W, 500 , 12 5 ) 50 (
2
5
= =
R
P W 00 . 0 = =
C L
P P W,
855 , 17 500 , 12 548 , 53 = + =
TOT
P W
3 2
10 8365 . 6 ) 302 . 38 ( ) 360 . 13 ( x Q
L
= = lagging VARS
000 , 30 12 ) 50 (
2
= =
C
Q leading VARS
00 . 0
5 30
= =
Q Q
R
VARS,
4
10 3164 . 2 000 , 30 5 . 836 , 6 x Q
TOT
= = (leading
VARS)
Power from the source
37 . 52 994 . 44 38 . 67 50 93 . 51 360 . 13
2 !
Z = Z + Z = + = I I I
T
A
162 , 23 856 . 17 )) 37 . 52 sin( ) 37 . 52 (cos( 994 . 44 )( 650 ( j I V S
TOT S SOURCE
+ = + = =

kVA
Exercise #4
An installation is composed of two balanced Yconnected loads
that are connected in parallel. Load #1 requires 15KW at a 0.6
lagging power factor, while load #2 requires 10KVA at a 0.8
leading power factor. Both loads are supplied by a balanced three
phase ideal source of 480V. You are asked to determine:
 The power triangle of every load
 The power triangle of the load of the entire installation
 The magnitude of the line current required by the entire
installation
 The rating of delta connected capacitor banks, connected at the
service entrance point of the installation, to raise the power
factor of the installation to unity
 The current that is expected to flow in each capacitor leg under
the above mentioned operating conditions.
Solution
23 8 15
2 1
= + = + =
L L TOT
P P P kW, 14 6 20
2 1
= = + =
L L TOT
Q Q Q kVAR(lagging)
20 ) 6 . 0 tan(cos
1
1 1
= =
L L
P Q kVARS and 6 ) 8 . 0 tan(cos
1
2 1
= =
L L
P Q kVARS
lead
394 . 32
) 854 . 0 )( 480 ( 3
23
cos 3
= = =
T LL
TOT
L
V
P
I
kA, since
854 . 0 )
23
14
( cos(tan cos
1
= =
T
Need 14kVARS to raise the pf of the installation to unity, thus
CAP CAP LL CAP
I x I V Q ) 480 ( 3 10 14 3
3
= = = , thus, A I
CAP
72 . 9 =
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL
AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
COURSE ECSE361
POWER ENGINEERING
ASSIGNMENT #3
SOLUTIONS
Prof: Anthony J. Rodolakis
Exercise #1Solution
1) Since NI Hdl
}
= (Ampere) and for any distance r from the toroid
center, we obtain
r
NI
H
t 2
= ,
r
NI
r
NI
B
r
t
t
2 2
0
= =
The total flux through the crosssection will be
2 /
2 /
ln
2
1
2 2
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
o
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
+
= = = = u
} } }
+
R
R
b
NI
dr
r
b
NI
bdr
r
NI
Bbdr
R
R
R
R
R
R
,
with
4
OUT IN
D D
R
+
= ,
2
IN OUT
D D
= o , and finally
2 /
2 /
ln
2
2
o
o
t
+
=
u
= =
R
R
b
N
I
N
I
L
2) m A x
x x
x
r
NI
H / 10 32 . 29
10 ) 350 (
20 1612
2
3
3
= = =
t t
, that yields
T x x x x x H B
r
2 3 7
0
10 68 . 3 10 32 . 29 1 10 4
= = = t , that yields
3 2
7
4 2
0
2
/ 10 40 . 5
10 4 2
10 ) 68 . 3 (
2
1
m J x
x x
x B
W
DENSITY
= = =
t
, that yields
J x x x x xV W W
TOROID DENSITY TOTAL
97 . 2 10 ) 100 )( 50 ( 10 ) 350 )( ( 10 40 . 5
6 3 2
= = =
t
Exercise #2Solution
1) Since by amperes law we have NI Hdl
}
= , the magnetic circuit
around the core gives, due to the symmetry of the right and left paths
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHT PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
l H l H NI F
+ = = (1)
Also, since
PATH RIGHT PATH LEFT PATH RIGHT PATH CENTER
u = u + u = u 2 , we obtain
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHTC PATH RIGHT PATH CENTER PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
B A A B
= u = u = 2 2
From the magnetization curve we obtain for T B
PATH CENTER
5 . 0 =
that
1
70
= Am H
PATH CENTER
and for T B
PATH RIGHT
25 . 0 =
,
1
50
= Am H
PATH RIGHT
.
Thus
1 1
10 ) 72 )( 50 ( 10 ) 24 )( 70 ( 400
+ = = x x I F , or A I 132 . 0 =
The magnetic permeability of the center leg will be
70 5 . 0 = = =
PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
H B , or
3
10 1429 . 7
= x , that yields
wb AT x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
/ 10 25 . 5
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 1429 . 7
10 24
3
4 3
1
= = =
The magnetic permeability of the right path will be
50 25 . 0 = = =
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHT
H B , or
2
10 0 . 5
= x , that yields
wb At x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
/ 10 5 . 22
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 0 . 5
10 72
3
4 2
1
= = =
Thus, wb At x x
R
R R
LEG RIGHT
LEG CENTER TOTAL
/ 10 5 . 16 10 ) 25 . 11 25 . 5 (
2
3 3
= + = + =
2) Similarly, for T B
PATH CENTER
0 . 1 =
, we obtain T B
PATH RIGHT
5 . 0 =
, densities
that yield
1
900
= Am H
PATH CENTER
and
1
70
= Am H
PATH RIGHT
.
