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The biting surface of molar is called OCCLUSAL surface. On incisors and canines it is called the incisors EDGE.

The occlusal surface of the molars and premolars is raised up in 2 mounds called CUSPS. Between the cups are crevices known as FISSURES. The outer surface of molars and premolares the surface facing the cheeks is called BUCCAL surface. In the case of incisors and canines surface called LABIAL as it faces the lips instead of the checks. The inner surface of every lower tooth face the tongue so it is called the lingual surface. This surface in all upper teeth is known as the palatal surface. The remaining surface are those between adjoining teeth. The surface facing towards the front the mouth called MESIAL and that facing backward is called DISTAL. The adjective cervical is used for neck of the tooth.

1. How you can call the upper and the lower jaws? The upper jaw is called the maxilla and the lower is called the mandible. 2. What is the hard palate? The hard palate is part of the maxilla and forms the roof of the mouth. It separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. 3. What is known as antrum? On either side of the nasal cavity the maxilla is hollow and each hollow is known as a maxillary sinus or antrum. The antrum is an air space that gives resonance to the voice. 4. What may take place during extraction of premolars and molars? During extraction of these teeth, the floor may be perforated or a root pusched inside the antrum. 5. What movements of the jaws do you know? The first movement involved in eating is a hinge-like opening of the mandible to separate the incisors. It then moves forward until the incisors can grasp the food between their cutting edges. The mandible than returns backwards and closes. 6. What is the first movement of eating? The first movement involved in eating is a hinge-like opening of the mandible to separate the incisors.

Saliva is producted by the salivary glands which are situated close to the mandible. The PAROTID glands lies partly over the outside and partly behind the ramus.The duct from the parotid glands passes forword through the ckeek to apen into the buccal sulcus opposite the upper second molar. The SUBMANDIBULAR glands lies inthe floor of the mouth,against the inner surface of the boddy,near the angle of the mandible.The submandibular duct passes forword in the floor of the mouth to open ot the mindline ,beside the lingual frenum. The SUBLINGUAL gland lies in the similar position to the submandibular gland but much further forward.There are several sublingual ducts and these open into the floor of the mouth just behind the orifice of the submandibular duct. 1. How are the deciduous teeth are also named? The deciduous teeth are the first set and also known as milk and temporary teeth. 2. How many deciduous teeth do you know and what are they? There are 20 of then, 10 in each jaw with 5 on each side. The 5 teeth of each side of both jaw are named as follows from the front backwards. They are: central incisors, lateral incisors, canine, 1st molar and 2nd molar. 3. When do deciduous teeth start developing? Deciduous teeth start developing before birth and erupt after birth. Eruption starts at 6 months and is complected at 2 years. 4. What are average ages of teeth eruption? Individual variation is common but average ages are as follows: - Central Incisors: at 6 mouths. - Lateral Incisors: at 8 mouths. - Canine: at 18 mouths. - 1st molar: at 12 mouths. - 2nd molar: at 24 mouths. 5. When do lower teeth usually erupt? Lower teeth usually erupt before their corresponding upper. 6. How many permanent teeth are they? Permanent teeth are the 2nd and final set. The there 32 of them, 16 each jaw 8 on each side. Like deciduous teeth the 8 on each side of both jaws have the same names. 7. When does eruption of permanent teeth start and when is it completed? Permanent teeth start developing at birth. Eruption commences at 6 year of age and is complected at 18 to 25 years. 8. What are deciduous teeth replaced by? After the deciduous teeth loosen, there are shed and are soon replaced by eruption of their permanent successors. Deciduous incisors and canines are replaced by permanent teeth of the same name. Deciduous molars, however, are replaced by premolars. Thus the permanent molars erupt without having any deciduous predecessors. 9. Why do deciduous teeth became loose? Deciduous teeth became loose by resorption there roots which deprives them of their attachment to the jaws. The unerupted permanent successors lie adjacent to the absorbing deciduous roots and are those able erupt in to there places when the deciduous teeth are finally shed.

arrival - coming (sotire) backwards - back (in spate) bundle - manunchi canines - tearing teeth chamber - where the space occupied by the pulp. chewing - a amesteca chisel-shaped - sub forma unei dalte decay - caries deciduous teeth - body teeth, milk teeth, temporary teeth. flattened - aplatizat incisors - cutting teeth injury - demage (leziune) griding - demineralizat hard - difficult (greu) hidden - covert (ascuns) junction - conexions(conexiune) hard - difficult (greu) molars - grinding teeth occur - happen periodontal liggaments - bundles of connective tissue. sensitive - delicate soft - delicate (moale) rod - betisor remaining - a ramas ridge - margine cover - overlap(acoperit) to commence - to begin (a incepe) to shed - to lose undergo - to subject (a se supune) Why are canine teeth called ''eyeteeth'' Early anatomical schemes often named body parts according to their relation to other structures or functions .Eyeteeth were named so probably because they lie directly under the eyes.(As another example,people in the Western world wear wedding rings on the fourth finger of the left hand ,because it was believed that this finger was connected directly to the heart).

