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An empirical study regarding fonts of word marks as a tool for transmitting an archetypal identity
Master Thesis Lieke Oosterhout December the 10 , 2013
Word marks: a helpful tool to express your identity
An empirical study regarding fonts of word marks as a tool for transmitting an archetypal identity
Master Thesis Lieke Oosterhout s1244426
University of Twente Master Communication Studies Track Corporate Communication
First supervisor W. Bolhuis, MSc. Second supervisor J. Krokké, MSc.
December the 10 , 2013
(David Damico, 2008)
5 Respondents Measurement instrument Procedure Analysis Results 19 20 20 19 2.1 1.1 Brands 1.2 2.1 188.8.131.52.2 2.4.2 Logos Fonts 14 14 1.1 Pre test one 2.3 Corporate visual identity 1.1 2.2 2.3 3 Results 27 27 Respondents Measurement instrument Analysis 26 25 3.3 Measurement instrument Procedure Results 25 25 23 23 22 2.1 1.3 Pre test three 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.2.1 1.2 Archetypal framework 27 4 .2 Pre test two 21 2.1.2.TABLE OF CONTENTS Samenvatting Summary 7 6 Introduction 1 8 9 Theoretical framework 1.2 Description of archetypes 12 13 Advantages of archetypal branding 14 1.4 Respondents 21 21 Measurement instrument Procedure Results 22 21 21 2.4.2 2.2.4 2.1 2.1 Outliers 3.3 2.3.4 Main study 2.2 Archetypes 18.104.22.168 2.2 9 Brand positioning Brand personality 10 9 10 1.4 Research question and sub questions 2 Method 19 19 19 17 22.214.171.124 2.
2.2.1 126.96.36.199.1 4.2.2 Discussion 4.3 Archetypes and fonts 4 28 Conclusion and discussion 34 4.2 34 34 34 Sub questions Main question 35 4.5 Archetypal framework Word mark design 37 35 Added value of the study Limitations of the study Future research 45 43 42 42 Acknowledgements References 46 Appendix A: Groups of word marks Appendix B: Instruction form Appendix C: Descriptions of archetypes Appendix D: Sets of fonts Appendix E: Questionnaire Appendix F: Results correlational analysis 5 .2 4.4 4.1 Conclusion 4.3.3 4.2.
Het vooronderzoek leverde vijf groepen woordmerken op. Toekomstig onderzoek . Het onderzoek laat ook zien dat er drie clusters archetypen onderscheiden kunnen worden. Een eerste stap in de uitbreiding van de literatuur in dit domein is daarbij genomen. Tijdens het tweede vooronderzoek moesten respondenten beoordelen in welke mate deze lettertypes zakelijk. luxueuze en speelse woordmerken. Persoonlijke lettertypes.SAMENVATTING Doel . namelijk zakelijke. Methode . passen goed bij lover merken bijvoorbeeld. persoonlijke. De waardering voor woordmerken kan deze beoordeling eveneens beïnvloeden.In de toekomst zou de fit tussen archetypische identiteiten en merknamen onderzocht kunnen worden.Om de hoofdvraag te beantwoorden zijn er drie vooronderzoeken en een hoofdonderzoek uitgevoerd.Logo’s zijn één van de belangrijkste visuele elementen om de identiteit van een merk over te brengen. Tijdens het derde vooronderzoek werden 120 lettertypes beoordeeld op acht kenmerken. wat in contrast staat met ruler merken en hun strakke. Als ‘gezicht’ van het merk moeten logo’s de identiteit van een merk weergeven. Toegevoegde waarde en beperkingen . moderne. persoonlijk. ‘Sociaal’ en ‘Vrijheid’. Binnen deze studie is de link tussen woordmerken en archetypische identiteiten onderzocht. Er kan worden geconcludeerd dat lettertypes van woordmerken kunnen worden gebruikt om een archetypische identiteit uit te drukken. In het derde vooronderzoek hebben zes experts de fysieke kenmerken van de 120 lettertypes beoordeeld. Op basis van de resultaten van de vooronderzoeken zijn er 40 lettertypes geselecteerd voor het hoofdonderzoek. namelijk ‘Orde’. Het doel van deze studie was om vast te stellen in welke mate archetypen gevisualiseerd kunnen worden met lettertypes van woordmerken. Lettertypes en hun fysieke kenmerken zijn een nuttig hulpmiddel voor een merk om zichzelf uit te drukken als een bepaald archetype. De resultaten van dit onderzoek zijn interessant en bruikbaar voor zowel wetenschappers als mensen uit de praktijk. welke lijken te zijn geschreven met een veer of vulpen.Het onderzoek laat zien dat lettertypes van woordmerken gebruikt kunnen worden om archetypen te visualiseren. zijn er 120 lettertypes geselecteerd. Bevindingen . Persoonlijkheidskenmerken zouden de opinie van respondenten over de fit tussen archetypen en woordmerken kunnen beïnvloeden. 6 . Toekomstig onderzoek kan zich ook richten op de beoordeling van woordmerken. modern. Logo’s kunnen een symbool en/of woordmerk zijn.Binnen deze studie is nieuw empirisch bewijsmateriaal met betrekking tot archetypische positionering verzameld. formele en statige lettertypes. Tijdens het hoofdonderzoek is een online vragenlijst gebruikt om de fit tussen de lettertypes en archetypen vast te stellen. Er wordt geadviseerd om deze onderwerpen in meer detail te onderzoeken. Kenmerken zoals rondheid en breedte hadden echter kunnen worden toegevoegd. Om het tweede en derde vooronderzoek uit te voeren. luxueus of speels waren. Het doel van het eerste vooronderzoek was om vast te stellen welke groepen woordmerken mensen onderscheiden. Eén van de beperkingen van dit onderzoek is dat er meer fysieke kenmerken toegevoegd hadden kunnen worden.
During the third pre test. Future research . During the main study. respondents had to judge to what extent these fonts were businesslike. fit well with lover brands for example. During the second pre test. One of the limitations of this study is that more physical characteristics could have been added. personal. namely an Order. Added value and limitations . The pre test yielded five groups of word marks. Characteristics such as roundness and width could have been added though. The goal of this study was to determine to what extent archetypes can be visualised with fonts of word marks. logos should represent the identity of a brand. An early step in the extension of the literature in this domain is thereby taken.Logos are one of the most important visual elements to transmit a brand’s identity. Personal fonts. It was also found that three clusters of archetypes can be distinguished. three pre tests and a main study have been conducted. modern. luxurious or playful.The study showed that fonts of word marks can be used to visualise archetypes. which seem to be written with a feather or fountain pen. The valuation for word marks could influence this assessment as well. which is in contrast with ruler brands and their tight. Logos can be a symbol and/or word mark. It is advised to investigate these topics in more detail. As a ‘face’ of the brand. the link between word marks and archetypal identities is investigated. 120 fonts were assessed on eight characteristics. Personality traits could influence respondents’ opinion about the fit between archetypes and word marks. 7 . Social and Freedom cluster. 120 fonts were selected. Based on the results of the pre tests. 40 fonts were selected for the main study. personal. an online questionnaire was used to determine the fit between the fonts and archetypes. Findings . formal and static fonts. the fit between archetypal identities and brand names could be investigated. six experts assessed the physical characteristics of the 120 fonts. modern. In the third pre test. The results of this study are interesting and useful for both scientists and practioners.SUMMARY Goal . new empirical evidence regarding archetypal branding and word mark design is collected. Method .To answer the main question. Within this study. It can be concluded that fonts of word marks can be used to express an archetypal identity. The goal of the first pre test was to determine which groups of word marks people distinguish. Future research could also focus on the assessment of word marks. luxurious and playful word marks.Within this study.In the future. To conduct the second and third pre test. namely businesslike. Fonts and their physical characteristics are a helpful tool for a brand to express itself as a particular archetype.
However.INTRODUCTION A brand is a name. and aesthetics are often equalized between brands. sign. is it possible to express archetypal identities with word marks? This question is not answered yet. They translated Jung’s archetypes into brand archetypes. term. such as technical features. a brand personality is almost impossible to copy.. Word marks enable brands to express their identity (Aaker. The main question of this study is: ‘To what extent can archetypes be visualised with fonts of word marks?’ 8 . price and quality. 2010). design or a combination of these elements. Archetypes (originated by psychologist Carl Gustav Jung) are universal sets of roles that are recognizable to everyone. 1998). Jung stated that a limitless number of archetypes is possible. There are different ways to position a brand on its personality. Therefore. Nowadays. 1997. Positioning based on archetypes is one of these ways. but Mark and Pearson (2001) reduced this number to twelve. As opposed to the functional aspects of a brand. that identifies the products or services of an organisation and distinguishes these products or services from competitors (De Pelsmacker et al. A good alternative to distinguish a brand from competitors is the use of brand personalities. 1998). it is difficult for brands to maintain a credible differentiation in the marketplace. Functional aspects. Henderson & Cote. A brand can communicate its archetypal identity in different ways. cool and contemporary 25-year old person for example. this study investigates the link between archetypes and fonts of word marks. Aaker (1997) defines brand personality as “a set of human characteristics associated with a brand” (p. A logo is a symbol and/or word mark that represents an organisation or brand (Henderson & Cote. The brand Absolut Vodka could be described as a hip. due to imitation and homogenisation (Hatch & Schultz. for example through its logo. symbol. 2003). 347).
Brands provide the primary points of differentiation between competitive offerings. namely corporate brands (e. the theoretical framework is presented. They can add value to products. by touching people rationally and emotionally. logos/word marks and fonts. symbol. that enable organisations to make promises to consumers about unique experiences. who argue that brands are associative networks of meaning. such as names and logos” (Gramma. De Chernatony et al. term. (2010) and Keller et al. information is given about archetypes and the advantages of archetypal branding. Wood’s (2000) definition of brands is both product . subbrands (e. 2001). The third part of this chapter focuses on corporate visual identities. (2011) take a consumer-oriented approach in defining brands as clusters of functional and emotional values. ‘Identity’ can be described as a set of individual and distinctive characteristics belonging to a brand. brand positioning involves establishing key brand associations in stakeholders’ minds to differentiate the brand and establish competitive advantage. Procter & Gamble). 2010).g..and consumer-oriented. 2000). The research question and sub questions are given as well. The first part of the theoretical framework focuses on brands. Volvo has three core values for example: quality. 2010. concern for the environment and safety. This definition of brands is product-oriented (Wood. According to Urde (2003). When choosing a positioning strategy. Brands are a source of value for organisations.1. brands are the sum of all mental connections people have around it. services and organisations. In the second part. 2000)..1 THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK In this chapter. that identifies the products or services of an organisation and distinguishes these products or services from competitors (De Pelsmacker et al. This is also acknowledged by Gramma (2010) and Jansen (2006). p. the identity of a brand should be used as basis (Wolthuis. Gilette). Its positioning in the market and minds of consumers will be critical to the actual value created (De Pelsmacker et al. “Brands are abstract concepts that only exist in our brains and are activated by identifiers.g. (2002). meaning and value (Mark & Pearson. as cited by Wood. 1. She defines brands as “mechanisms for achieving competitive advantage. It is of great importance to choose the right positioning strategy. 11). 2010). brand positioning and brand personality.g.1 Brand positioning Brand positioning is the battle for a place in the stakeholder’s mind. individual brands (e.g. 666). According to De Pelsmacker et al. brands can summarize their identity in core values. 1. Gilette Mach3 Turbo). According to Brown (1992. 2010). where safety is the most important 9 . sign. Gilette Mach3) and labels (e.1 BRANDS A brand is a repository of functional characteristics. The American Marketing Association defines a brand as a name. 2006). The attributes that differentiate a brand provide the consumer with satisfaction and benefits for which they are willing to pay” (p. by which it can be known and recognized (Jansen. It can be described as a reasoned decision about what aspects of the brand identity should be emphasized. V arious types of brands can be distinguished. through differentiation. design or a combination of these elements.
