PLANT WATER TREATMENT SITI AISHAH BINTI ABDUL LATIFF NOOR AZLINA BINTI MUHAMAD ARIFFIN NOR FATIHAH

BT MD NOR SUZIATI BINTI IBRAHIM PLANT PHYSIOLOGY FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS PERAK DARUL RIDZUAN

Abstract The purpose of this mini project is to analyze which plant can help to treat waste water efficiently. Plants that live in various type of habitat must have the relation with its environment such as water. Six species of plants had been chosen as plants sample to treat drain water as waste water sample. All the plants sample were took around Tanjung Malim, Perak and Sungai Besar, Selangor . The study is done by using experiment method. The scale to analyze the rate of water treatment is the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Turbidity. Treatment using Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. of drain water exhibited the greatest BOD reduction efficiency which is -3.4 mg/L; whereas lowest efficiency was found in the untreated drain water before filtration which is a control without plants, i.e., only 12.0 mg/L. For Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp. and Axonopus compressus sp. is 6.87, 5.27, 5.74, 6.71 and 6.06 respectively. The pH for untreated water is 5.09 for before filtration and 5.26 for untreated water after filtration. While calculation of TSS for Salvinia natans sp. shows that 1.0382 g for initial and 1.0550 g for final. The differences between final and initial reading give 0.0168 g. The Salvinia natans sp. is the greatest compare to the untreated water after filtration which only 0.0217 g. Next, use Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. exhibited the greatest reducing DO which is 21.5 mg/L for DO in first day treatment and 9.5mg/L after 5 days treatment water. For turbidity, use of the Salvinia natans sp. only show 20.60 NTU compared to the untreated water drain after filtration is 223 NTU. It shows that lowest decrease between the other plants. Based on regression analysis, use of Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. in drain water treatment show the best result in BOD, pH and DO and reach the established environmental quality standards, i.e., -3.4 mg/L in BOD, 6.93 in pH and 5.6 mg/L for first day DO and 9.0 mg/L for 5th day DO. In contrast, Portulaca oleracea sp. is not suitable for because 5.90 mg/L, 5.74 for pH and 18.0 mg/L for first day DO and 12.1 mg/L and DO 5th day. The data resulting from the experiment was analyze by using data logging apparatus and the data got shown that there are some plants that can treat water better than other samples. Overall results of this study suggest that Limnocharis flava (L.) sp in water treatment have potential to be developed as an alternative water treatment. In general, Limnocharis flava (L.) sp exhibited greater efficiency than Portulaca oleracea sp. . It is proven that plants can be used as subject for water treatment process.

Introduction We consider wastewater treatment as water use because it is so interconnected with the other uses of water. Much of the water used by homes, industries, and businesses must be treated before it is released back to the environment. Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food scraps, oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines and dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute their share of used water that must be cleaned. Wastewater also includes storm runoff. Although some people assume that the rain that runs down the street during a storm is fairly clean, it isn't. Harmful substances that wash off roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes. If all of this wastewater are not been treated, it will cause a lot of waste.

Plant water treatment describes the treatment of environmental problems through the use of plants which mitigate the environmental problem without the need to excavate the contaminant material and dispose of it elsewhere. Plant water treatment also known as Phytoremediation. Phytoremediation consists in mitigating pollutant concentrations in contaminated soils, water or air with plants able to contain, degrade or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants, from the media that contain them. Plants may break down or degrade organic pollutants, or remove and stabilize metal contaminants. Plants which can be used to treat wastewater can decrease the level of pollution until a suitable level which is a condition that nature can handle.

Phytoremediation works best at sites with low to medium amounts of pollution. Plants remove harmful chemicals from the ground when their roots take in water and nutrients from polluted soil, streams, and groundwater. Plants can clean up chemicals as deep as their roots can grow. Once the chemicals or any other material are absorbed by these plants, they will still stored in the plant’s roots, stems and also leaves. Then, these all material will changed into less harmful material once they are remain in the plant body. Other than that, they also will changed into gases that are released into the air as the plant transpires.

There are a lot of plants species that can be used to clean and treat the wastewater, such as sunflower, kangkung, kiambang, ketapang, paddy and a variety of grasses. But, each plant has their own role on how they are useful in treated the wastewater. Besides, they also have their own efficiency to treat the wastewater.

Objectives This mini project was done based on several objectives that have been distinguished. The objectives are: i. ii. iii. To distinguish the plants that can be used for water treatment. To identify the efficency of the water treatment by plant. To apply the concept of water treatment.

