VA ZINA VB ZINB
Main equations:
A VO REF B VREF
VO = A (VB VA ) + VREF A = f (Control Element A ) CMRR, PSRR, ZIN , etc f (Control Element A )
ZINA = ZINB
v OR =
VIN_CM CMRR
VALI PSRR
Offset Voltage: modelled by an equivalent voltage source, VOS, placed at the input - It has two terms, one independent and the other dependent on the gain value; both terms very with temperature
VOS_total = VOSFIX +
Systems with Analog ICs Lecture notes
VOSVAR A
VOSFIX VOSVAR + + A
Input Bias Currents: modelled by equivalent bias current sources between each input and GND and an offset current source placed between the inputs (same as for the OAs) Noise = modelled by equivalent voltage and current noise sources placed at the input (similar to the noise model of OAs); each defined by their spectral densities Input impedances: differential (ZID) = between inputs common-mode (ZIC) between each input and GND Output impedance (resistance): Ro of very low value Input source impedance: RS usually far smaller than input impedances but potentially not well matched in respect to the IA inputs
vout = VREF + vOD + vOR + VOUT /VOS , I B , IOS +Vout _ Noise VOUT /VOS , I B , IOS A(VOS + I B RS + 2 RS I OS ) Vout _ Noise A VN 2 + I N 2 RS 2
Systems with Analog ICs Lecture notes Copyright 2013, Marius Neag 7
(oltage-(oltage Instrument #mplifiers !(-( I#" Connections to a single ended signal source and single ended load
Case a)
R1 VIN V GND1
iGND1 iGND
v I efectiv = v I + vGND1
RL VL
iGND3
ZGND1
vL =
Case b)
RCABLE RCABLE RL VL
vL = GainIA v I
, #-
+chematic Implementation of the (-( I#$ ifferential #mplifier$ %ain and input impedances
vO = vB
R4 R + R1 R 2 vA 2 R3 + R4 R1 R1
R4 R2 + R1 R2 R4 R2 = = =k R3 + R4 R1 R1 R3 R1
- The (error) output voltage due to input bias currents of the OA can be minimized if:
R1 || R2 = R3 || R4 R1 = R3 ; R2 = R4 .
- The resulting output voltage is:
R2 vO = ( vB v A ) = ( vB v A ) k R1
- 2nd Condition for IA: gain value set/adjusted thru one circuit element, withOUT modifying the other parameters Condition NOT met!
Systems with Analog ICs Lecture notes Copyright 2013, Marius Neag 9
Z InA = Rl Z InB = R3 + R4 = R1 + R2
-4th condition for IA: large CMRR
Considering OA with finite CMRROA and perfectly matched resistances VA=VB=VICM and R1=R3; R2=R4
CMRR =
Ad = CMRRAO AC
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CMRR - considering an ideal OA (CMRRAO ) and real resistances (with actual value = nominal value (1+/- tolerance) Assuming VIC=VA=VB and
R2 R4 = K (1 + ) ; K 2 = = K (1 ); = 2 K1 = R1 R3
CMRR = 1 + 2 Ad 4
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-5th Condition for IA: well-controlled value of the Bandwidth Finite GBW OpAmp:
aOA
a0 a0 1 ; BWOA = ; GBWOA = = 1 + s 2 2
IA Gain:
AIA
1 + s ClosedLoop
A0
IA Bandwidth:
BWIA =
GBWOA R 1+ 2 R1
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+
Differential amplifier
R2 vO = ( vB v A ) R1
Reference input:
Z InA Z InB
ZINA, ZINB small values Gain adjustment modifying simultaneously 2 resistors Input stage mismatch and input resistors mismatch leads to CMRR decrease
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Ad =
vO R = 4 if R1 = R5 and R2 = R3 vB v A R5
Ad =
vO R + R3 R = 1 + 4 (1+ 2 ) vB v A R3 RG
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Gain
- For an ideal OA (a ; RI AO ; RO AO 0 )
A d ideal
vO R1 R 3 = = A d I A d II = 1 + 2 vB vA R G R2
a R R a A d = 1 + 2 1 3 AO = A d ideal AO R G R 2 1 + a AO 1 + a AO
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CMRR IA
R1 R 3 1 + 2 R A R G R2 = d = = 1 + 2 1 CMRR AO 1 AC 1 R 3 RG R 2 CMRR AO
1. Unmatched resistors:
CMRR IA
where CMRR is the finite rejection ratio due to the resistor tolerances.