Chewing Although chewing can certainly be voluntary ,most of the chewing we do during a meal is an automatic rhytmic reflex that is triggered by the pressure of food against the teeth ,gums,tongue and palate .Such pressure causes the jaw muscles to relax and the jaw to drop slightly then,as opposite muscles contract in an attempt to balance the relation the jaw is pulled up again.

1. what does a tooth consist of? Every tooth consists of a crown, a neck and one or more roots. 2. How is the junction of crown and root called? The junction of crown and root is called the neck. 3. What is every tooth composed of? Every tooth is composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp. 4. What do you know about enamel? This is the outer covering of the crown and is the hardest substance in the body. It is insensitive to pain unlike most other body it can not undergo repair, thus any damage caused by decay of injury is permanent. 5. What does it consist of? The microscope shows that it consists of long solid roots, called enamel prisms, cemented together by the inter-prismatic substance. The prisms run roughly right angles to the surface. 6. Where does cementum meet enamel? Cementum meets enamel at the neck of the tooth. 7. What is cementum? This is outer covering of the root and is similar in structure to bone. 8. What these pulp contain? The pulp is purely soft tissue and it contain blood vessels and nerves, and occupies the centre of the dentine. 9. What is the pulp chamber? The space occupied by the pulp is called the pulp chamber. 10. What supporting structures can you name? The supporting structures are alveolar process, gum, periodontal membrane.

The teeth and Gums Six months or so after birth,the first deciduous teeth (baby teeth ,milk teeth)erupt through the gums. A normal child will eventually have twenty ''baby''teeth,each jow holding ten teeth: four incisors (for cutting) ,two canines (for tearing),and four molars (four grinding).The decideus teeth are last when the permanent teeth are ready to emerge.Both sets of teeth are usually present in the gums at birth ,or shortly afterward,with the permanent teeth lying under the decideus teeth.By the time a permanent tooth is ready to erupt ,the root of the deciduous tooth above it has been completely resorbed by osteoclasts.The six permanent molars in each jaw have no deciduous predecessors. The shedding of deciduous teeth and the appearance of permanent teeth follow a fairly consistent pattern. The thirty 'two permanent teeth ( sixteen in each jaw holds four incisors (cutting teeth), two canines (cuspid wich one point of cusps) ,and six molars (millstone teeth).Because the upper incisors are wider then the lower ones,the lower grinding teeth are usually aligned slightly in front of the upper grinders.The arrangement enhances the grinding motion between the upper and lowe teeth. The teeth are help in their sockets by bundles of connective tissue called periodontal ligaments.The collagenous fibres of each ligament extent from the alvelae bone into the cement of the tooth,and allow for some normal movement of the teeth.Nerve endings in the ligaments monitor the pressure of chewing and relay the information to yhe brain centers involved wich chewing moments.

Partes of a tooth All teeth no matter what type consist of the same three parts,a root emebdded in a socket in the alveolar process af a jow bone,a crown projecting upward from the gym and a narrowed neck between the root and the crown,which is surrounded by the gum. The incisors,canines and premolars have a double root. The lower molars have two flattened roots,and the upper molars have three conical rooths.At the apex of each root is the apical foramen ,which leads successively into the root canal and root cavity. Each tooth is composed of dentine,enamel,cement and pulp. The dentine is the extremely sensitive yellowhish portion surrounding the pulp cavity.Is forms he bulk of the tooth . The enamel is the insensitive white covering of the crown.It is the hardest substance in the body. In order to cut through enamel , a dentist's drill spins at about half a million revolutions per minute.The cement is the bonelike cowering of the neck and rooth .The pulp is the soft core of connective tissue that contains the nerves and blood vessels of the tooth. Teeth are derived from the same tissure as the skin.The enamel is formed from the embryonic epiderms ,and the dentine,pulp,and cement are formed from the embrionic dermis. The gum also called the gingiva is the firm connective tissure covered with mucous membrane that surroundes the alveolar process of the teeth. The gums are usually attached to the enamal of the tooth somewhere along the crown,but the gum line gradually recedes as we get older.