Amish - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Amish (/ˈɑːmɪʃ/ AH-mish; Pennsylvania Dutch: Amisch, German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships, closely related to but distinct from Mennonite churches, with whom they share Swiss Anabaptist origins. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann. Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the early 18th century, many Amish and Mennonites immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today, the most traditional descendants of the Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as "Pennsylvania Dutch". However, a dialect of Swiss German predominates in some Old Order Amish communities, especially in the American state of Indiana. As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish live in the United States and approximately 1,500 live in Canada. A 2008 study suggested their numbers have increased to 227,000, and in 2010 a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West.
An Amish family riding in a traditional Amish buggy in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Total population 281,675 (2013, Old Order Amish) Founder Jakob Ammann Regions with significant populations United States (notably Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ohio, Indiana and New York) Canada (notably Ontario)
Amish church membership begins with baptism, usually Religions between the ages of 16 and 25. It is a requirement for Anabaptist marriage, and once a person has affiliated with the church, Scriptures he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families, and worship services The Bible are held every other Sunday in a member's home. The Languages district is led by a bishop and several ministers and Pennsylvania German, Swiss German, English deacons. The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover most aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity, telephones, and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing. Most Amish do not buy commercial insurance or participate in Social Security. As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service.
were drifting away from the teachings of Menno Simons and the 1632 Mennonite Dordrecht Confession of Faith.Wikipedia. In addition to excommunication. who had broken from reformer Huldrych Zwingli.wikipedia.
1 History 2 Religious practices 3 Way of life 3.3/24/2014
Amish . nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism. There is generally a heavy emphasis on church and family relationships.1 Language 3. members may be shunned. a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. They typically operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education at grade eight (age 13/14). Ammann believed Mennonites. and then let themselves again be baptized as adults. but later adopted a belief in "believer's baptism". They value rural life. These Swiss Brethren trace their origins to Felix Manz (c.1 Publishing 8 Subgroups of Amish 8. the peaceful Anabaptists of the Low Countries and Germany.2 Cuisine 4 Population and distribution 5 Ethnicity 6 Health 7 Amish life in the modern world 7. a Swiss Mennonite leader.1 Conflicts 9 Similar groups 10 In popular culture 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 16 External links
The Amish Mennonite movement descends from the 16th century fellowship known as the Swiss Brethren. the free encyclopedia
Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. 1498–1526). 1498–1527) and Conrad Grebel (c. The Swiss Brethren were Anabaptists. "Anabaptist" means "one who baptizes again"—a reference to those who had been baptized as infants. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish (English) world. Ammann
http://en. manual labor and humility. 1656–1730). Almost 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During adolescence rumspringa ("running around") in some communities. and are often viewed as having been a part of the Radical Reformation. The Amish movement takes its name from Jakob Ammann (c.org/wiki/Amish 2/15
. may meet with a degree of forbearance.
Because of this common heritage. The others eventually formed the basis of the Swiss Mennonite Conference. The original major split that resulted in the loss of identity occurred in the 1860s. in two parallel streams. for bishops to assemble to discuss uniformity was an County. The more progressive members. Delaware. and led to withdrawal of those who sided with Ammann. the social exclusion of excommunicated members. which merged with the neighboring Mennonite Church in 1937.wikipedia. New York. Iowa. including a more rigid application of shunning. motivated by land issues and by security concerns tied to the French and Indian War. Maine. Missouri. Ohio. brought about a division among the Mennonites of Southern Germany. Kansas.
http://en. are descended directly from former Amish congregations. Amish Mennonites began migrating to Pennsylvania in the 18th century as part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighboring areas.[citation needed ] Many eventually settled in Lancaster County.Wikipedia.[citation needed ] Ammann insisted upon this practice. unprecedented notion in the Amish church. but later moved. Other groups later settled in. Amish and Mennonites retain many similarities.[citation needed ] The first Amish immigrants went to Berks County. 1938
Most Amish communities that were established in North America did not ultimately retain their Amish identity. the Alsace and Switzerland in 1693. even to the point of expecting spouses to refuse to eat with each other. Illinois. Pennsylvania. The meetings themselves were a An old Amish cemetery in Lancaster progressive idea. and religious persecution on the Continent. Kentucky. This type of strict literalism. comprising approximately two thirds of the group. Those who leave the Amish fold tend to join various congregations of Conservative Mennonites. The Amish congregations remaining in Europe slowly merged with the Mennonites. Pennsylvania. the more traditionally minded bishops agreed to boycott the conferences. until the banned spouse repented. Mississippi. as well as others. including most in Alsace. the free encyclopedia
favored stronger church discipline.