she applied the personality dimensions of the Big Five Theory (sincerity. another archetype. but also a collective unconscious exists. Kocher & Crettaz. Archetypes are universal sets of roles that a re recognizable to everyone. they try to reflect their personality through the brands they use (De Chernatony et al.2 Brand personality There was a time when products and services were different from each other and brands were built on those differences. Positioning a brand on its personality has several advantages. Today however. feelings and needs (Lunenborg. The first advantage is the uniqueness of a personality (Aaker. These three core values summarize Volvo’s identity and are the basis of Volvo’s positioning strategy. Mitchell and Rosenaum-Elliott (2012) confirmed that human characteristics can be applied to brands. He stated that behaviour is largely determined by unconscious ambitions and aspirations. 2005). “Archetypes can be seen as universal templates that exist in every person and which help to reach uncons cious 10 . 1. A good alternative to distinguish a brand from competitors is the use of brand personalities. excitement. Aaker (1997) defines brand personality as “a set of human characteristics associated with a brand” (p. 2006). one of the founders of the ‘depth psychology’. Mitchell & Rosenaum-Elliott. Positioning based on archetypes is one of these ways. He argued that not only a personal. Freud argued that human behaviour is guided by hidden emotions. it is difficult for brands to maintain a credible differentiation in the marketplace. 2011) and they choose brands with personalities similar to theirs (Huang. Personalities are unique and uniqueness is one of the most important characteristics of a brand (Rossiter & Bellman. the concept ‘archetypes’ will be explained. 2003). In this part of the theoretical framework. As opposed to the functional aspects of a brand. 1997). 2009). sophistication and ruggedness) to brands. Brand personalities are hard to copy. 1997). It can also marry (mergers) and reproduce (brand extensions). competence. breaks with conventions and has a strong desire for freedom for example. 347).2 ARCHETYPES There are different ways to position a brand on its personality. and it grows older and eventually dies one day (Müller.and distinctive value (Urde. 1. 2013). just like personalities of human beings. they also look like human beings: a brand has a date of birth (launch of the brand). Carl Gustav Jung. In her study. a protégé of Freud. wants to understand the world and develop its intellectual capital. Aaker (1997) was one of the first scholars w ho linked human characteristics to brands. The last advantage is that brands with a personality are stronger and better in surviving (Aaker. The second advantage is that consumers are already familiar with the concept ‘personality’ (Van Nistelrooij. Jung called the contents of this collective unconscious ‘archetypes’. A more recent study of Huang. Brands not only hold human characteristics..1. due to imitation and homogenisation (Hatch & Schultz. A rebel. childhood (early years) and puberty stage (in which problems can arise). 2012). a brand personality is almost impossible to copy. And a sage. Explaining this concept starts with Freud. one of the archetypes. They have a personality themselves. 2013). The enormous product parity makes lasting competitive advantage almost impossible at the functional level (Jansen. expanded this theory. 2003).
These clusters are not based on axes. jester. but Mark and Pearson (2001) offer a simplification in their book ‘The Hero and the Outlaw’. 2006. They distinguished two axes. creator. ruler and sage. namely a Freedom. However. Order and Social cluster. p. The archetypes within each cluster share some similarities. Mark and Pearson’s (2001) classification of archetypes is illustrated in the figure below. outlaw. Mastery Belonging Independence Stability Figure 1. The caregiver. Jung stated that a limitless number of archetypes is possible. innocent. Bolhuis (2011) identified three different clusters. 2010). 32). Certain people. Conflicter and Everyperson. In these situations. places and odours can awake an archetype. explorer. The archetypes they identified are: the caregiver. hero. Faber and Mayer (2009) identified five different clusters of archetypes: the Knower. Furthermore. archetypes are not present to the same degree in everyone: a certain archetype is dominant in each person (Jansen. the archetype stimulates an automatic pattern of thoughts and feelings (Gramma. 2006). Van Nistelrooij (2013) also distinguished three different clusters: an Expressive. A review of the literature showed that other authors classified archetypes in a different way. Archetypes are universal. Mark and Pearson (2001) used human drives to classify the twelve archetypes.ambitions and aspirations” (Jansen. creator and ruler are looking for stability and control and the explorer. magician. timeless and culture transcending and every archetype exists in every person. Social and Competence cluster. When a women becomes a mother for example. lover. archetypes are activated in certain situations. Although all authors used the same twelve archetypes. the classification is still ambiguous. Jansen (2006) used the axes Ego versus Social and Freedom versus Order for example. namely Mastery versus Stability and Belonging versus Independence. Carer. Mark and Pearson’s (2001) classification of archetypes 11 . These authors translated Jung’s archetypes into brand archetypes. Striver. in which they reduced the number of archetypes to twelve. regular guy. the nurturing archetype manifests itself. innocent and sage have a drive to be free and independent for example. At last.
This brand is an altruist. This brand encourages self-expression. Jester Also called the ‘fun brand’. Diesel. Examples are Grolsch. The jester brand helps with having a good time. Renault and Samsung. This brand helps consumers with crafting something new. The caregiver brand helps consumers with caring for themselves and others.1 Description of archetypes In this paragraph. Caregiver Also called the ‘caring brand’. It assists consumers in being creative and innovative and in giving form to their own vision. compassion and the desire to help others. Examples are L’Oréal. the twelve archetypes are described in alphabetical order. Examples are Apple. Efteling. Innocent Also called the ‘trusted brand’. This brand helps consumers with maintaining independence. Examples are BWM. Pringles and Smart. Jansen (2006) and Siraj and Kumari (2011). This brand has a desire for purity. This brand is invigorated by challenge and responds quickly and decisively to opportunity and difficulty. Lego. Examples are Coca-Cola. Consumers looking for a better. Consumers looking for compassion and generosity are using this brand. Nike and Sony. The innocent brand helps consumers with retaining or renewing faith and with experiencing goodness. These descriptions are based on Mark and Pearson’s (2001) book ‘The Hero and the Outlaw’. This brand makes enjoyment the bottom line. Creator Also called the ‘creational brand’. enjoy interacting with others and live in the moment.2. The explorer brand advances consumers’ journey of self-discovery. simplicity and goodness.1. something of enduring value. Explorer Also called the ‘investigative brand’. 12 . Spa and Johnson & Johnson. The given examples are also derived from this book. moved by generosity. provides the consumer with options and choices and/or is artistic in design. finding out who they are and seeking and expressing individuality and uniqueness. Starbucks and Volvo. Examples are Ben & Jerry’s. Jeep. Mentos. Consumers looking for fun and having a great time are using this brand. more authentic and more fulfilling life are using this brand. as well as from Bolhuis (2011). It encourages consumers to perform at their upper limit. It teaches consumers to lighten up. It promises the experience of returning to innocence: that life can be uncomplicated and peaceful. discipline and focus. Hero Also called the ‘warrior brand’. Marlboro and Saab. Nivea. The hero brand helps consumers with acting courageously and developing energy.
Mercedes and Rolex. Ruler Also called the ‘supervisory brand’. The magician brand is a catalyst for change and helps consumers with extending their consciousness. All sorts of human love are possible. This brand is powerful and rebellious. Consumers looking for freedom are using this brand. parental love and spiritual love. Philips and Unilever. Examples are Audi. Jansen. It assists the consumer with dissociating from values of the group or society and helps with retaining values that are threatened by the prevailing ones. The regular guy brand helps consumers with being themselves and connecting with others.2. This brand takes control over situations and tries to make life as stable and predictable as possible. Examples are Axe. First of all. Examples are C1000. Sage Also called the ‘wise brand’. It fosters ‘magical moments’ and promises to transform the consumer. Harley Davidson. This brand helps consumers with affecting transformation. Archetypes underlie unconscious human behaviour and 13 . Google. Outlaw Also called the ‘rebel brand’. Red Bull and Smirnoff. It also provides expertise and encourages to think. The ruler brand helps consumers with having control. organisation and/or society. This brand helps consumers with searching the absolute truth and becoming an expert. 2010. Magnum and Victoria’s Secret. This brand fosters closeness between people and implicitly promises beauty and sexual appeal. which makes archetypal brands recognizable (Gramma. Examples are Alfa Romeo. taking responsibility for the state of their own life and exerting leadership in their family. This is a down-to-earth brand which can be compared with the good neighbour who is always prepared to offer a helping hand. 2006). Magician Also called the ‘magical brand’. group. Bacardi. 1. Disney. Hema. such as friendship. but the most important is romantic love. Mini and MTV. Examples are Hugo Boss. Regular Guy Also called the ‘everyman’ and the ‘likeable brand’. Consumers using the sage brand feel smarter and more informed. This brand helps consumers with finding and giving love. Examples are Eastpak. Second. everybody is already subconsciously familiar with archetypes.2 Advantages of archetypal branding Archetypal branding has several advantages. This brand helps customers with making smarter decisions and understanding the world. brands with an archetypal identity connect to deeper ambitions and aspirations of consumers and are therefore able to build up meaningful relationships (Jansen. Ikea and Opel. 2006).Lover Also called the ‘passionate brand’. KLM.
Kocher and Crettaz (2013). A logo is a symbol and/or word mark that represents the organisation or brand (Henderson & Cote. This is also acknowledged by Mark and Pearson (2001). 14).3 CORPORATE VISUAL IDENTITY A brand or organisation can communicate its archetypal identity in different ways. letters. (2005). 1. Stated differently. It helps in making organisations recognizable (Balmer & Gray. archetypal branding acts as one of the most persuasive tools for building a successful and legendary brand (Siraj & Kumari.3. logos are means to transmit affect to a brand. Coca-Cola.. to identify itself or its products” (Henderson & Cote.1 Logos The name and logo are considered to be the most recognizable elements of a corporate visual identity (Poon & Fatt. a corporate visual identity supports five dimensions of an organisation’s reputation: its visibility. All graphical elements that express the essence of an organisation belong to the corporate visual identity (Van den Bosch et al.3. They are seen as the most visible and familiar graphical elements. 2005). A font 14 . These fonts are adjusted by the designer usually. 24). Another advantage is that logos enable brands to transmit their character and identity (Aaker. 1997. logos should enhance the recognition and recall of a brand. Symbolism is the most controllable element (Van Riel et al. A corporate visual identity is the symbolic element within the corporate identity mix (Van den Bosch et al. 1999) and in managing the overall reputation (Van den Bosch et al. 2011). vehicles and buildings. increase recognition and gain attention (Henderson & Cote. colour. are archetypal through and through” (p. 2005).therefore offer a valuable foundation upon which to develop a strong identity (Jansen. 2005) and can be described as the visual representation of an organisation. Examples of graphical elements are the name. According to Birkigt and Stadler (1986). 1999. 1. At last. transparency and consistency.. as cited by Van Riel et al. 1998.. 2001). 1998). 1997). Examples of brands using a symbol are NS. A logo can be described as “ a graphic design that an organisation uses. When designing a word mark.. clothing. organisations can transmit their identity through their communication.. who argue that “brands that become truly iconic. different fonts can be chosen. p. CNN and Kellogg’s are brands using a word mark and Adidas and BlackBerry are both using a symbol and word mark. Shell and Apple. Poon & Fatt. logo. 1. slogan. 1997). The logo is the most visible part of a brand: it is on almost all brand carriers. 1998). with or without its name. 2001). typography and photography. A corporate visual identity is considered as an important management tool. behaviour and symbolism. According to Van den Bosch et al. which is the third advantage. 2001) and can be expressed through a corporate visual identity. Mark & Pearson. brochures. 1998. Henderson & Cote. provide a tool to recognize the brand or organisation and simplify identification of own employees (Maathuis. 2006. According to Müller.2 Fonts As described above. Henderson and Cote (1998) argue that logos can have added value if two conditions are fulfilled: people should remember seeing the logo and the logo should remind people of the brand name. such as products. because they are the most consistent element in the corporate identity mix. Logos can have added value. Logos are one of the main instruments to communicate image. a logo is a symbol and/or word mark that represents an organisation or brand. authenticity. distinctiveness.