Issues This mini project was done to answer some questions above: i. ii. iii. iv. What are the plants that can be used for water treatment? What plant is more efficient in water treatment? How did we apply the concept of water treatment? Why we have to apply the concept of water treatment?

Significance Most of water sources around Malaysia like river, beach and stream are contaminated and polluted with many sort of things, like rubbish and other chemicals. In the majority of cases, these sites are not cleaned up because the process need higher cost and can cause higher environmental damage. The using of plant to treat the wastewater only needed lower budget rather than the used of the highest technologies. In many cases phytoremediation has been found to be less than half the price of alternative methods. Besides, the used of plant also maybe will cause nothing or only a small damage to our environment and the ecosystem. Plant water treatment, a plant-based technology, offers cost-effective and environment friendly alternative to physical methods. So, it is more likely to be accepted by the public as it is more aesthetically pleasing than traditional methods. In other hand, based on this research we can save water, which the wastewater and polluted water can be reused after a period of time and the treated water are save to be used again. Then, the process of plant water treatment is easily to be handling and monitored. This process only using a simple and easy technique which is can be handled by students. Plant water treatment is an energy efficient, aesthically pleasing method of remediation sites with low to moderate levels of contamination and it can be used in conjunction with other more traditional remedial methods as a finishing step to the remedial process. Moreover, this process also can be use to clean up more than one pollution at one time. So, more pollution can be settled in a short time period. This allows workers to avoid

contact with harmful chemicals while the process of water treatment because most of the work totally are done by that plant.

Limitation This mini project was done for only six species of plants. Those six plants were chosen from 15 plants from previous study. The areas of this mini project are around Tanjung Malim, Perak and Sungai Besar, Selangor. These areas were chosed because there are some plants that cannot be found in Tanjung Malim. Thus, the area that the plant was found was facing water pollution such as the drain behind a car wash.

Structure This mini project shows the effeciency of different species of plant in water treatment. The effeciency was rated by analyzing the changes in pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) ant turbidity.

Population and Sample of Mini Project Sample of waste water chosen are drain water. Since the experiment was done at students’ residents, so, the drain water sample was taken from the drain behind a restaurant near to the students’ residential area. We chosed the plant sample by analyzing the previous data of 15 types of plants from the experiment that had been done by our lecturer, Prof. Dr. Ir. Supli Efendi bin Abdul Rahim. Those six plants were chosen because they show the best performance in water treatment in the experiment. The six plants are: Limnocharis flava (L.) sp., Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp., and Axonopus compressus sp.The sample size was uniformly 30 X 45 cm as the size of the plant’s basin. We were monitored and advised by Prof. Dr. Ir. Supli Efendi bin Abdul Rahim and Dr. Hasimah bt Alimon (lecturer of Plant Physiology).

Apparatus and Material In this mini project, the data were measured by using the equipments from the laboratory such as the pH sensor, dissolved oxygen (DO) sensor, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor, Turbidity sensor, and analytical balance to get the weight of total suspended solid (TSS). The changes in data reading for treated and untreated water will contribute for result analysis. Furthermore, other equipments used are beaker, filter paper, a hoe, basin, pail, and mask. Besides, the materials used are the six plants which are Limnocharis flava (L.) sp., Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp., and Axonopus compressus sp., drain water, distilled water, charcoals, rocks and sand.

Method

Firstly, we had asked Dr Hasimah Alimon on how to do this experiment. She had advised us to meet and discuss with Prof. Dr. Ir Supli Effendi Abdul Rahim. There are six species of plants that are suitable to be use in order to do this experiment. The six species are Limnocharis flava sp., Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp., and Axonopus compressus sp. After got the informations, the next step in this experiment is to collect all of the plants samples and drain water sample. In order to collect the plants samples, we have to survey possible habitat of plant samples around Tanjung Malim. However, there are plants that cannot be found or take in enough amounts to do this experiment. So, we have to widen the sample collection area to Sungai Besar, Selangor. Wastewater sample were taken from a drain from one restaurant in Tanjung Malim. After that, we were prepared all the apparatus and materials that will be used in that experiment.

The experiment starts with filtration process. This bucket filter uses a multi-layered design, with a bed of charcoal “sandwiched” between two layers each of fine sand and gravel. Charcoal provides an excellent surface for colonies of microbes to attach to. It’s doubtful that a slow sand filter could generate sufficient biological action in a short period of time. However, fine sand can still act as an adequate filter by occluding microorganisms that cannot fit through the pore spaces between sand grains.

