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Electrical impedance, or simply impedance, describes a measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating current (AC). Electrical impedance extends the concept of resistance to AC circuits, describing not only the relative magnitudes of the voltage and current, but also the relative phases. In general impedance is a complex quantity and the term complex impedance may be used interchangeably the polar form conveniently captures both magnitude and phase characteristics,
!here the magnitude gives the change in voltage amplitude for a given current amplitude, !hile the argument gives the phase difference bet!een voltage and current. In Cartesian form,
!here the real part of impedance is the resistance and the imaginary part is the reactance . "imensionally, impedance is the same as resistance the #I unit is the ohm. $he term impedance !as coined by %liver &eaviside in 'uly ())*. A graphical representation of the complex impedance plane. +ote that !hile reactance can be either positive or negative, resistance is al!ays positive. Actual si,e
An AC supply applying a voltage Main article: Ohm's law
, across a load
, driving a current .
-e can understand this by substituting it into %hm.s la!./(0
$he magnitude of the impedance acts 1ust li2e resistance, giving the drop in voltage amplitude across an impedance for a given current . $he phase factor tells us that the current lags the voltage by a phase of 3 (i.e. in the time domain, the current signal is shifted respect to the voltage signal)./40 to the right !ith
'ust as impedance extends %hm.s la! to cover AC circuits, other results from "C circuit analysis such as voltage division, current division, $hevenin.s theorem, and +orton.s theorem, can also be extended to AC circuits by replacing resistance !ith impedance.
!e may return to real7 valued sinusoids by further noting that In other !ords.s la! !e have Equating the magnitudes and phases !e have $he magnitude equation is the familiar %hm. !hile the second equation defines the phase relationship.s formula)8 i.s la! applied to the voltage and current amplitudes. At the end of the end of any calculation. a real7valued sinusoidal function (!hich may represent our voltage or current !aveform) may be bro2en into t!o complex7valued functions. 5iven the symmetry. #ubstituting these into %hm. !e simply ta2e the real part of the result.ed impedances in a circuit can be dra!n !ith the same symbol as a resistor (6# A+#I or "I+ Euro) or !ith a labeled box. !e only need to perform the analysis for one right7hand term the results !ill be identical for the other. Impedance is defined as the ratio of these quantities.Complex voltage and current 5enerali. 9y the principle of superposition. !e may analyse the behaviour of the sinusoid on the left7hand side by analysing the behaviour of the t!o complex terms on the right7hand side. Validity of complex representation $his representation using complex exponentials may be 1ustified by noting that (by Euler. In order to simplify calculations.e. sinusoidal voltage and current !aves are commonly represented as complex7valued functions of time denoted as and . Phasors (electronics) 4 .
s la! given above.A phasor is a constant complex number. +ote the follo!ing identities for the imaginary unit and its reciprocal. Device examples $he phase angles in the equations for the impedance of inductors and capacitors indicate that the voltage across a capacitor leads the current through it by a phase of . . $hus !e can re!rite the inductor and capacitor impedance equations in polar form $he magnitude tells us the change in voltage amplitude for a given current amplitude through our impedance. !hile the voltage across an inductor lags the current through it by . as determined by the relative amplitudes and phases of the voltage and current. Actual si. Resistance vs Reactance .e $he impedance of a resistor is purely real and is referred to as a resistive impedance. usually expressed in exponential form. :hasors are used by electrical engineers to simplify computations involving sinusoids. $he impedance of a circuit element can be defined as the ratio of the phasor voltage across the element to the phasor current through the element. representing the complex amplitude (magnitude and phase) of a sinusoidal function of time. $his is identical to the definition from %hm. !hile the exponential factors give the phase relationship. recognising that the factors of cancel. Inductors and capacitors have a purely imaginary reactive impedance. $he identical voltage and current amplitudes tell us that the magnitude of the impedance is equal to one. !here they can often reduce a differential equation problem to an algebraic one.
Capacitive reactance A capacitor has a purely reactive impedance !hich is inversely proportional to the signal frequency. -hen the potential associated !ith the charge exactly balances the applied voltage. In many applications the relative phase of the voltage and current is not critical so only the magnitude of the impedance is significant. A capacitor consists of t!o conductors separated by an insulator. as no current flo!s in the dielectric. A "C voltage applied across a capacitor causes charge to accumulate on one side. through the follo!ing relations. $he higher the frequency. Reactance <eactance is the imaginary part of the impedance a component !ith a finite reactance induces a phase shift 3 bet!een the voltage across it and the current through it. also 2no!n as a dielectric. A reactive component is distinguished by the fact that the sinusoidal voltage across the component is in quadrature !ith the sinusoidal current through the component. $his implies that the component alternately absorbs energy from the circuit and then returns energy to the circuit. the current goes to . "riven by an AC supply a capacitor !ill only accumulate a limited amount of charge before the potential difference changes sign and the charge dissipates. nductive reactance = . At lo! frequencies a capacitor is open circuit.It is important to realise that resistance and reactance are not individually significant together they determine the magnitude and phase of the impedance. the less charge !ill accumulate and the smaller the opposition to the flo! of current. A pure reactance !ill not dissipate any po!er.ero. Resistance <esistance is the real part of impedance a device !ith a purely resistive impedance exhibits no phase shift bet!een the voltage and current. the electric field due to the accumulated charge is the source of the opposition to the flo! of current.
An inductor consists of a coiled conductor. $he equivalent impedance can be calculated in terms of the equivalent resistance and reactance ? . $he bac27emf is the source of the opposition to current flo!.s la! of electromagnetic induction gives the bac2 emf (voltage opposing current) due to a rate7of7change of magnetic field through a current loop. o Parallel com!ination >or components connected in parallel.ero rate7of7change. the voltage across each circuit element is the same the ratio of currents through any t!o elements is the inverse ratio of their impedances. >or an inductor consisting of a coil !ith N loops this gives. although they require some familiarity !ith complex numbers. and sees an inductor as a short7 circuit (it is typically made from a material !ith a lo! resistivity). o "eries com!ination >or components connected in series. Com!ining impedances $he total impedance of any net!or2 of components can be calculated using the rules for combining impedances in series and parallel. >araday. $he rules are identical to those used for combining resistances. the current through each circuit element is the same the ratio of voltages across any t!o elements is the inverse ratio of their impedances. A constant direct current has a .An inductor has a purely reactive impedance !hich is proportional to the signal frequency. An alternating current has a time rate7of7change that is proportional to frequency and so the inductive reactance is proportional to frequency.
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