contrast is the difference between vertical and horizontal stroke thicknesses. Zaichkowsky (2010) states that the product category. According to Childers and Jass (2002). 2004). x-height refers to the height of the lowercase letter ‘x’. medium or bold. Italic and Bold in sizes 8. the most basic form of font classification is simply into serifs and sans serifs. does not have these adornments. who argues that brands need fonts that reflect their intentions and suit their images. Variables in letter design (Cheng. weight. 10.. 12 pts (Cheng. Figure 2 clarifies these terms. brackets.000 fonts in existence (Letterfontein. x-height and contrast. image and message of a brand should match a brand’s font type. there are fifteen universal and eight specific characteristics of fonts. Serifs are short lines at the end of the vertical and horizontal strokes and brackets are the straight or curved shapes that join the vertical and horizontal strokes. 400). A typeface is a family of related fonts in a range of sizes. (2013) state that “managers should choose a font that communicates desirable traits and augments the brand’s personality” (p. Today. 2004). Ornate/plain. (2004). According to Henderson et al. light/heavy weight and short/tall x-height. for example Garamond Roman. A font usually has three weights: light. serifs. 2013).is a set of characters in one size and style. there are six elements that cause variations in letter design: stress. A font has its own personality and ability to convey different moods and feelings (Henderson et al. Fonts differ from each other because the letters they comprise. 12 and 14 pts. A font sans serifs. 2006). Fonts are one of the most important design elements in marketing materials (Henderson et al. Furthermore. fonts are important visual tools for accomplishing corporate communication objectives. 1923). Grohmann et al. for example Garamond Roman. usually between 50% to 60% of the capital height. This is also acknowledged by Henderson (2005). Early research on fonts showed for example that Garmond Italics is perceived as luxurious and exclusive and Century Bold as powerful (Poffenberger & Franken. According to Cheng (2006). A serif font is one which has adornments (lines or curves) at the end of each letter. At last. Weight is the overall colour of a font. symmetrical/asymmetrical and organic/geometric are examples of universal characteristics. Many classifications of fonts have already been made..000 to 60. differ in design. According to Thangaraj (2004). Figure 2. depending on the axis at which a letter is drawn. A stress may be upright or oblique. there are 50. as the name already suggests. The type of font used by a brand can be compared to different handwriting styles and their link to personality traits. Examples of font specific characteristics are serifs/sans serifs. 2006) 15 .
nationale nederlanden and upc. Furthermore. This is also acknowledged by Henderson (2005). 2013). 2010). consumers form impressions based on the physical characteristics of fonts and use these impressions to infer information about the brand. harmony. legibility and perception of a brand. fonts are perceived as prominent (strong and masculine) when they are not natural. Childers and Jass (2002) are one of the scholars who investigated the link between fonts and brand perceptions. in 1525. Before 2010. The study showed that fonts are perceived as pleasing (attractive) when they are natural. (2013). ‘small capitals’ were introduced. As mentioned earlier. Examples of brands using both capitals and lowercase letters in their word marks are Cartier. At last. bu t also affect brand perceptions (Grohmann et al. Reassuring (calm) reactions increase with harmonious fonts and engaging (endearing) reactions increase with natural and elaborate fonts. However. Nokia and Zara are solely using capitals. According to Childers and Jass (2002) and Grohmann et al. Later on. Adidas. word marks could not have enough capitals. Capitals in word marks often have a rhetoric function: they want to attract the consumer’s attention. is the mo ther of all Western capitals. at&t. pepsi. lowercase letters were developed. as well as the ancestor for all serif fonts (Letterfontein. Fonts evoke different reactions among consumers. (2004). The Roman capital. 2010). they distinguished six different design dimensions of fonts. one should make a decision about which font to use. By solely using lowercase letters. a harmonious font is symmetric and balanced and a natural font is curved and organic. Johnson & Johnson and Ralph Lauren. Fonts not only influence consumers’ responses to the font itself. Ebay and Facebook are only using lowercase letters and Gucci. A smal l capital is a smaller version of the original capital and has the same height as lowercase letters (Letterfontein. Their research showed that semantic associations 16 . engaging and prominent) and related font characteristics to these reactions. namely elaborate. These results highlight that fonts convey meaning and evoke certain reactions among consumers. reassuring. one should also consider the use of capitals and/or lowercase letters. Lowercase letters are more friendly and less aggressive and authoritarian than capitals. flourish.When designing a word mark. who identified four reactions fonts can evoke (pleasing. these brands try to enhance sympathy and accessibility (Wijman. It is the foundation for Western font design. 2013). natural. Flourish fonts are characterised by serifs and weight refers to a light or heavy weight. letters with a small width are typical for compressed fonts. harmonious and flourish.. more and more brands are choosing to use word marks without capitals (Wijnman. These reactions have been investigated by Henderson et al. harmonious and flourish. Examples of brands which changed their word marks recently are anwb. the scholars identified fifteen universal and eight specific characteristics of fonts. Capitals are originally derived from Roman inscriptions. Based on these characteristics. An elaborate font is complex and active. In the 7 th century. also called ‘Capitalis Monumentalis’. who argues that font choice greatly influences the memorability. weight and compressed. Since 2010 however. 2013).
Archetypes in the Social cluster fit with graceful and round shapes and archetypes in the Order cluster fit with tight and 3D shapes. Therefore. This is the first study that investigates the link between archetypes and word marks. the brand is considered as rugged. The first. harmonious or flourish font. Henderson & Cote. competence and ruggedness. 1998). natural. and that a squared and tight design fits with ruler brands. These three fonts score high on all five personality dimensions. (2004). weight and flourish. When a brand uses a formal and extravagant font in print advertisements. it will be seen as more luxurious for example. they studied the impact of fonts on brand personality perceptions. The scholars conducted three experimental studies. To conclude. sincere and exciting. including the fonts they use in their word marks. In this study. Grohmann et al. influences consumers’ perceptions of the brand’s personality. study showed that font characteristics influence brand personality perceptions. 1. It was found that a harmonious and repetitive logo design fits with caregiver brands for example. Bolhuis (2011) proposed a strong fit between caregiver brands and handwritten word marks and ruler brands and businesslike word marks. as proposed by Henderson et al. (2013) investigated whether the font type used to represent a brand name. elaborate. and when a brand uses a practical font. Van Nistelrooij (2013) investigated archetypes and logo design. The research of Childers and Jass (2002) highlights that font type influences brand perceptions. His study showed that the content. A link between archetypes and word marks is expected as well. The studies of Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013) showed that archetypes can be visualised with logo shapes. competent. and most important. when a brand name is displayed in a natural. Stated differently. such as in logos. in which they investigated the brand personality perceptions excitement.4 RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB QUESTIONS Is it possible to visualise archetypal identities with word marks? This question is not answered yet. it will be perceived as more casual. sincere and exciting. Specifically. sophistication. these propositions will be addressed. and the font characteristics harmony. According to Bottomley and Doyle (2006). Logos enable brands to transmit their character and identity (Aaker. The studies of Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013) showed that logo shapes are a helpful tool to express an 17 . The study also showed that when a brand uses a heavy and compressed font. Bolhuis (2011) investigated to what extent archetypes can be visualised with logo shapes for example. as proposed by Aaker (1997). sincerity. Archetypes have not been linked to word marks yet. They are one of the most important visual elements to transmit a brand’s identity. a link between archetypal identities and word marks is not inconceivable. It was found that archetypes in the Freedom cluster fit with graceful and organic logo shapes. but several authors studied archetypes and logo shapes.linked to fonts are transferred to a brand. it will be perceived as rugged and competent. 1997. brands convey messages through the fonts they use. sophisticated. colour and shape of a logo can increase the appropriateness of a logo for a particular brand archetype. Light fonts make the brand appear more sophisticated. the study showed that consumers use characteristics of fonts as semantic information which they transfer to personalities of brands.
archetypal identity. the first sub question of this study is: ‘Which groups of word marks can be distinguished?’. The main question of this study is: ‘To what extent can archetypes be visualised with fonts of word marks?’ Before answering this question. However. it is necessary to know which fonts suit the groups of word marks of sub question one. the link between archetypes and word marks is not investigated yet. the second sub question is: ‘Which fonts suit the groups of word marks of sub question one?’ 18 . To answer the main question. This study addresses this research gap. one should know which groups of word marks people distinguish. Therefore. Therefore.
1. These respondents were randomly selected. Additional elements. With card sorting. Again. three pre tests and a main study have been conducted. namely open and closed card sorting. only this time based on their associations with the word marks. 75 word marks were selected. The word marks also got a black colour and they were printed on white cards. such as ‘spacing’ and ‘weight’. The respondent is asked to sort these cards into logical groups. The respondents were free to make as few or many groups as they felt they had to make. 19 . they were asked to name each group and to explain their choices. The average age of the respondents is 29. with the youngest respondent being 18 years and the oldest 65 years. In this chapter. the card sorting technique was used.4 years (SD=14.3 Procedure The respondents were asked to group the word marks twice.1. All data was written down and captured on photo. the respondents had to group the word marks based on their physical characteristics. They are not asked to assign the cards into fixed groups. a respondent is given a set of cards with terms already written on it. such as ‘formal’ or ‘cheerful’. To conduct the pre test. were removed and all word marks where resized to the same resolution. During the pre test. like symbols and slogans. the open card sorting technique was used.1.2 METHOD To answer the research question and sub questions.1 Respondents Fifteen respondents (seven male and eight female) participated in this pre test. 2. 2. the respondent is asked to name each group and to explain why he or she made these specific groups (Spencer. Group names and explanations were written down and all groups were captured on photo.1 PRE TEST ONE The goal of the first pre test was to determine which groups of word marks people distinguish.41). There are two types of card sorting. With open card sorting. 2. respondents are free to create groups themselves. After this. the respondents had to name each group and give an explanation. First. The design of the main study will be discussed as well. 2009). the respondents had to group the word marks again. Afterwards. During the next round.2 Measurement instrument To determine which groups of word marks people distinguish. 2. These word marks were retrieved from two ranking lists: Interbrand’s (2012) top 100 of strongest global brands and BrandAsset Valuator’s (2012) top 100 of strongest Dutch brands. which is the case with closed card sorting. information will be given about these pre tests and their results.
sound. represents quality and class Informal. stately. boring. luxurious and playful word marks. 2.4 Analysis During the analysis phase. static.5 Results The first round of card sorting yielded six different physical characteristics: 1 Spacing: normal/stretched 2 Serifs: serifs/sans serifs 3 Weight: light/medium/bold 4 X-height: low/medium/high 5 Thick-thin transition: none/medium/strong 6 Capitals/lowercase letters/capitals and lowercase letters Every respondent mentioned one or more of these characteristics. Table 1 shows the main groups. Table 1. one of the respondent made four groups for example. the native language of the respondents. practical. distinctive. feminine. striking. The second round of cart sorting yielded five groups of word marks. curly shapes Chic. handwritten. friendly. The number of groups differed among the respondents. modern. Groups of word marks Group Frequency (n=15) Alternative descriptions Examples 1 Businesslike 15 Formal. old. represents activity and movement 20 . Originally. elegant. The businesslike group was mentioned by all respondents and many respondents distinguished a personal and playful group as well. how many times they were mentioned and their alternative descriptions. not distinctive. creative.2. basic. while another respondent made ten groups. personal. classic. tight.1. namely businesslike. five main groups could be distinguished. cheerful. the groups were named in Dutch. straight shapes. It is advised to check this appendix before going to the next page. appealing. attractive. However. the identified groups were compared with each other. During the second round of card sorting. Despite these differences.1. round shapes Graceful. open. meaningless. The number of groups differed among the respondents. These names have been translated in English. straight shapes 2 3 4 5 Modern Personal Luxurious Playful 8 13 9 13 Innovative. childlike. standard. several main groups could be distinguished. decent. More information about the groups and their physical characteristics can be found in appendix A. dull.