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CMRR Adjustment
R CMRR =
a) unipolar adjustment
2 1 P 1+ R
b) bipolar adjustment
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Bandwidth
- Cascade of OpAmps:
BWEQ =
1 1 1 + 2 BW1 BW2 2
BWEQ =
GBWOA RG + 2 R R2 + R3 + R G R2
2 2
- A2 differential amplifier
BWCL =
GBWOA R 1+ 3 R2
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+
Differential amplifier
R AD = 1 + 2 1 RG R3 R2
ZINA,ZINB very large values, usually matched if OA1=OA2 Gain adjustment modifying RG Large CMRR, larger than CMRROA
R CMRR IA = 1 + 2 1 CMRR OA RG
Reference input
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,st +chematic implementation of (oltage-Current Instrument #mplifiers !(-I I#"$ )ain *imitations & 'arameters
iOut = vIn / R2
R2
R3
SENSE OUT
ROUT
ROUT =
R2 4
- Stability Is achieved if the transmittance of the negative loop gain is larger than the transmittance of the positive loop gain condition obtained for rn >> rp => R2 || R3>>RL
rn =
R2 ; R2 + R3
rp =
R 2 || R L R 2 || R L + R 3
Copyright 2013, Marius Neag 21
i R1 1 A IV = O = 1 + 2 v ID RG R2
,st +chematic implementation of (oltage-Current Instrument #mplifiers !(-I I#"$ )ain *imitations & 'arameters
vID
RG
v L max <
R2 v O AOmax R2 + R3
R2
R3
SENSE OUT
RL
vL
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1nd +chematic implementation of (oltage-Current Instrument #mplifiers !(-I I#"$ )ain *imitations & 'arameters
i O = i RS
A IV =
iO R1 R 3 1 R = 1 + 2 v ID RG R 2 RS v - Output resistance ROUT limited by R2 and R3 mismatches, by the output resistance of the IA V-V used and by the input resistance of the external OA used. - Stability Is achieved if the transmittance of the negative loop gain is larger than the transmittance of the positive loop gain condition obtained for RS>0.
L
rn =
R2 R2 RL > R2 + R3 R 2 + R3 R L + RS
Copyright 2013, Marius Neag 23
R1 R 3 v OUT VREF = 1 + 2 R v ID R G 2
VREF v = OUT RS
R2
R3
SENSE OUT
RS &o
+chematic implementation of Current-(oltage Instrument #mplifiers !I-( I#"$ )ain *imitations & 'arameters
- Transimpedance gain:
A IV =
vO R = 2 RG 3 i ID R2
Gain setting needs the adjustment of two resistors. - Input and output resistances
R ID = 0 ;
RO 0
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+chematic implementation of the Instrument #mplifiers /ith 'assive Current-Feed2ac3$ )ain *imitations & 'arameters
-Gain:
AV =
vO vO R = = 1+ 2 F v id v i1 v i2 RG
- Input impedances
R R ID = r + G || R F 2
R IC = r + R F R
- CMRR
CMRR =
1 r R C R F + AV + AV RF RC RF
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Instrument #mplifiers /ith #ctive Current-Feed2ac3 $ )ain *imitations & 'arameters -Gain: - 1. Ideal OA
A Videal
vO 1 = = VB VA G m R G
T 1 a G = iv m 1 + T G m R G 1 + a iv G m
- 2. Real OA
A V = A Videal
a IV =
a AO R C +1
- Bandwidth Assuming a AO =
a0 1+ s
a0 RC Gm
Possibility to control Gain and Bandwidth independently: Wanted Gain => RG Wanted BW => Gm and RG
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+chematic implementation of the Instrument #mplifiers /ith #ctive Current-Feed2ac3 $ )ain *imitations & 'arameters
i R G1 =
For
1 i C4 i C2 = i R G2 2
R3 R1 = R 3 + R 4 R1 + R 2
R4 1 = G m vO R 3 + R 4 R G2
i R G1 = i R G2 = v O where G m =
Gain
1 R4 R G2 R 3 + R 4
AV =
vO R R3 1 1+ = = G2 VB VA R G1 G m R G1 R 4
Bandwidth a a R R4 2 BW = 0 R C G m = 0 C R G2 R 3 + R 4
Possibility to control Gain and Bandwidth independently: Wanted Gain => RG1 Wanted BW => RG1 and RG2 with the condition that RG2/RG1=constant
Systems with Analog ICs Lecture notes Copyright 2013, Marius Neag 27
+chematic implementation of the Instrument #mplifiers /ith #ctive Current-Feed2ac3 $ )ain *imitations & 'arameters
Active feedback
+
Minimizing the influence of the unmatched resistors and transistors on the CMRR => CMRR dependent on the output resistances of the current sources that bias the input stage Control of Gain and Bandwidth independently, through two resistors
Static error enhancement the feedback path amplifies the effect of the input stage offset voltages and currents.
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