Thus,
1 1
10 ) 72 )( 70 ( 10 ) 24 )( 170 ( 400
+ = x x I , or A I 228 . 0 =
The magnetic permeability of the center leg will be
170 0 . 1 = = =
PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
H B , or
3
10 8824 . 5
= x , that yields
wb AT x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
/ 10 37 . 6
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 8824 . 5
10 24
3
4 3
1
= = =
The magnetic permeability of the right path will be
70 5 . 0 = = =
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHT
H B , or
3
10 1429 . 7
= x , that yields
wb At x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
/ 10 18 . 16
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 1429 . 7
10 72
3
4 3
1
= = =
Thus, wb At x x
R
R R
LEG RIGHT
LEG CENTER TOTAL
/ 10 460 . 14 10 ) 09 . 8 37 . 6 (
2
3 3
= + = + =
3) Reluctances of nonlinear magnetic cores are not constant but they
do vary depending on the operating point.
Exercise #3Solution
3
3 2 2
10 58 . 10 01 . 0
5000
10 ) 230 (
01 . 0 x x
x
x
S
V
R Z R R
B
B
PU BASE PU HIGH TOTAL
= = = =
ohms
3 3
3 2 2
10 529 . 0 10 58 . 10 05 . 0
5000
10 ) 230 (
05 . 0 x x x
x
x
S
V
X Z X X
B
B
PU BASE PU HIGH TOTAL
= = = = =
And for the low voltage side,
38 . 0
) 8 . 13 / 230 (
10 58 . 10 01 . 0
2
3
= =
x x
R
LOW TOTAL
ohms 9 . 1
) 8 . 13 / 230 (
10 58 . 10 05 . 0
2
3
= =
x x
X
LOW TOTAL
ohms
Magnetization branch
4 . 4241
9 . 44
10 ) 8 . 13 (
3 2 2
= = =
x
P
V
R
OC TEST
OC TEST
LOW M
ohms
91 . 913
3 . 15
10 ) 8 . 13 (
3
= = =
x
I
V
Z
OC TEST
OC TEST
LOW M
ohms
215 . 0
3 . 15 8 . 13
) 9 . 44 (
cos = = =
x I V
P
OC TEST OC TEST
OC TEST
OC
 lagging
747 . 14 976 . 0 1 . 15 )) 215 . 0 ( cos 90 cos(
1
= = =
x I I
OC M OC XM
A
78 . 935
747 . 14
10 8 . 13
3
= = =
X
I
V
X
OC XM
OC TEST
LOW M
ohms
At no load, using the cantilever equivalent circuit, we need
87 . 36 32 . 362
8 . 0 10 8 . 13
4000
cos
3
Z = = =
x V
P
I
LOAD LOAD
LOAD
LOAD

A
88 . 1 14329 ) 9 . 1 38 . 0 )( 87 . 36 32 . 362 ( 10 8 . 13
3
Z = + Z + =
j x V
LOAD NO
V
% 833 . 3
13800
13800 14329
=
FULLLOAD SECONDARY
FULLLOAD AECONDARY NOLOAD SECONDARY
V
V V
VR
kW R I P
TOTAL LOAD CU
88 . 49 38 . 0 ) 23 . 326 (
2 2
= = =
kW
R
V
P
TOTAL M
OPERATING
IRON
375 . 48
4 . 4241
14329
2 2
= = =
% 6 . 97 976 . 0
375 . 48 88 . 49 4000
4000
= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
IRON CU OUT
OUT
P P P
P
q
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL
AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
COURSE ECSE361
POWER ENGINEERING
ASSIGNMENT #3
SOLUTIONS
Prof: Anthony J. Rodolakis
Exercise #1Solution
1) Since NI Hdl
}
= (Ampere) and for any distance r from the toroid
center, we obtain
r
NI
H
t 2
= ,
r
NI
r
NI
B
r
t
t
2 2
0
= =
The total flux through the crosssection will be
2 /
2 /
ln
2
1
2 2
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
o
o
t
o
o
o
o
o
o
+
= = = = u
} } }
+
R
R
b
NI
dr
r
b
NI
bdr
r
NI
Bbdr
R
R
R
R
R
R
,
with
4
OUT IN
D D
R
+
= ,
2
IN OUT
D D
= o , and finally
2 /
2 /
ln
2
2
o
o
t
+
=
u
= =
R
R
b
N
I
N
I
L
2) m A x
x x
x
r
NI
H / 10 32 . 29
10 ) 350 (
20 1612
2
3
3
= = =
t t
, that yields
T x x x x x H B
r
2 3 7
0
10 68 . 3 10 32 . 29 1 10 4
= = = t , that yields
3 2
7
4 2
0
2
/ 10 40 . 5
10 4 2
10 ) 68 . 3 (
2
1
m J x
x x
x B
W
DENSITY
= = =
t
, that yields
J x x x x xV W W
TOROID DENSITY TOTAL
97 . 2 10 ) 100 )( 50 ( 10 ) 350 )( ( 10 40 . 5
6 3 2
= = =
t
Exercise #2Solution
1) Since by amperes law we have NI Hdl
}
= , the magnetic circuit
around the core gives, due to the symmetry of the right and left paths
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHT PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
l H l H NI F
+ = = (1)
Also, since
PATH RIGHT PATH LEFT PATH RIGHT PATH CENTER
u = u + u = u 2 , we obtain
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHTC PATH RIGHT PATH CENTER PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
B A A B
= u = u = 2 2
From the magnetization curve we obtain for T B
PATH CENTER
5 . 0 =
that
1
70
= Am H
PATH CENTER
and for T B
PATH RIGHT
25 . 0 =
,
1
50
= Am H
PATH RIGHT
.