identity. In the questionnaire. The respondents were asked to participate in the pre test by e-mail. 2. none of the respondents who participated in the first pre test. By selecting fonts of existing word marks.4 Results During the analysis phase. 3 = nor disagree. such as ‘This is a businesslike font’. 2. 24 businesslike fonts. The average age of the respondents is 26. 5 = totally agree). highly recognizable fonts.1 Respondents To avoid bias. Whereas the first pre test had a qualitative character. 120 fonts were selected.flexfonts. the influence of capitals and lowercase letters could be investigated in a later stage. 4 = agree. 24 luxurious fonts and 24 playful fonts were selected. the word ‘Identity’ was used to show the different fonts. such as Coca-Cola’s and IBM’s font. 2. which is also shown in the table. the respondents had to judge the businesslike.com. ascenders (d and t) and a descender (y) and it is a powerful word. were excluded.dafont.2.80). 24 modern fonts. nor agree.3 Procedure The questionnaire consisted of seven questions: two questions were asked about the sex and age of the respondents and in the remaining five questions.2 Measurement instrument To determine which fonts can be seen as businesslike. 2. Every question started with a statement. Per font.2. To conduct the pre test. mean scores were calculated per font. Identity). Within every group. The fonts with the highest mean scores are presented in table 2.2. It was chosen to use this word because it has both vowels and consonants. To avoid bias. the respondents had to say to what extent they agreed with this statement (1 = totally disagree.2. personal. personal. with the youngest respondent being 18 years and the oldest 54 years. participated in this pre test. luxurious and playful. luxurious and playful. the word ‘Identity’ was displayed 8 times in capitals.2 PRE TEST TWO During the first pre test. In this pre test (and also in the third pre test and main study). 8 times in lowercase letters and 8 times in both capitals and lowercase letters (IDENTITY.2. The goal of the second pre test was to determine which fonts can be seen as businesslike. modern. word marks have been used. fonts have been used. personal. These fonts were retrieved from Word and from three websites that offer free fonts: www. modern. Some of these fonts are actually used by brands in their word marks.com. luxurious and playful fonts on a five-point Likert scale.fontsquirrel. 2 = disagree. this pre test had a quantitative character. modern. The web-based character of the questionnaire gave respondents the opportunity to answer the questions whenever they wanted and it simplified the analysis of the data. By doing so. 21 . an online questionnaire was spread. Twenty respondents (six male and fourteen female) were randomly selected for this pre test. www. it was tried to strengthen the link with word marks.9 years (SD=9.com and www. 24 personal fonts. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated as well.
Table 2.55.19 M=4. SD=1. SD=0. eight 22 . It was found that businesslike fonts (M=2.05 Identity Modern α=0.95.80). this pre test had a quantitative character.63. Modern fonts (M=3. SD=0. an expert research with six experts was conducted.00.3 PRE TEST THREE The goal of the third pre test was to determine the physical characteristics of the 120 fonts.85.38 M=3.61) had the highest fit with capitals.68. SD=0.80. SD=0. SD=0.51).50.29. SD=1. 2. To conduct the pre test.69 IDENTITY M=3.93 M=4. mean scores were calculated. SD=1. SD=1.85. SD=0.40 To investigate the influence of capitals and lowercase letters.10.14 M=2. SD=0. SD=0.90 M=188.8.131.52. SD=1.93 M=3.99 Identity Personal α=0.72 Identity M=3. 2.99 identity Luxurious α=0.56).15. SD=0.36) and fonts consisting solely of capitals (M=2. Mean scores and standard deviations were also calculated to determine the fit between the groups of fonts and capitals and lowercase letters.00) and playful fonts (M=3. SD=1. Like the second pre test.44. SD=0.95 M=3.61) had the highest fit with lowercase letters.1 Measurement instrument To determine the physical characteristics of the 120 fonts.78. These experts did not participate in one of the previous pre tests.75) had the highest fit with both capitals and lowercase letters and luxurious fonts (M=2. Fonts with the highest mean scores Group Alpha Fonts Businesslike α=0. to avoid bias. personal fonts (M=3.01 Playful α=0.82 M=3.3. Fonts consisting of both capitals and lowercase letters had the highest mean score (M=3. SD=0. SD=1.76. followed by fonts consisting solely of lowercase letters (M=2.
with information about the physical characteristics. The lowest kappa found was 0. an elaborate instruction form. proportional An overview of fonts per physical characteristic was made as well.67. When all experts are taken into account. no thick-thin transition. light weight. roman orientation. In the table below.92. an overview of the most consistently assessed fonts was made. First of all. and a briefing. These experts are familiar with corporate visual identities and one of the experts is a typography teacher. with more information about the assessment procedure. they had to read the briefing and instruction form closely and after this.49 and the highest 0. with the fonts and physical characteristics. serifs. First.80).60) and five combinations had a substantial kappa (between the 0. The assessment of the majority of the experts was taken into account when making this overview. Cronbach’s alpha decreases when one or more of the experts is excluded. Cohen’s kappa was calculated.physical characteristics were identified. 23 . An assessment form. medium weight. Descriptions. this instruction form can be found.41 and 0. they had to determine the physical characteristics with the help of the assessment form. roman orientation. The experts were asked to participate in this pre test by e-mail and face to face. were made as well. Table 3. was made.3. two of these fonts are shown.61 and 0. medium x-height. α=0. closed construction. proportional identity Businesslike Normal spacing. Ten combinations had a moderate kappa (between the 0. closed construction. When there was not a majority (for example when three experts assessed a font as ‘normal’ and the remaining three experts assessed this font as ‘stretched’). Two of the most consistently assessed fonts Fonts Group Modern Physical characteristics Normal spacing. These characteristics were mentioned during the first pre test and retrieved from literature on typography. sans serifs.2 Procedure The experts were asked to assess the physical characteristics of the 120 fonts. In appendix B.3. values and examples of all physical characteristic are given as well. Table 4 shows the number of fonts per physical characteristic. the typography teacher’s assessment was used. no thick-thin transition. For each possible combination of experts. as well as five additional experts. 2. The author of this thesis participated in this pre test.3 Results An analysis of the data showed that the fonts were assessed consistently. 2. Furthermore. All experts agreed on the physical characteristics of these fonts.
In other words: it is the height of the lowercase letter ‘x’. Non-proportional Proportional 14 Identity 106 24 . This is not the case with proportional fonts. all letters have the same width. Roman Oblique Identity Identity 98 12 10 Italic Thick-thin transition . Compressed Compressed Normal Normal Stretched Stretched Identity Identity 20 94 6 6 Serifs. oblique or italic. 38. 116 Proportion .A letter can have a broken or closed construction. Serifs Sans serifs Identity Identity 51 69 Weight .Thick-thin transition refers to the size of the transitions in a letter. Broken d Closed 4. medium or bold.Table 4. A font usually has three weights: light.Spacing refers to the space between the letters. A letter can be roman. 10 Construction . None e Medium e d Strong e 72.With non-proportional fonts. Low Medium High Identity Identity 9 57 14 Identity Orientation .The skewness of a letter is called ‘orientation’.Serifs are the short lines at the end of the straight and round shapes of a letter. Physical characteristics (n=120 fonts) Physical characteristics Values and examples Number of fonts Spacing .The overall colour of a font is called ‘weight’.X-height refers to the vertical space occupied by all lowercase letters. Light Medium Bold 26 Identity Identity 66 28 X-height .
2.2. with a mean age of 29. An internal research portal of the Behavioural Sciences Faculty of the University of Twente was also used to spread the questionnaire. Facebook. First of all. The name of each archetype and corresponding keywords (which were subtracted from the function.2 Measurement instrument As mentioned before. In this questionnaire. has a lower educational level (n=49). luxurious and playful) were used as a starting point. Avoiding boredom effects was the reason to keep this questionnaire as short as possible. and a long version. were selected.72). It is unknown how many people were reached with the request to complete the questionnaire. the fonts which best fitted the groups (and thus had the highest mean scores in the second pre test). 2004). the web-based character of the questionnaire gives respondents the opportunity to answer the questions whenever they want (Downs & Adrian. In appendix D the sets of fonts can be found. which lasted 30 minutes.4. followed by sets of fonts. descriptions of archetypes were given. The short questionnaire. which was the original one. Furthermore. In the questionnaire. These fonts were randomly grouped in four sets of fonts. fonts with both capitals and lowercase letters and fonts with solely lowercase letters. goal.1 Respondents The questionnaire was spread via e-mail. The long 25 . which lasted 10 minutes.4% is female (n=209). Each set consisted of fonts with solely capitals. 387 respondents started the questionnaire. was spread via e-mail and social media.2%. all fonts varied in terms of physical characteristics. 40 different fonts were used. who investigated archetypes and logo shapes. 40 fonts were selected for the main study. In total. 53.4 MAIN STUDY The goal of the main study was to determine to what extent archetypes can be visualised with fonts of word marks. In total. The respondents were asked to rate the fit between these descriptions and fonts on a seven-point Likert scale. The groups of fonts (businesslike.7% follows/followed higher vocational education (n=113).6% of these respondents is male (n=137) and 60. gifts and strategy of each archetype) formed the basis of each description. The rest. The largest part of the respondents follows or followed higher education.4. 14. In appendix C the descriptions can be found. The selection of these fonts was based on the results of the second and third pre test. modern. personal. One of the advantages of a questionnaire is the opportunity to collect data from a large population. 2. There were two versions of the questionnaire: a short version. 346 of these respondents completed the entire questionnaire. LinkedIn and Twitter. an online questionnaire was used as measurement instrument. A collaboration of three experts resulted in the final descriptions. The results of the third pre test were used to determine whether or not these fonts were assessed consistently. 39. The main study had a quantitative character: an online questionnaire was used as measurement instrument.2% follows/followed a study at the university (n=184) and 32. The descriptions have been made by Van Nistelrooij (2013). The age of the respondents varied from 14 to 68 years.05 years (SD=11. Furthermore.
a description of four archetypes was given. In the short questionnaire. different analyses have been conducted. 2. The results of these analyses are presented in the next chapter. The questionnaires finished with a couple of questions about the respondent’s sex. followed by a set of fonts. the respondents were asked to read the descriptions and rate the fit between the descriptions and fonts on a seven-point Likert scale.questionnaire was spread via the internal research portal and was developed to collect extra respondents. In both questionnaires. age and educational level.4. Each respondent filled out a questionnaire with four archetypes: one archetype from each of the four clusters of Mark and Pearson (2001). 26 .3 Analysis During the analysis phase. In appendix E. a description of twelve archetypes was given: all twelve archetypes of Mark and Pearson’s (2001) clusters. Mean scores were calculated and a rotated varimax factor analysis was performed. as well as a correlational analysis. In the long questionnaire. a description and set of fonts is given as example.