After done with filtration process, this experiment was proceed by putting the filtered drain water with those six species of plants. Before that, sample of filtered drain water was taken to get the data in the laboratory. The plants were let with drain water for five days to get dissolve oxygen (DO) 5th reading. Not only DO 5 reading was measured, but also the changes of initial to final reading of pH, turbidity, and total suspended solid (TSS).

pH was measured by using pH sensor. While turbidity was measured by using nephlomeric turbidity unit (NTU) sensor. Then, the dissolve oxygen was measured by using DO sensor. For total suspended solid (TSS), we have to wet the filter paper then let them to dry in an oven. After one day time, the filter paper was weight with analytical balance. Then, the sample of treated water of each plant was filtered again using the filter paper. After filtration, the filter papers were let again for a day in the same oven. The dry filter papers were weight again. The total suspended solid were calculate by using the formula of:

Total suspended solid = (final weight of filter paper)-(initial weight of filter paper)

After all the reading and data were already recorded, the next step is to analyze the data by comparing the effienciency of each plant in each category of measurement for water treatment. The most efficient plant for plant water treatment is Limnocaris flava sp. while the worst plant is Portulaca oleracea sp.

Result There are five variables that we use to examine which plant is most suitable for plant water treatment which are BOD, DO, Ph, TSS and turbidity. Biochemical Oxygen Demand which is the chemical procedure for determining the rate of uptake of dissolved oxygen by the rate biological organisms in a body of water use up oxygen. It is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the quality of water. Treatment using Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. of drain water exhibited the greatest BOD reduction efficiency which is -3.4 mg/L; whereas lowest efficiency was found in the untreated drain water before filtration which is a control without plants, i.e., only 12.0 mg/L. For the Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp. and Axonopus compressus sp. are -1.3 mg/L, 5.9 mg/L, 4.8 mg/L, 2.7 mg/L and 2.6 mg/L respectively.

Use of Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. also gives best reducing result in pH balance. The result show 1.67 is efficiency compare to the in the untreated drain water after filtration. The pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Pure water is said to be neutral. The pH for pure water at 25 °C (77 °F) is close to 7.0. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are said to be basic or alkaline. The result also give a slightly difference between each plant that use for this water treatment. For Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp.and Axonopus compressus sp. is 6.87, 5.27, 5.74, 6.71 and 6.06 respectively. The pH for untreated water is 5.09 for before filtration and 5.26 for untreated water after filtration.

Total suspended solids is a water quality measurement usually abbreviated TSS. TSS of a water sample is determined by pouring a carefully measured volume of water (typically one litre; but less if the particulate density is high, or as much as two or three litres for very clean water)

through a pre-weighed filter of a specified pore size, then weighing the filter again after drying to remove all water. Calculation of TSS for Salvinia natans sp. shows 1.0382 g for initial and 1.0550 g for final. The differences between final and initial reading give 0.0168 g. The Salvinia natans sp. is the most effective reducing for TSS. 0.0535 g, 0.0537 g, 0.0230 g, 0.1356 g and 0.0304 g are result represent for Limnocharis flava (L.) sp.,Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp. and Axonopus compressus sp. The Salvinia natans sp. is the greatest compare to the untreated water after filtration which only 0.0217 g.

Oxygen saturation or dissolved oxygen (DO) is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium. It can be measured with a dissolved oxygen probe such as an oxygen sensor. In aquatic environments, oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen (O2) dissolved in the water. Supersaturation can sometimes be harmful for organisms and cause decompression sickness. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is measured in standard solution units such as milligrams O2 per liter (mg/L). Use Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. exhibited the greatest reducing DO which is 21.5 mg/L for DO in first day treatment and 9.5mg/L after 5 days treatment water. The Cyperus alternifolius sp. also shows decreasing in DO reading is 12.9 mg/L to 14.2 mg/L. While Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp. and Axonopus compressus sp. show the increasing after 5 day for DO. There are, 18.0 mg/L to 12.1 mg/L, 10.5 mg/L to 4.7 mg/L, 12.8 mg/L to 10.1 mg/L and 11.5 mg/L to 8.9 mg/L respectively.

Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. Turbidity measured uses an instrument called a nephelometer with the detector setup to the side of the light beam. More light reaches the detector if there are lots of small particles scattering the source beam than if there are few. The units of turbidity from a calibrated nephelometer are called Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). For turbidity, use of the Salvinia natans sp. only show 20.60 NTU compared to the untreated water drain after filtration is 223 NTU. It shows that lowest decrease between the other plants. While the Limnocharis flava (L.) sp., Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., and Axonopus compressus sp. are 160 NTU, 113.33 NTU, 25.22 NTU, 377.67 NTU, and 30.36 NTU respectively. Based on regression analysis, use of Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. in drain water treatment show the best result in BOD, pH and DO and reach the established environmental quality standards, i.e., -3.4 mg/L in BOD, 6.93 in pH and 5.6 mg/L for first day DO and 9.0 mg/L for 5 th day DO. In contrast, Portulaca oleracea sp. is not suitable for because 5.90 mg/L, 5.74 for pH and 18.0 mg/L for first day DO and 12.1 mg/L and DO 5th day.

Discussion of Issues What are the plants that can be used for water treatment?

There are six plants that were chosen from 15 plants listed that can be used for water treatment which are Limnocharis flava (L.) sp., Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp., and Axonopus compressus sp.Those plants were chosen as they were more efficient in water treatment done in the previous experiment. Besides, the plants that can be used for water treatment are sunflower, water spinash and catappa. Normally, the plants that used for water treatment are found near to the higher polluted of water, for example the industry area, car wash, marsh, and residential area.

What plants are more efficient in water treatment?

There are six plants that had been distinguished more efficient in water treatment. The plants are Limnocharis flava (L.) sp., Cyperus alternifolius sp., Portulaca oleracea sp., Oryza sativa sp., Salvinia natans sp., and Axonopus compressus sp. The most efficient plant in water treatment is Limnocharis flava (L.) sp. where the BOD reading is -3.4, DO1 is 5.6 while DO5 is 9.0 and the pH is 6 .93.

How did we apply the concept of water treatment?

This mini project applies the concept of water treatment by using the plants that had been distinguished efficient in treating the wastewater. The efficiency of water treatment is obtained by taking and reading their pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Turbidity before and after treatment. The most efficient plant shows the higher reading of final DO, low value of BOD, the value of pH is near to 7, low turbidity and low total suspended solid.

Why we have to apply the concept of water treatment?

The concept of water treatment is important to be applied because the process only need lower budget rather than the used of the highest level of technologies. Besides, the used of plant also may cause nothing or only a small damage to our environment and the ecosystem. In the other hand, based on this research we can save water, which the wastewater and polluted water can be reused after a period of time. The treated water are save to be used again. Hence, the process of plant water treatment is easily to be handled and monitored. This process only use a simple and easy technique which can be applied easily. Moreover, this process also can be use to clean up more than one pollution at one time. So, more pollution can be settled in a short period of time. This allows workers to avoid contact with harmful chemicals while the process of water treatment because most of the work totally are done by that plant.

Suggestion

From this mini project, after doing the discussion and conclusion, a few suggestion had been abhorrenced to improve and upgrade the efficiency of plant water treatment experiment and concept applied. The suggestions are:

i.

The researcher that want to do another project of plant water treatment should have prior knowledge or study about the right plants as sample and also knowledge in the scale and measurement to be usde in the project study.

ii.

Every step and procedure in doing the experiment in this mini project have to done carefully. This is because, mistake in doing the procedure will disturb the result and it might cause us to repeat and expand the period of experiment.

iii.

To get better result in this mini project, it is important to get the advised from experienced researchers or informer. Also, if possible, the mini project should be guide or refer to previous projects done previously by other researchers. Taking

other previous research as guideline is not to let the result from that research influenced our mini project result but, to guide every step in the procedure and to be as control to our mini project so that, we will not deviate from the objective of the experiment.

iv.

The result of mini project will be more precise if the researcher alert and carefully done the reading of each measurement scale in this mini project study. Since, in this experiment, we only use data loggin apparatus, the next study should also use manual observation and reading to get more accurate result.

Conclusion

As the conclusion, there are various way in realizing the application of water treatment. One of the way is by using plants. Each plant has its own adaptation to each habitat so does its function contribute to water treatment in the habitat. The study about water treatment by using plant is reveal the effectiveness of plant water treatment. The application of plant water treatment will contribute to effort of recycling water.

JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY PROJECT TITLE: PLANT IN POLLUTION TREATMENT

LECTURER: DR. HASIMAH BINTI ALIMON

Nama Siti Aishah Binti Abdul Latiff

Nombor Matrik D20081032348

Program Pendidikan Sains (AT 16)

Noor Azlina binti Muhamad Ariffin Nor Fatihah Binti Md Nor

D20081032354

Pendidikan Sains (AT16)

D20081032355

Pendidikan Sains (AT 16)

Suziati Binti Ibrahim

D20081032364

Pendidikan Sains (AT 16)