Cover The Amish and the Mennonites. During that decade Dienerversammlungen (ministerial conferences) were held in Wayne County. concerning how the Amish should deal with the pressures of modern society. Swiss Anabaptists. Those following Ammann became known as Amish or Amish Mennonite.3/24/2014
Amish . Some Mennonite congregations. Michigan. Ohio. and Ontario. Indiana. The last Amish congregation to merge was the Ixheim Amish congregation. from this point. poverty. Maryland. Nebraska. who were scattered by persecution throughout the Alsace and the Electorate of the Palatinate. on this issue.org/wiki/Amish
. 1941. Pennsylvania.[citation needed ] By the first several meetings. Montana. This migration was a reaction to religious wars. or spread to Alabama. Minnesota. Wisconsin. never practiced strict shunning as had some lowland Anabaptists. Tennessee. Swiss Anabaptism developed.
because there are few generalities that are true for all Amish. What is acceptable in one community may not be acceptable in another. or to assert oneself. Pennsylvania Dutch
http://en. The more traditionally minded groups became known as the Old Order Amish. the color of buggies. especially in the early 20th century. raising them. The Amish anti-individualist orientation is the motive for rejecting labor-saving technologies that might make one less dependent on community. Modern innovations like electricity might spark a competition for status goods. haughtiness) and the high value they place on Demut (humility) and Gelassenheit (calmness.3/24/2014
Amish . domains of usage are sharply separated. and. The Amish's willingness to submit to the "Will of Jesus". arrogance.
Way of life
Main article: Amish way of life Amish lifestyle is dictated by the Ordnung (German.Wikipedia. No summary of Amish lifestyle and culture can be totally adequate. expressed through group norms. within a community. Groups may separate over matters such as the width of a hat-brim. regardless of ethnicity. Some Amish who migrated to the United States in the 1850s speak Bernese German or a Low Alemannic Alsatian dialect. the free encyclopedia
retained the name Amish Mennonite. "today. placidity). and other Mennonite denominations. meaning: order). or other issues. almost all Amish are functionally bilingual in Pennsylvania Dutch and English. All Amish believe large families are a blessing from God. however. According to one scholar.wikipedia. or photographs might cultivate personal vanity. composure. Gelassenheit is perhaps better understood as a reluctance to be forward.org/wiki/Amish 4/15
.[citation needed ]
A scan of the historical document Diß Lied haben die sieben Brüder im Gefängnüß zu Gmünd gemacht
Bearing children. Many of these eventually united with the Mennonite Church. is at odds with the individualism so central to the wider American culture. to be self-promoting. often translated as "submission" or "letting-be". and socializing with neighbors and relatives are the greatest functions of the Amish family. from district to district. which differs slightly from community to community.
Main article: Amish religious practices Two key concepts for understanding Amish practices are their rejection of Hochmut (pride.
Main article: Pennsylvania German language Most Old Order Amish speak Pennsylvania Dutch. and refer to non-Amish as "English".
30% +3. Ohio. In contrast. and 221. 166.000 39.wikipedia." Pennsylvania Dutch is "one of a handful of minority languages in the United States that is neither endangered nor supported by continual arrivals of immigrants.