273 .924 . A mean score was calculated to define the fit between each archetype and font. To check the influence of outliers.926 . The jester does not fit in one of the clusters and also the magician does not strongly belong to one of the clusters.2 ARCHETYPAL FRAMEWORK Mean scores were calculated for each combination of archetypes and fonts.599 . a mean score without outliers. A significant difference in mean fit was not found. This analysis was performed to analyse the archetypal framework in general.454 . To complete the analysis.924 3 . The Freedom cluster consists of the explorer and outlaw and is formed by the third factor. the archetypal framework and the fit between archetypes and fonts.265 .3 RESULTS In this chapter. Information will be given about outliers.106 . regular guy.004 .041 -. based on the 1.131 . It best fits in the Social cluster. The Order cluster is formed by the first factor and consists of the hero. 3.968 . a rotated varimax factor analysis was performed.314 -. creator.5 x IQR rule.951 . With these mean scores. but this fit is not striking.237 -.136 . Table 5.219 . was calculated as well.858 .914 .002 -. 3. Results of the factor analysis Factor Hero Regular Guy Ruler Sage Caregiver Creator Innocent Lover 1 .1 OUTLIERS Each fit between a brand archetype and a font is evaluated by at least 30 respondents (max=43).029 27 . innocent and lover.138 2 . The Social cluster is formed by the second factor and consists of the caregiver. the results of the main study are presented.207 . namely an ‘Order’. a median score was also calculated. ‘Social’ a nd ‘Freedom’ cluster. It was found that three clusters of archetypes can be distinguished.070 . which means that the selection of fonts was successful. ruler and sage.
45 Personal M=4.218 . weight. x-height.482**).511 . The characteristics spacing. orientation.Explorer Outlaw Jester Magician .071 . In appendix F.166 -.21. It was found that ten archetypes have at least one significant correlational fit with one of the physical characteristics. modern.116 3. On the next pages.72. on average. 1 Caregiver It was found that the caregiver has.95.405 -. luxurious and playful). SD=0. In addition. SD=0. a correlational analysis was performed.03 SD=1. identity Identity Modern M=4. Furthermore.406 .61. Correlations between archetypes and groups of fonts and archetypes and capitals and lowercase letters were calculated as well.83 SD=1. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the caregiver correlates positively with modern fonts (r=. construction and proportion were included in this analysis.644 .481**) are increasing the fit.71 SD=1.7 SD=1. SD= 0. On the next pages.81 Modern M=4.77 Luxurious M=4.868 -. the results are presented per archetype. the highest fit with modern fonts (M=4. serifs.787 . by calculating a mean score for all archetypes and fonts with capitals. thick-thin transition. To investigate the relation between archetypes and the physical characteristics of fonts.71). The correlational analysis also showed this: lowercase letters (r=.51 Modern M=5. SD=0. The analysis also showed a negative relation with playful fonts (r=-.3 ARCHETYPES AND FONTS A mean score was calculated to define the fit between a brand archetype and font.61) and personal fonts (M=3. A mean score was also calculated for each archetype and group of fonts (businesslike.05 level. fonts with both capitals and lowercase letters and fonts with lowercase letters. the fit between archetypes and capitals and lowercase letters was investigated.409 . the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3.59).56 1 *=significant at .61). the significant correlations are reported per archetype.404**). all correlations are presented. **=significant at . the caregiver has the highest fit with fonts consisting solely of lowercase letters (M=3. including the correlations which were not significant.81 SD=1. personal. Below.01 level 28 .828 -.
The analysis also showed a negative relation with playful fonts (r=-. the highest fit with businesslike fonts (M= 5. the explorer has the highest fit with fonts consisting of both capitals and lowercase letters (M=3. on average.49 Explorer It was found that the explorer has.70). SD=0.16. SD=0. Furthermore.58).53 SD=1.453**) and modern fonts (r=. SD=0.77). on average. Furthermore.68.Creator It was found that the creator has.56 SD=1.46 Hero It was found that the hero has.64 SD=184.108.40.206. SD=0. which means that the weaker the thick-thin transition.442**). The analysis also showed a negative relation with personal fonts (r=-.90) and businesslike fonts (M=4.20 Identity Modern M=4.68 IDENTITY Modern M=4. the creator has the highest fit with fonts consisting solely of lowercase letters (M=3.430**) and playful fonts (r=-. Below.80 Luxurious M=4.12.22. SD=0.23).62) and modern fonts (M= 4.326*).507**).46 Identity Modern M=4. SD=0. 29 .44 identity Businesslike M=4. SD=0. the highest fit with modern fonts (M=4.55).75).48. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=-3.55 Modern M=4.58 SD=1. The analysis also showed a negative relation with playful fonts (r=-. SD=1.415**) and businesslike fonts (r=.358*).47 IDENTITY Luxurious M=4. identity Modern M=4. On the next page.344*). Below.59 Playful M=4. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the creator correlates positively with modern fonts (r=. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the explorer correlates positively with modern fonts (r=. on average. SD=0. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3. SD=0. The explorer does not have a significant correlation with one of the physical characteristics.53 SD=1. It was also found that the hero correlates negatively with orientation (r=-. Furthermore.29.33 SD=1. SD=0.79).56 SD=2.71).00. SD=0.64.93. IDENTITY Businesslike M=4.72 SD=1. the highest fit with modern fonts (M=4.517**). the higher the fit. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the hero correlates positively with businesslike fonts (r=.626**). the hero has the highest fit with fonts consisting solely of capitals (M=3.79 SD=1.93 SD=1. which means that the more roman a font. It was also found that the creator correlates negatively with thick-thin transition (r=-.423**).88) and businesslike fonts (M=3.58). the higher the fit.
The analysis also showed a negative relation with businesslike fonts (r=-.08. SD=0.66 IDENTITY Playful M=5. on average. the highest fit with playful fonts (M=5.52 SD=1.40 Playful M=5.94) and personal fonts (M=4.IDENTITY Businesslike M=5.37 SD=1. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=4.374*).66 SD=1.24 IDENTITY Playful M=5. Furthermore.84 SD=1.00 SD=1.54.68). SD=0.20 SD=1.60 SD=0.31. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the innocent correlates positively with modern fonts (r=.13.41 SD=0. The correlational analysis showed that lowercase letters are increasing the fit (r=. The jester does not have a significant correlation with one of the physical characteristics. Identity Modern M=5.486**).65 Identity Businesslike M=5.46). Below. SD=0. SD=0.80 SD=1.11 Businesslike M=5.80) and modern fonts (M=220.127.116.11 Innocent It was found that the innocent has. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the lover correlates 30 .65).18). It was also found that especially fonts sans serifs suit the innocent (r=.91. SD=0.20 SD=1.54 IDENTITY Modern M=5. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3.09 SD=1. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the jester correlates positively with playful fonts (r=.62) and personal fonts (M=4.37).23 SD=1. SD=0.39 Modern M=4. Furthermore.19 Personal M=5. SD=1.23 SD=1.91 SD=1. SD=0.12. Below. the highest fit with personal fonts (M=4.786**).06 Modern M=5. Identity Playful M=6.76). the jester has the highest fit with fonts consisting solely of lowercase letters (M=4.29 Jester It was found that the jester has. on average.72.457**). on average.27 SD=1. SD=0.430**).56 Identity Businesslike M=5. the innocent has the highest fit with fonts consisting of both capitals and lowercase letters (M=4.80. the highest fit with modern fonts (M=4.349*). SD=0.72 identity Playful M=6.25 Lover It was found that the lover has.96 identity identity Personal M=5.59). The analysis also showed a negative relation with playful fonts (r=-.
which means that the lower the x-height. The lover correlates positively with orientation (r=. the highest fit with personal fonts (M=4. which means that the lower the x-height.94 SD=1. Furthermore.341*). SD=0. SD=0. the highest fit with luxurious fonts (M=4.548**).14 SD=1.62) and businesslike fonts (M=3.71 Playful M=5. the higher the fit.83. Below.61). x-height is negatively correlated with the lover (r=-.00 SD=2. Below.78 SD=2.03.17 SD=1. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the magician correlates positively with personal fonts (r=.29.63). SD=0.75.60 identity Personal M=5.63. which means that the more slanting a font. The correlational analysis showed that lowercase letters are increasing the fit (r=. the magician has the highest fit with fonts consisting solely of lowercase letters (M=3. on average. on average.558**).355*). The magician correlates positively with orientation (r=. SD=0.72 SD=1.71).92). SD=0.86 Magician It was found that the magician has. It was also found that especially fonts sans serifs suit the lover (r=. The analysis also showed a negative relation with playful fonts (r=-.384*). The correlational analysis showed that x-height is negatively correlated with the magician (r=-.60 Personal M=5.08.78 identity Personal M=4. 31 . the outlaw has the highest fit with fonts consisting solely of capitals (M=4.66. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3. Identity Personal M=5. the higher the fit.738**). SD=0. the higher the fit. Furthermore. Furthermore. which means that the more slanting a font.48 Outlaw It was found that the outlaw has.363*).52 identity Personal M=4.88 SD=1.34 SD=1.positively with personal fonts (r=.86). the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3. SD=0. Furthermore.335*).01 Personal M=4.74 SD=1. This means that the stronger the thick-thin transition. Furthermore.400*). The correlational analysis showed a negative relation with personal fonts (r=-. A positive relation with thick-thin transition was also found (r=. which means that broken constructions are increasing the fit.03 identity Personal M=4.39 Personal M=5.68. the higher the fit. a negative relation with construction was found (r=-.06 SD=1. SD=0.419**).95.366*). the lover has the highest fit with fonts consisting of both capitals and lowercase letters (M=4.599**).54).87) and playful fonts (M=3. identity Personal M=5. the higher the fit.
the higher the fit. IDENTITY Personal M=5.59.35).84.04.340*). The analysis also showed a negative relation with thick-thin transition (r=-.451**). the higher the fit. The analysis also showed a negative relation with thick-thin transition (r=-. which means that the more roman a font. The analysis also showed a negative relation with personal fonts (r=-. Below. SD=0.01 Identity Modern M=5.13 IDENTITY Businesslike M=4. Furthermore.453**) and playful fonts (r=-.SD=0. SD=0. SD=0.34 Ruler It was found that the ruler has.13 SD=1. which means that the more roman a font.48). which means that broken constructions are increasing the fit. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the outlaw correlates negatively with lowercase letters (r=-. Below.362*).13.429**) and playful fonts (r=-. SD=1.375*).23 SD=1.80 SD=1.88).45 identity Luxurious M=5. SD=0. SD=0.56 SD=1. the higher the fit. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3.316*). The correlational analysis showed that orientation is negatively correlated with the ruler (r=-. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the ruler correlates positively with businesslike fonts (r=. The analysis also showed a negative relation with construction (r=-. the ruler has the highest fit with fonts consisting of both capitals and lowercase letters (M=3.25 Regular Guy It was found that the regular guy has.34 SD=1.53).63). SD=0.57 SD=1.20 SD=1. the highest fit with modern fonts (M=5.28 Identity Businesslike M=5.361*).69) and modern fonts (M=4.357*). on average.48 SD=1.53. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the regular guy correlates positively with modern fonts (r=.413**) and modern fonts (r=. which means that the weaker the thick-thin transition.73) and businesslike fonts (M=4.50 IDENTITY Modern M=4. On the next page. the regular guy has the highest fit with fonts consisting of both capitals and lowercase letters (M=3. the higher the fit.51). the higher the fit.404**). on average.53). the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3.28 SD=1. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3.94.91. Furthermore.84 Luxurious M=5. the highest fit with businesslike fonts (M=5. Identity Modern M=5. The analysis also showed a negative relation with personal fonts (r=-. SD=0. SD=1.55 Playful M=5.07 SD=2.55). which means that the weaker the thick-thin transition. It was also found that the hero correlates negatively with orientation (r=-. 32 .654**).39. which means that the more capitals.661**).64.12 identity Businesslike M=5.458**) and businesslike fonts (r=.