Thus
1 1
10 ) 72 )( 50 ( 10 ) 24 )( 70 ( 400
+ = = x x I F , or A I 132 . 0 =
The magnetic permeability of the center leg will be
70 5 . 0 = = =
PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
H B , or
3
10 1429 . 7
= x , that yields
wb AT x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
/ 10 25 . 5
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 1429 . 7
10 24
3
4 3
1
= = =
The magnetic permeability of the right path will be
50 25 . 0 = = =
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHT
H B , or
2
10 0 . 5
= x , that yields
wb At x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
/ 10 5 . 22
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 0 . 5
10 72
3
4 2
1
= = =
Thus, wb At x x
R
R R
LEG RIGHT
LEG CENTER TOTAL
/ 10 5 . 16 10 ) 25 . 11 25 . 5 (
2
3 3
= + = + =
2) Similarly, for T B
PATH CENTER
0 . 1 =
, we obtain T B
PATH RIGHT
5 . 0 =
, densities
that yield
1
900
= Am H
PATH CENTER
and
1
70
= Am H
PATH RIGHT
.
Thus,
1 1
10 ) 72 )( 70 ( 10 ) 24 )( 170 ( 400
+ = x x I , or A I 228 . 0 =
The magnetic permeability of the center leg will be
170 0 . 1 = = =
PATH CENTER PATH CENTER
H B , or
3
10 8824 . 5
= x , that yields
wb AT x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
PATH CENTER
/ 10 37 . 6
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 8824 . 5
10 24
3
4 3
1
= = =
The magnetic permeability of the right path will be
70 5 . 0 = = =
PATH RIGHT PATH RIGHT
H B , or
3
10 1429 . 7
= x , that yields
wb At x
x x x x
x
A
l
R
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
PATH RIGHT
/ 10 18 . 16
10 ) 8 8 ( 10 1429 . 7
10 72
3
4 3
1
= = =
Thus, wb At x x
R
R R
LEG RIGHT
LEG CENTER TOTAL
/ 10 460 . 14 10 ) 09 . 8 37 . 6 (
2
3 3
= + = + =
3) Reluctances of nonlinear magnetic cores are not constant but they
do vary depending on the operating point.
Exercise #3Solution
3
3 2 2
10 58 . 10 01 . 0
5000
10 ) 230 (
01 . 0 x x
x
x
S
V
R Z R R
B
B
PU BASE PU HIGH TOTAL
= = = =
ohms
3 3
3 2 2
10 529 . 0 10 58 . 10 05 . 0
5000
10 ) 230 (
05 . 0 x x x
x
x
S
V
X Z X X
B
B
PU BASE PU HIGH TOTAL
= = = = =
And for the low voltage side,
38 . 0
) 8 . 13 / 230 (
10 58 . 10 01 . 0
2
3
= =
x x
R
LOW TOTAL
ohms 9 . 1
) 8 . 13 / 230 (
10 58 . 10 05 . 0
2
3
= =
x x
X
LOW TOTAL
ohms
Magnetization branch
4 . 4241
9 . 44
10 ) 8 . 13 (
3 2 2
= = =
x
P
V
R
OC TEST
OC TEST
LOW M
ohms
91 . 913
3 . 15
10 ) 8 . 13 (
3
= = =
x
I
V
Z
OC TEST
OC TEST
LOW M
ohms
215 . 0
3 . 15 8 . 13
) 9 . 44 (
cos = = =
x I V
P
OC TEST OC TEST
OC TEST
OC
 lagging
747 . 14 976 . 0 1 . 15 )) 215 . 0 ( cos 90 cos(
1
= = =
x I I
OC M OC XM
A
78 . 935
747 . 14
10 8 . 13
3
= = =
X
I
V
X
OC XM
OC TEST
LOW M
ohms
At no load, using the cantilever equivalent circuit, we need
87 . 36 32 . 362
8 . 0 10 8 . 13
4000
cos
3
Z = = =
x V
P
I
LOAD LOAD
LOAD
LOAD

A
88 . 1 14329 ) 9 . 1 38 . 0 )( 87 . 36 32 . 362 ( 10 8 . 13
3
Z = + Z + =
j x V
LOAD NO
V
% 833 . 3
13800
13800 14329
=
FULLLOAD SECONDARY
FULLLOAD AECONDARY NOLOAD SECONDARY
V
V V
VR
kW R I P
TOTAL LOAD CU
88 . 49 38 . 0 ) 23 . 326 (
2 2
= = =
kW
R
V
P
TOTAL M
OPERATING
IRON
375 . 48
4 . 4241
14329
2 2
= = =
% 6 . 97 976 . 0
375 . 48 88 . 49 4000
4000
= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
IRON CU OUT
OUT
P P P
P
q
1
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
COURSEECSE361POWER ENGINEERING
ASSIGNMENT #4
SOLUTIONS
Prof. A. J. Rodolakis
Exercise #1
For the linear machine shown below, the conducting bar whose two ends
rest on the conducting rails is free to move along the rails with no friction
at all. If it is given that the bar length is 0.5m, the magnetic field density B is
0.33T with its direction as shown below, the series resistance is 0.5 Ohms,
the battery source voltage equals 120 Volts with the shown polarity and we
assume that the bar has no inductance at all, you are asked to:
1. Determine the steady state bar speed magnitude and direction if a
force of 10 N is applied in the below shown direction.