Population and distribution
See also List of U.org/wiki/Amish
.70% +4.000 9. Finally. is called Hochdeitsch[a]) at church services.66%
http://en. desserts and canned goods.000 84.23% +4. September 2004)
Amish cuisine is noted for its simplicity and traditional qualities.000 in 2000. from 1992 to 2008. the Amish read prayers and sing in Standard German (which.19% +4.145 235.87% +3.86% +4. bread mixes.000 7. During that time they established 184 new
Year Pop. preserves. Many Amish communities have also established restaurants for visitors. The distinctive use of three different languages serves as a powerful conveyor of Amish identity.355 281. states by Amish population Because members usually get baptized no earlier than 18 and children are not counted in local congregation numbers.97% +4. in situations involving interactions with non-Amish.S.000 in 2008. it is difficult to put an exact figure on the number of Amish. out of politeness.000 19. ±% p. English is also the medium of instruction in schools and is used in business transactions and often. pickled produce. population growth among the Amish in North America was 84 percent (3. English is used for most reading and writing.675
— +4. Food plays an important part in Amish social life and is served at potlucks.  Many Amish foods are sold at markets including pies.a.86% +4.3/24/2014
Amish .000 128." Although "the English language is being used in more and more situations. in Pennsylvania Dutch. the free encyclopedia
dominates in most in-group settings.6 percent per year).42% +3. fundraisers. weddings. Rough estimates from various studies have placed their numbers at 125. such as the dinner table and preaching in church services. Ontario
1920 1928 1936 1944 1952 1960 1968 1976 1984 1992 2008 2013
See also Cuisine of the Pennsylvania Dutch
Amish couple in horse-driven buggy in rural Holmes County.000 13.000 in 1992.97% +5.000 28.000 57. farewells and other events. Thus.
Amish family shopping near Niagara Falls.
 Since almost all Amish descend from about 200 18th-century founders. genetic disorders that come out due to inbreeding exist in more isolated districts (an example of the founder effect). but too young to yet be church members.org/wiki/Amish 6/15
. are considered to be Amish. There are Old Order communities in 27 U.S.
The Amish largely share a German or Swiss-German ancestry. the free encyclopedia
settlements and moved into six new states. When looking at all Amish adherents and not solely Old Order Amish. Although more Amish immigrated to America in the 19th century than during the 18th century. changed the way their adherents were reported to better match the standards of the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies (ASARB). approximately 165. In 2010.Wikipedia. a few religious bodies.000) and Indiana (38. or
http://en. there were approximately 241. new settlements are formed to obtain sufficient farmland.
Amish populations have higher incidences of particular genetic disorders. states and the Canadian province of Ontario.000). and sometimes to resolve church or leadership conflicts. Certain Mennonite churches have a high number of people who were formerly from Amish congregations. Some of these disorders are quite rare. with an average of seven children per family. or young children raised in Amish homes. and Elkhart and LaGrange counties in northeast Indiana.wikipedia. A small Beachy Amish congregation associated with Weavertown Amish Mennonite Church exists in the Republic of Ireland. followed by Pennsylvania (51. In addition. including the Amish. There are a number of Amish Mennonite church groups that had never in their history been associated with the Old Order Amish. The largest concentration of Amish west of the Mississippi River is in Missouri. of whom 73. The Amish are among the fastest-growing populations in the world. including dwarfism (Ellis–van Creveld syndrome).609 were church members. as well as an unusual distribution of blood types. Those who choose to affiliate with the church. there is a population of approximately 10. Ohio has the largest population (55. The largest Amish settlements are in Holmes County in central Ohio. and were perhaps more likely to maintain a separate Amish identity. Amish represent a collection of different demes or genetically closed communities. and not as an ethnic designation. The latter tended to emphasize tradition to a greater extent.620 Old Order Amish resided in the United States.000 Old Order Amish in West Central Wisconsin. but to congregations in the former WOMC. maintaining proximity to family or other Amish groups.000 Amish adherents in 28 states in 2010. Because of rapid population growth in Amish communities. Lancaster County in south-central Pennsylvania. most of today's Amish descend from 18th-century immigrants. moving to areas with cultures conducive to their way of life.3/24/2014
Amish . with other settlements in eastern Iowa and Southeast Minnesota. and various metabolic disorders. They generally use the term "Amish" only for members of their faith community.[citation needed ] The former Western Ontario Mennonite Conference (WOMC) was made up almost entirely of former Amish Mennonites who reunited with the Mennonite Church in Canada. Other reasons for new settlements include locating in isolated areas that support their lifestyle.000). Orland Gingerich's book The Amish of Canada devotes the vast majority of its pages not to the Beachy or Old Order Amish. In 2000.