SD=1. The correlational analysis showed that orientation is negatively correlated with the sage (r=-.25 SD=1. on average.97 SD=0.17 Identity Businesslike M=5. the five best fitting fonts are presented (M=3.36).39 Sage It was found that the sage has.70) and modern fonts (M=4.35 SD=1.425**) and modern fonts (r=. SD=0.30 IDENTITY Businesslike M=5. which means that the weaker the thick-thin transition.25 SD=1. IDENTITY Businesslike M=5. the higher the fit.54).374*).22 SD=1.32 IDENTITY Businesslike M=5.50 Businesslike M=5.470**) and playful fonts (r=-. SD=0.83 SD=1.99 Modern M=5.06.42 SD=1. the sage has the highest fit with fonts consisting of both capitals and lowercase letters (M=3. the higher the fit.39 Modern M=5.42 IDENTITY Modern M=5.IDENTITY Businesslike M=5. The analysis also showed a negative relation with thick-thin transition (r=-. This is in line with the results of the correlational analysis: the sage correlates positively with businesslike fonts (r=. which means that the more roman a font. SD=0.673**). The analysis also showed a negative relation with personal fonts (r=-. the highest fit with businesslike fonts (M=5.75.27 SD=1. Below.401*).30 SD=1.67).77.15 IDENTITY Modern M=5.67.402*). Furthermore.40 33 .57 SD=1.
personal. a discussion is presented about the clustering of archetypes and the design of word marks. Examples of brands using a businesslike font in their word mark are Nokia and Philips. modern. At last. In the first paragraph. modern. most importantly. the conclusion and discussion are presented. These fonts were assessed consistently during the third pre test and differed in terms of physical characteristics. modern. personal and playful fonts suit with both capitals and lowercase letters and luxurious fonts best fit with lowercase letters. 4. as well as the main question. Furthermore. playful fonts are creative and informal and they represent activity and movement. It was found that businesslike fonts best fit with capitals for example. These fonts also have a friendly and attractive appearance. luxurious and playful fonts. tight and static. The added value and limitations of this study and suggestions for future research will be discussed as well. Of the best fitting fonts.2 Main question The main question of this study was: ‘To what extent can archetypes be visualised with fonts of word marks?’ The main study showed that fonts of word marks can be used to visualise archetypes. Modern. such as Budweiser’s and Coca-Cola’s font. luxurious and playful group of fonts. Businesslike fonts are characterised by straight shapes and can also be described as formal. personal. The research results will be discussed in the second paragraph. personal. the two sub questions will be answered. However. namely businesslike.1 Sub questions The first sub question of this study was: ‘Which groups of fonts can be distinguished?’ The first pre test showed that five main groups of fonts can be distinguished. they best fitted the businesslike. Ebay and Xerox. Fonts and their physical 34 . Examples of brands using a playful font in their word mark are Mars and Yahoo. The pre test also yielded information about the use of capitals and lowercase letters. like the fonts of National Geographic and Porsche. The second sub question of this study was: ‘Which fonts suit the groups of word marks of sub question one?’ Pre test two answered this question: it showed which of the 120 fonts best fitted the businesslike. 40 fonts were selected for the main study. These fonts also represent class and quality. Tight shapes and non-proportional letters are typical for luxurious fonts. personal fonts are characterised by curly shapes and it seems like they are written with a fountain pen.1. luxurious and playful group of fonts. like the fonts of Adidas. 4.1. In this paragraph.1 CONCLUSION 4.4 CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION In this chapter. Round shapes are typical for modern fonts.
It is on almost all brand carriers. It can be concluded that fonts of word marks can be used to express an archetypal identity.. 4. This is in line with the results of this study: word marks. Logos can be a symbol and/or word mark. clothing. Furthermore. These brands best fit with businesslike fonts. as well as oblique or italic fonts with a low x-height.1 Archetypal framework In this paragraph. which is in contrast with ruler brands and their tight.2. 2013).. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The factor analysis yielded three clusters of archetypes. 4. behave and be symbolized according to its archetypal identity to be successful. Consumers also use characteristics of fonts as semantic information which they transfer to personalities of brands (Grohmann et al. the archetypal framework will be discussed. It was found that lover brands best fit with personal fonts for example. namely an Order.characteristics are a helpful tool for a brand to express itself as a particular archetype. 2004). It is therefore of great importance that fonts of word marks suit a brand’s identity. formal and static fonts. However. fit well with lover brands. According to Aaker (1997) and Henderson and Cote (1998). This study showed that fonts of word marks can be used to express an archetypal identity. The type of font used in a word mark is of great importance. 2002. one should take in mind that the entire brand has to communicate.. Classification of archetypes Social 35 . can be used to express an archetypal identity.2 DISCUSSION A logo is one of the most visible parts of a brand. Graceful fonts. consumers form impressions based on the physical characteristics of fonts and use these impressions to infer information about the brand (Childers & Jass. word marks enable brands to transmit their character and identity. which seem to be written with a feather or fountain pen. vehicles and buildings. Grohmann et al. Order Freedom Figure 3. 2013). moods and feelings (Henderson et al. which can be seen as the ‘face’ of a brand. Fonts have their own personality and evoke different associations. Especially fonts sans serifs suit this brand. The figure below visualises this classification. such as products. which are not slanting and do not have thick-thin transitions. Social and Freedom cluster.
although they are named differently. Ego. archetypes were universal and recognizable. Overview of defined clusters Bolhuis (2011) Faber and Mayer (2009) Jansen (2006) Mark and Pearson (2001) Van Nistelrooij (2013) Social Expressive Competence Competence Social Expressive Expressive Expressive n/a Social Competence Competence n/a Current study Caregiver Creator Explorer Hero Innocent Jester Lover Magician Outlaw Regular Guy Ruler Sage Shadow Social Freedom Freedom Order Social Freedom Freedom Freedom Freedom Social Order Order n/a Carer Knower Everyperson Striver Carer Everyperson Carer Knower Conflicter Everyperson Striver Knower Conflicter Social Ego Freedom Ego Order Freedom Social Ego Freedom Social Order Order n/a Mastery Mastery Independence Stability Independence Belonging Belonging Stability Stability Belonging Mastery Independence n/a Social Social Freedom Order Social n/a Social n/a Freedom Order Order Order n/a Carer. Every colour represents two or more clusters. The dark blue colour represents the Social and Carer clusters for example. but the results of this study undermine this statement. Carl Gustav Jung first used the term ‘archetypes’ in 1919. Several authors proposed guidelines for clustering archetypes. To visualise the similarities between authors. An explanation for this result could be the personality of both archetypes. Striver n/a = not applicable 36 . Expressive. The personalities are not recognizable to everyone anymore. Mastery. In this century . Independence Order. An overview of all previously defined clusters is given below. Both clusters got this colour because they are almost similar to each other.Both the jester and magician do not fit in one of the clusters. One could argue that their personality is more outstanding and explicit than the personality of the remaining archetypes. Stability Competence. This explicit personality fits with unconventional physical characteristics that do not suit the other archetypes. four different colours have been used. Another explanation could be the recognisability of both archetypes. Tabel 6. The connection with deeper ambitions and aspirations is weaker compared to ten decades ago and therefore it is harder to identify with the personality of both archetypes. Jansen (2006) and Mark and Pearson (2001) argued that archetypes are timeless. Social Conflictor. Times are changed however and one could argue that the jester and magician are old fashioned and outdated. Freedom.
whereas Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013) investigated archetypes and logo shapes and also Faber and Mayer (2009). Another explanation is that archetypes have been studied from different points of view. Personalities are unique and this complicates their clustering. Brands should choose a font that evokes desirable associations and visualises the archetypal identity. These factors could have influenced the final archetypal frameworks. Therefore. one could argue that archetypes can be visualised on cluster level as well. in this study. This overlap in personality is also visible in the design of word marks. the explorer and outlaw form the Freedom cluster. which is in line with the Freedom clusters of Bolhuis (2011) and Jansen (2006). the classification of archetypes is still ambiguous. when it comes to word mark design.There are similarities between previously defined clusters and the Order. This is in line with the results of Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013). It was found that archetypes in the Order cluster all have a positive relation with businesslike and modern fonts for example. surveys have been used. In the current study and the studies of Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013). who found that archetypes within a cluster share similarities when it comes to logo shapes. However. construction and proportion. there are also contradictions. All surveys differed qua design however. Social and Freedom cluster of this study. while they are opposites according to other authors. Similarities in the Order cluster are visualised with a dark grey colour for example. there is not a 100% match. 37 . This study focused on archetypes and word marks. the design of word marks will be discussed per brand archetype. The design of each study could be an explanation as well. As mentioned before. Different colours have been used to highlight the similarities. while they are opposites in Mark and Pearson’s (2001) framework. Although there are similarities between clusters. these variables are not included in the table. and also the research population and response rate varied.2 Word mark design The archetypes in each cluster share similarities when it comes to personality traits. Some of the archetypes are clustered by one of the authors. Why can archetypes not be clustered unambiguously? The uniqueness of each archetype could be an explanation. 4. These days. On the next page. Different descriptions of archetypes have been used. Each of the twelve archetypes has its own personality. For example. Table 7 visualises the similarities between clusters. Although archetypes in the Freedom cluster do not share significant similarities. Jansen (2006) and Mark and Pearson (2001) studied archetypes from different perspectives. weight. fonts of word marks are a helpful tool for a brand to express itself as a particular archetype.2. the explorer and regular guy are both ‘Everypersons’ acco rding to Faber and Mayer (2009). None of the archetypes had a significant correlation with luxurious fonts and the characteristics spacing. For example. Correlations have been used to compare the similarities.
However. medium. something of enduring value (Mark & Pearson. Bolhuis (2011) proposed a fit between caregiver brands and handwritten fonts. strong . sans serifs . Starbucks and Volvo. The identity of these brands can be visualised with modern or personal fonts. 2001). can also be described as harmonious.Tabel 7. their word marks have a harmonious look and feel.⁴ None. It was also found that especially lowercase letters are suitable for this brand. which is in contrast with the results of this study. Van Nistelrooij (2013) found that the calm personality of caregiver brands can be expressed with a harmonious logo design. These brands solely use capitals in their word marks. capital and lowercase.⁵ Capital. straight and round lines and their harmonious look is strengthened by the absence of frivol and decorative elements. which are presented in the third chapter. 2001). The five best fitting fonts. A creator brand encourages self-expression and helps consumers with being creative. A high fit between creator brands and modern and businesslike fonts was found as well. and also none of the brands uses a handwritten font. which are characterised by round and graceful shapes. Examples of caregiver brands are Nivea. It was found that especially lowercase letters without thick-thin transitions are suitable for this brand. oblique. medium.Negatively correlated Values per variable: ¹ Serifs.² Low. Furthermore. italic . 38 . Creator Creator brands help consumers with crafting something new. on the other hand. which is a surprising and unexpected result. Similarities between clusters when it comes to word mark design Cluster Archetype Businesslike fonts Order Hero Regular Guy Ruler Sage Social Caregiver Creator Innocent Lover Freedom Explorer Outlaw No cluster No cluster Jester Magician + + + + + + + + + Modern fonts + + + + + + + + Personal fonts Playful fonts + + + + + + Serifs¹ X-height² Orientation³ Thick-thin transition⁴ Capital/ lowercase⁵ Order cluster Social cluster Freedom cluster No cluster + Positively correlated . which is in line with the results of this study. They have simple. high . lowercase Caregiver Caregiver brands are altruists.³ Roman. moved by compassion and the desire to help others (Mark & Pearson.
One would expect a high fit with playful fonts, but the results showed a negative relation with playful fonts. Decorative and informal fonts do not suit the creator apparently. Surprisingly enough, this finding is also visible in ‘real life’. Canon, Renault and Samsung are examples of creator brands. Their word marks are far from creative, which is in line with the results of this study.
Explorer Explorer brands advance consumers’ journey of self-discovery (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with modern or businesslike fonts. Both round and tight shapes are suitable for this brand and it is advised to use both capitals and lowercase letters in the word mark of this brand. Surprisingly enough, a significant correlation with one of the physical characteristics was not found. The explicit personality of the explorer, which would not suit conventional characteristics, could be an explanation. Another explanation could be the importance of the communication and behaviour of this brand. Grolsch wants to serve the world, Jeep is cruising it and National Geographic wants to explore it. These identities are mainly visible in the communication and behaviour of these brands. The adventurous characters of these brands are not restricted to symbolic elements such as word marks.