2. Is this linear machine acting as a generator or as a motor?
Solution
1. For the shown external force of 10 N, the bar will reach steady state when
) 5 . 0 ( ) 33 . 0 ( 10 I BIl F F
EXTERNAL LORENTZ
= = = = , thus A I 6 . 60 =
In order for the Lorentz force to oppose the applied external force we need
the current to go down the bar. That yields
6 . 60
5 . 0
120
=
=
INDUCED BAR INDUCED BAR SOURCE
E
R
E V
I . That yields
v Blv E
INDUCED BAR
) 5 . 0 )( 33 . 0 ( 70 . 89 = = =
=
= = =
t
Therefore, without fringing
N x L
dx
d
R
V
x L
dx
d
I x F 66 . 502 )
) 001 . 0 (
10 5343 . 3
( )
5 . 7
40
(
2
1
)] ( [ ) (
2
1
)] ( [
2
1
) (
2
5
2 2 2
=
= = =
and with fringing, since
H
x
x
x
x
x L
2 2 7 2
) 030 . 0 (
0393 . 0
2
) 030 . 0 ( 10 4 250
) (
+
=
+
=
t
N
x
x x x
x L
dx
d
R
V
x L
dx
d
I x F
f
48 . 502
) 030 . 0 ( ) 03 . 0 ( 2
0393 . 0 )
5 . 7
40
(
2
1
)] ( [ ) (
2
1
)] ( [
2
1
) (
2
2
2
2 2
=
+ +
=
= =
2. AC Excitation
377 60 2 = = x t e ,
ohms j
x
x
L j R Z 63 . 60 290 . 15 324 . 13 5 . 7
10 5343 . 3
377 5 . 7
5
Z = + = + = + =
e
) 63 . 60 377 cos( 54 . 6 2 ) 63 . 60 377 cos(
290 . 15
100 2
) ( = = t x t
x
t I
4
N
x
t x x L
dx
d
I t F
2
5
2 2
) 001 . 0 (
10 5343 . 3
) 63 . 60 377 cos( 54 . 6 2 (
2
1
)] ( [
2
1
) , 001 . 0 (
= =
N t t F ) 63 . 60 377 ( cos 8 . 1511 ) , 001 . 0 (
2
=
N t d t
T
F
T
AVERAGE
756
2
7 . 511 , 1
) ( ) 63 . 60 377 ( cos 8 . 1511
2
2 /
0
2
}
= = = e
e
and with fringing, since H
x
x
x L
5
10 7738 . 3
) (
=
ohms j
x
x
L j R Z 20 . 62 083 . 16 227 . 14 5 . 7
10 7738 . 3
377 5 . 7
5
Z = + = + = + =
e
) 63 . 60 377 cos( 2177 . 6 2 ) 20 . 62 377 cos(
20 . 62 083 . 16
100 2
) ( =
Z
= t x t
x
t I
N
x
t x x L
dx
d
I x F
F
2
5
2 2
) 001 . 0 (
10 7738 . 3
) 63 . 60 377 cos( 2177 . 6 2 (
2
1
)] ( [
2
1
) (
= =
N t x F
F
) 63 . 60 377 ( cos 2 . 1459 ) (
2
=
N F
AVERAGE F
730 =
Exercise #4
The backend edges of two conducting plates, as shown below, are
connected through an ionized gas that is established at a distance of 1m
from their frontend edges.
The frontedges are connected to a current source supplying the
conducting plates with 1000A. If the length of the front edges of both
plates is 100mm and the distance between the plates is 10mm, you are
asked to determine.
1. The inductance of the conducting loop formed by the plates and the
ionized gas assuming the magnetic field to be uniform between the
plates and zero elsewhere.
2. The force acting on the ionized gas column.
3. The pressure, per unit surface, on the surface of the ionized column.
5
Solution
1. Applying Amperes law on any conducting plate yields that
1 1
2yH I dl H = =
}
with
1
H and y being the magnetic field produced by the current in the plate
and the length of the plate edges respectively. Thus, m A
y
I
H /
2
1
= .