the free encyclopedia
unique. and has spread to several surrounding hospitals. Pennsylvania. and genetic disorders can be avoided by choosing spouses from unrelated communities. research. conducted the study. most Amish do not practice any form of birth control. They are against abortion and also find "artificial insemination. The first of these programs was instituted at the Susquehanna Health System in central Pennsylvania by James Huebert. director of human genetics at OSUCCC-James. DDC Clinic for Special Needs Children. Ontario Amish community. and are serious enough to increase the mortality rate among Amish children. and stem cell research" to be "inconsistent with Amish values and beliefs". The Amish have protection against many types of cancer An Amish farm near Morristown in both through their lifestyle—there is very little tobacco or alcohol use New York State. an informal self-insurance plan for helping members with catastrophic medical expenses. Although not forbidden or thought of as immoral. hence their large families. and educational services to Amish and non-Amish children and their families. While the Amish are at an increased risk for a number of genetic disorders. located in Middlefield. Amish are willing to participate in studies of genetic diseases. The Amish are conscious of the advantages of exogamy. a previously fatal disease. eugenics. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Overall cancer rates in the Amish population are 60 percent of the age-adjusted rate for Ohio and 56 percent of the national rate. Even skin cancer rates are lower for Amish. Parkinson's.org/wiki/Amish 7/15
. despite the fact many Amish make their living working outdoors where they are exposed to sunlight and UV rays. Their extensive family histories are useful to researchers investigating diseases such as Alzheimer's. About two-thirds of the Amish in Pennsylvania's Lancaster County participate in Church Aid.Wikipedia. starting in the mid1990s. A common bloodline in one community will often be absent in another. A handful of American hospitals. genetics. The findings were reported in a recent issue of the journal Cancer Causes & Control. has been treating special-needs children with inherited or metabolic disorders since May 2002. Because of a smaller gene pool. created special outreach programs to assist the Amish. ending the need for parents to leave the community to receive proper care for their children. This program has earned national media attention in the United States. they reject use of preventive genetic tests prior to marriage and genetic testing of unborn children to discover genetic disorders. The clinic is embraced by most Amish. They are typically covered and dressed to work in the sun by wearing wide-brimmed hats and long sleeves to protect their skin.3/24/2014
Amish . The incidence of tobacco-related cancers in the Amish adults is 37 percent of the rate for Ohio adults. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC-James) have found their tendencies for clean living can lead to a healthier life. Treating genetic problems is the mission of Clinic for Special Children in Strasburg.
http://en. and macular degeneration. the founding families of the Lancaster County Amish are unrelated to the founders of the Perth County. researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center—Arthur G. and limited sexual partners—and through genes that may reduce their susceptibility to cancer. which has developed effective treatments for such problems as maple syrup urine disease. an action that might result in shunning. The majority of Amish accept these as "Gottes Wille" (God's will). Ohio. The DDC Clinic provides treatment. For example. some groups have increased incidences of certain inheritable conditions.wikipedia. and the incidence of non-tobacco-related cancer is 72 percent. The Old Order Amish do not typically carry private commercial health insurance. However. Judith Westman. Dr.
5 per 100. the Amish have felt pressures from the modern world. Supreme Court in 1982 clarified that Amish employers are not exempt. Selfemployed individuals in certain sects do not pay into nor receive benefits from the United States Social Security system. believing that the basic knowledge offered up to that point is sufficient to prepare one for the Amish lifestyle. general reading books. such as throwing of stones or other objects at Amish horse-drawn carriages on the roads. Under their beliefs and traditions. Yoder. Jonas Yoder and Wallace Miller of the Old Order Amish.
Traditional Amish buggy
The Amish do not usually educate their children past the eighth grade. finding the benefits of universal education do not justify a violation of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. On May 19. Supreme Court affirmed this. The U. and Adin Yutzy of the Conservative Amish Mennonite Church. The Amish way of life in general has increasingly diverged from that of modern society.wikipedia. about half that of the general population. were each fined $5 for refusing to send their children. 1972.