Hero Hero brands help consumers with acting courageously and developing energy, discipline and focus (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with businesslike or modern fonts. Tight shapes are suitable for this brand, which is also suggested by Bolhuis (2011) and Wolthuis (2010). Key traits of the hero are strength and success and squared and tight shapes are impersonating these characteristics (Lundholm, 1921). Word marks of hero brands should have a powerful appearance and it is advised to use a roman font with capitals. BWM, Diesel, Duracell, Nike and Sony are also using capitals in their word marks, to express their power and strength. The use of roman letters underlines this statement.
Innocent Innocent brands have a desire for purity, simplicity and goodness (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with modern or personal fonts, which are characterised by round and graceful shapes. When designing a word mark for this brand, it is advised to use both capitals and lowercase letters. An oblique font sans serifs is suitable as well. Coca-Cola is one of the most famous innocent brands. Its word mark has oblique letters, which seem to be written with a feather or fountain pen. Both capitals and lowercase letters are used as well. The results of this study are perfectly in line with Coca-Cola’s word mark. Also Johnson &
Johnson, another innocent brand, uses a word mark which fits the findings of this study. By using a personal font, like Coca-Cola and Johnson & Johnson, innocent brands can express their pure, open and inoffensive personality.
Jester Jester brands make enjoyment the bottom line (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with playful or personal fonts, which have a creative and informal appearance and are characterised by curly shapes. It was also found that especially lowercase letters are suitable for this brand. Bolhuis (2011) found a high fit between jester brands and a decorative logo design, which is in line with the results of this study. By using a decorative font with curls and dots, jester brands can express their frivol and uncomplicated character. A significant correlation with one of the physical characteristics was not found. As mentioned in paragraph 4.2.1, the personality of the jester is not recognizable to everyone anymore. These days, it is hard to identify with this brand, which could explain the absence of a significant correlation.
Lover Lover brands help consumers with finding and giving love (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with personal or modern fonts, which are characterised by graceful and round shapes. Also Bolhuis (2011), Van Nistelrooij (2013) and Wolthuis (2010) found a positive link with round shapes. According to Lundholm (1921), roundness impersonates love and beauty, two key traits of the lover. When designing a word mark for this brand, it is advised to use lowercase letters or both capitals and lowercase letters. Oblique or italic fonts with a low x-height are suitable as well, and it is also advised to use a font sans serifs. Especially personal fonts are useful to express all sorts of love, such as parental or romantic love. Victoria’s Secret also uses a personal font in its word mark, to express its romantic and passionate personality.
Magician Magician brands foster ‘magical moments’ and promise to transform the consumer (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with personal or playful fonts, which have an informal appearance and are characterised by curly shapes. Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013) also found a positive link with a decorative design. Decorative elements increase the complexity of the design, which suits the personality of the magician. When designing a word mark for this brand, it is advised to use lowercase letters and an oblique or italic font with a low x-height. Strong thick-thin transitions and broken constructions are suitable as well. Both personal and playful fonts are useful to express transformation, one of the key traits
of the magician. Disney also uses a personal font in its word mark, to express its magical world were dreams come true.
Outlaw Outlaw brands help consumers with breaking the rules (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with luxurious or businesslike fonts. Initially, one would not link outlaw brands to luxurious fonts. However, this unexpected combination becomes less rare when looking at the physical characteristics of these fonts. Sharp forms and non-proportional letters are typical for luxurious fonts. According to Lundholm (1921), sharp forms fit with ‘breaking the rules’. Furthermore, the unconventionality of non -proportional letters suits the rebellious personality of the outlaw. When designing a word mark for this brand, it is advised to use capitals. Outlaw brands Eastpak, Harley Davidson and Mini are also using capitals in their word marks. It is advised to use fonts with a broken construction as well. Closed constructions imply some restriction, which does not fit this recalcitrant brand.
Regular Guy Regular Guy brands are down-to-earth and can be compared with good neighbours who are always prepared to offer a helping hand (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with modern or businesslike fonts, which are characterised by round and tight shapes respectively. When designing a word mark for this brand, it is advised to use both capitals and lowercase letters and roman fonts without thick-thin transitions. The regular guy does not fit with a decorative and detailed design, which is also found by Bolhuis (2011), Van Nistelrooij (2013) and Wolthuis (2010). One should take in mind that a word mark for this brand should not be too overwhelming, as the personality of this brand is not either.
Ruler Ruler brands take control over situations and try to make life as stable and predictable as possible (Mark & Pearson, 2001). The identity of these brands can be visualised with businesslike or modern fonts. Bolhuis (2011) proposed a fit between ruler brands and businesslike fonts, which is in line with the results of this study. Tight shapes are suitable for this brand, which is also found by Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013). Tight shapes are representing boundaries and overview, which is necessary to have control over situations. According to Lundholm (1921), tight shapes are impersonating control and superiority, two of the key traits of the ruler. When designing a word mark for this brand, it is advised to use both capitals and lowercase letters. Roman fonts without thick-thin transitions are suitable as well. These design characteristics are perfectly visible in the word marks of Hugo Boss and Mercedes-Benz for example.
One of the limitations is that the respondents of the first pre test were familiar with the word marks.Sage Sage brands help consumers with making smarter decisions and understanding the world (Mark & Pearson. 2001). little empirical studies are available regarding archetypal branding. A sober and no nonsense design best suits this brand. This is the first time that archetypal branding is investigated in relation to word mark design. During this pre test. The results of this study also help practioners with developing a word mark that evokes desirable associations and visualises a brand’s archetypal identit y. At last. The discrepancy between a brand’s identity and word mark could be explained by the taste of the designer(s) and/or brand manager(s). Besides tight forms. Roman fonts without thick-thin transitions are suitable as well.4 Limitations of the study The results of this study are interesting and useful. Sage This research yielded guidelines for all twelve archetypes. Axe a magician and Google a sage for example. The identity of these brands can be visualised with businesslike or modern fonts. When designing a word mark for sage brands. However. it is advised to use both capitals and lowercase letters. These characteristics are not visible in Starbucks’ and Volvo’s word marks however. Some of these guidelines are also visible in the word marks of existing archetypal brands. Nivea is a caregiver. Trends in word mark design could be an explanation as well. not all guidelines are visible in ‘real life’. 4. According to Aaker (1997) and Henderson and Cote (1998). Despite this practical application of archetypes. word marks enable brands to transmit their character and identity. lots of brands have a strong archetypal identity. while these are two well known caregiver brands. Consumers’ perceptions of the personality of a brand are influenced by a brand’s word mark (Grohmann et al. the undervaluation of the importance of design characteristics and the associations they evoke could explain the discrepancy as well. 2013). Frivol and decorative word marks would not fit the stable personality of this brand. Sony uses a businesslike font. Within this study. round forms are suitable for this brand. The results of this study are interesting and useful for both scientists and practioners. Businesslike fonts are characterised by tight shapes and this tightness in design is also suggested by Bolhuis (2011) and Van Nistelrooij (2013). It may inspire scientists interested in archetypal branding and/or word mark design and it stimulates them to further investigate these topics. word marks could not have enough capitals for example (Wijnman. Audi also uses a round font. especially in relation to word marks.. the respondents 42 . which perfectly suits the results of this study. and has both capitals and roman letters in its word mark for example. An early step in the extension of the literature in this domain is thereby taken. to express its wise and calm personality.3 Added value of the study These days. This study showed that fonts of word marks can be used to express an archetypal identity. but there are some limitations. 2010). 4. new empirical evidence regarding archetypal branding and word mark design is collected.2. It was found that handwritten fonts and lowercase letters are suitable for caregiver brands. Before 2010.2.
2012) and logo shapes (Bolhuis.. The groups of fonts could have been mixed. 4. and ruler brands with strong and formal names. during the third pre test. The roundness of each font could have been assessed. Wolthuis. based on their physical characteristics (such as ‘weight’) and associations (such as ‘formal’ or ‘cheerful’). thick-thin transition. as well as the width of letters. personal. One of the characteristics. Archetypes are already linked to interior designs (Van Erp. which is associated with optimism. weight. 2011). x-height. Magician brands could fit with frivol. serifs. than a modern font and than a personal.. 43 . The fonts in each set had the same order: first a businesslike font. ‘extra’ associations word marks of well known brands evoke. energy and humour. construction and proportion. to determine the extent to which archetypes can be visualised with corporate visual identities. was followed by a modern. luxurious and playful font. At last. Future studies could focus on archetypal branding and the name or slogan of a brand. it is tried to avoid order effects as much as possible. Several fonts were remarkably round or had letters with a very small or large width.2. The sets of fonts were rotated for example. 2000). word marks of relatively unknown brands or non-existing word marks could have been used. six experts were asked to assess the physical characteristics of 120 fonts. Each set consisted of ten fonts. because several fonts had a weight between ‘light’ and ‘medium’ or ‘medium’ and ‘bold’. These characteristics were mentioned during the first pre test and retrieved from literature on typography. However. four different sets of fonts were used. More characteristics could have been added though. By doing so. Furthermore. could fit with hero brands for example. However. a n organisation’s or brand’s corporate visual identity consists of many more elements. could have been rated on a five -point scale. most of the characteristics were rated on a three-point scale. would be excluded. Grey. The respondents were familiar with most of the word marks. which is associated with strength and success. 2010). 2013. Colours are known to process emotional and psychological properties and they carry specific meanings (Ward. a businesslike font was shown. the link between archetypes and word marks is investigated. distinguishes a brand from competitors and enlarges recall and recognition (De Pelsmacker et al. ‘weight’. could fit with jester brands. Colour communicates associative and symbolic information about a brand. such as a brand’s likability. 1995. At this moment. Van Nistelrooij. luxurious and playful font. which.had to group 75 word marks of well known brands. to avoid order effects. during the main study. After each playful font. a meta-analysis should be conducted. 2011. orientation.5 Future research In the current study. The experts had to assess eight characteristics: spacing. as cited by Madden et al. After all studies have been carried out. December 2013. spiritual or creative names for example. The link between archetypes and mascots is also investigated by a UT student. Furthermore. Instead of familiar word marks. the link between archetypes and colours is investigated by a master student of the University of Twente. and yellow. in turn. as well as the order of archetypes.
Although the same archetypes have been used. An early step in the extension of the literature in this domain is thereby taken. Zhang et al.Future studies could also focus on the assessment of word marks. (2003) showed that respondents’ sensitivity for design influences their valuation for design. Mark & Pearson. This is the first study that linked archetypal branding to word marks. 2009. Scientists in the field of archetypal branding should be encouraged to investigate the archetypal framework in more detail. several authors proposed guidelines for clustering archetypes (Bolhuis. personality traits could be linked to respondents’ opinions about the fit between archetypal identities and word marks. Personality traits could influence the assessment of word marks for example. In a future study. 44 . Furthermore. 2011. it could be investigated whether respondents with a higher sensitivity for design hold stronger opinions about the fit between archetypes and word marks or not. the valuation for word marks could influence respondents’ assessment of word mark s. 2006. 2013). Van Nistelrooij. At last. It is found that fonts of word marks are a helpful tool for a brand to express itself as a particular archetype. In a future study. The study of Bloch et al. A discussion is presented regarding the clustering of archetypes and guidelines are given regarding the design of word marks. Faber & Mayer. Both scientists and practioners could take an advantage of these interesting and useful results. the clustering is different. 2001. Jansen. new empirical evidence regarding archetypal branding and word mark design is collected. (2006) found that personality traits influence the preference for angular or round shapes. Within this study.