Since there is another plate as well carrying the return loop current there will
be a similar magnetic filed, yielding a total magnetic filed intensity of
m A
y
I
y
I
y
I
H H H
T
/
2 2
2 1
= + = + = . Since the total reluctance seen by the
magnetic flux is
zx
y
R
0
= = = = t
t
2. The force on the ionized gas column will be
N x x x
y
x
I
y
xz
dz
d
I z L
dz
d
I F
2 7 2
0
2
0
2 2
10 2
100
10
) 10 4 ( 1000
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
)] ( [
2
1
= = = = = t t
3. The pressure on the column will be given by
2
6
2
/ 8 . 62
10 100 10
10 2
m N
x x
x
A
F
P = = =
t
1
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
COURSEECSE361POWER ENGINEERING
ASSIGNMENT #5
SOLUTIONS
Prof. A. J. Rodolakis
Exercise #1
The magnetic path of a twopole reluctance motoring device can be approximated by
the analytical expression wb At x R / ) 2 cos 5 . 1 5 . 2 ( 10 06 . 5
4
u + = .The devices magnetic core
is excited by a 15turn coil that can be assumed to have negligible resistance. If a 60
Hz, potential difference of 110V RMS is applied across the coils terminals, you are
asked to determine:
1. The maximum value of magnetic flux produced in the machine airgaps
2. The angular velocity of rotor rotation that allows the machine to produce an
average unidirectional torque.
3. The maximum average electromechanical torque the machine can possibly
produce.
4. The mechanical power output of the machine under maximum average torque
production conditions.
Solution
1.
m
fN E u = 44 . 4 , mWb
x x
m
527 . 27
15 60 44 . 4
110
= = u
2. Since ) 2 cos ( ) ( 0 u
c b a
R R R R + = and t t
m
e cos ) ( u = u
)] 2 cos ( [ ) ( cos
2
1
)] ( [ ) (
2
1
) (
2 2 2
0
0
e 0
0
0
c b a m
R R R
d
d
t R
d
d
t T + u = u =
0 e 0
0
e 0 2 sin ) ( cos )] 2 cos [ ) ( cos
2
1
) (
2 2 2 2
c a m c a m
R R t R R
d
d
t T u = u =
0 e 0 2 sin ) 2 cos 1 (
2
1
) (
2
c a m
R R t T + u = , and if
0
0 e 0 + = t
m
) 2 2 2 sin(
2
1
) 2 2 2 sin(
2
1
) 2 2 [sin(
2
1
) (
0 0 0
2
0 e e 0 e e 0 e 0 + + + + + + u = t t t t t R R T
m m m c a m
There is an average torque only when s rad
m
/ 377 = = e e
3. ) 2 sin(
2
1
2
1
) (
0
2
0 0
c a m AVERAGE
R R T u = and
c a m MAX AVERAGE
R R T
2
4
1
) ( u =
0 for
0
45 = 0
with N x x x x R R T
c a m MAX AVERAGE
38 . 14 5 . 1 10 06 . 5 10 ) 527 . 27 (
4
1
4
1
) 45 (
4 6 2 2
= = u =
4. kW x T P
m MAX AVERAGE
42 . 5 377 38 . 14 = = =
e
2
Exercise #2
A singlephase, 2pole cylindrical stator, round rotor electrical machine has distributed
stator and rotor windings. The mutual inductance between the stator and the rotor
winding is given by, cos 10 6 . 55
3
= x L
SR
where is the angle between the magnetic
axes of the two windings. Assuming that a direct current of 7 A is impressed on both
winding you are asked to:
1. Write the general analytical expression yielding the instantaneous
electromagnetic torque generated by this machine.
2. Determine under what conditions this machine can be used for
electromechanical energy conversion purposes?
3. Determine the average torque generated by this machine for an initial angle
between the coil axes of
0
30 = and the maximum possible average torque this
machine can generate
4. The average torque generated by this machine if the rotor is rotated at 1200RPM
Solution
1. The instantaneous electromagnetic torque generated by such a machine is given by
] [
4
1
) ( D C B A L I I t T
SR R S
+ + + = , with
)] ) [sin((
0 R S R M
t A   e e e + + + + = , )] ) [sin((
0 R S R M
t B   e e e + + + = ,
)] ) [sin((
0 R S R M
t C   e e e + + = )] ) [sin((
0 R S R M
t D   e e e + = , with
R
 and
0
 ,
the phase angle between the stator and rotor currents and the initial angle between
the stator and rotor magnetic axes respectively. It is readily seen that for
0 = =
R S
e e (since we have DC currents in both stator and rotor) the torque
expression becomes,
)] sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) [sin(
4
1
) (
0 0 0 0 R M R M R M R M SR R S
t t t t L I I t T   e   e   e   e + + + + + + + + + =
and for
0 =
R

(DC currents have no phase displacement), we obtain
)] sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) [sin(
4
1
) (
0 0 0 0
 e  e  e  e + + + + + + + = t t t t L I I t T
M M M M SR R S
2. The condition under which the machine can yield an average torque is when 0 =
M
e ,
i.e. when the machine rotor is at standstill. Note that the same result could be
obtained by the expression 0 0 0 = = =
R S M
e e e
3. The average torque for 0 =
M
e therefore, is
) sin( )] sin( ) sin( ) sin( ) [sin(
4
1
0 0 0 0 0
    
SR R S SR R S AV
L I I L I I T = + + + =
. Since
) sin(
0

SR R S AV
L I I T =
, we obtain for
cos 10 6 . 55
3
= x L
SR
and
7 = =
R S
I I
, that
Nm x x x T
AV
3622 . 1 ) 30 sin( 10 6 . 55 7 7 ) 30 (
3 0
= =
,
Nm x x x T
MAX AV
7244 . 2 ) 90 sin( 10 6 . 55 7 7
3
= =
4. Since we must have 0 0 0 = = =
R S M
e e e , the average torque generated for a
rotor speed of 1200RPM will be zero.