The Old Order Amish support an unofficial publishing house known as Pathway Publishing Company in LaGrange. 1950. this has resulted in sporadic discrimination and hostility from their neighbors.org/wiki/Amish 8/15
. The Amish are subject to sales and property taxes. which are typically one-room schoolhouses with teachers (young unmarried women) from the Amish community. and occasional discrimination and hostility. Almost no Amish go to high school and college.000 in 1980. the Wisconsin Supreme Court overturned the conviction. As they do not own motor vehicles. to high school. Indiana.3/24/2014
Amish . education.S. and the U. Pathway publishes a number of school text books. Issues such as taxation. and Aylmer. this policy was codified into law. This exemption applies to a religious group that is conscientiously opposed to accepting benefits of any private or public insurance. provides a reasonable level of living for its dependent members and has existed continuously since December 31. aged 14 and 15. law and its enforcement.S. but only those Amish individuals who are self-employed. are areas of difficulty. Ontario. generally the Amish do not agree with the idea of Social Security benefits and have a religious objection to insurance. and periodicals. the free encyclopedia
People's Helpers is an Amish-organized network of mental health caregivers who help families dealing with mental illness and recommend professional counselors.Wikipedia.[b]
Amish life in the modern world
Main article: Amish life in the modern world As time has passed. they have no occasion to pay motor vehicle registration fees nor do they spend money in the purchase of fuel for vehicles. In many communities. In Wisconsin v. the Amish operate their own schools. On occasion. On this basis.
Subgroups of Amish
http://en. the United States Internal Revenue Service agreed in 1961 that they did not need to pay Social Security-related taxes. In 1965. Suicide rates for the Amish of Lancaster County were 5.
 Particularly.wikipedia. Samuel Mullet Sr. and diverse religious traditions. they are often reluctant to bring complaints to local police who describe the attacks as "very rare". The largest group. to the Beachy Amish. Fifteen others were given lighter sentences ranging from one year and one day to seven years. and Swartzentruber Amish sects. the Hutterites live communally and are generally accepting of modern technology. were convicted on Federal hate-crime and conspiracy charges. separate cultures. by the Anabaptists. Most modern Quakers have since abandoned their traditional dress. was sentenced to 15 years in prison on February 8. are those that have most emphasized traditional practices and beliefs. Plain Quakers are similar in manner and lifestyle.and beard-cutting attacks but was tried as the leader of the campaign. New Order. and in turn influenced the Amish in colonial Pennsylvania. the "Old Order" Amish. 2013. Ohio. the Amish churches have divided many times over doctrinal disputes. and Old German Baptist Brethren are distinct from the Amish.org/wiki/Amish 9/15
. Conservative Mennonites.3/24/2014
Amish . who did not participate in the five hair. In September 2012.Wikipedia. but they arrived with different German dialects.
Old Order Mennonites. a group of 16 Amish men and women from Bergholz. There are as many as eight major subgroups of Amish with most belonging. but are unrelated to the Amish.
Conflicts between subgroups of Amish have resulted in instances of "beard cutting" attacks on members of the Amish community. Due to the cloistered nature of Amish lifestyle. They all emigrated from Europe. in ascending order of conservatism.
In popular culture
Main article: Amish in popular culture
Amish furniture Amish music Amish school shooting Barn raising Christian views on poverty and wealth Fancy Dutch Martyrs Mirror Northkill Amish Settlement Ordnung Plain people Simple living
http://en. including their attitudes toward war. Early Quakers were influenced. a conservative faction that separated from other Amish in the 1860s. Old Order. to some degree.. Hutterites. including Samuel Mullet Sr. the free encyclopedia
Main article: Subgroups of Amish Over the years.
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The Amish (film) – PBS documentary
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wikipedia. a non-profit organization. additional terms may apply.. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.asp) at Young Center for Anabaptist & Pietist Studies at Elizabethtown College "The Amish" (http://missourifolkloresociety.Wikipedia.3/24/2014
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