It is everything. Time-consuming and boring. Maayke and Berber. my parents and sisters who are everything to me. And last but not least: thank you Catharinus.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS After months of hard working I finally finished my master Communication Studies. I feel blessed having a family who supports me in everything I do. I would like to spend a word of thank to my dear friends. Hopefully many more of these moments will follow in the upcoming years. I already imagined how I would receive my certificate and shake the hand of the professor. but very useful for me! Furthermore. evenings with pasta-pesto and wine and weekend getaways. that this is actually going to happen. especially the experts who rated 120 fonts on eight characteristics during the third pre test. I would like to thank my supervisors Wendy Bolhuis and Jim Krokké. but also offered relaxation. not even in my wildest dreams. You have always been positive about my study and this really motivated me. besides studying. Since I was a young girl. You have encouraged me to follow a master in Enschede and you have always motivated me during my study. I really enjoyed our cappuccino’s at Coffee Company. Thanks a lot for lifting my study to a higher level! I would also like to thank everyone who participated in the pre tests and main study. Thank you for your enthusiasm. I dreamed of going to the university. 45 . but you also reminded me that there is more in life. I had never thought. I think you are the best supervisors a student can have. clear instructions and useful tips. feedback. Getting my master degree is a dream coming true. who have helped me during the past months. I really enjoyed our meetings. I think family is not a thing. in which we discussed my study. Doesjka. but also talked about little sisters and holidays to Africa. I would like to thank everyone who supported me in finishing my master. First of all.
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BlackBerry.Non-proportional or proportional . medium or bold weight .A medium or high x-height . Examples of businesslike word marks are the word marks of Ahold.Roman letters .GROUPS OF WORD MARKS The first pre test showed that five main groups of word marks can be distinguished. Prada. static and decent. Playmobil.Normal spacing . personal. Nokia. Philips.Serifs or sans serifs .A medium or bold weight . Bol. luxurious and playful word marks. Honda. TomTom and Xerox.Closed construction .Mainly lowercase letters Personal word marks Personal word marks are graceful and elegant and are characterised by curly shapes.None.None or medium thick-thin transition . The physical characteristics of modern word marks are: . Examples of modern word marks are the word marks of Adidas.Light.Mainly capitals Modern word marks Round shapes are typical for modern word marks. Oracle. namely businesslike. It seems like they are written with a fountain pen and all letters are connected to each . modern. Heineken. The physical characteristics of businesslike word marks are: .com. Dolfinarium.Sans serifs . Amazon. medium or bold weight . Calvé.Medium x-height . More information about these groups and their physical characteristics is given below.Roman letters .Compressed or normal spacing . Gazelle.Normal spacing . medium or strong thick-thin transition .APPENDIX A . Ebay. Honig.Closed construction .Serifs or sans serifs . Siemens and Sony. These word marks also have a friendly and attractive appearance.Proportional .Low or medium x-height 50 .Light. Businesslike word marks Businesslike word marks are characterised by tight shapes and can also be described as standard.
Closed or broken construction . National Geographic.Low. italic or oblique letters .Roman. Coca-Cola. medium or bold weight . Porsche and Tiffany & Co.Serifs or sans serifs .None or medium thick-thin transition .Normal or stretched spacing . Mars. Examples of personal word marks are the word marks of Budweizer.Medium or high x-height .other.Light.Roman or italic letters . The physical characteristics of personal word marks are: . Examples of playful word marks are the word marks of Bolletje.Light or normal weight . The physical characteristics of playful word marks are: . The physical characteristics of luxurious word marks are: .Closed construction . Cartier.Serifs or sans serifs .Roman letters .Non-proportional or proportional Playful word marks Playful word marks represent activity and movement and can also be described as creative and informal. Johnson & Johnson. medium or high x-height .None.Proportional Luxurious word marks Tight shapes are typical for luxurious word marks. Clini Clowns. Examples of luxurious word marks are the word marks of Burberry.Closed construction .None or medium thick-thin transition . Louis Vuitton. medium or strong thick-thin transition . Gucci. Pizza Hut and Yahoo. These word marks also represent luxury. Madurodam.Normal spacing .Proportional 51 . Disney. class and quality. Jonnie Walker and Kellogg’s.
Spacing Spacing refers to the space between the letters. 1 Compressed 2 Normal 3 Stretched Identity Identity Serifs Serifs are the short lines at the end of the straight and round shapes of a letter. Besides spacing. thick-thin transition. 2 Medium 3 High 1 Low Identity Identity Identity 52 . Previously mentioned characteristics will be discussed below.INSTRUCTION FORM Physical characteristics Each font is different. weight.APPENDIX B . serifs. ‘Spacing’ is one of the physical characteristics of a font. while other fonts have a narrow spacing. construction and proportion are important physical characteristics. Some fonts are characterised by a large letter spacing. 2 Sans serifs 1 Serifs Identity Identity Weight The overall colour of a font is called ‘weight’. A font usually has three weights: light. 2 Medium 3 Bold 1 Light Identity Identity X-height X-height refers to the vertical space occupied by all lowercase letters. In other words: it is the height of the lowercase letter x. medium or bold. x -height. orientation.
Orientation The skewness of a letter is called ‘orientation’. oblique or italic. This is not the case with proportional fonts. all letters have the same width. 1 None e 2 Medium e d 3 Strong e Construction A letter can have a broken or closed construction. 2 Oblique 1 Roman Identity Identity 3 Italic Thick-thin transition Thick-thin transition refers to the size of the transitions in a letter. 1 Broken d 2 Closed Proportion With non-proportional fonts. A letter can be roman. 1 Non-proportional 2 Proportional Identity 53 .
Creator Dit merk helpt personen om op een creatieve manier nieuwe dingen uit te proberen. goed van vertrouwen en doet het 54 . Producten van dit merk geven klanten controle. De producten van dit onschuldige en goedaardige merk zorgen voor optimisme en geluk. Het merk is daarmee realistisch. en laat zich niet leiden door de gebruikelijke maatschappelijke conventies. doelgericht en machtig. Deze producten helpen personen om van het leven te genieten. Producten van dit merk zijn passioneel en verleidelijk. verstandig en laagdrempelig. Outlaw Dit opstandige merk verandert bestaande situaties. Lover Dit merk heeft een liefdevolle relatie met zijn of haar omgeving. Het merk is tegen hebzucht en egoïsme. Met humor plaatst het merk alles in perspectief waardoor alleen de leuke en vrolijke kant zichtbaar wordt. De producten van dit merk helpen personen competent en krachtig te zijn. maar ook leider in zijn of haar domein. Group Jester Belonging Dit merk vermaakt personen op een clowneske en lollige manier. Het merk is oprecht. Group Hero Stability Dit merk geeft personen lef. Dit merk wil zijn kracht gebruiken om de wereld te verbeteren. De producten van dit merk zijn dan ook origineel en innovatief. Hiervoor gebruikt het merk vaak rituelen. meelevend en gul voor zowel haar klanten als voor de maatschappij. door ongewenste situaties te transformeren tot het betoverende ultieme doel. Group Explorer Independence Dit merk helpt personen om onafhankelijkheid en vrijheid te bereiken. Hierbij past haar motto ‘doe maar normaal.DESCRIPTIONS OF ARCHETYPES Archetype Description (in Dutch*) Group Caregiver Mastery Dit merk is zorgzaam. kracht en zelfvertrouwen. en draagt zorg voor een harmonieuze maatschappij waarin iedereen behulpzaam is voor elkaar. Ruler Dit merk toont leiderschap en neemt verantwoordelijkheid. Het merk is continu op zoek naar nieuwe avonturen en producten. dan doe je al gek genoeg’. Innocent Dit merk geeft personen een onbezorgde en positieve kijk op het leven. zoals kinderen genieten van een speeltuin. Het merk is ambitieus. Door deze eigenschappen is het merk niet alleen succesvol. Regular guy Dit merk representeert de gewone man of vrouw. De producten van dit merk zorgen ervoor dat personen genieten van de wereld. waarmee het toegankelijk is voor iedereen. Het merk gebruikt verbeeldingskracht voor de creatie van haar producten en reclame of advertenties.APPENDIX C . Producten van dit vriendelijke merk zijn niet uitgesproken of opvallend. Het merk geeft haar klanten daarmee de mogelijkheid om te ontdekken wat ze kunnen zijn of wat ze kunnen bereiken. verleiding en contact met de omgeving. waardoor zowel klanten als ook het merk zelf op iedere denkbare manier aantrekkelijk worden gemaakt. Magician Dit merk helpt personen om veranderingen in hun leven aan te gaan. De producten van dit merk helpen klanten bij hun dagelijkse activiteiten. Alles draait voor dit merk om schoonheid. De producten van dit merk helpen hierbij omdat ze functioneren als onderbreking op de dagelijkse orde. Het merk draagt bij aan het verwezenlijken van dromen. Het merk is rebels en vindt het dan ook onbelangrijk om erbij te horen of goedkeuring van anderen te krijgen. waardoor het merk mysterieus kan overkomen. orde en structuur. Ook is het merk strijdbaar en gaat uitdagingen niet uit de weg.
Het merk gaat uit van het goede van de mens en ziet dit graag beloond worden. en om zichzelf te ontwikkelen.graag goed voor iedereen. *= The native language of the respondents is Dutch and therefore the descriptions are also in Dutch. Sage Dit merk gebruikt intelligentie en analyse om de wereld om zich heen te begrijpen. Dit doet het merk door continu informatie en kennis te vergaren om zo zijn ervaring en deskundigheid te vergroten. 55 . Op deze manier kunnen klanten van het merk leren. Het merk heeft een sterke zelfreflectie en wordt daarvoor gewaardeerd.
SETS OF FONTS Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Set 4 identity Identity Identity identity IDENTITY IDENTITY Identity identity Identity Identity IDENTITY identity IDENTITY IDENTITY Identity Identity IDENTITY Identity identity IDENTITY identity identity IDENTITY Identity IDENTITY identity 56 .APPENDIX D .
four descriptions and sets of fonts were given.APPENDIX E . In the short questionnaire. The ruler archetype is described. In the long questionnaire. followed by a set of fonts (set 1).QUESTIONNAIRE One of the questions of the questionnaire is presented below*. 57 . a description of all twelve archetypes was given. followed by a set of fonts.
58 .*= The native language of the respondents is Dutch and therefore this question is also in Dutch.
027 -.216 .133 -.051 .008 .156 -.012 -.120 .157 -.205 .173 -.451** . sans serifs .181 -.486** -.⁵ Roman.014 .248 -.063 . italic .430** .035 -.208 .⁸ Non-proportional.049 .⁴ Low.235 -.153 . medium.358* .018 .015 Values per variable: ¹ Compressed.366* .155 -.083 .063 .548** . The results are presented below. medium.017 -.018 .025 .357* .076 -.210 .362* -.079 .081 -.² Serifs.APPENDIX F .189 . lowercase 1 *=significant at .067 -.355* .384* -.025 .335* -.375* -. bold .174 -.220 .228 -.283 .232 -.203 -. streched .232 .071 .361* -.269 -.212 -.169 -.063 .341* -.162 . oblique.⁷ Broken.RESULTS CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS To investigate the relation between archetypes and the physical characteristics of fonts.177 .170 .040 -. medium.079 -. **=significant at .079 -.221 .021 . Results of the correlational analysis per physical characteristic Spacing¹ Serifs² Weight³ X-height⁴ Orientation⁵ Thick-thin transition⁶ Construction⁷ Proportion⁸ Capital/ lowercase⁹ Caregiver Creator Explorer Hero Innocent Jester Lover Magician Outlaw Regular Guy Ruler Sage .088 -.098 -.095 . high .⁶ None.211 .249 -. 1 Tabel 1. strong .419** .481** .166 .123 -.034 .066 . normal.037 -. proportional .156 . a correlational analysis was performed.174 -.136 -.083 -. capital and lowercase.423** -.⁹ Capital.401* -.083 -.132 -.208 -.007 .187 .151 .153 -.117 .102 .034 -.251 -.³ Light.183 -.028 .316 .599** -.374* .316* .020 .150 .05 level.219 .01 level 59 .072 . closed .
(Robin Mathew) 60 .
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