3
Exercise #3
The wire loop shown below is under the influence of a uniform magnetic field of density
B=0.5T, rotates counterclockwise with an angular speed of 103 rad/s and has a radius
of 0.1m and a stack length of 0.5m. You are asked to determine:
1. The voltage induced around the wire loop, as a function of time. If this induced
voltage is an AC voltage, determine its frequency, its crest and its RMS value.
2. The current that will flow in the loop, as a function of time, if a 5 Ohm resistor is
connected at the 2 ends of the loop (ignore loop inductance).
3. The torque, in direction and magnitude, as a function of time that will be exerted
on the wire loop when current is allowed to flow in the 5 ohm resistor, the
maximum possible torque exerted on the loop and the position at which this
happens.
4. The maximum flux that cuts across the wire loop and the position at which this
happens.
5. The average electric power consumed in the 5 ohm resistor?
6. The average mechanical power that is needed to rotate the loop at 103 rad/sec,
when the loop is closed through the 5 ohm resistor.
7. The relationship between the electrical and the mechanical power.
8. If the wire loop acts as a generator or a motor when closed through the 5 ohm
resistor.
Solution
1. The voltage across the coil will be
) 103 sin( 15 . 5 ) 103 sin( ) 5 . 0 )( 5 . 0 )( 103 )( 1 . 0 ( 2 2 ) ( t t t BSIN RL t E
LOOP
= = = e e
Frequency of AC voltage Hz f 39 . 16
2
103
2
= = =
t t
e
Effective voltage V
E
E
MAX
RMS
64 . 3
2
15 . 5
2
= = =
2. If a 5 Ohm resistor is connected across there will be a current in the loop
) 103 sin( 2 783 . 0 ) 103 sin( 03 . 1
5
) 103 sin( 15 . 5 ) (
) ( t t
t
R
t E
t I
LOOP
LOOP
= = = =
3. For the direction of B shown, the produced torque due to the current flow will be of
the counterclockwise direction and oppose the rotation
) 103 ( sin 0515 . 0 ) 103 sin( ) 5 . 0 )( 5 . 0 )]( 103 sin( 03 . 1 )[ 1 . 0 ( 2 sin 2 ) (
2
t t t t RILB t T = = = e ,
4
with crest value of 0.0515 Nm
4. The maximum flux through the loop is Wb RLB
MAX
05 . 0 ) 5 . 0 )( 5 . 0 )( 1 . 0 ( 2 2 = = = u and
occurs when the loop plane is perpendicular to the field B.
5. Average electric power consumed within the loop will be
W I E P
RMS RMS AVE EL
652 . 2 ) 1 )( 783 . 0 )( 64 . 3 ( cos = = =

6. Instantaneous mechanical power consumed by the moving loop
) ( sin ) 0515 . 0 ( ) ( ) (
2
t t T t P
MECH
e e e = =
7. And average mechanical power produced will be
] 2 cos )
2
1
( [
2
0515 . 0
) ( sin ) 0515 . 0 (
1
2
0
2
0 0
2
t
e e e
t t
d d d dt t
T
T P
T
AVE AVE MECH
} } }
= = =
W P
AVE MECH
652 . 2 103
2
0515 . 0
= =
Plotting this function using as parameter time yields a cosine spatial wave whose
crest value, both magnitude and sign, depends on t e sin and coincides with the axis
of the winding. Namely:
For 0 = t :
0 cos ) 0 . 0 377 sin( 283 . 6 cos sin
) 10 1 . 0 ( 2
) 1000 )( 10 (
10 4 ) 0 , (
3
7
= = =
0 0 e t 0 x t
x
x B and the and
the spatial wave collapses to zero everywhere around the periphery.
5
For s t 00417 . 0 = :
0 0 e t 0 cos ) 00417 . 0 377 sin( 283 . 6 cos sin
) 10 1 . 0 ( 2
) 1000 )( 10 (
10 4 ) 0 , (
3
7
x t
x
x B = =
0 0 0 cos 283 . 6 cos ) 270 sin( 283 . 6 ) 0 , (
0
= = B ,
i.e. a mirror image of the previous spatial wave.
2. The resultant stator MMF spatial wave will be at t=1/4 of the supply cycle calculated
as follows:
) 00417 . 0 ( ) 00417 . 0 ( ) 00417 . 0 ( ) 00417 . 0 (
C B A TOT
B B B B + + = , with
The components of the three space vectors along the axis of phase aa being:
At t=0
0 . 0 ) 0 . 0 ( =
A
B , ) 120 sin( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 ( =
B
B , ) 120 sin( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 ( + =
C
B , yielding
240 120
) 120 sin( 283 . 6 ) 120 sin( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 (
j j
TOT
e e B + + =
)] 240 sin( ) 240 [cos(
2
3
( 283 . 6 )] 120 sin( ) 120 [cos(
2
3
( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 ( j j B
TOT
+ + + =
]
2
3
5 . 0 [
2
3
( 283 . 6 ]
2
3
5 . 0 [
2
3
( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 ( j j B
TOT
+ + =
283 . 6
2
3
2
3
2
3
283 . 6 2 ) 0 . 0 ( j j B
TOT
= = , i.e. the total stator field space vector sits at
90 behind the phase a magnetic axis.
