. in its #athos and dee#ly interesting character.)r i$ t0) SDi)"9C >. res#ecting the attainment of TThe Higher Christian /ife. HTPioneer %x#eriencesD consist of #ersonal testimonies by eminent Christians of %uro#e and )merica. with four full. HUTCHINSON9 A!t0#r #/ BF##t'arD" #/ 4)"!"9C BT0) Si$. P. and reliance u#on (od. price >s4 Brav) S)t0. price 1s4 ?d4 G#+@" :a* #/ E ).

IKLiving )aters.rap0" #/ Fri)$+" a$+ A. HThe #rose meditations of this excellent volume have all the s8eetness and grace of #oetry.)". and the teaching it embodies is that of the 0esleys.I ). MAHAN. elegant inding. M)+itati#$" a$+ H*'$" #$ t0) 37r+ P"a '. Pri$t)+ #$ t#$)+ pap)r9 i !"trat)+9 ()a!ti/! * (#!$+9 r)+ )+. %.#$tai$" a T)xt #/ S. $enson.ript!r) /#r Ev)r* Da* i$ t0) Y)ar9 :it0 a$ appr#priat) V)r") #/ P#)tr*.+-3 T%lT $**G4IKH& admire it very much. BY DR.I Cloth. decided. It . .)".r)""9 3s. <.I p. %very reader of this #recious boo9 must be greatly refreshed and blessed. &andso(ely ound. says of the HCH&/D-%'D. gilt edges. The -ev. 8d. and the #oems contain the true s#irit of devotional #iety. 8rites4KH)cce#t my than9s for your truly beautiful and valuable boo9. price 1s4 ?d4 T0) C0i +r)$@" Tr)a"!r* T)xt B##D9 i$t)r )av)+ :it0 <riti$. and many others. 8ith great #o8er of #oetic ex#ression.?pap)r /#r C# ). t0) A!t#. Clar9e. 0e recommend young ministers to read the boo9. S.ri'@" Pr#. T-%).ti$.)"9 . and 8ere it left to my o#tion. D+G%. 71-B!$*a$@" Pi . every young #erson in my circle and beyond it should have a co#y.11 pa. &t a##ears to be a TTreasuryD indeed. GOUGH. price 1s4 ?d4 B* t0) Sti <at)r". 0atson.I .IKThe )atch(an.nifor( with the a ove. C. and unans8erable volume.letcher. . H)ll 8ho 8ish to have clear vie8s of the doctrine taught by those 8ho believe in entire consecration should #eruse this able. *. HThis is undoubtedly the chea#est edition of this marvellous boo9 ever #ublished.H!ai$ta$. /. .Mi"!$+)r"t##+ T)xt". . price >s4 ?d4 . B* t0) R)v. Illustrated. HThis is an able boo9. CHRISTOPHERS a$+ B.

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/ord %llenborough gave instructions to (eneral 'ott to bring bac9 8ith him to &ndia both the mace and the gates. a to8n in the northB8estern hills of )fghanistan. he smote the face of the idol.omnauth or . &n one of these ex#editions his goal 8as the farBfamed tem#le of . the noble 'iFamBudBdin R-uler of the . 1880. -esistance 8as vain. and can hardly date bac9 for eight centuries. .inally. The building itself is a #oor structure. and e:ually useless 8ere the tears of the $rahmins. though he 8as himself of Tur9i or 1ongol nationality. 8hich tradition asserted to be those of the Tem#le of . 8hich bears an inscri#tion in Cufic characters. and the only one 8ho had his home in )fghanistan. and a torrent of #recious stones gushed out. . s#reading fire and s8ord over the #lains of Hindustan. but all that no8 remains standing are t8o lofty #illars or minarets. 8hich surrounds the mausoleum of 1ahmud. ta9en from an article in the Daily News. The latter. Prince of (hore. but at least s#are their idol. 0hen GeaneDs army too9 (huFnee in 18A@. the son of . 8hich confirms my statements as regards one of the main causes 8hy the (i#sies or &ndians left their native country4KH(huFnee 8as the ca#ital of 1ahmud of (huFnee.ince 8riting the foregoing concerning 1ahmood or 1ahmud.eventeen times did he return to (huFnee laden 8ith the s#oil of -a<#ut 9ings and the shrines of Hindu #ilgrimage. it 8as extinguished in 11C> by one of those a8ful acts of atrocity 8hich are fortunately recorded only in the %ast. and 8ith the mace 8hich is the counter#art of %xcalibar in *riental legend. )llahBudBdin. =anuary 11. 0ith his o8n hand. . no8 lie mouldering in the lumberBroom of the fort at )gra.. The extensive ruins of his city stretch north8ards along the Cabul road for more than t8o miles from the #resent to8n. but the mace could no8here be found by the $ritish #lunderer.omnauth Patan in (u<erat.eventeen times did he issue forth from his native mountains. 8ho is the great lord. 1ahmud reigned from @@ to 10A0 ). 8ho besought him to ta9e their treasures. thus inter#reted by 1a<or Rno8 . and the tomb 8as then entered through folding gates. & came across the enclosed. The 9ing 8as slain in . The great con:ueror is said to rest beneath a marble slab. or 1ahmud the Destroyer.aithS )bul Gasim 1ahmud.F##t$#t)": 687 . one bearing the name of 1ahmud. $eyond these ruins again is the -oFa or (arden. for their authenticity is absolutely indefensible. as he is 9no8n in %astern story. though 8ith greatly restricted dominions. !00 yards a#art. and in his days (huFnee 8as #robably the first city in )sia.aba9tagin_ 1ay (od have mercy u#on him_D The (huFnevide dynasty founded by 1ahmud lasted for more than a century after his death. the other that of his son 1asaud.omnauth. as is 8ellB9no8n. this mace 8as still to be seen hanging u# over the sarco#hagus of 1ahmud. marched u#on (huFnee to avenge the death of t8o of his brothers. and south8ard to the shore of (u<erat. the first of the 1ohammedan con:uerors of & HenryS -a8linson4 T1ay there be forgiveness of (od u#on him.D. 8est8ard as far as the (anges 2alley.

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