At t=0.00416 s (1/4 of the supply cycle), or
0
90 = t e , yielding
283 . 6 ) 90 sin( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 (
0
= =
j
A
e B ,
120 120
) 30 sin( 283 . 6 ) 120 90 sin( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 (
j j
B
e e B = = ,
240 240
) 210 sin( 283 . 6 ) 120 90 sin( 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 (
j j
C
e e B = + =
Yielding a total value
240 120
)
2
1
( 283 . 6 )
2
1
( 283 . 6 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 (
j j
TOT
e e B + + =
)] 240 sin( ) 240 )[cos(
2
1
( 283 . 6 )] 120 sin( ) 120 )[cos(
2
1
( 283 . 6 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 ( j j B
TOT
+ + + + =
]
2
3
2
1
)[
2
1
( 283 . 6 ]
2
3
2
1
[
2
1
( 283 . 6 283 . 6 ) 0 . 0 ( j j B
TOT
+ + + =
283 . 6
2
3
) 0 . 0 ( =
TOT
B , i.e. the total stator field space vector sits at the phase a
magnetic axis.
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
COURSE ECSE361
POWER ENGINEERING
ASSIGNMENT #6
Prof: A. Rodolakis
Due Date: please consult course website
Exercise #1
A cogeneration facility wishes to put a threephase generator online and conducts
preliminary operation feasibility studies. It is known that the generator is rated at
60 Hz, has 2 poles, its stator winding is connected in Y, its rated voltage is 2300 V,
its rated power is 1000 KVA and has a rated power factor of 0.8 lagging. The
generator is designed to feature an armature (stator) resistance of 0.15 Ohms and an
unsaturated synchronous reactance of 1.1 Ohms per phase. It is also given that,
when the generator operates at rated conditions, the friction and windage losses
amount to 24 KW and the core losses to 18 KW. You are asked to determine:
1. The excitation voltage of the generator when it operates under rated
conditions.
2. The vector diagram denoting machine operation at rated conditions.
3. The power and torque the prime mover of the generator must be capable of
supplying to meet rated operating conditions.
4. The efficiency of the generator at rated operating conditions.
5. The torque angle of the generator at rated operating conditions.
Exercise #2
A threephase 460 V, 200 KVA, 0.8 PF leading, 400 Hz, 6pole, Yconnected
synchronous motor has a negligible armature resistance and a synchronous
reactance of j0.5 Ohms. You are asked to determine:
1. The speed of the motor shaft in RPM.
2. The output torque of the motor under rated operating conditions.
3. The motor excitation voltage under rated operating conditions.
4. With the excitation voltage kept constant as calculated in 3above, what is
the maximum possible power output from the machine?
5. Does the motor supply or absorb reactive power under rated operating
conditions?
6. Draw the vector diagram of motor operations for rated operating conditions.
7. Repeat questions #3, #5 and #6 for an operating power factor of unity.
1
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING
COURSEECSE361POWER ENGINEERING
ASSIGNMENT #7
SOLUTIONS
Prof. A. J. Rodolakis
Exercise #1
A threephase, Yconnected, 2pole, 60Hz induction motor has a rotor
speed equal to its synchronous speed and its rotor is open circuited. You
are asked to:
1. Determine the frequency of the rotorinduced voltage if the stator is
supplied by a 25Hz source.
2. Determine the nature of the rotorinduced voltage if a dc source is
connected between the 2 stator phase leads and the third is left
open.
Solution
1. Since the rotor runs at synchronous speed it will run at 3600RPM. If the
stator is supplied by a frequency of 25Hz then (assuming the same direction
of rotation as the rotor) we will have that 4 . 1
1500
3600 60 25
=
=
x
s ,
Hz x sf f
s r
35 25 4 . 1 = = = . Note: The solution assumes that the rotor rotates
at the 60 Hz synchronous speed.
2. ) cos( ) 120 cos( (cos
2
) 120 cos(
2
cos
2
) ( D C
NI NI NI
F = = = 0 0 0 0 0 0
)
2
3
sin cos
2
3
(
2
120 sin sin 120 cos cos (cos
2
) ( 0 0 0 0 0 0 + = + =
NI NI
F
) 30 cos(
2
3
) 30 cos(
2
3
) sin
2
1
cos
2
3
(
2
3
) ( = = + = 0 0 0 0 0
NI NI NI
F , a co
sinusoidal spatial distribution. The rotor windings run past this stationary
field with a speed of 3600 RPM, and a sinusoidal 60Hz voltage will be
induced in it.
Exercise #2
A 4pole, threephase, Yconnected induction motor is rated 5HP and is
connected across a threephase, 60Hz, 220 V (line to line RMS) AC supply.
The per=phase induction motor equivalent circuit parameters were
2
determined from tests and are: Rs=0.48Ohms, Xs=j0.80Ohms,
Rr=0.42Ohms and Xr=j0.80Ohms, while Xm=j30.00Ohms and Rm=infinite
(subscripts s and r refer to stator and rotor respectively, subscript m refers
to magnetization parameters and all rotor quantities are already referred to
stator). For this machine, and at an operating slip equal to 4%, determine
1. The RMS value of the current the machine draws from the suppl y
mains.
2. The power factor the motor operates at. Is this a lagging or a leading
power factor?
3. The machine mechanical output power and electromagnetic torque.
Solution
1. ohms j j j
s
Z
R
35 . 4 53 . 10 8 . 0 5 . 10 08 .
04 . 0
42 . 0
08 .
42 . 0
Z = + = + = + =
ohms
Z Z
Z Z
Z
R M
R M
C
2 . 23 70 . 9
15 . 71 54 . 32
35 . 94 315
90 30 35 . 4 53 . 10
) 90 30 )( 35 . 4 53 . 10 (
Z =
Z
Z
=
Z + Z
Z Z
=
+
=
ohms j j j Z Z Z
C R TOTAL
20 . 26 446 . 10 621 . 4 39 . 9 ) 281 . 3 91 . 8 ( ) 8 . 0 48 . 0 ( Z = + = + + + = + =
A
Z
V
I
TOTOAL
S
TOTAL
20 . 26 134 . 12
20 . 26 446 . 10
127
Z =
Z
= =
2. 897 . 0 ) 20 . 26 cos( cos = =  lagging
3. kW I V P
TOTAL S
147 . 4 ) 897 . 0 )( 314 . 12 )(( 127 ( 3 cos 3
3
= = =
u

Stator loss, kW R I P
S TOT LOSS S
212 . 0 ) 48 . 0 ( ) 314 . 12 ( 3 3
2 2
= = =
Gap power, kW P P P
LOSS S GAP
935 . 3 212 . 0 147 . 4
3
= = =
u
Mechanical power,
A
x
R
Z Z
Z I
R I P
R
R M
M TOTAL
R R LOSS R
868 . 11
54 . 32
30 134 . 12
] [
2 2
= =
+
= =
kW P P P
LOSS R GAP MECH
778 . 3 42 . 0 ) 868 . 11 ( 3 935 . 3
2
= = =
Electromagnetic torque
Nm
x P
T
M
MECH
ELEC
8 . 20
181
10 778 . 3
3
= = =
e
since s rad
n
M
/ 181 ) 1728 ( 2
2
3600
60
) 04 . 0 1 (
2
60
2 = =
= = t t t e ,
Exercise #3
An asynchronous, 4pole, threephase 50Hz, motor is Yconnected, and
operates at 380V. It is known that its stator leakage impedance 4 1 j Z
s
+ = is
equal to its rotor leakage impedance when the motor is at standstill. The
magnetizing reactance of the motor is 20 ohms. You are asked to
determine:
1. The maximum possible electromagnetic torque (pullout torque) the
machine can develop
3
2. The shaft mechanical speed when the motor delivers the above
maximum electromagnetic torque
3. The motor slip when the machine produces an electromagnetic
torque equal to half its pullout torque
Solution
1. Using the exact equivalent circuit, we obtain
V
j
j
X X j R
jX
V V
M S S
M
S THEV
4 . 2 18 . 183
6 . 87 02 . 24
90 4400
) 20 4 ( 1
20
0 220
) (
Z =
Z
Z
=
+ +
Z =
+ +
=
) 20 4 ( 1
) 4 1 ( 20
) (
) (
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
= + =
j
j j
X X j R
jX R jX
jX R Z
M S S
S S M
THEV THEV THEV
ohms
36 . 3 69 . 0 36 . 78 343 j Z
THEV
+ = Z = ohms
The synchronous angular speed is (4poles)
s rad
P
f
SYN
/ 157
4
) 50 ( 4 4
= = =
t t
e
Nm
X X R R
V
T
R THEV THEV THEV
THEV
SYN
MAX
67 . 39
) (
2
3 1
2 2
2
=
+ + +
=
e
2. Since 135 . 0
3923 . 7
1
) 4 36 . 3 ( 69 . 0
1
) (
2 2 2 2
= =
+ +
=
+ +
=
R THV THEV
R
MAX
X X R
R
s
that yields a mechanical speed of
s rad s
SYN m
/ 8 . 135 ) 135 . 0 1 ( 157 ) 1 ( = = = e = or RPM 1300 ) 135 . 0 1 ( 1500 =
3. If we denote by
*
s the slip at which
MAX ELECTR
T T
2
1
=
2 2
2
2 2
2
) ( ) (
3 1
) (
2
3 1
2
1
R THEV
R
THEV
THEV R
SYN
R THEV THEV THEV
THEV
SYN
X X
s
R
R
V
s
R
X X R R
V
+ + +
=
+ + +
e e
That yields
] ) ( ) [(
2
1
] ) ( [
2
2 2 2 2
R THEV
R
THEV R THEV THEV THEV
X X
s
R
R X X R R
s
+ + + = + + + ,
] ) 4 36 . 3 ( )
1
69 . 0 [(
2
1
] ) 4 36 . 3 ( 69 . 0 69 . 0 [
2
2 2 2 2
+ + + = + + +
s s
The quadratic yields 2 solutions, namely 53 . 0
1
=

s and 035 . 0
2
=

s . The smaller
slip is the solution.
Note: The solution provided accounted for the magnetization impedance of
the machine to illustrate the solution in the general case.